Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16885

Search results for: boundary element method

16885 The Boundary Element Method in Excel for Teaching Vector Calculus and Simulation

Authors: Stephen Kirkup

Abstract:

This paper discusses the implementation of the boundary element method (BEM) on an Excel spreadsheet and how it can be used in teaching vector calculus and simulation. There are two separate spreadheets, within which Laplace equation is solved by the BEM in two dimensions (LIBEM2) and axisymmetric three dimensions (LBEMA). The main algorithms are implemented in the associated programming language within Excel, Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The BEM only requires a boundary mesh and hence it is a relatively accessible method. The BEM in the open spreadsheet environment is demonstrated as being useful as an aid to teaching and learning. The application of the BEM implemented on a spreadsheet for educational purposes in introductory vector calculus and simulation is explored. The development of assignment work is discussed, and sample results from student work are given. The spreadsheets were found to be useful tools in developing the students’ understanding of vector calculus and in simulating heat conduction. Downloads 55
16884 Nonlinear Analysis with Failure Using the Boundary Element Method

Abstract:

The current paper shows the application of the boundary element method for the analysis of plates under shear stress causing plasticity. In this case, the shear deformation of a plate is considered by means of the Reissner’s theory. The probability of failure of a Reissner’s plate due to a proposed index plastic behavior is calculated taken into account the uncertainty in mechanical and geometrical properties. The problem is developed in two dimensions. The classic plasticity’s theory is applied and a formulation for initial stresses that lead to the boundary integral equations due to plasticity is also used. For the plasticity calculation, the Von Misses criteria is used. To solve the non-linear equations an incremental method is employed. The results show a relatively small failure probability for the ranges of loads between 0.6 and 1.0. However, for values between 1.0 and 2.5, the probability of failure increases significantly. Consequently, for load bigger than 2.5 the plate failure is a safe event. The results are compared to those that were found in the literature and the agreement is good. Downloads 175
16883 Numerical Computation of Sturm-Liouville Problem with Robin Boundary Condition

Abstract:

The modelling of physical phenomena, such as the earth’s free oscillations, the vibration of strings, the interaction of atomic particles, or the steady state flow in a bar give rise to Sturm-Liouville (SL) eigenvalue problems. The boundary applications of some systems like the convection-diffusion equation, electromagnetic and heat transfer problems requires the combination of Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. Hence, the incorporation of Robin boundary condition in the analyses of Sturm-Liouville problem. This paper deals with the computation of the eigenvalues and eigenfunction of generalized Sturm-Liouville problems with Robin boundary condition using the finite element method. Numerical solutions of classical Sturm–Liouville problems are presented. The results show an agreement with the exact solution. High results precision is achieved with higher number of elements. Downloads 260
16882 Modeling of Crack Propagation Path in Concrete with Coarse Trapezoidal Aggregates by Boundary Element Method

Authors: Chong Wang, Alexandre Urbano Hoffmann

Abstract:

Interaction between a crack and a trapezoidal aggregate in a single edge notched concrete beam is simulated using boundary element method with an automatic crack extension program. The stress intensity factors of the growing crack are obtained from the J-integral. Three crack extension paths: deflecting around the particulate, growing along the interface and penetrating into the particulate are achieved in terms of the mismatch state of mechanical characteristics of matrix and the particulate. The toughening is also given by the ratio of stress intensity factors. The results reveal that as stress shielding occurs, toughening is obtained when the crack is approaching to a stiff and strong aggregate weakly bonded to a relatively soft matrix. The present work intends to help for the design of aggregate reinforced concretes. Downloads 343
16881 Simulations in Structural Masonry Walls with Chases Horizontal Through Models in State Deformation Plan (2D)

Abstract:

This work presents numerical models in plane deformations (2D), using the Discrete Element Method formedbybars (LDEM) andtheFiniteElementMethod (FEM), in structuralmasonrywallswith horizontal chasesof 20%, 30%, and 50% deep, located in the central part and 1/3 oftheupperpartofthewall, withcenteredandeccentricloading. Differentcombinationsofboundaryconditionsandinteractionsbetweenthemethodswerestudied. Downloads 24
16880 The Improved Element Free Galerkin Method for 2D Heat Transfer Problems

Abstract:

The Improved Element Free Galerkin (IEFG) method is presented to treat the steady states and the transient heat transfer problems. As a result of a combination between the Improved Moving Least Square (IMLS) approximation and the Element Free Galerkin (EFG) method, the IEFG's shape functions don't have the Kronecker delta property and the penalty method is used to impose the Dirichlet boundary conditions. In this paper, two heat transfer problems, transient and steady states, are studied to improve the efficiency of this meshfree method for 2D heat transfer problems. The performance of the IEFG method is shown using the comparison between numerical and analytic results. Downloads 246
16879 A Continuous Boundary Value Method of Order 8 for Solving the General Second Order Multipoint Boundary Value Problems

Authors: T. A. Biala

Abstract:

This paper deals with the numerical integration of the general second order multipoint boundary value problems. This has been achieved by the development of a continuous linear multistep method (LMM). The continuous LMM is used to construct a main discrete method to be used with some initial and final methods (also obtained from the continuous LMM) so that they form a discrete analogue of the continuous second order boundary value problems. These methods are used as boundary value methods and adapted to cope with the integration of the general second order multipoint boundary value problems. The convergence, the use and the region of absolute stability of the methods are discussed. Several numerical examples are implemented to elucidate our solution process. Downloads 273
16878 Introduction to Two Artificial Boundary Conditions for Transient Seepage Problems and Their Application in Geotechnical Engineering

Authors: Shuang Luo, Er-Xiang Song

Abstract:

Many problems in geotechnical engineering, such as foundation deformation, groundwater seepage, seismic wave propagation and geothermal transfer problems, may involve analysis in the ground which can be seen as extending to infinity. To that end, consideration has to be given regarding how to deal with the unbounded domain to be analyzed by using numerical methods, such as finite element method (FEM), finite difference method (FDM) or finite volume method (FVM). A simple artificial boundary approach derived from the analytical solutions for transient radial seepage problems, is introduced. It should be noted, however, that the analytical solutions used to derive the artificial boundary are particular solutions under certain boundary conditions, such as constant hydraulic head at the origin or constant pumping rate of the well. When dealing with unbounded domains with unsteady boundary conditions, a more sophisticated artificial boundary approach to deal with the infinity of the domain is presented. By applying Laplace transforms and introducing some specially defined auxiliary variables, the global artificial boundary conditions (ABCs) are simplified to local ones so that the computational efficiency is enhanced significantly. The introduced two local ABCs are implemented in a finite element computer program so that various seepage problems can be calculated. The two approaches are first verified by the computation of a one-dimensional radial flow problem, and then tentatively applied to more general two-dimensional cylindrical problems and plane problems. Numerical calculations show that the local ABCs can not only give good results for one-dimensional axisymmetric transient flow, but also applicable for more general problems, such as axisymmetric two-dimensional cylindrical problems, and even more general planar two-dimensional flow problems for well doublet and well groups. An important advantage of the latter local boundary is its applicability for seepage under rapidly changing unsteady boundary conditions, and even the computational results on the truncated boundary are usually quite satisfactory. In this aspect, it is superior over the former local boundary. Simulation of relatively long operational time demonstrates to certain extents the numerical stability of the local boundary. The solutions of the two local ABCs are compared with each other and with those obtained by using large element mesh, which proves the satisfactory performance and obvious superiority over the large mesh model. Downloads 204
16877 Collocation Method for Coupled System of Boundary Value Problems with Cubic B-Splines

Authors: K. N. S. Kasi Viswanadham

Abstract:

Coupled system of second order linear and nonlinear boundary value problems occur in various fields of Science and Engineering. In the formulation of the problem, any one of 81 possible types of boundary conditions may occur. These 81 possible boundary conditions are written as a combination of four boundary conditions. To solve a coupled system of boundary value problem with these converted boundary conditions, a collocation method with cubic B-splines as basis functions has been developed. In the collocation method, the mesh points of the space variable domain have been selected as the collocation points. The basis functions have been redefined into a new set of basis functions which in number match with the number of mesh points in the space variable domain. The solution of a non-linear boundary value problem has been obtained as the limit of a sequence of solutions of linear boundary value problems generated by quasilinearization technique. Several linear and nonlinear boundary value problems are presented to test the efficiency of the proposed method and found that numerical results obtained by the present method are in good agreement with the exact solutions available in the literature. Downloads 118
16876 Three Dimensional Dynamic Analysis of Water Storage Tanks Considering FSI Using FEM

Abstract:

In this study, to investigate and analyze the seismic behavior of concrete in open rectangular water storage tanks in two-dimensional and three-dimensional spaces, the Finite Element Method has been used. Through this method, dynamic responses can be investigated together in fluid storages system. Soil behavior has been simulated using tanks boundary conditions in linear form. In this research, in addition to flexibility of wall, the effects of fluid-structure interaction on seismic response of tanks have been investigated to account for the effects of flexible foundation in linear boundary conditions form, and a dynamic response of rectangular tanks in two-dimensional and three-dimensional spaces using finite element method has been provided. The boundary conditions of both rigid and flexible walls in two-dimensional finite element method have been considered to investigate the effect of wall flexibility on seismic response of fluid and storage system. Furthermore, three-dimensional model of fluid-structure interaction issue together with wall flexibility has been analyzed under the three components of earthquake. The obtained results show that two-dimensional model is also accurately near to the results of three-dimension as well as flexibility of foundation leads to absorb received energy and relative reduction of responses. Downloads 86
16875 Theoretical Modal Analysis of Freely and Simply Supported RC Slabs

Authors: M. S. Ahmed, F. A. Mohammad

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the dynamic behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) slabs. Therefore, the theoretical modal analysis was performed using two different types of boundary conditions. Modal analysis method is the most important dynamic analyses. The analysis would be modal case when there is no external force on the structure. By using this method in this paper, the effects of freely and simply supported boundary conditions on the frequencies and mode shapes of RC square slabs are studied. ANSYS software was employed to derive the finite element model to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the slabs. Then, the obtained results through numerical analysis (finite element analysis) would be compared with an exact solution. The main goal of the research study is to predict how the boundary conditions change the behavior of the slab structures prior to performing experimental modal analysis. Based on the results, it is concluded that simply support boundary condition has obvious influence to increase the natural frequencies and change the shape of mode when it is compared with freely supported boundary condition of slabs. This means that such support conditions have direct influence on the dynamic behavior of the slabs. Thus, it is suggested to use free-free boundary condition in experimental modal analysis to precisely reflect the properties of the structure. By using free-free boundary conditions, the influence of poorly defined supports is interrupted. Downloads 312
16874 The Finite Element Method for Nonlinear Fredholm Integral Equation of the Second Kind

Authors: Melusi Khumalo, Anastacia Dlamini

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider a numerical solution for nonlinear Fredholm integral equations of the second kind. We work with uniform mesh and use the Lagrange polynomials together with the Galerkin finite element method, where the weight function is chosen in such a way that it takes the form of the approximate solution but with arbitrary coefficients. We implement the finite element method to the nonlinear Fredholm integral equations of the second kind. We consider the error analysis of the method. Furthermore, we look at a specific example to illustrate the implementation of the finite element method. Downloads 72
16873 Study on Inverse Solution from Remote Displacements to Reservoir Process during Flow Injection

Authors: Sumei Cai, Hong Li

Abstract:

Either during water or gas injection into reservoir, in order to understand the areal flow pressure distribution underground, associated bounding deformation is prevalently monitored by ground or downhole tiltmeters. In this paper, an inverse solution to elastic response of far field displacements induced by reservoir pressure change due to flow injection was studied. Furthermore, the fundamental theory on inverse solution to elastic problem as well as its spatial smoothing approach is presented. Taking advantage of source code development based on Boundary Element Method, numerical analysis on the monitoring data of ground surface displacements to further understand the behavior of reservoir process was developed. Numerical examples were also conducted to verify the effectiveness. Downloads 45
16872 Postbuckling Analysis of End Supported Rods under Self-Weight Using Intrinsic Coordinate Finite Elements

Abstract:

A formulation of postbuckling analysis of end supported rods under self-weight has been presented by the variational method. The variational formulation involving the strain energy due to bending and the potential energy of the self-weight, are expressed in terms of the intrinsic coordinates. The variational formulation is accomplished by introducing the Lagrange multiplier technique to impose the boundary conditions. The finite element method is used to derive a system of nonlinear equations resulting from the stationary of the total potential energy and then Newton-Raphson iterative procedure is applied to solve this system of equations. The numerical results demonstrate the postbluckled configurations of end supported rods under self-weight. This finite element method based on variational formulation expressed in term of intrinsic coordinate is highly recommended for postbuckling analysis of end-supported rods under self-weight. Downloads 39
16871 FEM Method and the Rayleigh Quotient for Structural Element Vibration Analysis

Authors: Falek Kamel

Abstract:

Various approaches are usually used in the dynamic analysis of beams vibrating transversally. For this, numerical methods allowing the solving of the general eigenvalue problem are utilized. The equilibrium equations, describing the movement, result from the solution of a fourth order differential equation. Our investigation is based on the finite element method. The findings of these investigations are the vibration frequencies obtained by the Jacobi method. Two types of the elementary mass matrix are considered, representing a uniform distribution of the mass along with the element and concentrated ones located at fixed points whose number is increased progressively separated by equal distances at each evaluation stage. The studied beams have different boundary constraints representing several classical situations. Comparisons are made for beams where the distributed mass is replaced by n concentrated masses. As expected, the first calculus stage is to obtain the lowest number of the beam parts that gives a frequency comparable to that issued from the Rayleigh formula. The obtained values are then compared to theoretical results based on the assumptions of the Bernoulli-Euler theory. These steps are used for the second type of mass representation in the same manner. Downloads 45
16870 Vibration Frequencies Analysis of Nanoporous Graphene Membrane

Authors: Haw-Long Lee, Win-Jin Chang, Yu-Ching Yang

Abstract:

In this study, we use the atomic-scale finite element method to investigate the vibrational behavior of the armchair- and zigzag-structured nanoporous graphene layers with different size under the SFSF and CFFF boundary conditions. The fundamental frequencies computed for the graphene layers without pore are compared with the results of previous studies. We observe very good correspondence of our results with that of the other studies in all the considered cases. For the armchair- and zigzag-structured nanoporous graphene layers under the SFSF and CFFF boundary conditions, the frequencies decrease as the size of the nanopore increase. When the positions of the pore are symmetric with respect to the center of the graphene, the frequency of the zigzag pore graphene is higher than that of the armchair one. Downloads 251
16869 Computation of Stress Intensity Factor Using Extended Finite Element Method

Authors: Mahmoudi Noureddine, Bouregba Rachid

Abstract:

In this paper the stress intensity factors of a slant-cracked plate of AISI 304 stainless steel, have been calculated using extended finite element method and finite element method (FEM) in ABAQUS software, the results were compared with theoretical values. Downloads 466
16868 A Numerical Study of Force-Based Boundary Conditions in Multiparticle Collision Dynamics

Authors: Arturo Ayala-Hernandez, Humberto Hijar

Abstract:

We propose a new alternative method for imposing fluid-solid boundary conditions in simulations of Multiparticle Collision Dynamics. Our method is based on the introduction of an explicit potential force acting between the fluid particles and a surface representing a solid boundary. We show that our method can be used in simulations of plane Poiseuille flows. Important quantities characterizing the flow and the fluid-solid interaction like the slip coefficient at the solid boundary and the effective viscosity of the fluid, are measured in terms of the set of independent parameters defining the numerical implementation. We find that our method can be used to simulate the correct hydrodynamic flow within a wide range of values of these parameters. Downloads 439
16867 Calculating Stress Intensity Factor of Cracked Axis by Using a Meshless Method

Authors: S. Shahrooi, A. Talavari

Abstract:

Numeral study on the crack and discontinuity using element-free methods has been widely spread in recent years. In this study, for stress intensity factor calculation of the cracked axis under torsional loading has been used from a new element-free method as MLPG method. Region range is discretized by some dispersed nodal points. From method of moving least square (MLS) utilized to create the functions using these nodal points. Then, results of meshless method and finite element method (FEM) were compared. The results is shown which the element-free method was of good accuracy. Downloads 422
16866 Stability of Square Plate with Concentric Cutout

Authors: B. S. Jayashankarbabu, Karisiddappa

Abstract:

The finite element method is used to obtain the elastic buckling load factor for square isotropic plate containing circular, square and rectangular cutouts. ANSYS commercial finite element software had been used in the study. The applied inplane loads considered are uniaxial and biaxial compressions. In all the cases the load is distributed uniformly along the plate outer edges. The effects of the size and shape of concentric cutouts with different plate thickness ratios and the influence of plate edge condition, such as SSSS, CCCC and mixed boundary condition SCSC on the plate buckling strength have been considered in the analysis. Downloads 177
16865 Comparison of Finite-Element and IEC Methods for Cable Thermal Analysis under Various Operating Environments

Authors: M. S. Baazzim, M. S. Al-Saud, M. A. El-Kady

Abstract:

In this paper, steady-state ampacity (current carrying capacity) evaluation of underground power cable system by using analytical and numerical methods for different conditions (depth of cable, spacing between phases, soil thermal resistivity, ambient temperature, wind speed), for two system voltage level were used 132 and 380 kV. The analytical method or traditional method that was used is based on the thermal analysis method developed by Neher-McGrath and further enhanced by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and published in standard IEC 60287. The numerical method that was used is finite element method and it was recourse commercial software based on finite element method. Downloads 179
16864 Study on Two Way Reinforced Concrete Slab Using ANSYS with Different Boundary Conditions and Loading

Authors: A. Gherbi, L. Dahmani, A. Boudjemia

Abstract:

This paper presents the Finite Element Method (FEM) for analyzing the failure pattern of rectangular slab with various edge conditions. Non-Linear static analysis is carried out using ANSYS 15 Software. Using SOLID65 solid elements, the compressive crushing of concrete is facilitated using plasticity algorithm, while the concrete cracking in tension zone is accommodated by the nonlinear material model. Smeared reinforcement is used and introduced as a percentage of steel embedded in concrete slab. The behavior of the analyzed concrete slab has been observed in terms of the crack pattern and displacement for various loading and boundary conditions. The finite element results are also compared with the experimental data. One of the other objectives of the present study is to show how similar the crack path found by ANSYS program to those observed for the yield line analysis. The smeared reinforcement method is found to be more practical especially for the layered elements like concrete slabs. The value of this method is that it does not require explicit modeling of the rebar, and thus a much coarser mesh can be defined. Downloads 53
16863 Differential Transform Method: Some Important Examples

Authors: M. Jamil Amir, Rabia Iqbal, M. Yaseen

Abstract:

In this paper, we solve some differential equations analytically by using differential transform method. For this purpose, we consider four models of Laplace equation with two Dirichlet and two Neumann boundary conditions and K(2,2) equation and obtain the corresponding exact solutions. The obtained results show the simplicity of the method and massive reduction in calculations when one compares it with other iterative methods, available in literature. It is worth mentioning that here only a few number of iterations are required to reach the closed form solutions as series expansions of some known functions. Downloads 408
16862 Static and Dynamic Analysis of Timoshenko Microcantilever Using the Finite Element Method

Abstract:

Micro cantilevers are one of the components used in the manufacture of micro-electromechanical systems. Epoxy microcantilevers have a variety of applications in the manufacture of micro-sensors and micro-actuators. In this paper, the Timoshenko Micro cantilever was statically and dynamically analyzed using the finite element method. First, all boundary conditions and initial conditions governing micro cantilevers were considered. The effect of size on the deflection, angle of rotation, natural frequencies, and mode shapes were then analyzed and evaluated under different frequencies. It was observed that an increased micro cantilever thickness reduces the deflection, rotation, and resonant frequency. A good agreement was observed between our results and those obtained by the couple stress theory, the classical theory, and the strain gradient elasticity theory. Downloads 325
16861 A Comparative Study between FEM and Meshless Methods

Authors: Jay N. Vyas, Sachin Daxini

Abstract:

Numerical simulation techniques are widely used now in product development and testing instead of expensive, time-consuming and sometimes dangerous laboratory experiments. Numerous numerical methods are available for performing simulation of physical problems of different engineering fields. Grid based methods, like Finite Element Method, are extensively used in performing various kinds of static, dynamic, structural and non-structural analysis during product development phase. Drawbacks of grid based methods in terms of discontinuous secondary field variable, dealing fracture mechanics and large deformation problems led to development of a relatively a new class of numerical simulation techniques in last few years, which are popular as Meshless methods or Meshfree Methods. Meshless Methods are expected to be more adaptive and flexible than Finite Element Method because domain descretization in Meshless Method requires only nodes. Present paper introduces Meshless Methods and differentiates it with Finite Element Method in terms of following aspects: Shape functions used, role of weight function, techniques to impose essential boundary conditions, integration techniques for discrete system equations, convergence rate, accuracy of solution and computational effort. Capabilities, benefits and limitations of Meshless Methods are discussed and concluded at the end of paper. Downloads 298
16860 A Finite Element Method Simulation for Rocket Motor Material Selection

Authors: T. Kritsana, P. Sawitri, P. Teeratas

Abstract:

This article aims to study the effect of pressure on rocket motor case by Finite Element Method simulation to select optimal material in rocket motor manufacturing process. In this study, cylindrical tubes with outside diameter of 122 mm and thickness of 3 mm are used for simulation. Defined rocket motor case materials are AISI4130, AISI1026, AISI1045, AL2024 and AL7075. Internal pressure used for the simulation is 22 MPa. The result from Finite Element Method shows that at a pressure of 22 MPa rocket motor case produced by AISI4130, AISI1045 and AL7075 can be used. A comparison of the result between AISI4130, AISI1045 and AL7075 shows that AISI4130 has minimum principal stress and confirm the results of Finite Element Method by the used of calculation method found that, the results from Finite Element Method has good reliability. Downloads 300
16859 Image Transform Based on Integral Equation-Wavelet Approach

Authors: Yuan Yan Tang, Lina Yang, Hong Li

Abstract:

Harmonic model is a very important approximation for the image transform. The harmanic model converts an image into arbitrary shape; however, this mode cannot be described by any fixed functions in mathematics. In fact, it is represented by partial differential equation (PDE) with boundary conditions. Therefore, to develop an efficient method to solve such a PDE is extremely significant in the image transform. In this paper, a novel Integral Equation-Wavelet based method is presented, which consists of three steps: (1) The partial differential equation is converted into boundary integral equation and representation by an indirect method. (2) The boundary integral equation and representation are changed to plane integral equation and representation by boundary measure formula. (3) The plane integral equation and representation are then solved by a method we call wavelet collocation. Our approach has two main advantages, the shape of an image is arbitrary and the program code is independent of the boundary. The performance of our method is evaluated by numerical experiments. Downloads 288
16858 Discrete Element Modeling of the Effect of Particle Shape on Creep Behavior of Rockfills

Authors: Yunjia Wang, Zhihong Zhao, Erxiang Song

Abstract:

Rockfills are widely used in civil engineering, such as dams, railways, and airport foundations in mountain areas. A significant long-term post-construction settlement may affect the serviceability or even the safety of rockfill infrastructures. The creep behavior of rockfills is influenced by a number of factors, such as particle size, strength and shape, water condition and stress level. However, the effect of particle shape on rockfill creep still remains poorly understood, which deserves a careful investigation. Particle-based discrete element method (DEM) was used to simulate the creep behavior of rockfills under different boundary conditions. Both angular and rounded particles were considered in this numerical study, in order to investigate the influence of particle shape. The preliminary results showed that angular particles experience more breakages and larger creep strains under one-dimensional compression than rounded particles. On the contrary, larger creep strains were observed in he rounded specimens in the direct shear test. The mechanism responsible for this difference is that the possibility of the existence of key particle in rounded particles is higher than that in angular particles. The above simulations demonstrate that the influence of particle shape on the creep behavior of rockfills can be simulated by DEM properly. The method of DEM simulation may facilitate our understanding of deformation properties of rockfill materials. Downloads 215