Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16261

Search results for: ultrasonic pulse method

16261 Calcium Silicate Bricks – Ultrasonic Pulse Method: Effects of Natural Frequency of Transducers on Measurement Results

Authors: Jiri Brozovsky

Abstract:

Modulus of elasticity is one of the important parameters of construction materials, which considerably influence their deformation properties and which can also be determined by means of non-destructive test methods like ultrasonic pulse method. However, measurement results of ultrasonic pulse methods are influenced by various factors, one of which is the natural frequency of the transducers. The paper states knowledge about influence of natural frequency of the transducers (54; 82 and 150kHz) on ultrasonic pulse velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity (Young's Dynamic modulus of elasticity). Differences between ultrasonic pulse velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity were found with the same smallest dimension of test specimen in the direction of sounding and density their value decreases as the natural frequency of transducers grew.

Keywords: calcium silicate brick, ultrasonic pulse method, ultrasonic pulse velocity, dynamic modulus of elasticity

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16260 Design of a Pulse Generator Based on a Programmable System-on-Chip (PSoC) for Ultrasonic Applications

Authors: Pedro Acevedo, Carlos Díaz, Mónica Vázquez, Joel Durán

Abstract:

This paper describes the design of a pulse generator based on the Programmable System-on-Chip (PSoC) module. In this module, using programmable logic is possible to implement different pulses which are required for ultrasonic applications, either in a single channel or multiple channels. This module can operate with programmable frequencies from 3-74 MHz; its programming may be versatile covering a wide range of ultrasonic applications. It is ideal for low-power ultrasonic applications where PZT or PVDF transducers are used.

Keywords: PSoC, pulse generator, PVDF, ultrasonic transducer

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
16259 Compressive Strength Evaluation of Underwater Concrete Structures Integrating the Combination of Rebound Hardness and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Methods with Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Seunghee Park, Junkyeong Kim, Eun-Seok Shin, Sang-Hun Han

Abstract:

In this study, two kinds of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques (rebound hardness and ultrasonic pulse velocity methods) are investigated for the effective maintenance of underwater concrete structures. A new methodology to estimate the underwater concrete strengths more effectively, named “artificial neural network (ANN) – based concrete strength estimation with the combination of rebound hardness and ultrasonic pulse velocity methods” is proposed and verified throughout a series of experimental works.

Keywords: underwater concrete, rebound hardness, Schmidt hammer, ultrasonic pulse velocity, ultrasonic sensor, artificial neural networks, ANN

Procedia PDF Downloads 444
16258 Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Investigation of Polypropylene and Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Erjola Reufi, Jozefita Marku, Thomas Bier

Abstract:

Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) method has been shown for some time to provide a reliable means of estimating properties and offers a unique opportunity for direct, quick and safe control of building damaged by earthquake, fatigue, conflagration and catastrophic scenarios. On this investigation hybrid reinforced concrete has been investigated by UPV method. Hooked end steel fiber of length 50 and 30 mm was added to concrete in different proportion 0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 % by the volume of concrete. On the other hand, polypropylene fiber of length 12, 6, 3 mm was added to concrete of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 % by the volume of concrete. Fifteen different mixture has been prepared to investigate the relation between compressive strength and UPV values and also to investigate on the effect of volume and type of fiber on UPV values.

Keywords: compressive strength, polypropylene fiber, steel fiber, ultrasonic pulse velocity, volume, type of fiber

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16257 Non-Destructing Testing of Sandstones from Unconventional Reservoir in Poland with Use of Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Technique and X-Ray Computed Microtomography

Authors: Michał Maksimczuk, Łukasz Kaczmarek, Tomasz Wejrzanowski

Abstract:

This study concerns high-resolution X-ray computed microtomography (µCT) and ultrasonic pulse analysis of Cambrian sandstones from a borehole located in the Baltic Sea Coast of northern Poland. µCT and ultrasonic technique are non-destructive methods commonly used to determine the internal structure of reservoir rock sample. The spatial resolution of the µCT images obtained was 27 µm, which enabled the author to create accurate 3-D visualizations of structure geometry and to calculate the ratio of pores volume to the total sample volume. A copper X-ray source filter was used to reduce image artifacts. Furthermore, samples Young’s modulus and Poisson ratio were obtained with use of ultrasonic pulse technique. µCT and ultrasonic pulse technique provide complex information which can be used for explorations and characterization of reservoir rocks.

Keywords: elastic parameters, linear absorption coefficient, northern Poland, tight gas

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
16256 Laser - Ultrasonic Method for the Measurement of Residual Stresses in Metals

Authors: Alexander A. Karabutov, Natalia B. Podymova, Elena B. Cherepetskaya

Abstract:

The theoretical analysis is carried out to get the relation between the ultrasonic wave velocity and the value of residual stresses. The laser-ultrasonic method is developed to evaluate the residual stresses and subsurface defects in metals. The method is based on the laser thermooptical excitation of longitudinal ultrasonic wave sand their detection by a broadband piezoelectric detector. A laser pulse with the time duration of 8 ns of the full width at half of maximum and with the energy of 300 µJ is absorbed in a thin layer of the special generator that is inclined relative to the object under study. The non-uniform heating of the generator causes the formation of a broadband powerful pulse of longitudinal ultrasonic waves. It is shown that the temporal profile of this pulse is the convolution of the temporal envelope of the laser pulse and the profile of the in-depth distribution of the heat sources. The ultrasonic waves reach the surface of the object through the prism that serves as an acoustic duct. At the interface ‚laser-ultrasonic transducer-object‘ the conversion of the most part of the longitudinal wave energy takes place into the shear, subsurface longitudinal and Rayleigh waves. They spread within the subsurface layer of the studied object and are detected by the piezoelectric detector. The electrical signal that corresponds to the detected acoustic signal is acquired by an analog-to-digital converter and when is mathematically processed and visualized with a personal computer. The distance between the generator and the piezodetector as well as the spread times of acoustic waves in the acoustic ducts are the characteristic parameters of the laser-ultrasonic transducer and are determined using the calibration samples. There lative precision of the measurement of the velocity of longitudinal ultrasonic waves is 0.05% that corresponds to approximately ±3 m/s for the steels of conventional quality. This precision allows one to determine the mechanical stress in the steel samples with the minimal detection threshold of approximately 22.7 MPa. The results are presented for the measured dependencies of the velocity of longitudinal ultrasonic waves in the samples on the values of the applied compression stress in the range of 20-100 MPa.

Keywords: laser-ultrasonic method, longitudinal ultrasonic waves, metals, residual stresses

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16255 An Investigation on Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concretes

Authors: Soner Guler, Demet Yavuz, Refik Burak Taymuş, Fuat Korkut

Abstract:

Because of the easy applying and not costing too much, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) is one of the most used non-destructive techniques to determine concrete characteristics along with impact-echo, Schmidt rebound hammer (SRH) and pulse-echo. This article investigates the relationship between UPV and compressive strength of hybrid fiber reinforced concretes. Water/cement ratio (w/c) was kept at 0.4 for all concrete mixes. Compressive strength of concrete was targeted at 35 MPa. UPV testing and compressive strength tests were carried out at the curing age of 28 days. The UPV of concrete containing steel fibers has been found to be higher than plain concrete for all the testing groups. It is decided that there is not a certain relationship between fiber addition and strength.

Keywords: ultrasonic pulse velocity, hybrid fiber, compressive strength, fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
16254 Thickness Measurement and Void Detection in Concrete Elements through Ultrasonic Pulse

Authors: Leonel Lipa Cusi, Enrique Nestor Pasquel Carbajal, Laura Marina Navarro Alvarado, José Del Álamo Carazas

Abstract:

This research analyses the accuracy of the ultrasound and the pulse echo ultrasound technic to find voids and to measure thickness of concrete elements. These mentioned air voids are simulated by polystyrene expanded and hollow containers of thin thickness made of plastic or cardboard of different sizes and shapes. These targets are distributed strategically inside concrete at different depths. For this research, a shear wave pulse echo ultrasonic device of 50 KHz is used to scan the concrete elements. Despite the small measurements of the concrete elements and because of voids’ size are near the half of the wavelength, pre and post processing steps like voltage, gain, SAFT, envelope and time compensation were made in order to improve imaging results.

Keywords: ultrasonic, concrete, thickness, pulse echo, void

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
16253 Comparative Study of Compressive Strength of Triangular Polyester Fiber with Fly Ash Roller Compacted Concrete Using Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Method

Authors: Pramod Keshav Kolase, Atul K. Desai

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental investigation results of Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) tests conducted on roller compacted concrete pavement (RCCP) material containing Class F fly ash of as mineral admixture and triangular polyester fiber as a secondary reinforcement. The each mix design series fly ash content is varied from 0% to 45 % and triangular polyester fiber 0% to 0.75% by volume fraction. In each series and for different ages of curing (i.e. 7, 28 and 90 days) forty-eight cube specimens are cast and tested for compressive strength and UPV. The UPV of fly ash was found to be lower for all mixtures at 7 days in comparison with control mix concrete. But at 28, 56 days and 90 days the UPV were significantly improved for all the mixes. Relationships between compressive strength of RCCP and UPV and Dynamic Elastic Modulus are proposed for all series mixes.

Keywords: compressive strength, dynamic elastic modulus, fly ash, fiber, roller compacted concrete, ultrasonic pulse velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
16252 Array Type Miniaturized Ultrasonic Sensors for Detecting Sinkhole in the City

Authors: Won Young Choi, Kwan Kyu Park

Abstract:

Recently, the road depression happening in the urban area is different from the cause of the sink hole and the generation mechanism occurring in the limestone area. The main cause of sinkholes occurring in the city center is the loss of soil due to the damage of old underground buried materials and groundwater discharge due to large underground excavation works. The method of detecting the sinkhole in the urban area is mostly using the Ground Penetration Radar (GPR). However, it is challenging to implement compact system and detecting watery state since it is based on electromagnetic waves. Although many ultrasonic underground detection studies have been conducted, near-ground detection (several tens of cm to several meters) has been developed for bulk systems using geophones as a receiver. The goal of this work is to fabricate a miniaturized sinkhole detecting system based on low-cost ultrasonic transducers of 40 kHz resonant frequency with high transmission pressure and receiving sensitivity. Motived by biomedical ultrasonic imaging methods, we detect air layers below the ground such as asphalt through the pulse-echo method. To improve image quality using multi-channel, linear array system is implemented, and image is acquired by classical synthetic aperture imaging method. We present the successful feasibility test of multi-channel sinkhole detector based on ultrasonic transducer. In this work, we presented and analyzed image results which are imaged by single channel pulse-echo imaging, synthetic aperture imaging.

Keywords: road depression, sinkhole, synthetic aperture imaging, ultrasonic transducer

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16251 Nonlinear Evolution of the Pulses of Elastic Waves in Geological Materials

Authors: Elena B. Cherepetskaya, Alexander A. Karabutov, Natalia B. Podymova, Ivan Sas

Abstract:

Nonlinear evolution of broadband ultrasonic pulses passed through the rock specimens is studied using the apparatus ‘GEOSCAN-02M’. Ultrasonic pulses are excited by the pulses of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with the time duration of 10 ns and with the energy of 260 mJ. This energy can be reduced to 20 mJ by some light filters. The laser beam radius did not exceed 5 mm. As a result of the absorption of the laser pulse in the special material – the optoacoustic generator–the pulses of longitudinal ultrasonic waves are excited with the time duration of 100 ns and with the maximum pressure amplitude of 10 MPa. The immersion technique is used to measure the parameters of these ultrasonic pulses passed through a specimen, the immersion liquid is distilled water. The reference pulse passed through the cell with water has the compression and the rarefaction phases. The amplitude of the rarefaction phase is five times lower than that of the compression phase. The spectral range of the reference pulse reaches 10 MHz. The cubic-shaped specimens of the Karelian gabbro are studied with the rib length 3 cm. The ultimate strength of the specimens by the uniaxial compression is (300±10) MPa. As the reference pulse passes through the area of the specimen without cracks the compression phase decreases and the rarefaction one increases due to diffraction and scattering of ultrasound, so the ratio of these phases becomes 2.3:1. After preloading some horizontal cracks appear in the specimens. Their location is found by one-sided scanning of the specimen using the backward mode detection of the ultrasonic pulses reflected from the structure defects. Using the computer processing of these signals the images are obtained of the cross-sections of the specimens with cracks. By the increase of the reference pulse amplitude from 0.1 MPa to 5 MPa the nonlinear transformation of the ultrasonic pulse passed through the specimen with horizontal cracks results in the decrease by 2.5 times of the amplitude of the rarefaction phase and in the increase of its duration by 2.1 times. By the increase of the reference pulse amplitude from 5 MPa to 10 MPa the time splitting of the phases is observed for the bipolar pulse passed through the specimen. The compression and rarefaction phases propagate with different velocities. These features of the powerful broadband ultrasonic pulses passed through the rock specimens can be described by the hysteresis model of Preisach-Mayergoyz and can be used for the location of cracks in the optically opaque materials.

Keywords: cracks, geological materials, nonlinear evolution of ultrasonic pulses, rock

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16250 Pulse Generator with Constant Pulse Width

Authors: Rozita Borhan, Hanif Che Lah, Wee Leong Son

Abstract:

This paper is about method to produce a stable and accurate constant output pulse width regardless of the amplitude, period and pulse width variation of the input signal source. The pulse generated is usually being used in numerous applications as the reference input source to other circuits in the system. Therefore, it is crucial to produce a clean and constant pulse width to make sure the system is working accurately as expected.

Keywords: amplitude, Constant Pulse Width, frequency divider, pulse generator

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16249 Effect of Coupling Media on Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity in Concrete: A Preliminary Investigation

Authors: Sura Al-Khafaji, Phil Purnell

Abstract:

Measurement of the ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) is an important tool in diagnostic examination of concrete. In this method piezoelectric transducers are normally held in direct contact with the concrete surface. The current study aims to test the hypothesis that a preferential coupling effect might exist i.e. that the speed of sound measured depends on the couplant used. In this study, different coupling media of varying acoustic impedance were placed between the transducers and concrete samples made with constant aggregate content but with different compressive strengths. The preliminary results show that using coupling materials (both solid and a range of liquid substances) has an effect on the pulse velocity measured in a given concrete. The effect varies depending on the material used. The UPV measurements with solid coupling were higher than these from the liquid coupling at all strength levels. The tests using couplants generally recorded lower UPV values than the conventional test, except when carbon fiber composite was used, which retuned higher values. Analysis of variances (ANOVA) was performed to confirm that there are statistically significant differences between the measurements recorded using a conventional system and a coupled system.

Keywords: compressive strength, coupling effect, statistical analysis, ultrasonic

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16248 Interpretation of Ultrasonic Backscatter of Linear FM Chirp Pulses from Targets Having Frequency-Dependent Scattering

Authors: Stuart Bradley, Mathew Legg, Lilyan Panton

Abstract:

Ultrasonic remote sensing is a useful tool for assessing the interior structure of complex targets. For these methods, significantly enhanced spatial resolution is obtained if the pulse is coded, for example using a linearly changing frequency during the pulse duration. Such pulses have a time-dependent spectral structure. Interpretation of the backscatter from targets is, therefore, complicated if the scattering is frequency-dependent. While analytic models are well established for steady sinusoidal excitations applied to simple shapes such as spheres, such models do not generally exist for temporally evolving excitations. Therefore, models are developed in the current paper for handling such signals so that the properties of the targets can be quantitatively evaluated while maintaining very high spatial resolution. Laboratory measurements on simple shapes are used to confirm the validity of the models.

Keywords: linear FM chirp, time-dependent acoustic scattering, ultrasonic remote sensing, ultrasonic scattering

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16247 Ultrasonic Evaluation of Periodic Rough Inaccessible Surfaces from Back Side

Authors: Chanh Nghia Nguyen, Yu Kurokawa, Hirotsugu Inoue

Abstract:

The surface roughness is an important parameter for evaluating the quality of material surfaces since it affects functions and performance of industrial components. Although stylus and optical techniques are commonly used for measuring the surface roughness, they are applicable only to accessible surfaces. In practice, surface roughness measurement from the back side is sometimes demanded, for example, in inspection of safety-critical parts such as inner surface of pipes. However, little attention has been paid to the measurement of back surface roughness so far. Since back surface is usually inaccessible by stylus or optical techniques, ultrasonic technique is one of the most effective among others. In this research, an ultrasonic pulse-echo technique is considered for evaluating the pitch and the height of back surface having periodic triangular profile as a very first step. The pitch of the surface profile is measured by applying the diffraction grating theory for oblique incidence; then the height is evaluated by numerical analysis based on the Kirchhoff theory for normal incidence. The validity of the proposed method was verified by both numerical simulation and experiment. It was confirmed that the pitch is accurately measured in most cases. The height was also evaluated with good accuracy when it is smaller than a half of the pitch because of the approximation in the Kirchhoff theory.

Keywords: back side, inaccessible surface, periodic roughness, pulse-echo technique, ultrasonic NDE

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
16246 Ultrasonic Measurement of Elastic Properties of Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials

Authors: Hatice Guzel, Imran Oral, Huseyin Isler

Abstract:

In this study, elastic constants, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratios, and shear moduli of orthotropic composite materials, consisting of E-glass/epoxy and carbon/epoxy, were calculated by ultrasonic velocities which were measured using ultrasonic pulse-echo method. 35 MHz computer controlled analyzer, 60 MHz digital oscilloscope, 5 MHz longitudinal probe, and 2,25 MHz transverse probe were used for the measurements of ultrasound velocities, the measurements were performed at ambient temperature. It was understood from the data obtained in this study that, measured ultrasound velocities and the calculated elasticity coefficients were depending on the fiber orientations.

Keywords: composite materials, elastic constants, orthotropic materials, ultrasound

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16245 Vibration Analysis and Optimization Design of Ultrasonic Horn

Authors: Kuen Ming Shu, Ren Kai Ho

Abstract:

Ultrasonic horn has the functions of amplifying amplitude and reducing resonant impedance in ultrasonic system. Its primary function is to amplify deformation or velocity during vibration and focus ultrasonic energy on the small area. It is a crucial component in design of ultrasonic vibration system. There are five common design methods for ultrasonic horns: analytical method, equivalent circuit method, equal mechanical impedance, transfer matrix method, finite element method. In addition, the general optimization design process is to change the geometric parameters to improve a single performance. Therefore, in the general optimization design process, we couldn't find the relation of parameter and objective. However, a good optimization design must be able to establish the relationship between input parameters and output parameters so that the designer can choose between parameters according to different performance objectives and obtain the results of the optimization design. In this study, an ultrasonic horn provided by Maxwide Ultrasonic co., Ltd. was used as the contrast of optimized ultrasonic horn. The ANSYS finite element analysis (FEA) software was used to simulate the distribution of the horn amplitudes and the natural frequency value. The results showed that the frequency for the simulation values and actual measurement values were similar, verifying the accuracy of the simulation values. The ANSYS DesignXplorer was used to perform Response Surface optimization, which could shows the relation of parameter and objective. Therefore, this method can be used to substitute the traditional experience method or the trial-and-error method for design to reduce material costs and design cycles.

Keywords: horn, natural frequency, response surface optimization, ultrasonic vibration

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16244 A Simple Fluid Dynamic Model for Slippery Pulse Pattern in Traditional Chinese Pulse Diagnosis

Authors: Yifang Gong

Abstract:

Pulse diagnosis is one of the most important diagnosis methods in traditional Chinese medicine. It is also the trickiest method to learn. It is known as that it can only to be sensed not explained. This becomes a serious threat to the survival of this diagnostic method. However, there are a large amount of experiences accumulated during the several thousand years of practice of Chinese doctors. A pulse pattern called 'Slippery pulse' is one of the indications of pregnancy. A simple fluid dynamic model is proposed to simulate the effects of the existence of a placenta. The placenta is modeled as an extra plenum in an extremely simplified fluid network model. It is found that because of the existence of the extra plenum, indeed the pulse pattern shows a secondary peak in one pulse period. As for the author’s knowledge, this work is the first time to show the link between Pulse diagnoses and basic physical principle. Key parameters which might affect the pattern are also investigated.

Keywords: Chinese medicine, flow network, pregnancy, pulse

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16243 Evaluating Residual Mechanical and Physical Properties of Concrete at Elevated Temperatures

Authors: S. Hachemi, A. Ounis, S. Chabi

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the effects of elevated temperature on compressive and flexural strength of Normal Strength Concrete (NSC), High Strength Concrete (HSC) and High Performance Concrete (HPC). In addition, the specimen mass and volume were measured before and after heating in order to determine the loss of mass and volume during the test. In terms of non-destructive measurement, ultrasonic pulse velocity test was proposed as a promising initial inspection method for fire damaged concrete structure. 100 Cube specimens for three grades of concrete were prepared and heated at a rate of 3°C/min up to different temperatures (150, 250, 400, 600, and 900°C). The results show a loss of compressive and flexural strength for all the concretes heated to temperature exceeding 400°C. The results also revealed that mass and density of the specimen significantly reduced with an increase in temperature.

Keywords: high temperature, compressive strength, mass loss, ultrasonic pulse velocity

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16242 Zinc Borate Synthesis Using Hydrozincite and Boric Acid with Ultrasonic Method

Authors: D. S. Vardar, A. S. Kipcak, F. T. Senberber, E. M. Derun, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul

Abstract:

Zinc borate is an important inorganic hydrate borate material, which can be use as a flame retardant agent and corrosion resistance material. This compound can loss its structural water content at higher than 290°C. Due to thermal stability; Zinc Borate can be used as flame reterdant at high temperature process of plastic and gum. In this study, the ultrasonic reaction of zinc borates were studied using hydrozincite (Zn5(CO3)2•(OH)6) and boric acid (H3BO3) raw materials. Before the synthesis raw materials were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Ultrasonic method is a new application on the zinc borate synthesis. The synthesis parameters were set to 90°C reaction temperature and 55 minutes of reaction time, with 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 molar ratio of starting materials (Zn5(CO3)2•(OH)6 : H3BO3). After the zinc borate synthesis, the products analyzed by XRD and FT-IR. As a result, optimum molar ratio of 1:5 (Zn5(CO3)2•(OH)6:H3BO3) is determined for the synthesis of zinc borates with ultrasonic method.

Keywords: borate, ultrasonic method, zinc borate, zinc borate synthesis

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16241 Analysis of Nonlinear Pulse Propagation Characteristics in Semiconductor Optical Amplifier for Different Input Pulse Shapes

Authors: Suchi Barua, Narottam Das, Sven Nordholm, Mohammad Razaghi

Abstract:

This paper presents nonlinear pulse propagation characteristics for different input optical pulse shapes with various input pulse energy levels in semiconductor optical amplifiers. For simulation of nonlinear pulse propagation, finite-difference beam propagation method is used to solve the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. In this equation, gain spectrum dynamics, gain saturation are taken into account which depends on carrier depletion, carrier heating, spectral-hole burning, group velocity dispersion, self-phase modulation and two photon absorption. From this analysis, we obtained the output waveforms and spectra for different input pulse shapes as well as for different input energies. It shows clearly that the peak position of the output waveforms are shifted toward the leading edge which due to the gain saturation of the SOA for higher input pulse energies. We also analyzed and compared the normalized difference of full-width at half maximum for different input pulse shapes in the SOA.

Keywords: finite-difference beam propagation method, pulse shape, pulse propagation, semiconductor optical amplifier

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16240 Laser-Ultrasonic Method for Measuring the Local Elastic Moduli of Porosity Isotropic Composite Materials

Authors: Alexander A. Karabutov, Natalia B. Podymova, Elena B. Cherepetskaya, Vladimir A. Makarov, Yulia G. Sokolovskaya

Abstract:

The laser-ultrasonic method is realized for quantifying the influence of porosity on the local Young’s modulus of isotropic composite materials. The method is based on a laser generation of ultrasound pulses combined with measurement of the phase velocity of longitudinal and shear acoustic waves in samples. The main advantage of this method compared with traditional ultrasonic research methods is the efficient generation of short and powerful probing acoustic pulses required for reliable testing of ultrasound absorbing and scattering heterogeneous materials. Using as an example samples of a metal matrix composite with reinforcing microparticles of silicon carbide in various concentrations, it is shown that to provide an effective increase in Young’s modulus with increasing concentration of microparticles, the porosity of the final sample should not exceed 2%.

Keywords: laser ultrasonic, longitudinal and shear ultrasonic waves, porosity, composite, local elastic moduli

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16239 The Design of Acoustic Horns for Ultrasonic Aided Tube Double Side Flange Making

Authors: Kuen-Ming Shu, Jyun-Wei Chen

Abstract:

Encapsulated O-rings are specifically designed to address the problem of sealing the most hostile chemicals and extreme temperature applications. Ultrasonic vibration hot embossing and ultrasonic welding techniques provide a fast and reliable method to fabricate encapsulated O-ring. This paper performs the design and analysis method of the acoustic horns with double extrusion to process tube double side flange simultaneously. The paper deals with study through Finite Element Method (FEM) of ultrasonic stepped horn used to process a capsulated O-ring, the theoretical dimensions of horns, and their natural frequencies and amplitudes are obtained through the simulations of COMOSOL software. Furthermore, real horns were fabricated, tested and verified to proof the practical utility of these horns.

Keywords: encapsulated O-rings, ultrasonic vibration hot embossing, flange making, acoustic horn, finite element analysis

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16238 Ultrasonic Spectroscopy of Polymer Based PVDF-TrFE Composites with CNT Fillers

Authors: J. Belovickis, V. Samulionis, J. Banys, M. V. Silibin, A. V. Solnyshkin, A. V. Sysa

Abstract:

Ferroelectric polymers exhibit good flexibility, processability and low cost of production. Doping of ferroelectric polymers with nanofillers may modify its dielectric, elastic or piezoelectric properties. Carbon nanotubes are one of the ingredients that can improve the mechanical properties of polymer based composites. In this work, we report on both the ultrasonic and the dielectric properties of the copolymer polyvinylidene fluoride/tetrafluoroethylene (P(VDF-TrFE)) of the composition 70/30 mol% with various concentrations of carbon nanotubes (CNT). Experimental study of ultrasonic wave attenuation and velocity in these composites has been performed over wide temperature range (100 K – 410 K) using an ultrasonic automatic pulse-echo tecnique. The temperature dependences of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation showed anomalies attributed to the glass transition and paraelectric-ferroelectric phase transition. Our investigations showed mechanical losses to be dependent on the volume fraction of the CNTs within the composites. The existence of broad hysteresis of the ultrasonic wave attenuation and velocity within the nanocomposites is presented between cooling and heating cycles. By the means of dielectric spectroscopy, it is shown that the dielectric properties may be tuned by varying the volume fraction of the CNT fillers.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, polymer composites, PVDF-TrFE, ultrasonic spectroscopy

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16237 Jitter Based Reconstruction of Transmission Line Pulse Using On-Chip Sensor

Authors: Bhuvnesh Narayanan, Bernhard Weiss, Tvrtko Mandic, Adrijan Baric

Abstract:

This paper discusses a method to reconstruct internal high-frequency signals through subsampling techniques in an IC using an on-chip sensor. Though there are existing methods to internally probe and reconstruct high frequency signals through subsampling techniques; these methods have been applicable mainly for synchronized systems. This paper demonstrates a method for making such non-intrusive on-chip reconstructions possible also in non-synchronized systems. The TLP pulse is used to demonstrate the experimental validation of the concept. The on-chip sensor measures the voltage in an internal node. The jitter in the input pulse causes a varying pulse delay with respect to the on-chip sampling command. By measuring this pulse delay and by correlating it with the measured on-chip voltage, time domain waveforms can be reconstructed, and the influence of the pulse on the internal nodes can be better understood.

Keywords: on-chip sensor, jitter, transmission line pulse, subsampling

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16236 Evaluation of Modulus of Elasticity by Non-Destructive Method of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Erjola Reufi, Thomas Beer

Abstract:

Plain, unreinforced concrete is a brittle material, with a low tensile strength, limited ductility and little resistance to cracking. In order to improve the inherent tensile strength of concrete there is a need of multi directional and closely spaced reinforcement, which can be provided in the form of randomly distributed fibers. Fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) is a composite material consisting of cement, sand, coarse aggregate, water and fibers. In this composite material, short discrete fibers are randomly distributed throughout the concrete mass. The behavioral efficiency of this composite material is far superior to that of plain concrete and many other construction materials of equal cost. The present experimental study considers the effect of steel fibers and polypropylene fiber on the modulus of elasticity of concrete. Hook end steel fibers of length 5 cm and 3 cm at volume fraction of 0.25%, 0.5% and 1.% were used. Also polypropylene fiber of length 12, 6, 3 mm at volume fraction 0.1, 0.25, and 0.4 % were used. Fifteen mixtures has been prepared to evaluate the effect of fiber on modulus of elasticity of concrete. Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and resonant frequency methods which are two non-destructive testing techniques have been used to measure the elastic properties of fiber reinforced concrete. This study found that ultrasonic wave propagation is the most reliable, easy and cost effective testing technique to use in the determination of the elastic properties of the FRC mix used in this study.

Keywords: fiber reinforced concrete(FRC), polypropylene fiber, resonance, ultrasonic pulse velocity, steel fiber

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16235 Characterization of Ultrasonic Nonlinearity in Concrete under Cyclic Change of Prestressing Force

Authors: Gyu-Jin Kim, Hyo-Gyoung Kwak

Abstract:

In this research, the effect of prestressing force on the nonlinearity of concrete was investigated by an experimental study. For the measurement of ultrasonic nonlinearity, a prestressed concrete beam was prepared and a nonlinear resonant ultrasound method was adopted. When the prestressing force changes, the stress state of the concrete inside the beam is affected, which leads to the occurrence of micro-cracks and changes in mechanical properties. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce nonlinear ultrasonic technology which sensitively reflects microstructural changes. Repetitive prestressing load history, including maximum levels of 45%, 60% and 75%, depending on the compressive strength, is designed to evaluate the impact of loading levels on the nonlinearity. With the experimental results, the possibility of ultrasonic nonlinearity as a trial indicator of stress was evaluated.

Keywords: micro crack, nonlinear ultrasonic resonant spectroscopy, prestressed concrete beam, prestressing force, ultrasonic nonlinearity

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16234 Spread Spectrum with Notch Frequency Using Pulse Coding Method for Switching Converter of Communication Equipment

Authors: Yasunori Kobori, Futoshi Fukaya, Takuya Arafune, Nobukazu Tsukiji, Nobukazu Takai, Haruo Kobayashi

Abstract:

This paper proposes an EMI spread spectrum technique to enable to set notch frequencies using pulse coding method for DC-DC switching converters of communication equipment. The notches in the spectrum of the switching pulses appear at the frequencies obtained from empirically derived equations with the proposed spread spectrum technique using the pulse coding methods, the PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) coding or the PCM (Pulse Cycle Modulation) coding. This technique would be useful for the switching converters in the communication equipment which receives standard radio waves, without being affected by noise from the switching converters. In our proposed technique, the notch frequencies in the spectrum depend on the pulse coding method. We have investigated this technique to apply to the switching converters and found that there is good relationship agreement between the notch frequencies and the empirical equations. The notch frequencies with the PWM coding is equal to the equation F=k/(WL-WS). With the PCM coding, that is equal to the equation F=k/(TL-TS).

Keywords: notch frequency, pulse coding, spread spectrum, switching converter

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16233 Simulation and Modeling of High Voltage Pulse Transformer

Authors: Zahra Emami, H. Reza Mesgarzade, A. Morad Ghorbami, S. Reza Motahari

Abstract:

This paper presents a method for calculation of parasitic elements consisting of leakage inductance and parasitic capacitance in a high voltage pulse transformer. The parasitic elements of pulse transformers significantly influence the resulting pulse shape of a power modulator system. In order to prevent the effects on the pulse shape before constructing the transformer an electrical model is needed. The technique procedures for computing these elements are based on finite element analysis. The finite element model of pulse transformer is created using software "Ansys Maxwell 3D". Finally, the transformer parasitic elements is calculated and compared with the value obtained from the actual test and pulse modulator is simulated and results is compared with actual test of pulse modulator. The results obtained are very similar with the test values.

Keywords: pulse transformer, simulation, modeling, Maxwell 3D, modulator

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
16232 Autonomous Control of Ultrasonic Transducer Drive System

Authors: Dong-Keun Jeong, Jong-Hyun Kim, Woon-Ha Yoon, Hee-Je Kim

Abstract:

In order to automatically operate the ultrasonic transducer drive system for sonicating aluminum, this paper proposes the ultrasonic transducer sensorless control algorithm. The resonance frequency shift and electrical impedance change is a common phenomenon in the state of the ultrasonic transducer. The proposed control algorithm make use of the impedance change of ultrasonic transducer according to the environment between air state and aluminum alloy state, it controls the ultrasonic transducer drive system autonomous without a sensor. The proposed sensorless autonomous ultrasonic transducer control algorithm was experimentally verified using a 3kW prototype ultrasonic transducer drive system.

Keywords: ultrasonic transducer drive system, impedance change, sensorless, autonomous control algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 269