Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2170

Search results for: contact width

2170 Analysis of Contact Width and Contact Stress of Three-Layer Corrugated Metal Gasket

Authors: I. Made Gatot Karohika, Shigeyuki Haruyama, Ken Kaminishi, Oke Oktavianty, Didik Nurhadiyanto


Contact width and contact stress are important parameters related to the leakage behavior of corrugated metal gasket. In this study, contact width and contact stress of three-layer corrugated metal gasket are investigated due to the modulus of elasticity and thickness of surface layer for 2 type gasket (0-MPa and 400-MPa mode). A finite element method was employed to develop simulation solution to analysis the effect of each parameter. The result indicated that lowering the modulus of elasticity ratio of surface layer will result in better contact width but the average contact stresses are smaller. When the modulus of elasticity ratio is held constant with thickness ratio increase, its contact width has an increscent trend otherwise the average contact stress has decreased trend.

Keywords: contact width, contact stress, layer, metal gasket, corrugated, simulation

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2169 Development of 25A-Size Three-Layer Metal Gasket by Using FEM Simulation

Authors: Shigeyuki Haruyama, I Made Gatot Karohika, Akinori Sato, Didik Nurhadiyanto, Ken Kaminishi


Contact width and contact stress are important design parameters for optimizing corrugated metal gasket performance based on elastic and plastic contact stress. In this study, we used a three-layer metal gasket with Al, Cu, Ni as the outer layer, respectively. A finite element method was employed to develop simulation solution. The gasket model was simulated by using two simulation stages which are forming and tightening simulation. The simulation result shows that aluminum with tangent modulus, Ehal = Eal/150 has the highest slope for contact width. The slope of contact width for plastic mode gasket was higher than the elastic mode gasket.

Keywords: contact width, contact stress, layer, metal gasket, corrugated, simulation

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2168 Pulse Generator with Constant Pulse Width

Authors: Rozita Borhan, Hanif Che Lah, Wee Leong Son


This paper is about method to produce a stable and accurate constant output pulse width regardless of the amplitude, period and pulse width variation of the input signal source. The pulse generated is usually being used in numerous applications as the reference input source to other circuits in the system. Therefore, it is crucial to produce a clean and constant pulse width to make sure the system is working accurately as expected.

Keywords: amplitude, Constant Pulse Width, frequency divider, pulse generator

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
2167 The Impact of Urethral Plate Width on Surgical Outcomes After Distal Hypospadias Repair in Children

Authors: Andrey Boyko


Nowadays, there is no consensus about the influence of urethral plate (UP) width on the surgical outcomes after distal hypospadias repair. The purpose of the research was to study the association between UP width and surgical outcomes after distal hypospadias repair in children. Materials and methods: The study included 138 patients with distal hypospadias. The mean age at the time of surgery was 4.6 years (6 months – 16 years). We measured UP width at the “midpoint within the glans” and used the HOSE scale to assess postoperative outcomes. The patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 – the patients (107) with UP < 8mm, group 2 – patients (31) with UP > 8mm. All boys underwent TIP repair. Preincision means UP width after incision means UP width, and the UP ratio was analyzed. Statistical data were obtained using Statistica 10. Results: The findings were preincision mean UP width - 5.4 mm and 9.4 mm; after incision mean UP width - 13mm and 17.5 mm; UP ratio - 0.41 and 0.53 in group 1 and group 2, respectively. Most postoperative complications (fistula, meatal stenosis, and stricture) happened in patients with UP width < 8 mm versus ≥ 8 mm (7/107 versus 2/31, respectively). HOSE results were 15.77 (group 1), 15.65 (group 2). The follow up lasted up to 12 months. Statistical analysis proved the absence of correlation between UP width and postoperative complications. Conclusions: In conclusion, it should be noted that the success of surgical repair mostly depended on the surgical technique.

Keywords: children, distal hypospadias, tip repair, urethral plate width

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2166 Numerical Prediction of Width Crack of Concrete Dapped-End Beams

Authors: Jatziri Y. Moreno-Martinez, Arturo Galvan, Xavier Chavez Cardenas, Hiram Arroyo


Several methods have been utilized to study the prediction of cracking of concrete structural under loading. The finite element analysis is an alternative that shows good results. The aim of this work was the numerical study of the width crack in reinforced concrete beams with dapped ends, these are frequently found in bridge girders and precast concrete construction. Properly restricting cracking is an important aspect of the design in dapped ends, it has been observed that the cracks that exceed the allowable widths are unacceptable in an aggressive environment for reinforcing steel. For simulating the crack width, the discrete crack approach was considered by means of a Cohesive Zone (CZM) Model using a function to represent the crack opening. Two cases of dapped-end were constructed and tested in the laboratory of Structures and Materials of Engineering Institute of UNAM. The first case considers a reinforcement based on hangers as well as on vertical and horizontal ring, the second case considers 50% of the vertical stirrups in the dapped end to the main part of the beam were replaced by an equivalent area (vertically projected) of diagonal bars under. The loading protocol consisted on applying symmetrical loading to reach the service load. The models were performed using the software package ANSYS v. 16.2. The concrete structure was modeled using three-dimensional solid elements SOLID65 capable of cracking in tension and crushing in compression. Drucker-Prager yield surface was used to include the plastic deformations. The reinforcement was introduced with smeared approach. Interface delamination was modeled by traditional fracture mechanics methods such as the nodal release technique adopting softening relationships between tractions and the separations, which in turn introduce a critical fracture energy that is also the energy required to break apart the interface surfaces. This technique is called CZM. The interface surfaces of the materials are represented by a contact elements Surface-to-Surface (CONTA173) with bonded (initial contact). The Mode I dominated bilinear CZM model assumes that the separation of the material interface is dominated by the displacement jump normal to the interface. Furthermore, the opening crack was taken into consideration according to the maximum normal contact stress, the contact gap at the completion of debonding, and the maximum equivalent tangential contact stress. The contact elements were placed in the crack re-entrant corner. To validate the proposed approach, the results obtained with the previous procedure are compared with experimental test. A good correlation between the experimental and numerical Load-Displacement curves was presented, the numerical models also allowed to obtain the load-crack width curves. In these two cases, the proposed model confirms the capability of predicting the maximum crack width, with an error of ± 30 %. Finally, the orientation of the crack is a fundamental for the prediction of crack width. The results regarding the crack width can be considered as good from the practical point view. Load-Displacement curve of the test and the location of the crack were able to obtain favorable results.

Keywords: cohesive zone model, dapped-end beams, discrete crack approach, finite element analysis

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2165 Crack Width Evaluation for Flexural RC Members with Axial Tension

Authors: Sukrit Ghorai


Proof of controlling crack width is a basic condition for securing suitable performance in serviceability limit state. The cracking in concrete can occur at any time from the casting of time to the years after the concrete has been set in place. Most codes struggle with offering procedure for crack width calculation. There is lack in availability of design charts for designers to compute crack width with ease. The focus of the study is to utilize design charts and parametric equations in calculating crack width with minimum error. The paper contains a simplified procedure to calculate crack width for reinforced concrete (RC) sections subjected to bending with axial tensile force following the guidelines of Euro code [DS EN-1992-1-1 & DS EN-1992-1-2]. Numerical examples demonstrate the application of the suggested procedure. Comparison with parallel analytical tools support the validity of result and show the percentage deviation of crack width in both the procedures. The technique is simple, user-friendly and ready to evolve for a greater spectrum of section sizes and materials.

Keywords: concrete structures, crack width calculation, serviceability limit state, structural design, bridge engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
2164 Diagonal Crack Width of RC Members with High Strength Materials

Authors: J. Y. Lee, H. S. Lim, S. H. Yoon


This paper presents an analysis of the diagonal crack widths of RC members with various types of materials by simulating a compatibility-aided truss model. The analytical results indicated that the diagonal crack width was influenced by not only the shear reinforcement ratio but also the yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete. The yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete decreased the diagonal shear crack width of RC members for the same shear force because of the change of shear failure modes. However, regarding the maximum shear crack width at shear failure, the shear crack width of the beam with high strength materials was greater than that of the beam with normal strength materials.

Keywords: diagonal crack width, high strength stirrups, high strength concrete, RC members, shear behavior

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2163 Ruthenium Based Nanoscale Contact Coatings for Magnetically Controlled MEMS Switches

Authors: Sergey M. Karabanov, Dmitry V. Suvorov


Magnetically controlled microelectromechanical system (MCMEMS) switches is one of the directions in the field of micropower switching technology. MCMEMS switches are a promising alternative to Hall sensors and reed switches. The most important parameter for MCMEMS is the contact resistance, which should have a minimum value and is to be stable for the entire duration of service life. The value and stability of the contact resistance is mainly determined by the contact coating material. This paper presents the research results of a contact coating based on nanoscale ruthenium films obtained by electrolytic deposition. As a result of the performed investigations, the deposition modes of ruthenium films are chosen, the regularities of the contact resistance change depending on the number of contact switching, and the coating roughness are established. It is shown that changing the coating roughness makes it possible to minimize the contact resistance.

Keywords: contact resistance, electrode coating, electrolytic deposition, magnetically controlled MEMS

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2162 Numerical Prediction of Effects of Location of Across-the-Width Laminations on Tensile Properties of Rectangular Wires

Authors: Kazeem K. Adewole


This paper presents the finite element analysis numerical investigation of the effects of the location of across-the-width lamination on the tensile properties of rectangular wires for civil engineering applications. FE analysis revealed that the presence of the mid-thickness across-the-width lamination changes the cup and cone fracture shape exhibited by the lamination-free wire to a V-shaped fracture shape with an opening at the bottom/pointed end of the V-shape at the location of the mid-thickness across-the-width lamination. FE analysis also revealed that the presence of the mid-width across-the-thickness lamination changes the cup and cone fracture shape of the lamination-free wire without an opening to a cup and cone fracture shape with an opening at the location of the mid-width across-the-thickness lamination. The FE fracture behaviour prediction approach presented in this work serves as a tool for failure analysis of wires with lamination at different orientations which cannot be conducted experimentally.

Keywords: across-the-width lamination, tensile properties, lamination location, wire

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
2161 Design and Tooth Contact Analysis of Face Gear Drive with Modified Tooth Surface in Helicopter Transmission

Authors: Kazumasa Kawasaki, Isamu Tsuji, Hiroshi Gunbara


A face gear drive is actually composed of a spur or helical pinion that is in mesh with a face gear and transfers power and motion between intersecting or skew axes. Due to the peculiarity of the face gear drive in shunt and confluence drive, it shows potential advantages in the application in the helicopter transmission. The advantages of such applications are the possibility of the split of the torque that appears to be significant where a pinion drives two face gears to provide an accurate division of power and motion. This mechanism greatly reduces the weight and cost compared to conventional design. Therefore, this has been led to revived interest and the face gear drive has been utilized in substitution for bevel and hypoid gears in limited cases. The face gear drive with a spur or a helical pinion is newly designed in order to determine an effective meshing area under the design parameters and specific design dimensions. The face gear has two unique dimensions which control the face width of the tooth, and the outside and inside diameters of the face gear. On the other hand, it is necessary to modify the tooth surfaces of face gear drive in order to avoid the influences of alignment errors on the tooth contact patterns in practical use. In this case, the pinion tooth surfaces are usually modified in the conventional method. However, it is hard to control the tooth contact pattern intentionally and adjust the position of the pinion axis in meshing of the gear pair. Therefore, a method of the modification of the tooth surfaces of the face gear is proposed. Moreover, based on tooth contact analysis, the tooth contact pattern and transmission errors of the designed face gear drive are analyzed, and the influences of alignment errors on the tooth contact patterns and transmission errors are investigated. These results showed that the tooth contact patterns and transmission errors were controllable and the face gear drive which is insensitive to alignment errors can be obtained.

Keywords: alignment error, face gear, gear design, helicopter transmission, tooth contact analysis

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2160 Implementation of Multi-Carrier Pulse Width Modulation Techniques in Multilevel Inverter

Authors: M. Suresh Kumar, K. Ramani


This paper proposed the Multi-Carrier Pulse Width Modulation for the minimization of Total Harmonic Distortion in Cascaded H-Bridge Multi-Level Inverter. Multicarrier Pulse Width Modulation method uses Alternate Position of Disposition scheme to determine the appropriate switching angle to Multi-Level Inverter. In this paper simulation results shows that the validation of Multi-Carrier Pulse Width Modulation method does capably eliminate a great number of precise harmonics and minimize the Total Harmonic Distortion value in output voltage waveform.

Keywords: alternate position, fast fourier analysis, multi-carrier pulse width modulation, multi-level inverter, total harmonic distortion

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2159 Scaling Analysis of the Contact Line and Capillary Interaction Induced by a Floating Tilted Cylinder

Authors: ShiQing Gao, XingYi Zhang, YouHe Zhou


When a floating tilted cylinder pierces a fluid interface, the fulfilment of constant-contact-angle condition along the cylinder results in shift, stretch and distortion of the contact line, thus leading to a capillary interaction. We perform an investigation of the scaling dependence of tilt angle, contact angle, and cylinder radius on the contact line profile and the corresponding capillary interaction by numerical simulation and experiment. Characterized by three characteristic parameters respectively, the dependences for each deformation mode are systematically analyzed. Both the experiment and simulation reveals an invariant structure that is independent of contact angle and radius to characterize the stretch of the contact line for every tilted case. Based on this observation, we then propose a general capillary force scaling law to incredibly grasp all the simulated results, by simply approximating the contact line profile as tilted ellipse.

Keywords: gas-liquid/liquid-fluid interface, colloidal particle, contact line shape, capillary interaction, surface evolver (SE)

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
2158 Optimization of Three-Layer Corrugated Metal Gasket by Using Finite Element Method

Authors: I Made Gatot Karohika, Shigeyuki Haruyama, Ken Kaminishi


In this study, we proposed a three-layer metal gasket with Al, Cu, and SUS304 as the material, respectively. A finite element method was employed to develop simulation solution and design of experiment (DOE). Taguchi method was used to analysis the effect of each parameter design and predicts optimal design of new 25A-size three layer corrugated metal gasket. The L18 orthogonal array of Taguchi method was applied to design experiment matrix for eight factors with three levels. Based on elastic mode and plastic mode, optimum design gasket is gasket with core metal SUS304, surface layer aluminum, p1 = 4.5 mm, p2 = 4.5 mm, p3 = 4 mm, Tg = 1.2 mm, R = 3.5 mm, h = 0.4 mm and Ts = 0.3 mm.

Keywords: contact width, contact stress, layer, metal gasket, corrugated, simulation

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2157 Social Contact Patterns among School-Age Children in Taiwan

Authors: Dih Ling Luh, Zhi Shih You, Szu Chieh Chen


Social contact patterns among school-age children play an important role in the epidemiology of infectious disease. Since many of the greatest threats to human health are spread by direct person-to-person contact, understanding the spread of respiratory pathogens and patterns of human interactions are public health priorities. This study used social contact diaries to compare the number of contacts per day per participant across different flu/non-flu seasons and weekend/weekday. We also present contact properties such as sex, age, masking, setting, frequency, duration, and contact types among school-age children (grades 7–8). The sample size with pair-wise comparisons for the seasons (flu/non-flu) and stratification by location were 54 and 83, respectively. There was no difference in the number of contacts during the flu and non-flu seasons, with averages of 16.3 (S.D. = 12.9) and 14.6 (S.D. = 9.5) people, respectively. Weekdays were associated with 23% and 28% more contacts than weekend days during the non-flu and flu seasons, respectively (p < 0.001) (Wilcoxon signed-rank test).

Keywords: contact patterns, behavior, influenza, social mixing

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2156 Comparison of Flow and Mixing Characteristics between Non-Oscillating and Transversely Oscillating Jet

Authors: Dinku Seyoum Zeleke, Rong Fung Huang, Ching Min Hsu


Comparison of flow and mixing characteristics between non-oscillating jet and transversely oscillating jet was investigated experimentally. Flow evolution process was detected by using high-speed digital camera, and jet spread width was calculated using binary edge detection techniques by using the long-exposure images. The velocity characteristics of transversely oscillating jet induced by a V-shaped fluidic oscillator were measured using single component hot-wire anemometer. The jet spread width of non-oscillating jet was much smaller than the jet exit gap because of behaving natural jet behaviors. However, the transversely oscillating jet has a larger jet spread width, which was associated with the excitation of the flow by self-induced oscillation. As a result, the flow mixing characteristics desperately improved both near-field and far-field. Therefore, this transversely oscillating jet has a better turbulence intensity, entrainment, and spreading width so that it augments flow-mixing characteristics desperately.

Keywords: flow mixing, transversely oscillating, spreading width, velocity characteristics

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2155 Crack Width Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Members under Shrinkage Effect by Pseudo-Discrete Crack Model

Authors: F. J. Ma, A. K. H. Kwan


Crack caused by shrinkage movement of concrete is a serious problem especially when restraint is provided. It may cause severe serviceability and durability problems. The existing prediction methods for crack width of concrete due to shrinkage movement are mainly numerical methods under simplified circumstances, which do not agree with each other. To get a more unified prediction method applicable to more sophisticated circumstances, finite element crack width analysis for shrinkage effect should be developed. However, no existing finite element analysis can be carried out to predict the crack width of concrete due to shrinkage movement because of unsolved reasons of conventional finite element analysis. In this paper, crack width analysis implemented by finite element analysis is presented with pseudo-discrete crack model, which combines traditional smeared crack model and newly proposed crack queuing algorithm. The proposed pseudo-discrete crack model is capable of simulating separate and single crack without adopting discrete crack element. And the improved finite element analysis can successfully simulate the stress redistribution when concrete is cracked, which is crucial for predicting crack width, crack spacing and crack number.

Keywords: crack queuing algorithm, crack width analysis, finite element analysis, shrinkage effect

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2154 The Influence of Contact Models on Discrete Element Modeling of the Ballast Layer Subjected to Cyclic Loading

Authors: Peyman Aela, Lu Zong, Guoqing Jing


Recently, there has been growing interest in numerical modeling of ballast railway tracks. A commonly used mechanistic modeling approach for ballast is the discrete element method (DEM). Up to now, the effects of the contact model on ballast particle behavior have not been precisely examined. In this regard, selecting the appropriate contact model is mainly associated with the particle characteristics and the loading condition. Since ballast is cohesionless material, different contact models, including the linear spring, Hertz-Mindlin, and Hysteretic models, could be used to calculate particle-particle or wall-particle contact forces. Moreover, the simulation of a dynamic test is vital to investigate the effect of damping parameters on the ballast deformation. In this study, ballast box tests were simulated by DEM to examine the influence of different contact models on the mechanical behavior of the ballast layer under cyclic loading. This paper shows how the contact model can affect the deformation and damping of a ballast layer subjected to cyclic loading in a ballast box.

Keywords: ballast, contact model, cyclic loading, DEM

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2153 The Contact Behaviors of Seals Under Combined Normal and Tangential Loading: A Multiscale Finite Element Contact Analysis

Authors: Runliang Wang, Jianhua Liu, Duo Jia, Xiaoyu Ding


The contact between sealing surfaces plays a vital role in guaranteeing the sealing performance of various seals. To date, analyses of sealing structures have rarely considered both structural parameters (macroscale) and surface roughness information (microscale) of sealing surfaces due to the complex modeling process. Meanwhile, most of the contact analyses applied to seals were conducted only under normal loading, which still existssome distance from real loading conditions in engineering. In this paper, a multiscale rough contact model, which took both macrostructural parameters of seals and surface roughness information of sealing surfaces into consideration for the cone-cone seal, was established. By using the finite element method (FEM), the combined normal and tangential loading was applied to the model to simulate the assembly process of the cone-cone seal. The evolution of the contact behaviors during the assembly process, such as the real contact area (RCA), the distribution of contact pressure, and contact status, are studied in detail. The results showed the non-linear relationship between the RCA and the load, which was different from the normal loading cases. In addition, the evolution of the real contact area of cone-cone seals with isotropic and anisotropic rough surfaces are also compared quantitatively.

Keywords: contact mechanics, FEM, randomly rough surface, real contact area, sealing

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2152 Two-Dimensional Seismic Response of Concrete Gravity Dams Including Base Sliding

Authors: Djamel Ouzandja, Boualem Tiliouine


The safety evaluation of the concrete gravity dams subjected to seismic excitations is really very complex as the earthquake response of the concrete gravity dam depends upon its contraction joints with foundation soil. This paper presents the seismic response of concrete gravity dams considering friction contact and welded contact. Friction contact is provided using contact elements. Two-dimensional (2D) finite element model of Oued Fodda concrete gravity dam, located in Chlef at the west of Algeria, is used for this purpose. Linear and nonlinear analyses considering dam-foundation soil interaction are performed using ANSYS software. The reservoir water is modeled as added mass using the Westergaard approach. The Drucker-Prager model is preferred for dam and foundation rock in nonlinear analyses. The surface-to-surface contact elements based on the Coulomb's friction law are used to describe the friction. These contact elements use a target surface and a contact surface to form a contact pair. According to this study, the seismic analysis of concrete gravity dams including base sliding. When the friction contact is considered in joints, the base sliding displacement occurs along the dam-foundation soil contact interface. Besides, the base sliding may generally decrease the principal stresses in the dam.

Keywords: concrete gravity dam, dynamic soil-structure interaction, friction contact, sliding

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2151 Cable Diameter Effect on the Contact Temperature of Power Automotive Connector

Authors: Amine Beloufa, Mohamed Amirat


In the electric vehicle, high power leads to high current; automotive power connector should resist to this high current in order to avoid a serious damage caused by the increase of contact temperature. The purpose of this paper is to analyze experimentally and numerically the effect of the cable diameter variation on the decrease of contact temperature. For this reason, a finite element model was developed to calculate the numerical contact temperature for several cable diameters and several electrical high currents. Also, experimental tests were established in order to validate this numerical model. Results show that the influence of cable diameter on the contact temperature is never neglected.

Keywords: contact temperature, experimental test, finite element, power automotive connector

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2150 Parents-Children Communication in College

Authors: Yin-Chen Liu, Chih-Chun Wu, Mei-He Shih


In this technology society, using ICT(Information and communications technology) to contact each other is very common. Interpersonal ICT communication maintains social support. Therefore, the study investigated the ICT communication between undergraduates and their parents, and gender differences were also detected. The sample size was 1,209 undergraduates, including 624(51.6%) males, 584(48.3%) females, and 1 gender unidentified. In the sample, 91.8% of the sample used phones to contact their fathers and 93.8% of them use phones to contact their mothers. 78.5% and 87.6% of the sample utilized LINE to contact their fathers and mothers respectively. As for Facebook, only 13.4% and 16.5% of the sample would use to contact their fathers and mothers respectively. Aforementioned results implied that the undergraduates nowadays use phone and LINE to contact their parents more common than Facebook. According to results from Pearson correlations, the more undergraduates refused to add their fathers as their Facebook friends, the more they refused to add their mothers as Facebook friends. The possible reasons for it could be that to distinguish different social network such as family and friends. Another possible reason could be avoiding parents’ controlling. It could be why the kids prefer to use phone and LINE to Facebook when contacting their parents. Result from Pearson correlations showed that the more undergraduates actively contact their fathers, the more they actively contact their mothers. On the other hand, the more their fathers actively contact them, the more their mothers actively contact them. Based on the results, this study encourages both parents and undergraduates to contact each other, for any contact between any two family members is associated with contact between other two family members. Obviously, the contact between family members is bidirectional. Future research might want to investigate if this bidirectional contact is associated with the family relation. For gender differences, results from the independent t-tests showed that compared to sons, daughters actively contacted their parents more. Maybe it is because parents keep saying that it is dangerous out there for their daughters, so they build up the habit for their daughters to contact them more. Results from paired sample t-tests showed that the undergraduates agreed that talking to mother on the phone had more satisfaction, felt more intimacy and supported than fathers.

Keywords: family ICT communication, parent-child ICT communication, FACEBOOK and LINE, gender differences

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2149 Effect of Channel Variation of Two-Dimensional Water Tunnel to Study Fluid Dynamics Phenomenon

Authors: Rizka Yunita, Mas Aji Rizki Wijayanto


Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is the solution to explain how fluid dynamics behavior. In this work, we obtain the effect of channel width of two-dimensional fluid visualization. Using a horizontal water tunnel and flowing soap film, we got a visualization of continuous film that can be observe a graphical overview of the flow that occurs on a space or field in which the fluid flow. The horizontal water tunnel we used, divided into three parts, expansion area, parallel area that used to test the data, and contraction area. The width of channel is the boundary of parallel area with the originally width of 7.2 cm, and the variation of channel width we observed is about 1 cm and its times. To compute the velocity, vortex shedding, and other physical parameters of fluid, we used the cyclinder circular as an obstacle to create a von Karman vortex in fluid and analyzed that phenomenon by using Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) method and comparing Reynolds number and Strouhal number from the visualization we got. More than width the channel, the film is more turbulent and have a separation zones that occurs of uncontinuous flowing fluid.

Keywords: flow visualization, width of channel, vortex, Reynolds number, Strouhal number

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2148 Determining the Width and Depths of Cut in Milling on the Basis of a Multi-Dexel Model

Authors: Jens Friedrich, Matthias A. Gebele, Armin Lechler, Alexander Verl


Chatter vibrations and process instabilities are the most important factors limiting the productivity of the milling process. Chatter can leads to damage of the tool, the part or the machine tool. Therefore, the estimation and prediction of the process stability is very important. The process stability depends on the spindle speed, the depth of cut and the width of cut. In milling, the process conditions are defined in the NC-program. While the spindle speed is directly coded in the NC-program, the depth and width of cut are unknown. This paper presents a new simulation based approach for the prediction of the depth and width of cut of a milling process. The prediction is based on a material removal simulation with an analytically represented tool shape and a multi-dexel approach for the work piece. The new calculation method allows the direct estimation of the depth and width of cut, which are the influencing parameters of the process stability, instead of the removed volume as existing approaches do. The knowledge can be used to predict the stability of new, unknown parts. Moreover with an additional vibration sensor, the stability lobe diagram of a milling process can be estimated and improved based on the estimated depth and width of cut.

Keywords: dexel, process stability, material removal, milling

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2147 Energy-Efficient Contact Selection Method for CARD in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks

Authors: Mehdi Assefi, Keihan Hataminezhad


One of the efficient architectures for exploring the resources in wireless ad-hoc networks is contact-based architecture. In this architecture, each node assigns a unique zone for itself and each node keeps all information from inside the zone, as well as some from outside the zone, which is called contact. Reducing the overlap between different zones of a node and its contacts increases its performance, therefore Edge Method (EM) is designed for this purpose. Contacts selected by EM do not have any overlap with their sources, but for choosing the contact a vast amount of information must be transmitted. In this article, we will offer a new protocol for contact selection, which is called PEM. The objective would be reducing the volume of transmitted information, using Non-Uniform Dissemination Probabilistic Protocols. Consumed energy for contact selection is a function of the size of transmitted information between nodes. Therefore, by reducing the content of contact selection message using the PEM will decrease the consumed energy. For evaluation of the PEM we applied the simulation method. Results indicated that PEM consumes less energy compared to EM, and by increasing the number of nodes (level of nodes), performance of PEM will improve in comparison with EM.

Keywords: wireless ad-hoc networks, contact selection, method for CARD, energy-efficient

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2146 Variable vs. Fixed Window Width Code Correlation Reference Waveform Receivers for Multipath Mitigation in Global Navigation Satellite Systems with Binary Offset Carrier and Multiplexed Binary Offset Carrier Signals

Authors: Fahad Alhussein, Huaping Liu


This paper compares the multipath mitigation performance of code correlation reference waveform receivers with variable and fixed window width, for binary offset carrier and multiplexed binary offset carrier signals typically used in global navigation satellite systems. In the variable window width method, such width is iteratively reduced until the distortion on the discriminator with multipath is eliminated. This distortion is measured as the Euclidean distance between the actual discriminator (obtained with the incoming signal), and the local discriminator (generated with a local copy of the signal). The variable window width have shown better performance compared to the fixed window width. In particular, the former yields zero error for all delays for the BOC and MBOC signals considered, while the latter gives rather large nonzero errors for small delays in all cases. Due to its computational simplicity, the variable window width method is perfectly suitable for implementation in low-cost receivers.

Keywords: correlation reference waveform receivers, binary offset carrier, multiplexed binary offset carrier, global navigation satellite systems

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2145 Numerical Study for Improving Performance of Air Cooled Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell on the Cathode Channel

Authors: Mohamed Hassan Gundu, Jaeseung Lee, Muhammad Faizan Chinannai, Hyunchul Ju


In this study, we present the effects of bipolar plate design to control the temperature of the cell and ensure effective water management under an excessive amount of air flow and low humidification conditions in the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The PEMFC model developed and applied to consider a three type of bipolar plate that is defined by ratio of inlet channel width to outlet channel width. Simulation results show that the design which has narrow gas inlet channel and wide gas outlet channel width (wide coolant inlet channel and narrow coolant outlet channel width) make the relative humidity and water concentration increase in the channel and the catalyst layer. Therefore, this study clearly demonstrates that the dehydration phenomenon can be decreased by using design of bipolar plate with narrow gas inlet channel and wide gas outlet channel width (wide coolant inlet channel and narrow coolant outlet channel width).

Keywords: PEMFC, air-cooling, relative humidity, water management, water concentration, oxygen concentration

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2144 A Study of Electric Generation Characteristics for Thin-Film Piezoelectric PbZrTiO₃ Ceramic Plate during the Static and Cyclic Loading Conditions

Authors: Tsukasa Ogawa, Mitsuhiro Okayasu


To examine the generation properties of electric power for piezoelectric (PbZrTiO3) ceramic plates, the electric-power generation characteristics were examined experimentally and numerically during cyclic bending under various loading fixtures with different contact condition, i.e., point and area contact. In the low applied loading condition between 10 and 50 N, increasing the load-contact area on the piezoelectric ceramic led to a nonlinear decrease in the generated voltage. Decreasing contact area, including the point contact, basically enhanced the generated voltage, although the voltage saturated during loading when the contact area is less than ϕ5 mm, which was attributed to the high strain status, resulting in the material failure, i.e., high stress concentration. In this case, severe plastic deformation and the domain switching were dominated failure modes in the ceramic. From this approach, it is clear that the applied load became more larger (50 ~100 N), larger contact area (ϕ10 ~ ϕ20 mm) became advantageous for power generation. Based upon this cyclic loading was carried out to investigate the fatigue characteristics of the piezoelectric ceramic late. For all contact conditions, electric voltage dropped in the beginning of the cyclic loading, although the higher electric generation was stable in the further cyclic loading for the contact area of ϕ10 ~ ϕ20 mm. In constant, further decrement of electric generation occurred for the point contact condition, and the low electric voltage was generated for the larger contact condition.

Keywords: electric power generation, piezoelectric ceramic, lead zirconate titanate ceramic, loading conditions

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2143 Simulation the Stress Distribution of Wheel/Rail at Contact Region

Authors: Norie A. Akeel, Z. Sajuri, A. K. Ariffin


This paper discusses the effect of different loading analysis on crack initiation life of wheel/rail in the contact region. A simulated three dimensional (3D) elasto plastic model of a wheel/rail contact is modeled using the fine mesh technique in the contact region by using Finite Element Method FEM code ANSYS 11.0 software. Different loads of approximately from 70 to 140 KN was applied on the wheel tread through the running surface on the railhead surface to simulate stress distribution (Von Mises) and a life prediction of the crack initiation under rolling contact motion. Stress analysis is achieved and the fatigue life to the rail head surface is calculated numerically by using a multi-axial fatigue life of crack initiation model. All results obtained from the previous researches are compared with this research.

Keywords: FEM, rolling contact, rail track, stress distribution, fatigue life

Procedia PDF Downloads 439
2142 Using Manipulating Urban Layouts to Enhance Ventilation and Thermal Comfort in Street Canyons

Authors: Su Ying-Ming


High density of high rise buildings in urban areas lead to a deteriorative Urban Heat Island Effect, gradually. This study focuses on discussing the relationship between urban layout and ventilation comfort in street canyons. This study takes Songjiang Nanjing Rd. area of Taipei, Taiwan as an example to evaluate the wind environment comfort index by field measurement and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to improve both the quality and quantity of the environment. In this study, different factors including street blocks size, the width of buildings, street width ratio and the direction of the wind were used to discuss the potential of ventilation. The environmental wind field was measured by the environmental testing equipment, Testo 480. Evaluation of blocks sizes, the width of buildings, street width ratio and the direction of the wind was made under the condition of constant floor area with the help of Stimulation CFD to adjust research methods for optimizing regional wind environment. The results of this study showed the width of buildings influences the efficiency of outdoor ventilation; improvement of the efficiency of ventilation with large street width was also shown. The study found that Block width and H/D value and PR value has a close relationship. Furthermore, this study showed a significant relationship between the alteration of street block geometry and outdoor comfortableness.

Keywords: urban ventilation path, ventilation efficiency indices, CFD, building layout

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
2141 Efficient Control of Brushless DC Motors with Pulse Width Modulation

Authors: S. Shahzadi, J. Rizk


This paper describes the pulse width modulated control of a three phase, 4 polar DC brushless motor. To implement this practically the Atmel’s AVR ATmega 328 microcontroller embedded on an Arduino Eleven board is utilized. The microcontroller programming is done in an open source Arduino IDE development environment. The programming logic effectively manipulated a six MOSFET bridge which was used to energize the stator windings as per control requirements. The results obtained showed accurate, precise and efficient pulse width modulated operation. Another advantage offered by this pulse width modulated control was the efficient speed control of the motor. By varying the time intervals between successive commutations, faster energizing of the stator windings was possible thereby leading to quicker rotor alignment with these energized phases and faster revolutions.

Keywords: brushless DC motors, commutation, MOSFET, PWM

Procedia PDF Downloads 423