Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 130

Search results for: petri nets

130 Methods for Business Process Simulation Based on Petri Nets

Authors: K. Shoylekova, K. Grigorova

Abstract:

The Petri nets are the first standard for business process modeling. Most probably, it is one of the core reasons why all new standards created afterwards have to be so reformed as to reach the stage of mapping the new standard onto Petri nets. The paper presents a Business process repository based on a universal database. The repository provides the possibility the data about a given process to be stored in three different ways. Business process repository is developed with regard to the reformation of a given model to a Petri net in order to be easily simulated two different techniques for business process simulation based on Petri nets - Yasper and Woflan are discussed. Their advantages and drawbacks are outlined. The way of simulating business process models, stored in the Business process repository is shown.

Keywords: business process repository, petri nets, simulation, Woflan, Yasper

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
129 A Timed and Colored Petri Nets for Modeling and Verify Cloud System Elasticity

Authors: Walid Louhichi, Mouhebeddine Berrima, Narjes Ben Rajed

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Elasticity is the essential property of cloud computing. As the name suggests, it constitutes the ability of a cloud system to adjust resource provisioning in relation to fluctuating workload. There are two types of elasticity operations, vertical and horizontal. In this work, we are interested in horizontal scaling, which is ensured by two mechanisms; scaling in and scaling out. Following the sizing of the system, we can adopt scaling in in the event of over-supply and scaling out in the event of under-supply. In this paper, we propose a formal model, based on colored and temporized Petri nets, for the modeling of the duplication and the removal of a virtual machine from a server. This model is based on formal Petri Nets modeling language. The proposed models are edited, verified, and simulated with two examples implemented in CPNtools, which is a modeling tool for colored and timed Petri nets.

Keywords: cloud computing, elasticity, elasticity controller, petri nets, scaling in, scaling out

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
128 Application of Neural Petri Net to Electric Control System Fault Diagnosis

Authors: Sadiq J. Abou-Loukh

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The present work deals with implementation of Petri nets, which own the perfect ability of modeling, are used to establish a fault diagnosis model. Fault diagnosis of a control system received considerable attention in the last decades. The formalism of representing neural networks based on Petri nets has been presented. Neural Petri Net (NPN) reasoning model is investigated and developed for the fault diagnosis process of electric control system. The proposed NPN has the characteristics of easy establishment and high efficiency, and fault status within the system can be described clearly when compared with traditional testing methods. The proposed system is tested and the simulation results are given. The implementation explains the advantages of using NPN method and can be used as a guide for different online applications.

Keywords: petri net, neural petri net, electric control system, fault diagnosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
127 Coloured Petri Nets Model for Web Architectures of Web and Database Servers

Authors: Nidhi Gaur, Padmaja Joshi, Vijay Jain, Rajeev Srivastava

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Web application architecture is important to achieve the desired performance for the application. Performance analysis studies are conducted to evaluate existing or planned systems. Web applications are used by hundreds of thousands of users simultaneously, which sometimes increases the risk of server failure in real time operations. We use Coloured Petri Net (CPN), a very powerful tool for modelling dynamic behaviour of a web application system. CPNs extend the vocabulary of ordinary Petri nets and add features that make them suitable for modelling large systems. The major focus of this work is on server side of web applications. The presented work focuses on modelling restructuring aspects, with major focus on concurrency and architecture, using CPN. It also focuses on bringing out the appropriate architecture for web and database servers given the number of concurrent users.

Keywords: coloured Petri Nets (CPNs), concurrent users, per- formance modelling, web application architecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
126 Hybrid Approach for Controlling Inductive Load Fed by a Multicellular Converter by Using the Petri Nets

Authors: I. Bentchikou, A. Tlemcani, F. Boudjema, D. Boukhetala, N. Ould Cherchali

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In this paper, hybrid approach is proposed to regulate the voltages of the floating capacitor multicell inverter and the current in the load. This structure makes it possible to ensure the distribution of the voltage stresses on the various low-voltage semiconductor components connected in series. And as the problem and to keep a constant voltage across the capacitors. Thus, it is necessary to ensure a distribution balanced voltages at the terminals of floating capacitors thanks to Algorithm develop for this, using the Petri nets. So we consider a three-cell converter represented as a hybrid system with eight modes of operation. The operating modes of the system are governed by the control reference voltage and a reference current. Finally, we present the results of the simulation with MATLAB/SIMULINK to illustrate the performances of this approach.

Keywords: hybrid control, floating condensers, multicellular converter, petri nets

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
125 Towards the Reverse Engineering of UML Sequence Diagrams Using Petri Nets

Authors: C. Baidada, M. H. Abidi, A. Jakimi, E. H. El Kinani

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Reverse engineering has become a viable method to measure an existing system and reconstruct the necessary model from tis original. The reverse engineering of behavioral models consists in extracting high-level models that help understand the behavior of existing software systems. In this paper, we propose an approach for the reverse engineering of sequence diagrams from the analysis of execution traces produced dynamically by an object-oriented application using petri nets. Our methods show that this approach can produce state diagrams in reasonable time and suggest that these diagrams are helpful in understanding the behavior of the underlying application. Finally we will discuss approachs and tools that are needed in the process of reverse engineering UML behavior. This work is a substantial step towards providing high-quality methodology for effectiveand efficient reverse engineering of sequence diagram.

Keywords: reverse engineering, UML behavior, sequence diagram, execution traces, petri nets

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
124 Particle Swarm Optimization Based Method for Minimum Initial Marking in Labeled Petri Nets

Authors: Hichem Kmimech, Achref Jabeur Telmoudi, Lotfi Nabli

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The estimation of the initial marking minimum (MIM) is a crucial problem in labeled Petri nets. In the case of multiple choices, the search for the initial marking leads to a problem of optimization of the minimum allocation of resources with two constraints. The first concerns the firing sequence that could be legal on the initial marking with respect to the firing vector. The second deals with the total number of tokens that can be minimal. In this article, the MIM problem is solved by the meta-heuristic particle swarm optimization (PSO). The proposed approach presents the advantages of PSO to satisfy the two previous constraints and find all possible combinations of minimum initial marking with the best computing time. This method, more efficient than conventional ones, has an excellent impact on the resolution of the MIM problem. We prove through a set of definitions, lemmas, and examples, the effectiveness of our approach.

Keywords: marking, production system, labeled Petri nets, particle swarm optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
123 Supervisor Controller-Based Colored Petri Nets for Deadlock Control and Machine Failures in Automated Manufacturing Systems

Authors: Husam Kaid, Abdulrahman Al-Ahmari, Zhiwu Li

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This paper develops a robust deadlock control technique for shared and unreliable resources in automated manufacturing systems (AMSs) based on structural analysis and colored Petri nets, which consists of three steps. The first step involves using strict minimal siphon control to create a live (deadlock-free) system that does not consider resource failure. The second step uses an approach based on colored Petri net, in which all monitors designed in the first step are merged into a single monitor. The third step addresses the deadlock control problems caused by resource failures. For all resource failures in the Petri net model a common recovery subnet based on colored petri net is proposed. The common recovery subnet is added to the obtained system at the second step to make the system reliable. The proposed approach is evaluated using an AMS from the literature. The results show that the proposed approach can be applied to an unreliable complex Petri net model, has a simpler structure and less computational complexity, and can obtain one common recovery subnet to model all resource failures.

Keywords: automated manufacturing system, colored Petri net, deadlocks, siphon

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122 Cloud Support for Scientific Workflow Execution: Prototyping Solutions for Remote Sensing Applications

Authors: Sofiane Bendoukha, Daniel Moldt, Hayat Bendoukha

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Workflow concepts are essential for the development of remote sensing applications. They can help users to manage and process satellite data and execute scientific experiments on distributed resources. The objective of this paper is to introduce an approach for the specification and the execution of complex scientific workflows in Cloud-like environments. The approach strives to support scientists during the modeling, the deployment and the monitoring of their workflows. This work takes advantage from Petri nets and more pointedly the so-called reference nets formalism, which provides a robust modeling/implementation technique. RENEWGRASS is a tool that we implemented and integrated into the Petri nets editor and simulator RENEW. It provides an easy way to support not experienced scientists during the specification of their workflows. It allows both modeling and enactment of image processing workflows from the remote sensing domain. Our case study is related to the implementation of vegetation indecies. We have implemented the Normalized Differences Vegetation Index (NDVI) workflow. Additionally, we explore the integration possibilities of the Cloud technology as a supplementary layer for the deployment of the current implementation. For this purpose, we discuss migration patterns of data and applications and propose an architecture.

Keywords: cloud computing, scientific workflows, petri nets, RENEWGRASS

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
121 Smart Trust Management for Vehicular Networks

Authors: Amel Ltifi, Ahmed Zouinkhi, Med Salim Bouhlel

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Spontaneous networks such as VANET are in general deployed in an open and thus easily accessible environment. Therefore, they are vulnerable to attacks. Trust management is one of a set of security solutions dedicated to this type of networks. Moreover, the strong mobility of the nodes (in the case of VANET) makes the establishment of a trust management system complex. In this paper, we present a concept of ‘Active Vehicle’ which means an autonomous vehicle that is able to make decision about trustworthiness of alert messages transmitted about road accidents. The behavior of an “Active Vehicle” is modeled using Petri Nets.

Keywords: active vehicle, cooperation, petri nets, trust management, VANET

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
120 Modeling and Simulation of Flow Shop Scheduling Problem through Petri Net Tools

Authors: Joselito Medina Marin, Norberto Hernández Romero, Juan Carlos Seck Tuoh Mora, Erick S. Martinez Gomez

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The Flow Shop Scheduling Problem (FSSP) is a typical problem that is faced by production planning managers in Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS). This problem consists in finding the optimal scheduling to carry out a set of jobs, which are processed in a set of machines or shared resources. Moreover, all the jobs are processed in the same machine sequence. As in all the scheduling problems, the makespan can be obtained by drawing the Gantt chart according to the operations order, among other alternatives. On this way, an FMS presenting the FSSP can be modeled by Petri nets (PNs), which are a powerful tool that has been used to model and analyze discrete event systems. Then, the makespan can be obtained by simulating the PN through the token game animation and incidence matrix. In this work, we present an adaptive PN to obtain the makespan of FSSP by applying PN analytical tools.

Keywords: flow-shop scheduling problem, makespan, Petri nets, state equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
119 Modeling of Processes Running in Radical Clusters Formed by Ionizing Radiation with the Help of Continuous Petri Nets and Oxygen Effect

Authors: J. Barilla, M. Lokajíček, H. Pisaková, P. Simr

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The final biological effect of ionizing particles may be influenced strongly by some chemical substances present in cells mainly in the case of low-LET radiation. The influence of oxygen may be particularly important because oxygen is always present in living cells. The corresponding processes are then running mainly in the chemical stage of radio biological mechanism. The radical clusters formed by densely ionizing ends of primary or secondary charged particles are mainly responsible for final biological effect. The damage effect depends then on radical concentration at a time when the cluster meets a DNA molecule. It may be strongly influenced by oxygen present in a cell as oxygen may act in different directions: at small concentration of it the interaction with hydrogen radicals prevails while at higher concentrations additional efficient oxygen radicals may be formed. The basic radical concentration in individual clusters diminishes, which is influenced by two parallel processes: chemical reactions and diffusion of corresponding clusters. The given simultaneous evolution may be modeled and analyzed well with the help of Continuous Petri nets. The influence of other substances present in cells during irradiation may be studied, too. Some results concerning the impact of oxygen content will be presented.

Keywords: radiobiological mechanism, chemical phase, DSB formation, Petri nets

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
118 A Formal Approach for Instructional Design Integrated with Data Visualization for Learning Analytics

Authors: Douglas A. Menezes, Isabel D. Nunes, Ulrich Schiel

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Most Virtual Learning Environments do not provide support mechanisms for the integrated planning, construction and follow-up of Instructional Design supported by Learning Analytic results. The present work aims to present an authoring tool that will be responsible for constructing the structure of an Instructional Design (ID), without the data being altered during the execution of the course. The visual interface aims to present the critical situations present in this ID, serving as a support tool for the course follow-up and possible improvements, which can be made during its execution or in the planning of a new edition of this course. The model for the ID is based on High-Level Petri Nets and the visualization forms are determined by the specific kind of the data generated by an e-course, a population of students generating sequentially dependent data.

Keywords: educational data visualization, high-level petri nets, instructional design, learning analytics

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
117 Reliability Evaluation of a Payment Model in Mobile E-Commerce Using Colored Petri Net

Authors: Abdolghader Pourali, Mohammad V. Malakooti, Muhammad Hussein Yektaie

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A mobile payment system in mobile e-commerce generally have high security so that the user can trust it for doing business deals, sales, paying financial transactions, etc. in the mobile payment system. Since an architecture or payment model in e-commerce only shows the way of interaction and collaboration among users and mortgagers and does not present any evaluation of effectiveness and confidence about financial transactions to stakeholders. In this paper, we try to present a detailed assessment of the reliability of a mobile payment model in the mobile e-commerce using formal models and colored Petri nets. Finally, we demonstrate that the reliability of this system has high value (case study: a secure payment model in mobile commerce.

Keywords: reliability, colored Petri net, assessment, payment models, m-commerce

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
116 A Petri Net Model to Obtain the Throughput of Unreliable Production Lines in the Buffer Allocation Problem

Authors: Joselito Medina-Marin, Alexandr Karelin, Ana Tarasenko, Juan Carlos Seck-Tuoh-Mora, Norberto Hernandez-Romero, Eva Selene Hernandez-Gress

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A production line designer faces with several challenges in manufacturing system design. One of them is the assignment of buffer slots in between every machine of the production line in order to maximize the throughput of the whole line, which is known as the Buffer Allocation Problem (BAP). The BAP is a combinatorial problem that depends on the number of machines and the total number of slots to be distributed on the production line. In this paper, we are proposing a Petri Net (PN) Model to obtain the throughput in unreliable production lines, based on PN mathematical tools and the decomposition method. The results obtained by this methodology are similar to those presented in previous works, and the number of machines is not a hard restriction.

Keywords: buffer allocation problem, Petri Nets, throughput, production lines

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
115 Adapting Tools for Text Monitoring and for Scenario Analysis Related to the Field of Social Disasters

Authors: Svetlana Cojocaru, Mircea Petic, Inga Titchiev

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Humanity faces more and more often with different social disasters, which in turn can generate new accidents and catastrophes. To mitigate their consequences, it is important to obtain early possible signals about the events which are or can occur and to prepare the corresponding scenarios that could be applied. Our research is focused on solving two problems in this domain: identifying signals related that an accident occurred or may occur and mitigation of some consequences of disasters. To solve the first problem, methods of selecting and processing texts from global network Internet are developed. Information in Romanian is of special interest for us. In order to obtain the mentioned tools, we should follow several steps, divided into preparatory stage and processing stage. Throughout the first stage, we manually collected over 724 news articles and classified them into 10 categories of social disasters. It constitutes more than 150 thousand words. Using this information, a controlled vocabulary of more than 300 keywords was elaborated, that will help in the process of classification and identification of the texts related to the field of social disasters. To solve the second problem, the formalism of Petri net has been used. We deal with the problem of inhabitants’ evacuation in useful time. The analysis methods such as reachability or coverability tree and invariants technique to determine dynamic properties of the modeled systems will be used. To perform a case study of properties of extended evacuation system by adding time, the analysis modules of PIPE such as Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets (GSPN) Analysis, Simulation, State Space Analysis, and Invariant Analysis have been used. These modules helped us to obtain the average number of persons situated in the rooms and the other quantitative properties and characteristics related to its dynamics.

Keywords: lexicon of disasters, modelling, Petri nets, text annotation, social disasters

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
114 Modelling of Relocation and Battery Autonomy Problem on Electric Cars Sharing Dynamic by Using Discrete Event Simulation and Petri Net

Authors: Taha Benarbia, Kay W. Axhausen, Anugrah Ilahi

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Electric car sharing system as ecologic transportation increasing in the world. The complexity of managing electric car sharing systems, especially one-way trips and battery autonomy have direct influence to on supply and demand of system. One must be able to precisely model the demand and supply of these systems to better operate electric car sharing and estimate its effect on mobility management and the accessibility that it provides in urban areas. In this context, our work focus to develop performances optimization model of the system based on discrete event simulation and stochastic Petri net. The objective is to search optimal decisions and management parameters of the system in order to fulfil at best demand while minimizing undesirable situations. In this paper, we present new model of electric cars sharing with relocation based on monitoring system. The proposed approach also help to precise the influence of battery charging level on the behaviour of system as important decision parameter of this complex and dynamical system.

Keywords: electric car-sharing systems, smart mobility, Petri nets modelling, discrete event simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
113 Vulnerability Assessment of Healthcare Interdependent Critical Infrastructure Coloured Petri Net Model

Authors: N. Nivedita, S. Durbha

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Critical Infrastructure (CI) consists of services and technological networks such as healthcare, transport, water supply, electricity supply, information technology etc. These systems are necessary for the well-being and to maintain effective functioning of society. Critical Infrastructures can be represented as nodes in a network where they are connected through a set of links depicting the logical relationship among them; these nodes are interdependent on each other and interact with each at other at various levels, such that the state of each infrastructure influences or is correlated to the state of another. Disruption in the service of one infrastructure nodes of the network during a disaster would lead to cascading and escalating disruptions across other infrastructures nodes in the network. The operation of Healthcare Infrastructure is one such Critical Infrastructure that depends upon a complex interdependent network of other Critical Infrastructure, and during disasters it is very vital for the Healthcare Infrastructure to be protected, accessible and prepared for a mass casualty. To reduce the consequences of a disaster on the Critical Infrastructure and to ensure a resilient Critical Health Infrastructure network, knowledge, understanding, modeling, and analyzing the inter-dependencies between the infrastructures is required. The paper would present inter-dependencies related to Healthcare Critical Infrastructure based on Hierarchical Coloured Petri Nets modeling approach, given a flood scenario as the disaster which would disrupt the infrastructure nodes. The model properties are being analyzed for the various state changes which occur when there is a disruption or damage to any of the Critical Infrastructure. The failure probabilities for the failure risk of interconnected systems are calculated by deriving a reachability graph, which is later mapped to a Markov chain. By analytically solving and analyzing the Markov chain, the overall vulnerability of the Healthcare CI HCPN model is demonstrated. The entire model would be integrated with Geographic information-based decision support system to visualize the dynamic behavior of the interdependency of the Healthcare and related CI network in a geographically based environment.

Keywords: critical infrastructure interdependency, hierarchical coloured petrinet, healthcare critical infrastructure, Petri Nets, Markov chain

Procedia PDF Downloads 429
112 Petri Net Modeling and Simulation of a Call-Taxi System

Authors: T. Godwin

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A call-taxi system is a type of taxi service where a taxi could be requested through a phone call or mobile app. A schematic functioning of a call-taxi system is modeled using Petri net, which provides the necessary conditions for a taxi to be assigned by a dispatcher to pick a customer as well as the conditions for the taxi to be released by the customer. A Petri net is a graphical modeling tool used to understand sequences, concurrences, and confluences of activities in the working of discrete event systems. It uses tokens on a directed bipartite multi-graph to simulate the activities of a system. The Petri net model is translated into a simulation model and a call-taxi system is simulated. The simulation model helps in evaluating the operation of a call-taxi system based on the fleet size as well as the operating policies for call-taxi assignment and empty call-taxi repositioning. The developed Petri net based simulation model can be used to decide the fleet size as well as the call-taxi assignment policies for a call-taxi system.

Keywords: call-taxi, discrete event system, petri net, simulation modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
111 Research on Reflectors for Detecting Fishing Nets with Synthetic Aperture Radar Satellites

Authors: Toshiyuki Miyazaki, Fumihiro Takahashi, Takashi Hosokawa

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Fishing nets and floating buoys used in fishing can be washed away by typhoons and storms. The spilled fishing nets become marine debris and hinder the navigation of ships. In this study, we report a method of attaching a retroreflective structure to afloat in order to discover fishing nets using SAR satellites. We prototyped an omnidirectional (all-around) corner reflector as a retroreflective structure that can be mounted on a float and analyzed its reflection characteristics. As a result, it was clarified that the reflection could be sufficiently larger than the backscattering of the sea surface. In order to further improve the performance, we worked on the design and trial production of the Luneberg lens.

Keywords: retroreflective structure, spherical corner reflector, Luneberg lens, SAR satellite, maritime floating buoy

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110 Effects of Net Height of Crab Entangling Nets on the Capture of Targeted Economically Important Portunid Species and Non-Target Species

Authors: Rizalyn Gonzales, Harold Monteclaro

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This study determined the effects of net height on the capture performance of crab entangling nets. Fishing trials were conducted using nets with the following net heights: 1) 12 meshes down (MD), 2) 24 MD and 3) 50 MD. A total of 1,290 individuals comprising of 87 species belonging to 53 families were caught. One-way ANOVA showed that net height significantly affects various catch parameters such as catch per unit effort (CPUE) of the total and target catch, amount of non-target catch, sizes and species richness. The use of appropriate net height is a potential technical measure for a selective but still efficient crab entangling net fishery. Lower net height significantly reduced non-target catch up to 70%. While lower nets decreased the CPUE of target catch such as blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus and christian crab Charybdis feriatus up to 65% in 12 MD, catch in 24 MD was not significantly different with that in 50 MD. The use of 24 MD also resulted in capturing larger-sized Portunus pelagicus. Catch species richness decreased up to 58% in lower nets. These results are useful to fisheries managers and government institutions to develop or improve existing regulations towards a sustainable crab fishery particularly blue swimming crabs.

Keywords: blue swimming crabs, catch per unit effort, crab entangling nets, net height

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
109 Performance and Availability Analysis of 2N Redundancy Models

Authors: Yutae Lee

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In this paper, we consider the performance and availability of a redundancy model. The redundancy model is a form of resilience that ensures service availability in the event of component failure. This paper considers a 2N redundancy model. In the model there are at most one active service unit and at most one standby service unit. The active one is providing the service while the standby is prepared to take over the active role when the active fails. We design our analysis model using Stochastic Reward Nets, and then evaluate the performance and availability of 2N redundancy model using Stochastic Petri Net Package (SPNP).

Keywords: availability, performance, stochastic reward net, 2N redundancy

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
108 Using Computational Fluid Dynamics to Model and Design a Preventative Application for Strong Wind

Authors: Ming-Hwi Yao, Su-Szu Yang

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Typhoons are one of the major types of disasters that affect Taiwan each year and that cause severe damage to agriculture. Indeed, the damage exacted during a typical typhoon season can be up to $1 billion, and is responsible for nearly 75% of yearly agricultural losses. However, there is no consensus on how to reduce the damage caused by the strong winds and heavy precipitation engendered by typhoons. One suggestion is the use of windbreak nets, which are a low-cost and easy-to-use disaster mitigation strategy for crop production. In the present study, we conducted an evaluation to determine the optimal conditions of a windbreak net by using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. This model may be used as a reference for crop protection. The results showed that CFD simulation validated windbreak nets of different mesh sizes and heights in the experimental area; thus, CFD is an efficient tool for evaluating the effectiveness of windbreak nets. Specifically, the effective wind protection length and height were found to be 6 and 1.3 times the length and height of the windbreak net, respectively. During a real typhoon, maximum wind gusts of 18 m s-1 can be reduced to 4 m s-1 by using a windbreak net that has a 70% blocking rate. In short, windbreak nets are significantly effective in protecting typhoon-affected areas.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, disaster, typhoon, windbreak net

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
107 Behavior Consistency Analysis for Workflow Nets Based on Branching Processes

Authors: Wang Mimi, Jiang Changjun, Liu Guanjun, Fang Xianwen

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Loop structure often appears in the business process modeling, analyzing the consistency of corresponding workflow net models containing loop structure is a problem, the existing behavior consistency methods cannot analyze effectively the process models with the loop structure. In the paper, by analyzing five kinds of behavior relations of transitions, a three-dimensional figure and two-dimensional behavior relation matrix are proposed. Based on this, analysis method of behavior consistency of business process based on Petri net branching processes is proposed. Finally, an example is given out, which shows the method is effective.

Keywords: workflow net, behavior consistency measures, loop, branching process

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
106 How to Reach Net Zero Emissions? On the Permissibility of Negative Emission Technologies and the Danger of Moral Hazards

Authors: Hanna Schübel, Ivo Wallimann-Helmer

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In order to reach the goal of the Paris Agreement to not overshoot 1.5°C of warming above pre-industrial levels, various countries including the UK and Switzerland have committed themselves to net zero emissions by 2050. The employment of negative emission technologies (NETs) is very likely going to be necessary for meeting these national objectives as well as other internationally agreed climate targets. NETs are methods of removing carbon from the atmosphere and are thus a means for addressing climate change. They range from afforestation to technological measures such as direct air capture and carbon storage (DACCS), where CO2 is captured from the air and stored underground. As all so-called geoengineering technologies, the development and deployment of NETs are often subject to moral hazard arguments. As these technologies could be perceived as an alternative to mitigation efforts, so the argument goes, they are potentially a dangerous distraction from the main target of mitigating emissions. We think that this is a dangerous argument to make as it may hinder the development of NETs which are an essential element of net zero emission targets. In this paper we argue that the moral hazard argument is only problematic if we do not reflect upon which levels of emissions are at stake in order to meet net zero emissions. In response to the moral hazard argument we develop an account of which levels of emissions in given societies should be mitigated and not be the target of NETs and which levels of emissions can legitimately be a target of NETs. For this purpose, we define four different levels of emissions: the current level of individual emissions, the level individuals emit in order to appear in public without shame, the level of a fair share of individual emissions in the global budget, and finally the baseline of net zero emissions. At each level of emissions there are different subjects to be assigned responsibilities if societies and/or individuals are committed to the target of net zero emissions. We argue that all emissions within one’s fair share do not demand individual mitigation efforts. The same holds with regard to individuals and the baseline level of emissions necessary to appear in public in their societies without shame. Individuals are only under duty to reduce their emissions if they exceed this baseline level. This is different for whole societies. Societies demanding more emissions to appear in public without shame than the individual fair share are under duty to foster emission reductions and are not legitimate to reduce by introducing NETs. NETs are legitimate for reducing emissions only below the level of fair shares and for reaching net zero emissions. Since access to NETs to achieve net zero emissions demands technology not affordable to individuals there are also no full individual responsibilities to achieve net zero emissions. This is mainly a responsibility of societies as a whole.

Keywords: climate change, mitigation, moral hazard, negative emission technologies, responsibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
105 Neural Nets Based Approach for 2-Cells Power Converter Control

Authors: Kamel Laidi, Khelifa Benmansour, Ouahid Bouchhida

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Neural networks-based approach for 2-cells serial converter has been developed and implemented. The approach is based on a behavioural description of the different operating modes of the converter. Each operating mode represents a well-defined configuration, and for which is matched an operating zone satisfying given invariance conditions, depending on the capacitors' voltages and the load current of the converter. For each mode, a control vector whose components are the control signals to be applied to the converter switches has been associated. Therefore, the problem is reduced to a classification task of the different operating modes of the converter. The artificial neural nets-based approach, which constitutes a powerful tool for this kind of task, has been adopted and implemented. The application to a 2-cells chopper has allowed ensuring efficient and robust control of the load current and a high capacitors voltages balancing.

Keywords: neural nets, control, multicellular converters, 2-cells chopper

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
104 Character and Evolution of Electronic Waste: A Technologically Developing Country's Experience

Authors: Karen C. Olufokunbi, Odetunji A. Odejobi

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The discourse of this paper is the examination of the generation, accumulation and growth of e-waste in a developing country. Images and other data about computer e-waste were collected using a digital camera, 290 copies of questionnaire and three structured interviews using Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-Ife, Nigeria environment as a case study. The numerical data were analysed using R data analysis and process tool. Automata-based techniques and Petri net modeling tool were used to design and simulate a computational model for the recovery of saleable materials from e-waste. The R analysis showed that at a 95 percent confidence level, the computer equipment that will be disposed by 2020 will be 417 units. Compared to the 800 units in circulation in 2014, 50 percent of personal computer components will become e-waste. This indicates that personal computer components were in high demand due to their low costs and will be disposed more rapidly when replaced by new computer equipment Also, 57 percent of the respondents discarded their computer e-waste by throwing it into the garbage bin or by dumping it. The simulated model using Coloured Petri net modelling tool for the process showed that the e-waste dynamics is a forward sequential process in the form of a pipeline meaning that an e-waste recovery of saleable materials process occurs in identifiable discrete stages indicating that e-waste will continue to accumulate and grow in volume with time.

Keywords: Coloured Petri net, computational modelling, electronic waste, electronic waste process dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
103 Execution Time Optimization of Workflow Network with Activity Lead-Time

Authors: Xiaoping Qiu, Binci You, Yue Hu

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The executive time of the workflow network has an important effect on the efficiency of the business process. In this paper, the activity executive time is divided into the service time and the waiting time, then the lead time can be extracted from the waiting time. The executive time formulas of the three basic structures in the workflow network are deduced based on the activity lead time. Taken the process of e-commerce logistics as an example, insert appropriate lead time for key activities by using Petri net, and the executive time optimization model is built to minimize the waiting time with the time-cost constraints. Then the solution program-using VC++6.0 is compiled to get the optimal solution, which reduces the waiting time of key activities in the workflow, and verifies the role of lead time in the timeliness of e-commerce logistics.

Keywords: electronic business, execution time, lead time, optimization model, petri net, time workflow network

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102 Acute and Chronic Effect of Biopesticide on Infestation of Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) on the Culantro Cultivation

Authors: U. Pangnakorn, S. Chuenchooklin

Abstract:

Acute and chronic effects of biopesticide from entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema thailandensis n. sp.), bacteria ISR (Pseudomonas fluorescens), wood vinegar and fermented organic substances from plants: (neem Azadirachta indica + citronella grass Cymbopogon nardus Rendle + bitter bush Chromolaena odorata L.) were tested on culantro (Eryngium foetidum L.). The biopesticide was investigated for infestation reduction of the major insect pest whitefly (Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)). The experimental plots were located at a farm in Nakhon Sawan Province, Thailand. This study was undertaken during the drought season (late November to May). Effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated in terms of acute and chronic effect. The populations of whitefly were observed and recorded every hour up to 3 hours with insect nets and yellow sticky traps after the treatments were applied for the acute effect. The results showed that bacteria ISR had the highest effectiveness for controlling whitefly infestation on culantro; the whitefly numbers on insect nets were 12.5, 10.0 and 7.5 after 1 hr, 2 hr, and 3 hr, respectively while the whitefly on yellow sticky traps showed 15.0, 10.0 and 10.0 after 1 hr, 2 hr, and 3 hr, respectively. For chronic effect, the whitefly was continuously collected and recorded at weekly intervals; the result showed that treatment of bacteria ISR found the average whitefly numbers only 8.06 and 11.0 on insect nets and sticky traps respectively, followed by treatment of nematode where the average whitefly was 9.87 and 11.43 on the insect nets and sticky traps, respectively. In addition, the minor insect pests were also observed and collected. The biopesticide influenced the reduction number of minor insect pests (red spider mites, beet armyworm, short-horned grasshopper, pygmy locusts, etc.) with only a few found on the culantro cultivation.

Keywords: whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius), culantro (Eryngium foetidum L.), acute and chronic effect, entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema thailandensis n. sp.), bacteria ISR (Pseudomonas fluorescens)

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101 Status of Artisanal Fishery in Libya

Authors: Esmail Shakman, Khaled Etyab, Ibraheim Taboni, Mohamed Et-wail, Abdallah Ben Abdallah

Abstract:

This study was carried out along the Libyan coast during the period from 1st February to 31st March 2013. More than 120 landing sites have been visited in order to investigate their status and fishing activities. The study found that more than 91% of the landing sites were permanent and around 8% were seasonal. The type of landing sites were mostly harbors (42.86%), 31.75% protected bays and 25.4% are open beach. However, seven types of fishing boats were observed; flouka type was the largest percentage (70.06%), then 18.14% for mator, 3.28% for lampara, 0.41% for Tarrad, Gayag (0.16%), 5.97 for Daghesa, and 1.98% for batah. Moreover, the majority of them were concentrated in the western region of the country. The most common used fishing gearsare the trammel nets about 80%, which are used by flouka, mator, Tarrad, and batah. The using of trammel nets rely on the fishing season, fishes size and the target fish species. The other fishing gears are also used but occasionally.

Keywords: fishery, South Mediterranean, landing sites, marine biology

Procedia PDF Downloads 405