Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3198

Search results for: free vibration

3198 Formulating the Stochastic Finite Elements for Free Vibration Analysis of Plates with Variable Elastic Modulus

Authors: Mojtaba Aghamiri Esfahani, Mohammad Karkon, Seyed Majid Hosseini Nezhad, Reza Hosseini-Ara


In this study, the effect of uncertainty in elastic modulus of a plate on free vibration response is investigated. For this purpose, the elastic modulus of the plate is modeled as stochastic variable with normal distribution. Moreover, the distance autocorrelation function is used for stochastic field. Then, by applying the finite element method and Monte Carlo simulation, stochastic finite element relations are extracted. Finally, with a numerical test, the effect of uncertainty in the elastic modulus on free vibration response of a plate is studied. The results show that the effect of uncertainty in elastic modulus of the plate cannot play an important role on the free vibration response.

Keywords: stochastic finite elements, plate bending, free vibration, Monte Carlo, Neumann expansion method.

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3197 The Free Vibration Analysis of Honeycomb Sandwich Beam using 3D and Continuum Model

Authors: Gürkan Şakar, Fevzi Çakmak Bolat


In this study free vibration analysis of aluminum honeycomb sandwich structures were carried out experimentally and numerically. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of sandwich structures fabricated with different configurations for clamped-free boundary condition were determined. The effects of lower and upper face sheet thickness, the core material thickness, cell diameter, cell angle and foil thickness on the vibration characteristics were examined. The numerical studies were performed with ANSYS package. While the sandwich structures were modeled in ANSYS the continuum model was used. Later, the numerical results were compared with the experimental findings.

Keywords: sandwich structure, free vibration, numeric analysis, 3D model, continuum model

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
3196 Free Vibration of Functionally Graded Smart Beams Based on the First Order Shear Deformation Theory

Authors: A. R. Nezamabadi, M. Veiskarami


This paper studies free vibration of simply supported functionally graded beams with piezoelectric layers based on the first order shear deformation theory. The Young's modulus of beam is assumed to be graded continuously across the beam thickness. The governing equation is established. Resulting equation is solved using the Euler's equation. The effects of the constituent volume fractions, the influences of applied voltage on the vibration frequency are presented. To investigate the accuracy of the present analysis, a compression study is carried out with a known data.

Keywords: mechanical buckling, functionally graded beam, first order shear deformation theory, free vibration

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3195 Free Vibration and Buckling of Rectangular Plates under Nonuniform In-Plane Edge Shear Loads

Authors: T. H. Young, Y. J. Tsai


A method for determining the stress distribution of a rectangular plate subjected to two pairs of arbitrarily distributed in-plane edge shear loads is proposed, and the free vibration and buckling of such a rectangular plate are investigated in this work.  The method utilizes two stress functions to synthesize the stress-resultant field of the plate with each of the stress functions satisfying the biharmonic compatibility equation. The sum of stress-resultant fields due to these two stress functions satisfies the boundary conditions at the edges of the plate, from which these two stress functions are determined. Then, the free vibration and buckling of the rectangular plate are investigated by the Galerkin method. Numerical results obtained by this work are compared with those appeared in the literature, and good agreements are observed.

Keywords: stress analysis, free vibration, plate buckling, nonuniform in-plane edge shear

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3194 Large Amplitude Free Vibration of a Very Sag Marine Cable

Authors: O. Punjarat, S. Chucheepsakul, T. Phanyasahachart


This paper focuses on a variational formulation of large amplitude free vibration behavior of a very sag marine cable. In the static equilibrium state, the marine cable has a very large sag configuration. In the motion state, the marine cable is assumed to vibrate in in-plane motion with large amplitude from the static equilibrium position. The total virtual work-energy of the marine cable at the dynamic state is formulated which involves the virtual strain energy due to axial deformation, the virtual work done by effective weight, and the inertia forces. The equations of motion for the large amplitude free vibration of marine cable are obtained by taking into account the difference between the Euler’s equation in the static state and the displaced state. Based on the Galerkin finite element procedure, the linear and nonlinear stiffness matrices, and mass matrices of the marine cable are obtained and the eigenvalue problem is solved. The natural frequency spectrum and the large amplitude free vibration behavior of marine cable are presented.

Keywords: axial deformation, free vibration, Galerkin finite element method, large amplitude, variational method

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3193 Prediction of the Torsional Vibration Characteristics of a Rotor-Shaft System Using Its Scale Model and Scaling Laws

Authors: Jia-Jang Wu


This paper presents the scaling laws that provide the criteria of geometry and dynamic similitude between the full-size rotor-shaft system and its scale model, and can be used to predict the torsional vibration characteristics of the full-size rotor-shaft system by manipulating the corresponding data of its scale model. The scaling factors, which play fundamental roles in predicting the geometry and dynamic relationships between the full-size rotor-shaft system and its scale model, for torsional free vibration problems between scale and full-size rotor-shaft systems are firstly obtained from the equation of motion of torsional free vibration. Then, the scaling factor of external force (i.e., torque) required for the torsional forced vibration problems is determined based on the Newton’s second law. Numerical results show that the torsional free and forced vibration characteristics of a full-size rotor-shaft system can be accurately predicted from those of its scale models by using the foregoing scaling factors. For this reason, it is believed that the presented approach will be significant for investigating the relevant phenomenon in the scale model tests.

Keywords: torsional vibration, full-size model, scale model, scaling laws

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3192 Vibration and Parametric Instability Analysis of Delaminated Composite Beams

Authors: A. Szekrényes


This paper revisits the free vibration problem of delaminated composite beams. It is shown that during the vibration of composite beams the delaminated parts are subjected to the parametric excitation. This can lead to the dynamic buckling during the motion of the structure. The equation of motion includes time-dependent stiffness and so it leads to a system of Mathieu-Hill differential equations. The free vibration analysis of beams is carried out in the usual way by using beam finite elements. The dynamic buckling problem is investigated locally, and the critical buckling forces are determined by the modified harmonic balance method by using an imposed time function of the motion. The stability diagrams are created, and the numerical predictions are compared to experimental results. The most important findings are the critical amplitudes at which delamination buckling takes place, the stability diagrams representing the instability of the system, and the realistic mode shape prediction in contrast with the unrealistic results of models available in the literature.

Keywords: delamination, free vibration, parametric excitation, sweep excitation

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3191 Effect of Infill’s in Influencing the Dynamic Responses of Multistoried Structures

Authors: Rahmathulla Noufal E.


Investigating the dynamic responses of high rise structures under the effect of siesmic ground motion is extremely important for the proper analysis and design of multitoried structures. Since the presence of infilled walls strongly influences the behaviour of frame systems in multistoried buildings, there is an increased need for developing guidelines for the analysis and design of infilled frames under the effect of dynamic loads for safe and proper design of buildings. In this manuscript, we evaluate the natural frequencies and natural periods of single bay single storey frames considering the effect of infill walls by using the Eigen value analysis and validating with SAP 2000 (free vibration analysis). Various parameters obtained from the diagonal strut model followed for the free vibration analysis is then compared with the Finite Element model, where infill is modeled as shell elements (four noded). We also evaluated the effect of various parameters on the natural periods of vibration obtained by free vibration analysis in SAP 2000 comparing them with those obtained by the empirical expressions presented in I.S. 1893(Part I)-2002.

Keywords: infilled frame, eigen value analysis, free vibration analysis, diagonal strut model, finite element model, SAP 2000, natural period

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3190 A Closed-Form Solution and Comparison for a One-Dimensional Orthorhombic Quasicrystal and Crystal Plate

Authors: Arpit Bhardwaj, Koushik Roy


The work includes derivation of the exact-closed form solution for simply supported quasicrystal and crystal plates by using propagator matrix method under surface loading and free vibration. As a numerical example a quasicrystal and a crystal plate are considered, and after investigation, the variation of displacement and stress fields along the thickness of these two plates are presented. Further, it includes analyzing the displacement and stress fields for two plates having two different stacking arrangement, i.e., QuasiCrystal/Crystal/QuasiCrystal and Crystal/QuasiCrystal/Crystal and comparing their results. This will not only tell us the change in the behavior of displacement and stress fields in two different materials but also how these get changed after trying their different combinations. For the free vibration case, Crystal and Quasicrystal plates along with their different stacking arrangements are considered, and displacements are plotted in all directions for different Mode Shapes.

Keywords: free vibration, multilayered plates, surface loading, quasicrystals

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3189 Large Amplitude Vibration of Sandwich Beam

Authors: Youssef Abdelli, Rachid Nasri


The large amplitude free vibration analysis of three-layered symmetric sandwich beams is carried out using two different approaches. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations of motion in free natural vibration are derived using Hamilton's principle. The formulation leads to two nonlinear partial differential equations that are coupled both in axial and binding deformations. In the first approach, the method of multiple scales is applied directly to the governing equation that is a nonlinear partial differential equation. In the second approach, we discretize the governing equation by using Galerkin's procedure and then apply the shooting method to the obtained ordinary differential equations. In order to check the validity of the solutions obtained by the two approaches, they are compared with the solutions obtained by two approaches; they are compared with the solutions obtained numerically by the finite difference method.

Keywords: finite difference method, large amplitude vibration, multiple scales, nonlinear vibration

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3188 The Effect of Damper Attachment on Tennis Racket Vibration: A Simulation Study

Authors: Kuangyou B. Cheng


Tennis is among the most popular sports worldwide. During ball-racket impact, substantial vibration transmitted to the hand/arm may be the cause of “tennis elbow”. Although it is common for athletes to attach a “vibration damper” to the spring-bed, the effect remains unclear. To avoid subjective factors and errors in data recording, the effect of damper attachment on racket handle end vibration was investigated with computer simulation. The tennis racket was modeled as a beam with free-free ends (similar to loosely holding the racket). Finite difference method with 40 segments was used to simulate ball-racket impact response. The effect of attaching a damper was modeled as having a segment with increased mass. It was found that the damper has the largest effect when installed at the spring-bed center. However, this is not a practical location due to interference with ball-racket impact. Vibration amplitude changed very slightly when the damper was near the top or bottom of the spring-bed. The damper works only slightly better at the bottom than at the top of the spring-bed. In addition, heavier dampers work better than lighter ones. These simulation results were comparable with experimental recordings in which the selection of damper locations was restricted by ball impact locations. It was concluded that mathematical model simulations were able to objectively investigate the effect of damper attachment on racket vibration. In addition, with very slight difference in grip end vibration amplitude when the damper was attached at the top or bottom of the spring-bed, whether the effect can really be felt by athletes is questionable.

Keywords: finite difference, impact, modeling, vibration amplitude

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
3187 Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Engesser-Timoshenko Beams Subjected to Axial Load Located on a Continuous Elastic Foundation

Authors: M. Karami Khorramabadi, A. R. Nezamabadi


This paper studies free vibration of functionally graded beams Subjected to Axial Load that is simply supported at both ends lies on a continuous elastic foundation. The displacement field of beam is assumed based on Engesser-Timoshenko beam theory. The Young's modulus of beam is assumed to be graded continuously across the beam thickness. Applying the Hamilton's principle, the governing equation is established. Resulting equation is solved using the Euler's Equation. The effects of the constituent volume fractions and foundation coefficient on the vibration frequency are presented. To investigate the accuracy of the present analysis, a compression study is carried out with a known data.

Keywords: functionally graded beam, free vibration, elastic foundation, Engesser-Timoshenko beam theory

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3186 Experimental Modal Analysis of a Suspended Composite Beam

Authors: First A. Lahmar Lahbib, Second B. Abdeldjebar Rabiâ, Third C. Moudden B, forth D. Missoum L


Vibration tests are used to identify the elasticity modulus in two directions. This strategy is applied to composite materials glass / polyester. Experimental results made on a specimen in free vibration showed the efficiency of this method. Obtained results were validated by a comparison to results stemming from static tests.

Keywords: beam, characterization, composite, elasticity modulus, vibration.

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3185 Theoretical-Experimental Investigations on Free Vibration of Glass Fiber/Polyester Composite Conical Shells Containing Fluid

Authors: Tran Ich Thinh, Nguyen Manh Cuong


Free vibrations of partial fluid-filled composite truncated conical shells are investigated using the Dynamic Stiffness Method (DSM) or Continuous Element Method (CEM) based on the First Order Shear Deformation Theory (FSDT) and non-viscous incompressible fluid equations. Numerical examples are given for analyzing natural frequencies and harmonic responses of clamped-free conical shells partially and completely filled with fluid. To compare with the theoretical results, detailed experimental results have been obtained on the free vibration of a clamped-free conical shells partially filled with water by using a multi-vibration measuring machine (DEWEBOOK-DASYLab 5.61.10). Three glass fiber/polyester composite truncated cones with the radius of the larger end 285 mm, thickness 2 mm, and the cone lengths along the generators are 285 mm, 427.5 mm and 570 mm with the semi-vertex angles 27, 14 and 9 degrees respectively were used, and the filling ratio of the contained water was 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0. The results calculated by proposed computational model for studied composite conical shells are in good agreement with experiments. Obtained results indicate that the fluid filling can reduce significantly the natural frequencies of composite conical shells. Parametric studies including circumferential wave number, fluid depth and cone angles are carried out.

Keywords: dynamic stiffness method, experimental study, free vibration, fluid-shell interaction, glass fiber/polyester composite conical shell

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3184 Vibration Analysis of a Solar Powered UAV

Authors: Kevin Anderson, Sukhwinder Singh Sandhu, Nouh Anies, Shilpa Ravichandra, Steven Dobbs, Donald Edberg


This paper presents the results of a Finite Element based vibration analysis of a solar powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The purpose of this paper was to quantify the free vibration, forced vibration response due to differing point inputs in order to mimic the vibration induced by actuators (magnet in coil generators) used to aid in the flight of the UAV. A Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) study was performed in order to ascertain pertinent deigns stresses and deflections as well as aerodynamic parameters of the UAV airfoil. The 10 ft span airfoil is modeled using Mylar as the primary material. Results show that the free mode in bending is 4.8 Hz while the first forced bending mode is in the range of 16.2 to 16.7 Hz depending on the location of excitation. The free torsional bending mode is 28.3 Hz, and the first forced torsional mode is in the range of 26.4 to 27.8 Hz, depending on the location of excitation. The FSI results predict the coefficients of aerodynamic drag and lift of 0.0052 and 0.077, respectively, which matches hand-calculations used to validate the Finite Element based results. FSI based maximum von Mises stresses and deflections were found to be 0.282 MPa and 3.4 mm, respectively. Dynamic pressures on the airfoil range of 1.04 to 1.23 kPa corresponding to velocity magnitudes in the range of 22 to 66 m/s.

Keywords: ANSYS, finite element, FSI, UAV, vibrations

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3183 Geometrically Non-Linear Axisymmetric Free Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Annular Plates

Authors: Boutahar Lhoucine, El Bikri Khalid, Benamar Rhali


In this paper, the non-linear free axisymmetric vibration of a thin annular plate made of functionally graded material (FGM) has been studied by using the energy method and a multimode approach. FGM properties vary continuously as well as non-homogeneity through the thickness direction of the plate. The theoretical model is based on the classical plate theory and the Von Kármán geometrical non-linearity assumptions. An approximation has been adopted in the present work consisting of neglecting the in-plane deformation in the formulation. Hamilton’s principle is used to derive the governing equation of motion. The problem is solved by a numerical iterative procedure in order to obtain more accurate results for vibration amplitudes up to 1.5 times the plate thickness. The numerical results are given for the first axisymmetric non-linear mode shape for a wide range of vibration amplitudes and they are presented either in tabular form or in graphical form to show the effect that the vibration amplitude and the variation in material properties have significant effects on the frequencies and the bending stresses in large amplitude vibration of the functionally graded annular plate.

Keywords: non-linear vibrations, annular plates, large amplitudes, functionally graded material

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3182 Weak Instability in Direct Integration Methods for Structural Dynamics

Authors: Shuenn-Yih Chang, Chiu-Li Huang


Three structure-dependent integration methods have been developed for solving equations of motion, which are second-order ordinary differential equations, for structural dynamics and earthquake engineering applications. Although they generally have the same numerical properties, such as explicit formulation, unconditional stability and second-order accuracy, a different performance is found in solving the free vibration response to either linear elastic or nonlinear systems with high frequency modes. The root cause of this different performance in the free vibration responses is analytically explored herein. As a result, it is verified that a weak instability is responsible for the different performance of the integration methods. In general, a weak instability will result in an inaccurate solution or even numerical instability in the free vibration responses of high frequency modes. As a result, a weak instability must be prohibited for time integration methods.

Keywords: dynamic analysis, high frequency, integration method, overshoot, weak instability

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3181 Free Vibration Analysis of Symmetric Sandwich Beams

Authors: Ibnorachid Zakaria, El Bikri Khalid, Benamar Rhali, Farah Abdoun


The aim of the present work is to study the linear free symmetric vibration of three-layer sandwich beam using the energy method. The zigzag model is used to describe the displacement field. The theoretical model is based on the top and bottom layers behave like Euler-Bernoulli beams while the core layer like a Timoshenko beam. Based on Hamilton’s principle, the governing equation of motion sandwich beam is obtained in order to calculate the linear frequency parameters for a clamped-clamped and simple supported-simple-supported beams. The effects of material properties and geometric parameters on the natural frequencies are also investigated.

Keywords: linear vibration, sandwich, shear deformation, Timoshenko zig-zag model

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3180 A Higher Order Shear and Normal Deformation Theory for Functionally Graded Sandwich Beam

Authors: R. Bennai, H. Ait Atmane, Jr., A. Tounsi


In this work, a new analytical approach using a refined theory of hyperbolic shear deformation of a beam was developed to study the free vibration of graduated sandwiches beams under different boundary conditions. The effects of transverse shear strains and the transverse normal deformation are considered. The constituent materials of the beam are supposed gradually variable depending the height direction based on a simple power distribution law in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents; the two materials with which we worked are metals and ceramics. The core layer is taken homogeneous and made of an isotropic material; while the banks layers consist of FGM materials with a homogeneous fraction compared to the middle layer. Movement equations are obtained by the energy minimization principle. Analytical solutions of free vibration and buckling are obtained for sandwich beams under different support conditions; these conditions are taken into account by incorporating new form functions. In the end, illustrative examples are presented to show the effects of changes in different parameters such as (material graduation, the stretching effect of the thickness, boundary conditions and thickness ratio - length) on the vibration free and buckling of an FGM sandwich beams.

Keywords: functionally graded sandwich beam, refined shear deformation theory, stretching effect, free vibration

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
3179 Geometrically Linear Symmetric Free Vibration Analysis of Sandwich Beam

Authors: Ibnorachid Zakaria, El Bikri Khalid, Benamar Rhali, Farah Abdoun


The aim of the present work is to study the linear free symmetric vibration of three-layer sandwich beam using the energy method. The zigzag model is used to describe the displacement field. The theoretical model is based on the top and bottom layers behave like Euler-Bernoulli beams while the core layer like a Timoshenko beam. Based on Hamilton’s principle, the governing equation of motion sandwich beam is obtained in order to calculate the linear frequency parameters for a clamped-clamped and simple supported-simple-supported beams. The effects of material properties and geometric parameters on the natural frequencies are also investigated.

Keywords: linear vibration, sandwich, shear deformation, Timoshenko zig-zag model

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3178 C Vibration Analysis of a Beam on Elastic Foundation with Elastically Restrained Ends Using Spectral Element Method

Authors: Hamioud Saida, Khalfallah Salah


In this study, a spectral element method is employed to predict the free vibration of a Euler-Bernoulli beam resting on a Winkler foundation with elastically restrained ends. The formulation of the dynamic stiffness matrix has been established by solving the differential equation of motion, which was transformed to frequency domain. Non-dimensional natural frequencies and shape modes are obtained by solving the partial differential equations, numerically. Numerical comparisons and examples are performed to show the effectiveness of the SEM and to investigate the effects of various parameters, such as the springs at the boundaries and the elastic foundation parameter on the vibration frequencies. The obtained results demonstrate that the present method can also be applied to solve the more general problem of the dynamic analysis of structures with higher order precision.

Keywords: elastically supported Euler-Bernoulli beam, free-vibration, spectral element method, Winkler foundation

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3177 Free Vibration Characteristics of Nanoplates with Various Edge Supports Incorporating Surface Free Energy Effects

Authors: Saeid Sahmani


Due to size-dependent behavior of nanostrustures, the classical continuum models are not applicable for the analyses at this submicrion size. Surface stress effect is one of the most important matters which make the nanoscale structures to have different properties compared to the conventional structures due to high surface to volume ratio. In the present study, free vibration characteristics of nanoplates are investigated including surface stress effects. To this end, non-classical plate model based on Gurtin-Murdoch elasticity theory is proposed to evaluate the surface stress effects on the vibrational behavior of nanoplates subjected to different boundary conditions. Generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method is employed to discretize the governing non-classical differential equations along with various edge supports. Selected numerical results are given to demonstrate the distinction between the behavior of nanoplates predicted by the classical and present non-classical plate models that leads to illustrate the great influence of surface stress effect. It is observed that this influence quite depends on the magnitude of the surface elastic constants which are relevant to the selected material.

Keywords: nanomechanics, surface stress, free vibration, GDQ method, small scale effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
3176 Free Vibration Analysis of Conical Helicoidal Rods Having Elliptical Cross Sections Positioned in Different Orientation

Authors: Merve Ermis, Akif Kutlu, Nihal Eratlı, Mehmet H. Omurtag


In this study, the free vibration analysis of conical helicoidal rods with two different elliptically oriented cross sections is investigated and the results are compared by the circular cross-section keeping the net area for all cases equal to each other. Problems are solved by using the mixed finite element formulation. Element matrices based on Timoshenko beam theory are employed. The finite element matrices are derived by directly inserting the analytical expressions (arc length, curvature, and torsion) defining helix geometry into the formulation. Helicoidal rod domain is discretized by a two-noded curvilinear element. Each node of the element has 12 DOFs, namely, three translations, three rotations, two shear forces, one axial force, two bending moments and one torque. A parametric study is performed to investigate the influence of elliptical cross sectional geometry and its orientation over the natural frequencies of the conical type helicoidal rod.

Keywords: conical helix, elliptical cross section, finite element, free vibration

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3175 Investigation for the Mechanism of Lateral-Torsional Coupled Vibration of the Propulsion Shaft in a Ship

Authors: Hyungsuk Han, Soohong Jeon, Chungwon Lee, YongHoon Kim


When a rubber mount and flexible coupling are installed on the main engine, high torsional vibration can occur. The root cause of this high torsional vibration can be attributed to the lateral-torsional coupled vibration of the shaft system. Therefore, the lateral-torsional coupled vibration is investigated numerically after approximating the shaft system to a three-degrees-of-freedom Jeffcott rotor. To verify that the high torsional vibration is caused by the lateral-torsional coupled vibration, a test unit that can simulate this lateral-torsional coupled vibration occurring in the propulsion shaft is developed. Performing a vibration test with the test unit, it can be experimentally verified that the high torsional vibration occurring in the propulsion shaft of the particular ship was caused by the lateral-torsional coupled vibration.

Keywords: Jeffcott rotor, lateral-torsional coupled vibration, propulsion shaft, stability

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3174 Free Vibration Analysis of FG Nanocomposite Sandwich Beams Using Various Higher-Order Beam Theories

Authors: Saeed Kamarian


In this paper, free vibrations of Functionally Graded Sandwich (FGS) beams reinforced by randomly oriented Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) are investigated. The Eshelby–Mori–Tanaka approach based on an equivalent fiber is used to investigate the material properties of the structure. The natural frequencies of the FGS nanocomposite beam are analyzed based on various Higher-order Shear Deformation Beam Theories (HSDBTs) and using an analytical method. The verification study represents the simplicity and accuracy of the method for free vibration analysis of nanocomposite beams. The effects of carbon nanotube volume fraction profiles in the face layers, length to span ratio and thicknesses of face layers on the natural frequency of structure are studied for the different HSDBTs. Results show that by utilizing the FGS type of structures, free vibration characteristics of structures can be improved. A comparison is also provided to show the difference between natural frequency responses of the FGS nanocomposite beam reinforced by aligned and randomly oriented SWCNT.

Keywords: sandwich beam, nanocomposite beam, functionally graded materials, higher-order beam theories, Mori-Tanaka approach

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3173 A Parametric Investigation into the Free Vibration and Flutter Characteristics of High Aspect Ratio Aircraft Wings Using Polynomial Distributions of Stiffness and Mass Properties

Authors: Ranjan Banerjee, W. D. Gunawardana


The free vibration and flutter analysis plays a major part in aircraft design which is indeed, a mandatory requirement. In particular, high aspect ratio transport airliner wings are prone to free vibration and flutter problems that must be addressed during the design process as demanded by the airworthiness authorities. The purpose of this paper is to carry out a detailed free vibration and flutter analysis for a wide range of high aspect ratio aircraft wings and generate design curves to provide useful visions and understandings of aircraft design from an aeroelastic perspective. In the initial stage of the investigation, the bending and torsional stiffnesses of a number of transport aircraft wings are looked at and critically examined to see whether it is possible to express the stiffness distributions in polynomial form, but in a sufficiently accurate manner. A similar attempt is made for mass and mass moment of inertia distributions of the wing. Once the choice of stiffness and mass distributions in polynomial form is made, the high aspect ratio wing is idealised by a series of bending-torsion coupled beams from a structural standpoint. Then the dynamic stiffness method is applied to compute the natural frequencies and mode shape of the wing. Next the wing is idealised aerodynamically and to this end, unsteady aerodynamic of Theodorsen type is employed to represent the harmonically oscillating wing. Following this step, a normal mode method through the use of generalised coordinates is applied to formulate the flutter problem. In essence, the generalised mass, stiffness and aerodynamic matrices are combined to obtain the flutter matrix which is subsequently solved in the complex domain to determine the flutter speed and flutter frequency. In the final stage of the investigation, an exhaustive parametric study is carried out by varying significant wing parameters to generate design curves which help to predict the free vibration and flutter behaviour of high aspect ratio transport aircraft wings in a generic manner. It is in the aeroelastic context of aircraft design where the results are expected to be most useful.

Keywords: high-aspect ratio wing, flutter, dynamic stiffness method, free vibration, aeroelasticity

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3172 Finite Element Modeling of Stockbridge Damper and Vibration Analysis: Equivalent Cable Stiffness

Authors: Nitish Kumar Vaja, Oumar Barry, Brian DeJong


Aeolian vibrations are the major cause for the failure of conductor cables. Using a Stockbridge damper reduces these vibrations and increases the life span of the conductor cable. Designing an efficient Stockbridge damper that suits the conductor cable requires a robust mathematical model with minimum assumptions. However it is not easy to analytically model the complex geometry of the messenger. Therefore an equivalent stiffness must be determined so that it can be used in the analytical model. This paper examines the bending stiffness of the cable and discusses the effect of this stiffness on the natural frequencies. The obtained equivalent stiffness compensates for the assumption of modeling the messenger as a rod. The results from the free vibration analysis of the analytical model with the equivalent stiffness is validated using the full scale finite element model of the Stockbridge damper.

Keywords: equivalent stiffness, finite element model, free vibration response, Stockbridge damper

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3171 Experimental Study on the Floor Vibration Evaluation of Concrete Slab for Existing Buildings

Authors: Yong-Taeg Lee, Jun-Ho Na, Seung-Hun Kim, Seong-Uk Hong


Damages from noise and vibration are increasing every year, most of which are noises between floors in deteriorated building caused by floor impact sound. In this study, the concrete slab measured vibration impact sound for evaluation floor vibration of deteriorated buildings that fails to satisfy with the minimum thickness. In this experimental study, the vibration scale by impact sound was calibrated and compared with ISO and AIJ standard for vibration. The results show that vibration in slab with thickness used in existing building reach human perception levels.

Keywords: vibration, frequency, accelerometer, concrete slab

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3170 Three Dimensional Vibration Analysis of Carbon Nanotubes Embedded in Elastic Medium

Authors: M. Shaban, A. Alibeigloo


This paper studies free vibration behavior of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) embedded on elastic medium based on three-dimensional theory of elasticity. To accounting the size effect of carbon nanotubes, nonlocal theory is adopted to shell model. The nonlocal parameter is incorporated into all constitutive equations in three dimensions. The surrounding medium is modeled as two-parameter elastic foundation. By using Fourier series expansion in axial and circumferential direction, the set of coupled governing equations are reduced to the ordinary differential equations in thickness direction. Then, the state-space method as an efficient and accurate method is used to solve the resulting equations analytically. Comprehensive parametric studies are carried out to show the influences of the nonlocal parameter, radial and shear elastic stiffness, thickness-to-radius ratio and radius-to-length ratio.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, embedded, nonlocal, free vibration

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3169 An Analytical Study on the Vibration Reduction Method of Railway Station Using TPU

Authors: Jinho Hur, Minjung Shin, Heekyu Kim


In many places, new railway constructions in the city are being used to build a viaduct station to take advantage of the space below the line, for difficulty of securing railway site and disconnections of areas. The space under the viaduct has limited to use by noise and vibration. In order to use it for various purposes, reducing noise and vibration is required. The vibration reduction method for new structures is recently developed enough to use as accommodation, but the reduction method for existing structures is still far-off. In this study, it suggests vibration reduction method by filling vibration reduction material to column members which is path of structure-bone-noise from trains run. Because most of railroad stations are reinforced concrete structures. It compares vibration reduction of station applied the method and original station by FEM analysis. As a result, reduction of vibration acceleration level in bandwidth 15~30Hz can be reduced. Therefore, using this method for viaduct railroad station, vibration of station is expected to be reduced.

Keywords: structure borne noise, TPU, viaduct rail station, vibration reduction method

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