Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 837

Search results for: calcium silicate brick

837 Comparison of the Hydration Products of Commercial and Experimental Calcium Silicate Cement: The Preliminary Observational Study

Authors: Seok Woo Chang


Aim: The objective of this study was to compare and evaluate the hydration products of commercial and experimental calcium silicate cement. Materials and Methods: The commercial calcium silicate cement (ProRoot MTA, Dentsply) and experimental calcium silicate cement (n=10) were mixed with distilled water (water/powder ratio = 20 w/w) and stirred at room temperature for 10 hours. These mixtures were dispersed on wafer and dried for 12 hours at room temperature. Thereafter, the dried specimens were examined with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Electron Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS) was also carried out. Results: The commercial calcium silicate cement (ProRoot MTA) and experimental calcium silicate cement both showed precipitation of rod-like and globule-like crystals. Based on EDS analysis, these precipitates were supposed to be calcium hydroxide or calcium silicate hydrates. The degree of formation of these precipitates was higher in commercial MTA. Conclusions: Based on the results, both commercial and experimental calcium silicate cement had ability to produce calcium hydroxide or calcium silicate hydrate precipitates.

Keywords: calcium silicate cement, ProRoot MTA, precipitation, calcium hydroxide, calcium silicate hydrate

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
836 Calcium Silicate Bricks – Ultrasonic Pulse Method: Effects of Natural Frequency of Transducers on Measurement Results

Authors: Jiri Brozovsky


Modulus of elasticity is one of the important parameters of construction materials, which considerably influence their deformation properties and which can also be determined by means of non-destructive test methods like ultrasonic pulse method. However, measurement results of ultrasonic pulse methods are influenced by various factors, one of which is the natural frequency of the transducers. The paper states knowledge about influence of natural frequency of the transducers (54; 82 and 150kHz) on ultrasonic pulse velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity (Young's Dynamic modulus of elasticity). Differences between ultrasonic pulse velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity were found with the same smallest dimension of test specimen in the direction of sounding and density their value decreases as the natural frequency of transducers grew.

Keywords: calcium silicate brick, ultrasonic pulse method, ultrasonic pulse velocity, dynamic modulus of elasticity

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
835 An Evaluation of the Feasibility of Several Industrial Wastes and Natural Materials as Precursors for the Production of Alkali Activated Materials

Authors: O. Alelweet, S. Pavia


In order to face current compelling environmental problems affecting the planet, the construction industry needs to adapt. It is widely acknowledged that there is a need for durable, high-performance, low-greenhouse gas emission binders that can be used as an alternative to Portland cement (PC) to lower the environmental impact of construction. Alkali activated materials (AAMs) are considered a more sustainable alternative to PC materials. The binders of AAMs result from the reaction of an alkali metal source and a silicate powder or precursor which can be a calcium silicate or an aluminosilicate-rich material. This paper evaluates the particle size, specific surface area, chemical and mineral composition and amorphousness of silicate materials (most industrial waste locally produced in Ireland and Saudi Arabia) to develop alkali-activated binders that can replace PC resources in specific applications. These include recycled ceramic brick, bauxite, illitic clay, fly ash and metallurgical slag. According to the results, the wastes are reactive and comply with building standards requirements. The study also evidenced that the reactivity of the Saudi bauxite (with significant kaolinite) can be enhanced on thermal activation; and high calcium in the slag will promote reaction; which should be possible with low alkalinity activators. The wastes evidenced variable water demands that will be taken into account for mixing with the activators. Finally, further research is proposed to further determine the reactive fraction of the clay-based precursors.

Keywords: alkali activated materials, alkali-activated binders, sustainable building materials, recycled ceramic brick, bauxite, red mud, clay, fly ash, metallurgical slags, particle size, chemical and mineral composition and amorphousness, water demand, particle density

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
834 Biocompatibilities of Various Calcium Silicate Cements

Authors: Seok Woo Chang, Kee Yeon Kum, Kwang Shik Bae, WooCheol Lee


Aim: The objective of this study was to compare the biocompatibilities and mineralization potential of ProRoot MTA and newly developed calcium phosphate based cement, Capseal. Materials and Methods: The biocompatibilities and mineralization-related gene expressions (Bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OCN)) of ProRoot MTA and Capseal were also compared by a methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay and reverse transcription-polymerization chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis on 1, 3, and 7 days, respectively. Empty rings were used as control group. The results were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test with a Bonferroni correction. P-value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The biocompatibilities of ProRoot MTA and Capseal were equally favorable. ProRoot MTA and Capseal affected the messenger RNA expression of osteocalcin and osteonectin. Conclusions: Based on the results, both ProRoot MTA and Capseal could be a useful biomaterial in clinical endodontics.

Keywords: biocompatibility, calcium silicate cement, MTT, RT-PCR

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833 The Biocompatibility and Osteogenic Potential of Experimental Calcium Silicate Based Root Canal Sealer, Capseal

Authors: Seok Woo Chang


Aim: Capseal I and Capseal II are calcium silicate and calcium phosphate based experimental root canal sealer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility and mineralization potential of Capseal I and Capseal II. Materials and Methods: The biocompatibility and mineralization-related gene expression (alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and osteocalcin (OCN)) of Capseal I and Capseal II were compared using methylthiazol tetrazolium assay and reverse transcription-polymerization chain reaction analysis, respectively. The results were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test. P-value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Result: Both Capseal I and Capseal II were favorable in biocompatibility and influenced the messenger RNA expression of ALP and BSP. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, Capseal is biocompatible and have mineralization promoting potential, and thus could be a promising root canal sealer.

Keywords: biocompatibility, mineralization-related gene expression, Capseal I, Capseal II

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
832 Mechanical Properties of Waste Clay Brick Based Geopolymer Cured at Various Temperature

Authors: Shihab Ibrahim


Geopolymer binders as an alternative binder system to ordinary Portland cement are the focus of the past 2 decades of researches. In order to eliminate CO2 emission by cement manufacturing and utilizing construction waste as a source material, clean waste clay bricks which are the waste from Levent Brick factory was activated with a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution. 12 molarity of sodium hydroxide solution was used and the ratio of sodium silicate to sodium hydroxide was 2.5. Alkaline solution to clay brick powder ratio of 0.35, 0.4, 0.45, and 0.5 was studied. Alkaline solution to powder ratio of 0.4 was found to be optimum ratio to have the same workability as ordinary Portland cement paste. Compressive strength of the clay brick based geopolymer paste samples was evaluated under different curing temperatures and curing durations. One day compressive strength of 57.3 MPa after curing at 85C for 24 hours was obtained which was higher than 7 days compressive strength of ordinary Portland cement paste. The highest compressive strength 71.4 MPa was achieved at seventh day age for the geopolymer paste samples cured at 85C for 24 hours. It was found that 8 hour curing at elevated temperature 85C, is sufficient to get 96% of total strength. 37.4 MPa strength at seventh day of clay brick based geopolymer sample cured at room temperature was achieved. Water absorption around 10% was found for clay brick based geopolymer samples cured at different temperatures with compare to 9.14% water absorption of ordinary Portland cement paste. The clay brick based geopolymer binder can have the potentiality to be used as an alternative binder to Portland cement in a case that the heat treatment provided. Further studies are needed in order to produce the binder in a way that can harden and gain strength without any elevated curing.

Keywords: construction and demolition waste, geopolymer, clay brick, compressive strength.

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
831 Ferro-Substituted Silicate Calcium Materials, a Novel Bio-Ceramic Using Hyperthermia for Bone Cancer Therapy

Authors: Hassan Gheisari


Ferro silicate calcium nano particles are prepared through the sol-gel method using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a chelating agent. The powder as prepared is annealed at three different temperatures (900 ºC, 1000 ºC and 1100 ºC) for 3 h. The XRD patterns of the samples indicate broad peaks and the full width at half maximum decreased with increasing annealing temperature. FTIR spectra of the samples confirm the presence of metal - oxygen complexes within the structure. The average particle size obtained from PSA curve demonstrates ultrafine particles. SEM micrographs indicate the particles synthesized have spherical morphology. The saturation magnetization (Ms) and remnant magnetization (Mr) of the samples show dependence on particle size and crystallinity of the samples. The highest saturation magnetization is achieved for the sample annealed at 1100 ºC having maximum average particle size. The high saturation magnetization of the samples suggests the present method is suitable for obtaining nano particles magnetic ferro bioceramic which is desirable for practical applications such as hyperthermia bone cancer therapy.

Keywords: hyperthermia, bone cancer, bio ceramic, magnetic materials, sol– gel, silicate calcium

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830 Fire Resistance Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Member Strengthened by Fiber Reinforced Polymer

Authors: Soo-Yeon Seo, Jong-Wook Lim, Se-Ki Song


Currently, FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer) materials have been widely used for reinforcement of building structural members. However, since the FRP and the epoxy material for attaching it have very low resistance to heat, there is a problem in application where high temperature is an issue. In this paper, the resistance performance of FRP member made of carbon fiber at high temperature was investigated through experiment under temperature change. As a result, epoxy encapsulating FRP is damaged at not high temperatures, and the fibers are degraded. Therefore, when reinforcing a structure using FRP, a separate refractory heat treatment is necessary. The use of a 30 mm thick calcium silicate board as a fireproofing method can protect FRP up to 600ᵒC outside temperature.

Keywords: FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer), high temperature, experiment under temperature change, calcium silicate board

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
829 Manufacturing Commercial Bricks with Construction and Demolition Wastes

Authors: Mustafa Kara, Yasemin Kilic, Bahattin Murat Demir, Ümit Ustaoglu, Cavit Unal


This paper reports utilization of different kind of construction and demolition wastes (C&D) in the production of bricks at industrial scale. Plastered brick waste and tile wastes were collected from ISTAÇ Co. Compost and Recovery Plant, Istanbul, Turkey. Plastered brick waste and tile waste are mixed with brick clay in the proportion of 0-30% and fired at 900ºC. The physical and mechanical properties of the produced bricks were determined and evaluated according to IKIZLER Brick Company Production values, Brick Industry Association (BIA) and Turkish Standards (TS). The resulted showed that plastered brick waste and tile waste can be used to produce good quality brick for various engineering applications in construction and building. The replacement of brick clay by plastered brick waste and tile waste at the levels of 30% has good effects on the compressive strength of the bricks.

Keywords: commercial brick, construction and demolition waste, manufacturing, recycling

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
828 Influence of Variable Calcium Content on Mechanical Properties of Geopolymer Synthesized at Different Temperature and Moisture Conditions

Authors: Suraj D. Khadka, Priyantha W. Jayawickrama


In search of a sustainable construction material, geopolymer has been investigated for past decades to evaluate its advantage over conventional products. Synthesis of geopolymer requires a source of aluminosilicate mixed with sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate at different proportions to maintain a Si/Al molar ratio of 1-3 and Na/Al molar ratio of unity. A comprehensive geopolymer study was performed with Metakaolin and Class C Fly ash as primary aluminosilicate sources. Synthesized geopolymer was analyzed for time-dependent viscosity, setting period and strength at varying initial moisture content, curing temperature and humidity. Different concentration of Ca(OH)₂ and CaSO₄.2H₂O were added to vary the amount of calcium contained in synthesized geopolymer. Influence of calcium content in unconfined compressive strength behavior of geopolymer were analyzed. Finally, Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) was performed to investigate the hardened product. It was observed that fly ash based geopolymer had shortened setting time and faster increase in viscosity as compared to geopolymer synthesized from metakaolin. This was primarily attributed to higher calcium content resulting in formation of calcium silicate hydrates (CSH). SEM-EDS was performed to verify the presence of CSH phases. Spectral analysis of geopolymer prepared by addition of Ca(OH)₂ and CaSO₄.2H₂O indicated higher CSH phases at higher concentration. It was observed that lower concentration of added calcium favored strength gain in geopolymer. However, at higher calcium concentration, decrease in strength was observed. Strength variation was also observed with humidity at initial curing condition. At 100% humidity, geopolymer with added calcium presented higher strength compared to samples cured at ambient humidity condition (40%). Reduction in strength in these samples at lower humidity was primarily attributed to reduction in moisture content in specimen due to the formation of CSH phases and loss of moisture through evaporation. For low calcium content geopolymers, with increase in temperature, gain in strength was observed with maximum strength observed at 200 ˚C. However, samples with higher calcium content demonstrated severe cracking resulting in low strength at elevated temperatures.

Keywords: calcium silicate hydrates, geopolymer, humidity, Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, unconfined compressive strength

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827 Study of Pipes Scaling of Purified Wastewater Intended for the Irrigation of Agadir Golf Grass

Authors: A. Driouiche, S. Mohareb, A. Hadfi


In Morocco’s Agadir region, the reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation of green spaces has faced the problem of scaling of the pipes of these waters. This research paper aims at studying the phenomenon of scaling caused by the treated wastewater from the Mzar sewage treatment plant. These waters are used in the irrigation of golf turf for the Ocean Golf Resort. Ocean Golf, located about 10 km from the center of the city of Agadir, is one of the most important recreation centers in Morocco. The course is a Belt Collins design with 27 holes, and is quite open with deep challenging bunkers. The formation of solid deposits in the irrigation systems has led to a decrease in their lifetime and, consequently, a loss of load and performance. Thus, the sprinklers used in golf turf irrigation are plugged in the first weeks of operation. To study this phenomenon, the wastewater used for the irrigation of the golf turf was taken and analyzed at various points, and also samples of scale formed in the circuits of the passage of these waters were characterized. This characterization of the scale was performed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results of the physicochemical analysis of the waters show that they are full of bicarbonates (653 mg/L), chloride (478 mg/L), nitrate (412 mg/L), sodium (425 mg/L) and calcium (199mg/L). Their pH is slightly alkaline. The analysis of the scale reveals that it is rich in calcium and phosphorus. It is formed of calcium carbonate (CaCO₃), silica (SiO₂), calcium silicate (Ca₂SiO₄), hydroxylapatite (Ca₁₀P₆O₂₆), calcium carbonate and phosphate (Ca₁₀(PO₄) 6CO₃) and silicate calcium and magnesium (Ca₅MgSi₃O₁₂).

Keywords: Agadir, irrigation, scaling water, wastewater

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826 Preparation and Evaluation of Calcium Fluorosilicate (CaSiF₆) as a Fluorinating Agent

Authors: Natsumi Murakami, Jae-Ho Kim, Susumu Yonezawa


The calcium fluorosilicate (CaSiF₆) was prepared from calcium silicate (CaSiO₃) with fluorine gas at 25 ~ 200 ℃ and 760 Torr for 1~24 h. Especially, the pure CaSiF₆ could be prepared at 25 ℃ for 24 h with F₂ gas from the results of X-ray diffraction. Increasing temperature to higher than 100 ℃, the prepared CaSiF₆ was decomposed into CaF₂ and SiF₄. The release of SiF₄ gas was confirmed by the results of gas-phase infrared spectroscopy. In this study, we tried to modify the surface of polycarbonate (PC) resin using the SiF₄ gas released from CaSiF₆ particles. By using the prepared CaSiF₆, the surface roughness of fluorinated PC samples was approximately four times larger than that (1.4 nm) of the untreated sample. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated the formation of fluorinated bonds (e.g., -CFx) on the surface of PC after surface fluorination. Consequently, the CaSiF₆ particles can be useful for a new fluorinating agent.

Keywords: calcium fluorosilicate, fluorinating agent, polycarbonate, surface fluorination

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825 Effects of Crushed Waste Aggregate from the Manufacture of Clay Bricks on Rendering Cement Mortar Performance

Authors: Benmalek M. Larbi, R. Harbi, S. Boukor


This paper reports an experimental work that aimed to investigate the effects of clay brick waste, as part of fine aggregate, on rendering mortar performance. The brick, in crushed form, was from a local brick manufacturer that was rejected due to being of-standard. It was used to replace 33.33 %, 50 %, 66.66 % and 100 % by weight of the quarry sand in mortar. Effects of the brick replacement on the mortar key properties intended for wall plastering were investigated; these are workability, compressive strength, flexural strength, linear shrinkage, water absorption by total immersion and by capillary suction. The results showed that as the brick replacement level increased, the mortar workability reduced. The linear shrinkage increases over time and decreases with the introduction of brick waste. The compressive and flexural strengths decrease with the increase of brick waste because of their great water absorption.

Keywords: clay brick waste, mortar, properties, quarry sand

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
824 Efficacy of Crystalline Admixtures in Self-Healing Capacity of Fibre Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Evangelia Tsampali, Evangelos Yfantidis, Andreas Ioakim, Maria Stefanidou


The purpose of this paper is the characterization of the effects of crystalline admixtures on concrete. Crystallites, aided by the presence of humidity, form idiomorphic crystals that block cracks and pores resulting in reduced porosity. In this project, two types of crystallines have been employed. The hydrophilic nature of crystalline admixtures helps the components to react with water and cement particles in the concrete to form calcium silicate hydrates and pore-blocking precipitates in the existing micro-cracks and capillaries. The underlying mechanism relies on the formation of calcium silicate hydrates and the resulting deposits of these crystals become integrally bound with the hydrated cement paste. The crystalline admixtures continue to activate throughout the life of the composite material when in the presence of moisture entering the concrete through hairline cracks, sealing additional gaps. The resulting concrete exhibits significantly increased resistance to water penetration under stress. Admixtures of calcium aluminates can also contribute to this healing mechanism in the same manner. However, this contribution is negligible compared to the calcium silicate hydrates due to the abundance of the latter. These crystalline deposits occur throughout the concrete volume and are a permanent part of the concrete mass. High-performance fibre reinforced cementitious composite (HPFRCC) were produced in the laboratory. The specimens were exposed in three healing conditions: water immersion until testing at 15 °C, sea water immersion until testing at 15 °C, and wet/dry cycles (immersion in tap water for 3 days and drying for 4 days). Specimens were pre-cracked at 28 days, and the achieved cracks width were in the range of 0.10–0.50 mm. Furthermore, microstructure observations and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity tests have been conducted. Based on the outcomes, self-healing related indicators have also been defined. The results show almost perfect healing capability for specimens healed under seawater, better than for specimens healed in water while inadequate for the wet/dry exposure in both of the crystalline types.

Keywords: autogenous self-healing, concrete, crystalline admixtures, ultrasonic pulse velocity test

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
823 Damage Assessment and Repair for Older Brick Buildings

Authors: Tim D. Sass


The experience of engineers and architects practicing today is typically limited to current building code requirements and modern construction methods and materials. However, many cities have a mix of new and old buildings with many buildings constructed over one hundred years ago when building codes and construction methods were much different. When a brick building sustains damage, a structural engineer is often hired to determine the cause of damage as well as determine the necessary repairs. Forensic studies of dozens of brick buildings shows an appreciation of historical building methods and materials is needed to correctly identify the cause of damage and design an appropriate repair. Damage on an older, brick building can be mistakenly attributed to storms or seismic events when the real source of the damage is deficient original construction. Assessing and remediating damaged brickwork on older brick buildings requires an understanding of the original construction, an understanding of older repair methods, and, an understanding of current building code requirements.

Keywords: brick, damage, deterioration, facade

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
822 Properties of Fly Ash Brick Prepared in Local Environment of Bangladesh

Authors: Robiul Islam, Monjurul Hasan, Rezaul Karim, M. F. M. Zain


Coal fly ash, an industrial by product of coal combustion thermal power plants is considered as a hazardous material and its improper disposal has become an environmental issue. On the other hand, manufacturing conventional clay bricks involves on consumption of large amount of clay and leads substantial depletion of topsoil. This paper unveils the possibility of using fly ash as a partial replacement of clay for brick manufacturing considering the local technology practiced in Bangladesh. The effect of fly ash with different replacing ratio (0%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% by volume) of clay on properties of bricks were studied. Bricks were made in the field parallel to ordinary bricks marked with specific number for different percentage to identify them at time of testing. No physical distortion is observed in fly ash brick after burning in the kiln. Results from laboratory test show that compressive strength of brick is decreased with the increase of fly ash and maximum compressive strength is found to be 19.6 MPa at 20% of fly ash. In addition, water absorption of fly ash brick is increased with the increase of fly ash. The abrasion value and Specific gravity of coarse aggregate prepared from brick with fly ash also studied and the results of this study suggests that 20% fly ash can be considered as the optimum fly ash content for producing good quality bricks utilizing present practiced technology.

Keywords: Bangladesh brick, fly ash, clay brick, physical properties, compressive strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
821 Can Bone Resorption Reduce with Nanocalcium Particles in Astronauts?

Authors: Ravi Teja Mandapaka, Prasanna Kumar Kukkamalla


Poor absorption of calcium, elevated levels in serum and loss of bone are major problems of astronauts during space travel. Supplementation of calcium could not reveal this problem. In normal condition only 33% of calcium is absorbed from dietary sources. In this paper effect of space environment on calcium metabolism was discussed. Many surprising study findings were found during literature survey. Clinical trials on ovariectomized mice showed that reduction of calcium particles to nano level make them more absorbable and bioavailable. Control of bone loss in astronauts in critical important In Fortification of milk with nana calcium particles showed reduces urinary pyridinoline, deoxypyridinoline levels. Dietary calcium and supplementation do not show much retention of calcium in zero gravity environment where absorption is limited. So, the fortification of foods with nano calcium particles seemed beneficial for astronauts during and after space travel in their speedy recovery.

Keywords: nano calcium, astronauts, fortification, supplementation

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820 New Challenge: Reduction of Aflatoxin M1 Residues in Cow’s Milk by MilBond Dietary Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicate (HSCAS) and Its Effect on Milk Composition

Authors: A. Aly Salwa, H. Diekmann, S. Hafiz Ragaa, DG Abo Elhassan


This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Milbond (HSCAS) on aflatoxin M1 in artificially contaminated cows milk. Chemisorption compounds used in this experiment were MIlBond, hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS). Raw cow milk were artificially exposed to aflatoxin M1 in a concentration of 100 ppb) with addition of Nilbond at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 % at room temperature for 30 minutes. Aflatoxin M1 was decreased more than 95% by HSCAS at 2%. Milk composition consist of protein, fat, lactose, solid non fat and total solid were affected by addition of some adsorbents were not significantly affected (p 0.05). Tthis method did not involve degrading the toxin, milk may be free from toxin degradation products and is safe for consumption. In addition, the added material may be easily separated from milk after the substance adsorbs the toxin. Thus, this method should be developed by further researches for determining effects of these compounds on functional properties of milk. The ability of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate to prevent or reduce the level of aflatoxin MI residues in milk is critically needed. This finding has important implications, because milk is ultimately consumed by humans and animals, and the reduction of aflatoxin contamination in the milk could have an important impact on their health.

Keywords: aflatoxin M1, Hydrated sodium calcium aluminium silicate, detoxification, raw cow milk

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819 Numerical Model to Study Calcium and Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Dynamics in a Myocyte Cell

Authors: Nisha Singh, Neeru Adlakha


Calcium signalling is one of the most important intracellular signalling mechanisms. A lot of approaches and investigators have been made in the study of calcium signalling in various cells to understand its mechanisms over recent decades. However, most of existing investigators have mainly focussed on the study of calcium signalling in various cells without paying attention to the dependence of calcium signalling on other chemical ions like inositol-1; 4; 5 triphosphate ions, etc. Some models for the independent study of calcium signalling and inositol-1; 4; 5 triphosphate signalling in various cells are present but very little attention has been paid by the researchers to study the interdependence of these two signalling processes in a cell. In this paper, we propose a coupled mathematical model to understand the interdependence of inositol-1; 4; 5 triphosphate dynamics and calcium dynamics in a myocyte cell. Such studies will provide the deeper understanding of various factors involved in calcium signalling in myocytes, which may be of great use to biomedical scientists for various medical applications.

Keywords: calcium signalling, coupling, finite difference method, inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate

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818 Origins of Chicago Common Brick: Examining a Masonry Shell Encasing a New Ando Museum

Authors: Daniel Joseph Whittaker


This paper examines the broad array of historic sites from which Chicago common brick has emerged, and the methods this brick has been utilized within and around a new hybrid structure recently completed-and periodically opened to the public, as a private art, architecture, design, and social activism gallery space. Various technical aspects regarding the structural and aesthetic reuse methods of salvaged brick within the interior and exterior of this new Tadao Ando-designed building in Lincoln Park, Chicago, are explored. This paper expands specifically upon the multiple possible origins of Chicago common brick, as well as the extant brick currently composing the surrounding alley which is integral to demarcating the southern site boundary of the old apartment building now gallery. Themes encompassing Chicago’s archeological and architectural history, local resource extraction, and labor practices permeate this paper’s investigation into urban, social and architectural history and building construction technology advancements through time.

Keywords: masonry construction, history brickmaking, private museums, Chicago Illinois, Tadao Ando

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817 The Influence of Water and Salt Crystals Content on Thermal Conductivity Coefficient of Red Clay Brick

Authors: Dalia Bednarska, Marcin Koniorczyk


This paper presents results of experiments aimed at studying hygro-thermal properties of red clay brick. The main objective of research was to investigate the relation between thermal conductivity coefficient of brick and its water or Na2SO4 solution content. The research was conducted using stationary technique for the totally dried specimens, as well as the ones 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% imbued with water or sodium sulfate solution. Additionally, a sorption isotherm test was conducted for seven relative humidity levels. Furthermore the change of red clay brick pore structure before and after imbuing with water and salt solution was investigated by multi-cycle mercury intrusion test. The experimental results confirm negative influence of water or sodium sulphate on thermal properties of material. The value of thermal conductivity coefficient increases along with growth of water or Na₂SO₄ solution content. The study shows that the presence of Na₂SO₄ solution has less negative influence on brick’s thermal conductivity coefficient than water.

Keywords: building materials, red clay brick, sodium sulfate, thermal conductivity coefficient

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816 Effect of High Temperature on Residual Mechanical and Physical Properties of Brick Aggregate Concrete

Authors: Samia Hachemi, Abdelhafid Ounis, W. Heriheri


This paper presents an experimental investigation of high temperatures applied to normal and high performance concrete made with natural coarse aggregates. The experimental results of physical and mechanical properties were compared with those obtained with recycled brick aggregates produced by replacing 30% of natural coarse aggregates by recycled brick aggregates. The following parameters: compressive strength, concrete mass loss, apparent density and water porosity were examined in this experiment. The results show that concrete could be produced by using recycled brick aggregates and reveals that at high temperatures recycled aggregate concrete preformed similar or even better than natural aggregate concrete.

Keywords: high temperature, compressive strength, mass loss, recycled brick aggregate

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815 An Overview of Sludge Utilization into Fired Clay Brick

Authors: Aeslina Binti Abdul Kadir, Ahmad Shayuti Bin Abdul Rahim


Brick is one of the most common masonry units used as building material. Due to the demand, different types of waste have been investigated to be incorporated into the bricks. Many types of sludge have been incorporated in fired clay brick for example marble sludge, stone sludge, water sludge, sewage sludge, and ceramic sludge. The utilization of these waste materials in fired clay bricks usually has positive effects on the properties such as lightweight bricks with improved shrinkage, porosity, and strength. This paper reviews on utilization of different types of sludge wastes into fired clay bricks. Previous investigations have demonstrated positive effects on the physical and mechanical properties as well as less impact towards the environment. Thus, the utilizations of sludge waste could produce a good quality of brick and could be one of alternative disposal methods for the sludge wastes.

Keywords: fired clay brick, sludge waste, compressive strength, shrinkage, water absorption

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814 XANES Studies on the Oxidation States of Copper Ion in Silicate Glass

Authors: R. Buntem, K. Samkongngam


The silicate glass was prepared using rice husk as the source of silica. The base composition of glass sample is composed of SiO2 (from rice husk ash), Na2CO3, K2CO3, ZnO, H3BO3, CaO, Al2O3 or Al, and CuO. Aluminum is used in place of Al2O3 in order to reduce Cu2+ to Cu+. The red color of Cu2O in the glass matrix was observed when the Al was added into the glass mixture. The expansion coefficients of the copper doped glass are in the range of 1.2 x 10-5-1.4x10-5 (ºC -1) which is common for the silicate glass. The finger prints of the bond vibrations were studied using IR spectroscopy. While the oxidation state and the coordination information of the copper ion in the glass matrix were investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. From the data, Cu+ and Cu2+ exist in the glass matrix. The red particles of Cu2O can be formed in the glass matrix when enough aluminum was added.

Keywords: copper in glass, coordination information, silicate glass, XANES spectrum

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813 Combinatory Nutrition Supplementation: A Case of Synergy for Increasing Calcium Bioavailability

Authors: Daniel C. S. Lim, Eric Y. M. Yeo, W. Y. Tan


This paper presents an overview of how calcium interacts with the various essential nutrients within an environment of cellular and hormonal interactions for the purpose of increasing bioavailability to the human body. One example of such interactions can be illustrated with calcium homeostasis. This paper gives an in-depth discussion on the possible interactive permutations with various nutrients and factors leading to the promotion of calcium bioavailability to the body. The review hopes to provide further insights into how calcium supplement formulations can be improved to better influence its bioavailability in the human body.

Keywords: bioavailability, environment of cellular and hormonal interactions, nutritional combinations, synergistic

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812 The Impact of Glass Additives on the Functional and Microstructural Properties of Sand-Lime Bricks

Authors: Anna Stepien


The paper presents the results of research on modifications of sand-lime bricks, especially using glass additives (glass fiber and glass sand) and other additives (e.g.:basalt&barite aggregate, lithium silicate and microsilica) as well. The main goal of this paper is to answer the question ‘How to use glass additives in the sand-lime mass and get a better bricks?’ The article contains information on modification of sand-lime bricks using glass fiber, glass sand, microsilica (different structure of silica). It also presents the results of the conducted compression tests, which were focused on compressive strength, water absorption, bulk density, and their microstructure. The Scanning Electron Microscope, spectrum EDS, X-ray diffractometry and DTA analysis helped to define the microstructural changes of modified products. The interpretation of the products structure revealed the existence of diversified phases i.e.the C-S-H and tobermorite. CaO-SiO2-H2O system is the object of intensive research due to its meaning in chemistry and technologies of mineral binding materials. Because the blocks are the autoclaving materials, the temperature of hydrothermal treatment of the products is around 200°C, the pressure - 1,6-1,8 MPa and the time - up to 8hours (it means: 1h heating + 6h autoclaving + 1h cooling). The microstructure of the products consists mostly of hydrated calcium silicates with a different level of structural arrangement. The X-ray diffraction indicated that the type of used sand is an important factor in the manufacturing of sand-lime elements. Quartz sand of a high hardness is also a substrate hardly reacting with other possible modifiers, which may cause deterioration of certain physical and mechanical properties. TG and DTA curves show the changes in the weight loss of the sand-lime bricks specimen against time as well as the endo- and exothermic reactions that took place. The endothermic effect with the maximum at T=573°C is related to isomorphic transformation of quartz. This effect is not accompanied by a change of the specimen weight. The next endothermic effect with the maximum at T=730-760°C is related to the decomposition of the calcium carbonates. The bulk density of the brick it is 1,73kg/dm3, the presence of xonotlite in the microstructure and significant weight loss during DTA and TG tests (around 0,6% after 70 minutes) have been noticed. Silicate elements were assessed on the basis of their compressive property. Orthogonal compositional plan type 3k (with k=2), i.e.full two-factor experiment was applied in order to carry out the experiments both, in the compression strength test and bulk density test. Some modification (e.g.products with barite and basalt aggregate) have improved the compressive strength around 41.3 MPa and water absorption due to capillary raising have been limited to 12%. The next modification was adding glass fiber to sand-lime mass, then glass sand. The results show that the compressive strength was higher than in the case of traditional bricks, while modified bricks were lighter.

Keywords: bricks, fiber, glass, microstructure

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811 Termite Brick Temperature and Relative Humidity by Continuous Monitoring Technique

Authors: Khalid Abdullah Alshuhail, Syrif Junidi, Ideisan Abu-Abdoum, Abdulsalam Aldawoud


For the intention of reducing energy consumption, a proposed construction brick was made of imitation termite mound soil referred here as termite brick (TB). To calculate the thermal performance, a real case model was constructed by using this biomimetic brick for testing purposes. This paper aims at investigating the thermal performance of this brick during different climatic months. Its thermal behaviour was thoroughly studied over the course of four months by using continuous method (CMm). The main parameters were focused on temperature and relative humidity. It was found that the TB does not perform similarly in all four months and/or in all orientations. Each four-month model study was deeply analyzed. By using the CMm method, the model was also examined. The measuring period shows generally that internal temperature and internal humidity are higher in the roof within 2 degrees and lowest at north wall orientation. The relative humidity was also investigated systematically. The paper reveals more interesting findings.

Keywords: building material, continious monitoring, orientation, wall, temprature

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810 Sulfate Attack on Pastes Made with Different C3A and C4AF Contents and Stored at 5°C

Authors: Konstantinos Sotiriadis, Radosław Mróz


In the present work the internal sulfate attack on pastes made from pure clinker phases was studied. Two binders were produced: (a) a binder with 2% C3A and 18% C4AF content; (b) a binder with 10% C3A and C4AF content each. Gypsum was used as the sulfate bearing compound, while calcium carbonate added to differentiate the binders produced. The phases formed were identified by XRD analysis. The results showed that ettringite was the deterioration phase detected in the case of the low C3A content binder. Carbonation occurred in the specimen without calcium carbonate addition, while portlandite was observed in the one containing calcium carbonate. In the case of the high C3A content binder, traces of thaumasite were detected when calcium carbonate was not incorporated in the binder. A solid solution of thaumasite and ettringite was found when calcium carbonate was added. The amount of C3A had not fully reacted with sulfates, since its corresponding peaks were detected.

Keywords: tricalcium aluminate, calcium aluminate ferrite, sulfate attack, calcium carbonate, low temperature

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809 Chemotactic Behaviour of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Response to Silicate Substituted Hydroxyapatite

Authors: Dinara Ikramova, Karin A. Hing, Simon C. F. Rawlinson


Silicate-substituted hydroxyapatite (SiHA) has been shown to enhance bone regeneration in vivo compared with phase pure stoichiometric hydroxyapatite. Evidence suggests that substrate chemistry dependent formation of a permissive protein layer on the surface of synthetic bone graft substitute materials is key for bioactivity and cell attachment. However, little information is available on whether the substrate chemistry may affect cell migration and recruitment. The aim of this study is to investigate whether or not human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs) exhibit a chemotactic response to SiHA porous granules and if it can be linked to either the ion exchange or protein sequestering and enrichment on the surface of the material. 150mg of SiHA granules with 80% total porosity and 20% strut porosity were incubated in 1ml of either Serum Free Media (SFM) or 10% Serum Containing Media (SCM) under static cell culture conditions (37°C, 5% CO2) in absence of cells. Protein sequestering and exchange of calcium, phosphate and silicate ions were analysed at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24 hours with n=12 per time point. Migration of hMSCs in the presence of 150mg of SiHA granules was assessed over 24 hours using a modified transwell migration system in either SFM or SCM (n=6) with 30% serum containing media acting as a positive control. At 24 hours protein sequestering and ionic exchange were analysed, and the number of cells was quantified using a high throughput confocal microscope (IN Cell Analyser 6000). In acellular condition, both calcium and phosphate ion concentrations in media showed a decrease at 24 hours which was greater in SFM than in SCM. This suggests possible formation and precipitation of a bone like apatite on the surface of SiHA. Reduction in this activity observed in SCM indicates that the presence of serum proteins is interfering with the ion exchange at the material and media interface. Adsorbed protein levels showed fluctuation over time followed by sharp decrease at 24 hours, suggesting a possible protein rearrangement on the surface of the material. The ion analysis performed on SFM and SCM after 24-hour incubation with cells in the presence of granules showed a greater reduction in phosphate concentration in both SFM and SCM compared to phosphate levels in acellular condition. Silicate concentration in SCM increased from 1.6mM (absence of cells) to 5.1mM (presence of cells). This indicates that the cells are promoting the uptake of phosphate and release of silicate ions. No significant change was seen in levels of adsorbed proteins in the presence and absence of cells. Further analysis is required to determine whether the species of these proteins change over time. The analysis of cell migration after 24-hour incubation showed more cells migrating towards the granules, 12.7% in SFM and 8.3% in SCM, than in positive control, 4.5% in SFM and 3.6% in SCM respectively. These results suggest that SiHA has a chemotactic activity independent of serum proteins. A property which has not previously been demonstrated for a synthetic bone graft material.

Keywords: cell migration, hMSCs, SiHA, transwell migration system

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808 Laboratory Evaluation of Asphalt Concrete Prepared with Over Burnt Brick Aggregate Treated by Zycosoil

Authors: D. Sarkar, M. Pal, A. K. Sarkar


Asphaltic concrete for pavement construction in India are produced by using crushed stone, gravels etc. as aggregate. In north-Eastern region of India, there is a scarcity o f stone aggregate. Therefore the road engineers are always in search of an optional material as aggregate which can replace the regularly used material. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the utilization of substandard or marginal aggregates in flexible pavement construction. The investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effects of using lower quality aggregates such as over burnt brick aggregate on the preparation of asphalt concrete for flexible pavements. The scope of this work included a review of available literature and existing data, a laboratory evaluation organized to determine the effects of marginal aggregates and potential techniques to upgrade these substandard materials, and a laboratory evaluation of these upgraded marginal aggregate asphalt mixtures. Over burnt brick aggregates are water susceptible and can leads to moisture damage. Moisture damage is the progressive loss of functionality of the material owing to loss of the adhesion bond between the asphalt binder and the aggregate surface. Hence, zycosoil as an anti striping additive were evaluated in this study. This study summarizes the results of the laboratory evaluation carried out to investigate the properties of asphalt concrete prepared with zycosoil modified over burnt brick aggregate. Marshall specimen were prepared with stone aggregate, zycosoil modified stone aggregate, over burnt brick aggregate and zycosoil modified over burnt brick aggregate. Results show that addition of zycosoil with stone aggregate increased stability by 6% and addition of zycosoil with over burnt brick aggregate increased stability by 30%.

Keywords: asphalt concrete, over burnt brick aggregate, marshall stability, zycosoil

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