Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 803

Search results for: elasticity modulus

803 Selected Technological Factors Influencing the Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete

Authors: Klara Krizova, Rudolf Hela

Abstract:

The topic of the article focuses on the evaluation of selected technological factors and their influence on resulting elasticity modulus of concrete. A series of various factors enter into the manufacturing process which, more or less, influences the elasticity modulus. This paper presents the results of concrete in which the influence of water coefficient and the size of maximum fraction of the aggregate on the static elasticity modulus were monitored. Part of selected results of the long-term programme was discussed in which a wide scope of various variants of proposals for the composition of concretes was evaluated.

Keywords: mix design, water-cement ratio, aggregate, modulus of elasticity

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
802 Impact of the Quality of Aggregate on the Elasticity Modulus of Concrete

Authors: K. Krizova

Abstract:

This objective of this article is to present concrete that differs by the size of the aggregate used. The set of concrete contained six concrete recipes manufactured as traditional vibrated concrete containing identical basic components of concrete. The experiment focused on monitoring the resulting properties of hardened concrete, specifically the primary strength and modulus of the concrete elasticity and the developing parameters from 7 to 180 days were assessed.

Keywords: aggregate, cement, concrete, elasticity modulus

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
801 Calcium Silicate Bricks – Ultrasonic Pulse Method: Effects of Natural Frequency of Transducers on Measurement Results

Authors: Jiri Brozovsky

Abstract:

Modulus of elasticity is one of the important parameters of construction materials, which considerably influence their deformation properties and which can also be determined by means of non-destructive test methods like ultrasonic pulse method. However, measurement results of ultrasonic pulse methods are influenced by various factors, one of which is the natural frequency of the transducers. The paper states knowledge about influence of natural frequency of the transducers (54; 82 and 150kHz) on ultrasonic pulse velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity (Young's Dynamic modulus of elasticity). Differences between ultrasonic pulse velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity were found with the same smallest dimension of test specimen in the direction of sounding and density their value decreases as the natural frequency of transducers grew.

Keywords: calcium silicate brick, ultrasonic pulse method, ultrasonic pulse velocity, dynamic modulus of elasticity

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
800 Evaluation of Static Modulus of Elasticity Depending on Concrete Compressive Strength

Authors: Klara Krizova, Rudolf Hela

Abstract:

The paper is focused on monitoring of dependencies of different composition concretes on elastic modulus values. To obtain a summary of elastic modulus development independence of concrete composition design variability was the objective of the experiment. Essential part of this work was initiated as a reaction to building practice when questions of elastic moduli arose at the same time and which mostly did not obtain the required and expected values from concrete constructions. With growing interest in this theme the elastic modulus questions have been developing further.

Keywords: concrete, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, EuroCode 2

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
799 Residual Modulus of Elasticity of Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporated Unprocessed Waste Fly Ash after Expose to the Elevated Temperature

Authors: Mohammed Abed, Rita Nemes, Salem Nehme

Abstract:

The present study experimentally investigated the impact of incorporating unprocessed waste fly ash (UWFA) on the residual mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) after exposure to elevated temperature. Three mixtures of SCC have been produced by replacing the cement mass by 0%, 15% and 30% of UWFA. Generally, the fire resistance of SCC has been enhanced by replacing the cement up to 15% of UWFA, especially in case of residual modulus of elasticity which considers more sensitive than other mechanical properties at elevated temperature. However, a strong linear relationship has been observed between the residual flexural strength and modulus of elasticity, where both of them affected significantly by the cracks appearance and propagation as a result of elevated temperature. Sustainable products could be produced by incorporating unprocessed waste powder materials in the production of concrete, where the waste materials, CO2 emissions, and the energy needed for processing are reduced.

Keywords: self-compacting high-performance concrete, unprocessed waste fly ash, fire resistance, residual modulus of elasticity

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
798 Experimental Modal Analysis of a Suspended Composite Beam

Authors: First A. Lahmar Lahbib, Second B. Abdeldjebar Rabiâ, Third C. Moudden B, forth D. Missoum L

Abstract:

Vibration tests are used to identify the elasticity modulus in two directions. This strategy is applied to composite materials glass / polyester. Experimental results made on a specimen in free vibration showed the efficiency of this method. Obtained results were validated by a comparison to results stemming from static tests.

Keywords: beam, characterization, composite, elasticity modulus, vibration.

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
797 Measurement of the Dynamic Modulus of Elasticity of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens Used for the Cyclic Indirect Tensile Test

Authors: Paul G. Bolz, Paul G. Lindner, Frohmut Wellner, Christian Schulze, Joern Huebelt

Abstract:

Concrete, as a result of its use as a construction material, is not only subject to static loads but is also exposed to variables, time-variant, and oscillating stresses. In order to ensure the suitability of construction materials for resisting these cyclic stresses, different test methods are used for the systematic fatiguing of specimens, like the cyclic indirect tensile test. A procedure is presented that allows the estimation of the degradation of cylindrical concrete specimens during the cyclic indirect tensile test by measuring the dynamic modulus of elasticity in different states of the specimens’ fatigue process. Two methods are used in addition to the cyclic indirect tensile test in order to examine the dynamic modulus of elasticity of cylindrical concrete specimens. One of the methods is based on the analysis of eigenfrequencies, whilst the other one uses ultrasonic pulse measurements to estimate the material properties. A comparison between the dynamic moduli obtained using the three methods that operate in different frequency ranges shows good agreement. The concrete specimens’ fatigue process can therefore be monitored effectively and reliably.

Keywords: concrete, cyclic indirect tensile test, degradation, dynamic modulus of elasticity, eigenfrequency, fatigue, natural frequency, ultrasonic, ultrasound, Young’s modulus

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796 Effects of Sn and Al on Phase Stability and Mechanical Properties of Metastable Beta Ti Alloys

Authors: Yonosuke Murayama

Abstract:

We have developed and studied a metastable beta Ti alloy, which shows super-elasticity and low Young’s modulus according to the phase stability of its beta phase. The super-elasticity and low Young’s modulus are required in a wide range of applications in various industrial fields. For example, the metallic implant with low Young’s modulus and non-toxicity is desirable because the large difference of Young’s modulus between the human bone and the implant material may cause a stress-shielding phenomenon. We have investigated the role of Sn and Al in metastable beta Ti-Cr-Sn, Ti-Cr-Al, Ti-V-Sn, and Ti-V-Al alloys. The metastable beta Ti-Cr-Sn, Ti-Cr-Al, Ti-V-Sn, and Ti-V-Al alloys form during quenching from the beta field at high temperature. While Cr and V act as beta stabilizers, Sn and Al are considered as elements to suppress the athermal omega phase produced during quenching. The athermal omega phase degrades the properties of super-elasticity and Young’s modulus. Although Al and Sn as single elements are considered as an alpha stabilizer and neutral, respectively, Sn and Al acted also as beta stabilizers when added simultaneously with beta stabilized element of Cr or V in this experiment. The quenched microstructure of Ti-Cr-Sn, Ti-Cr-Al, Ti-V-Sn, and Ti-V-Al alloys shifts from martensitic structure to beta single-phase structure with increasing Cr or V. The Young’s modulus of Ti-Cr-Sn, Ti-Cr-Al, Ti-V-Sn, and Ti-V-Al alloys decreased and then increased with increasing Cr or V, each showing its own minimum value of Young's modulus respectively. The composition of the alloy with the minimum Young’s modulus is a near border composition where the quenched microstructure shifts from martensite to beta. The border composition of Ti-Cr-Sn and Ti-V-Sn alloys required only less amount of each beta stabilizer, Cr or V, than Ti-Cr-Al and Ti-V-Al alloys. This indicates that the effect of Sn as a beta stabilizer is stronger than Al. Sn and Al influenced the competitive relation between stress-induced martensitic transformation and slip deformation. Thus, super-elastic properties of metastable beta Ti-Cr-Sn, Ti-Cr-Al, Ti-V-Sn, and Ti-V-Al alloys varied depending on the alloyed element, Sn or Al.

Keywords: metastable beta Ti alloy, super-elasticity, low Young’s modulus, stress-induced martensitic transformation, beta stabilized element

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795 Analysis of Contact Width and Contact Stress of Three-Layer Corrugated Metal Gasket

Authors: I. Made Gatot Karohika, Shigeyuki Haruyama, Ken Kaminishi, Oke Oktavianty, Didik Nurhadiyanto

Abstract:

Contact width and contact stress are important parameters related to the leakage behavior of corrugated metal gasket. In this study, contact width and contact stress of three-layer corrugated metal gasket are investigated due to the modulus of elasticity and thickness of surface layer for 2 type gasket (0-MPa and 400-MPa mode). A finite element method was employed to develop simulation solution to analysis the effect of each parameter. The result indicated that lowering the modulus of elasticity ratio of surface layer will result in better contact width but the average contact stresses are smaller. When the modulus of elasticity ratio is held constant with thickness ratio increase, its contact width has an increscent trend otherwise the average contact stress has decreased trend.

Keywords: contact width, contact stress, layer, metal gasket, corrugated, simulation

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794 Modeling Residual Modulus of Elasticity of Self-Compacted Concrete Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Ahmed M. Ashteyat

Abstract:

Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models have been widely used in material modeling, inter-correlations, as well as behavior and trend predictions when the nonlinear relationship between system parameters cannot be quantified explicitly and mathematically. In this paper, ANN was used to predict the residual modulus of elasticity (RME) of self compacted concrete (SCC) damaged by heat. The ANN model was built, trained, tested and validated using a total of 112 experimental data sets, gathered from available literature. The data used in model development included temperature, relative humidity conditions, mix proportions, filler types, and fiber type. The result of ANN training, testing, and validation indicated that the RME of SCC, exposed to different temperature and relative humidity levels, could be predicted accurately with ANN techniques. The reliability between the predicated outputs and the actual experimental data was 99%. This show that ANN has strong potential as a feasible tool for predicting residual elastic modulus of SCC damaged by heat within the range of input parameter. The ANN model could be used to estimate the RME of SCC, as a rapid inexpensive substitute for the much more complicated and time consuming direct measurement of the RME of SCC.

Keywords: residual modulus of elasticity, artificial neural networks, self compacted-concrete, material modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
793 Determination of Elasticity Constants of Isotropic Thin Films Using Impulse Excitation Technique

Authors: M. F. Slim, A. Alhussein, F. Sanchette, M. François

Abstract:

Thin films are widely used in various applications to enhance the surface properties and characteristics of materials. They are used in many domains such as: biomedical, automotive, aeronautics, military, electronics and energy. Depending on the elaboration technique, the elastic behavior of thin films may be different from this of bulk materials. This dependence on the elaboration techniques and their parameters makes the control of the elasticity constants of coated components necessary. Our work is focused on the characterization of the elasticity constants of isotropic thin films by means of Impulse Excitation Techniques. The tests rely on the measurement of the sample resonance frequency before and after deposition. In this work, a finite element model was performed with ABAQUS software. This model was then compared with the analytical approaches used to determine the Young’s and shear moduli. The best model to determine the film Young’s modulus was identified and a relation allowing the determination of the shear modulus of thin films of any thickness was developed. In order to confirm the model experimentally, Tungsten films were deposited on glass substrates by DC magnetron sputtering of a 99.99% purity tungsten target. The choice of tungsten was done because it is well known that its elastic behavior at crystal scale is ideally isotropic. The macroscopic elasticity constants, Young’s and shear moduli and Poisson’s ratio of the deposited film were determined by means of Impulse Excitation Technique. The Young’s modulus obtained from IET was compared with measurements by the nano-indentation technique. We did not observe any significant difference and the value is in accordance with the one reported in the literature. This work presents a new methodology on the determination of the elasticity constants of thin films using Impulse Excitation Technique. A formulation allowing the determination of the shear modulus of a coating, whatever the thickness, was developed and used to determine the macroscopic elasticity constants of tungsten films. The developed model was validated numerically and experimentally.

Keywords: characterization, coating, dynamical resonant method, Poisson's ratio, PVD, shear modulus, Young's modulus

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792 Effect of Rubber Treatment on Compressive Strength and Modulus of Elasticity of Self-Compacting Rubberized Concrete

Authors: I. Miličević, M. Hadzima Nyarko, R. Bušić, J. Simonović Radosavljević, M. Prokopijević, K. Vojisavljević

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effects of different treatment methods of rubber aggregates for self-compacting concrete (SCC) on compressive strength and modulus of elasticity. SCC mixtures with 10% replacement of fine aggregate with crumb rubber by total aggregate volume and with different aggregate treatment methods were investigated. The rubber aggregate was treated in three different methods: dry process, water-soaking, and NaOH treatment plus water soaking. Properties of SCC in a fresh and hardened state were tested and evaluated. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of three different SCC patches were made and discussed. It was observed that applying the proposed NaOH plus water soaking method resulted in the improvement of fresh and hardened concrete properties. It resulted in a more uniform distribution of rubber particles in the cement matrix, a better bond between rubber particles and the cement matrix, and higher compressive strength of SCC rubberized concrete.

Keywords: compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, NaOH treatment, rubber aggregate, self-compacting rubberized concrete, scanning electron microscope analysis

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791 A Study on FWD Deflection Bowl Parameters for Condition Assessment of Flexible Pavement

Authors: Ujjval J. Solanki, Prof.(Dr.) P.J. Gundaliya, Prof.M.D. Barasara

Abstract:

The application of Falling Weight Deflectometer is to evaluate structural performance of the flexible pavement. The exercise of back calculation is required to know the modulus of elasticity of existing in-service pavement. The process of back calculation needs in-depth field experience for the input of range of modulus of elasticity of bituminous, granular and subgrade layer, and its required number of trial to find such matching moduli with the observed FWD deflection on the field. The study carried out at Barnala-Mansa State Highway Punjab-India using FWD before and after overlay; the deflections obtained at 0 on the load cell, 300, 600, 900,1200, 1500 and 1800 mm interval from the load cell these seven deflection results used to calculate Surface Curvature Index (SCI), Base damage Index (BDI), Base curvature index (BCI). This SCI, BCI and BDI indices are useful to predict the structural performance of in-service pavement and also useful to identify homogeneous section for condition assessment. The SCI, BCI and BDI range are determined for before and after overlay the range of SCI 520 to 51 BDI 294 to 63 BCI 83 to 0.27 for old pavement and SCI 272 to 23 BDI 228 to 28, BCI 25.85 to 4.60 for new pavement. It also shows good correlation with back calculated modulus of elasticity of all the three layer.

Keywords: back calculation, base damage index, base curvature index, FWD (Falling Weight Deflectometer), surface curvature index

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790 Durability Aspects of Recycled Aggregate Concrete: An Experimental Study

Authors: Smitha Yadav, Snehal Pathak

Abstract:

Aggregate compositions in the construction and demolition (C&D) waste have potential to replace normal aggregates. However, to re-utilise these aggregates, the concrete produced with these recycled aggregates needs to provide the desired compressive strength and durability. This paper examines the performance of recycled aggregate concrete made up of 60% recycled aggregates of 20 mm size in terms of durability tests namely rapid chloride permeability, drying shrinkage, water permeability, modulus of elasticity and creep without compromising the compressive strength. The experimental outcome indicates that recycled aggregate concrete provides strength and durability same as controlled concrete when processed for removal of adhered mortar.

Keywords: compressive strength, recycled aggregate, shrinkage, rapid chloride permeation test, modulus of elasticity, water permeability

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789 Evaluation of Modulus of Elasticity by Non-Destructive Method of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Erjola Reufi, Thomas Beer

Abstract:

Plain, unreinforced concrete is a brittle material, with a low tensile strength, limited ductility and little resistance to cracking. In order to improve the inherent tensile strength of concrete there is a need of multi directional and closely spaced reinforcement, which can be provided in the form of randomly distributed fibers. Fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) is a composite material consisting of cement, sand, coarse aggregate, water and fibers. In this composite material, short discrete fibers are randomly distributed throughout the concrete mass. The behavioral efficiency of this composite material is far superior to that of plain concrete and many other construction materials of equal cost. The present experimental study considers the effect of steel fibers and polypropylene fiber on the modulus of elasticity of concrete. Hook end steel fibers of length 5 cm and 3 cm at volume fraction of 0.25%, 0.5% and 1.% were used. Also polypropylene fiber of length 12, 6, 3 mm at volume fraction 0.1, 0.25, and 0.4 % were used. Fifteen mixtures has been prepared to evaluate the effect of fiber on modulus of elasticity of concrete. Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and resonant frequency methods which are two non-destructive testing techniques have been used to measure the elastic properties of fiber reinforced concrete. This study found that ultrasonic wave propagation is the most reliable, easy and cost effective testing technique to use in the determination of the elastic properties of the FRC mix used in this study.

Keywords: fiber reinforced concrete(FRC), polypropylene fiber, resonance, ultrasonic pulse velocity, steel fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
788 Production of Friendly Environmental Material as Building Element from Plastic Waste

Authors: Dheyaa Wajid Abbood, Mohanad Salih Farhan, Awadh E. Ajeel

Abstract:

The basic goal of this study is the production of cheap building elements from plastic waste. environmentally friendly and of good thermal insulation. The study depends on the addition of plastic waste as aggregates to the mixes of concrete at different percentages by weight (12 percentages) to produce lightweight aggregate concrete the density (1095 - 1892) kg/m3.The experimental work includes 120 specimens of concrete 72 cubes (150*150*150)mm, 48 cylinder (150*300) mm. The results obtained for concrete were for local raw materials without any additional materials or treatment. The mechanical and thermal properties determined were (compressive strength, static modulus of elasticity, density, thermal conductivity (k), specific heat capacity (Cp), thermal expansion (α) after (7) days of curing at 20 0C. The increase in amount of plastic waste decreases the density of concrete which leads to decrease in the mechanical and to improvement in thermal properties. The average measured static modulus of elasticity are found less than the predicted static modulus of elasticity and splitting tensile strength (ACI 318-2008 and ACI 213R-2003). All cubes specimens when exposed to heat at (200, 400, 600 0C), the compressive strength of all mixes decreases gradually at 600 0C, the strength of lightweight aggregate concrete were disintegrated. Lightweight aggregate concrete is about 25% lighter than normal concrete in dead load, and to the improve the properties of thermal insulation of building blocks.

Keywords: LWAC, plastic waste, thermal property, thermal insulation

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787 Improvement of Performance for R. C. Beams Made from Recycled Aggregate by Using Non-Traditional Admixture

Authors: A. H. Yehia, M. M. Rashwan, K. A. Assaf, K. Abd el Samee

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to use an environmental, cheap; organic non-traditional admixture to improve the structural behavior of sustainable reinforced concrete beams contains different ratios of recycled concrete aggregate. The used admixture prepared by using wastes from vegetable oil industry. Under and over reinforced concrete beams made from natural aggregate and different ratios of recycled concrete aggregate were tested under static load until failure. Eight beams were tested to investigate the performance and mechanism effect of admixture on improving deformation characteristics, modulus of elasticity and toughness of tested beams. Test results show efficiency of organic admixture on improving flexural behavior of beams contains 20% recycled concrete aggregate more over the other ratios.

Keywords: deflection, modulus of elasticity, non-traditional admixture, recycled concrete aggregate, strain, toughness, under and over reinforcement

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
786 Properties of Epoxy Composite Reinforced with Amorphous and Crystalline Silica from Rice Husk

Authors: Norul Hisham Hamid, Amir Affan, Ummi Hani Abdullah, Paridah Md. Tahir, Khairul Akmal Azhar, Rahmat Nawai, W. B. H. Wan Sulwani Izzati

Abstract:

The dimensional stability and static bending properties of epoxy composite reinforced with amorphous and crystalline silica were investigated. The amorphous and crystalline silica was obtained by the precipitation method from carbonisation process of the rice husk at a temperature of 600 °C and 1000 °C for 7 hours respectively. The epoxy resin was mixed with 5%, 10% and 15% concentrations of amorphous and crystalline silica. The mixture was stirred for 10 minutes and cured at 28 °C for 72 hours and oven dried at 80 °C for 72 hours. The scanning electron microscope image showed the silica sized of 10-30nm was obtained. The water absorption and thickness swelling of epoxy/amorphous silica composite was not significantly different with silica concentration ranged from 0.08% to 0.09% and 0.17% to 0.20% respectively. The maximum modulus of rupture (85 MPa) and modulus of elasticity (3284 MPa) were achieved for 10% silica concentration. For epoxy/crystalline silica composite; the water absorption and thickness swelling were also not significantly different with silica concentration, ranged from 0.08% to 0.11% and 0.16% to 0.18% respectively. The maximum modulus of rupture (47.9 MPa) and modulus of elasticity (2760 MPa) were achieved for 10% silica concentration. Overall, the water absorption and thickness swelling were almost identical for epoxy composite made from either amorphous or crystalline silica. The epoxy composite made from amorphous silica was stronger than crystalline silica.

Keywords: epoxy, composite, dimensional stability, static bending, silica

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785 Non-linear Model of Elasticity of Compressive Strength of Concrete

Authors: Charles Horace Ampong

Abstract:

Non-linear models have been found to be useful in modeling the elasticity (measure of degree of responsiveness) of a dependent variable with respect to a set of independent variables ceteris paribus. This constant elasticity principle was applied to the dependent variable (Compressive Strength of Concrete in MPa) which was found to be non-linearly related to the independent variable (Water-Cement ratio in kg/m3) for given Ages of Concrete in days (3, 7, 28) at different levels of admixtures Superplasticizer (in kg/m3), Blast Furnace Slag (in kg/m3) and Fly Ash (in kg/m3). The levels of the admixtures were categorized as: S1=Some Plasticizer added & S0=No Plasticizer added; B1=some Blast Furnace Slag added & B0=No Blast Furnace Slag added; F1=Some Fly Ash added & F0=No Fly Ash added. The number of observations (samples) used for the research was one-hundred and thirty-two (132) in all. For Superplasticizer, it was found that Compressive Strength of Concrete was more elastic with regards to Water-Cement ratio at S1 level than at S0 level for the given ages of concrete 3, 7and 28 days. For Blast Furnace Slag, Compressive Strength with regards to Water-Cement ratio was more elastic at B0 level than at B1 level for concrete ages 3, 7 and 28 days. For Fly Ash, Compressive Strength with regards to Water-Cement ratio was more elastic at B0 level than at B1 level for Ages 3, 7 and 28 days. The research also tested for different combinations of the levels of Superplasticizer, Blast Furnace Slag and Fly Ash. It was found that Compressive Strength elasticity with regards to Water-Cement ratio was lowest (Elasticity=-1.746) with a combination of S0, B0 and F0 for concrete age of 3 days. This was followed by Elasticity of -1.611 with a combination of S0, B0 and F0 for a concrete of age 7 days. Next, the highest was an Elasticity of -1.414 with combination of S0, B0 and F0 for a concrete age of 28 days. Based on preceding outcomes, three (3) non-linear model equations for predicting the output elasticity of Compressive Strength of Concrete (in %) or the value of Compressive Strength of Concrete (in MPa) with regards to Water to Cement was formulated. The model equations were based on the three different ages of concrete namely 3, 7 and 28 days under investigation. The three models showed that higher elasticity translates into higher compressive strength. And the models revealed a trend of increasing concrete strength from 3 to 28 days for a given amount of water to cement ratio. Using the models, an increasing modulus of elasticity from 3 to 28 days was deduced.

Keywords: concrete, compressive strength, elasticity, water-cement

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784 Mechanical Properties of Class F Fly Ash Blended Concrete Incorporation with Natural Admixture

Authors: T. S. Ramesh Babu, D. Neeraja

Abstract:

This research work revealed that effect of Natural admixture (NAD) on Conventional Concrete (CC) and Class F Fly Ash(FA) blended concrete. Broiler hen egg white albumen and yellow yolk were used as Natural Admixture. Cement was replaced by Class F fly ash at various levels of 0%, 25%, 35%, 45% and 55% by its mass and NAD was added to concrete at different replacement dosages of 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75% and 1.00% by its volume to water content and liquid to binder ratio was maintained at 0.5. For all replacement levels of FA and NAD, the mechanical properties viz unit weight, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of CC and Class F fly ash (FA) were studied at 7, 28, 56 and 112 days. From the results, it was concluded that 0.25% of NAD dosage was considered as optimum dosage for both CC and class F fly ash blended concrete. The studies revealed that 35% Class F fly ash blended concrete mix is concluded as optimum mix and 55% Class F fly ash blended concrete mix is concluded as economical mix with 0.25% NAD dosage.

Keywords: Class F fly ash, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, natural admixture, splitting tensile strength, unit weight

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783 Beta Titanium Alloys: The Lowest Elastic Modulus for Biomedical Applications: A Review

Authors: Mohsin Talib Mohammed, Zahid A. Khan, Arshad N. Siddiquee

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Biometallic materials are the most important materials for use in biomedical applications especially in manufacturing a variety of biological artificial replacements in a modern worlds, e.g. hip, knee or shoulder joints, due to their advanced characteristics. Titanium (Ti) and its alloys are used extensively in biomedical applications based on their high specific strength and excellent corrosion resistance. Beta-Ti alloys containing completely biocompatible elements are exceptionally prospective materials for manufacturing of bioimplants. They have superior mechanical, chemical and electrochemical properties for use as biomaterials. These biomaterials have the ability to introduce the most important property of biochemical compatibility which is low elastic modulus. This review examines current information on the recent developments in alloying elements leading to improvements of beta Ti alloys for use as biomaterials. Moreover, this paper focuses mainly on the evolution, evaluation and development of the modulus of elasticity as an effective factor on the performance of beta alloys.

Keywords: beta alloys, biomedical applications, titanium alloys, Young's modulus

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782 Enhancement of Cement Mortar Mechanical Properties with Replacement of Seashell Powder

Authors: Abdoullah Namdar, Fadzil Mat Yahaya

Abstract:

Many synthetic additives have been using for improve cement mortar and concrete characteristics, but natural additive is a friendly environment option. The quantity of (2% and 4%) seashell powder has been replaced in cement mortar, and compared with plain cement mortar in early age of 7 days. The strain gauges have been installed on beams and cube, for monitoring fluctuation of flexural and compressive strength. Main objective of this paper is to study effect of linear static force on flexural and compressive strength of modified cement mortar. The results have been indicated that the replacement of appropriate proportion of seashell powder enhances cement mortar mechanical properties. The replacement of 2% seashell causes improvement of deflection, time to failure and maximum load to failure on concrete beam and cube, the same occurs for compressive modulus elasticity. Increase replacement of seashell to 4% reduces all flexural strength, compressive strength and strain of cement mortar.

Keywords: compressive strength, flexural strength, compressive modulus elasticity, time to failure, deflection

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781 Determination of Elastic Constants for Scots Pine Grown in Turkey Using Ultrasound

Authors: Ergun Guntekin

Abstract:

This study investigated elastic constants of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) grown in Turkey by means of ultrasonic waves. Three Young’s modulus, three shear modulus and six Poisson ratios were determined at constant moisture content (12 %). Three longitudinal and six shear wave velocities propagating along the principal axes of anisotropy, and additionally, three quasi-shear wave velocities at 45° with respect to the principal axes of anisotropy were measured using EPOCH 650 ultrasonic flaw detector. The measured average longitudinal wave velocities for the sapwood in L, R, T directions were 4795, 1713 and 1117 m/s, respectively. The measured average shear wave velocities ranged from 682 to 1382 m/s. The measured quasi-shear wave velocities varied between 642 and 1280 m/s. The calculated average modulus of elasticity values for the sapwood in L, R, T directions were 11913, 1565 and 663 N/mm2, respectively. The calculated shear modulus in LR, LT and RT planes were 1031, 541, 415 N/mm2. Comparing with available literature, the predicted elastic constants are acceptable.

Keywords: elastic constants, prediction, Scots pine, ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
780 Using the Nonlocal Theory of Free Vibrations Nanobeam

Authors: Ali Oveysi Sarabi

Abstract:

The dimensions of nanostructures are in the range of inter-atomic spacing of the structures which makes them impossible to be modeled as a continuum. Nanoscale size-effects on vibration analysis of nanobeams embedded in an elastic medium is investigated using different types of beam theory. To this end, Eringen’s nonlocal elasticity is incorporated to various beam theories namely as Euler-Bernoulli beam theory (EBT), Timoshenko beam theory (TBT), Reddy beam theory (RBT), and Levinson beam theory (LBT). The surrounding elastic medium is simulated with both Winkler and Pasternak foundation models and the difference between them is studies. Explicit formulas are presented to obtain the natural frequencies of nanobeam corresponding to each nonlocal beam theory. Selected numerical results are given for different values of the non-local parameter, Winkler modulus parameter, Pasternak modulus parameter and aspect ratio of the beam that imply the effects of them, separately. It is observed that the values of natural frequency are strongly dependent on the stiffness of elastic medium and the value of the non-local parameter and these dependencies varies with the value of aspect ratio and mode number.

Keywords: nanobeams, free vibration, nonlocal elasticity, winkler foundation model, Pasternak foundation model, beam theories

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779 Numerical Study on Ultimate Capacity of Bi-Modulus Beam-Column

Authors: Zhiming Ye, Dejiang Wang, Huiling Zhao

Abstract:

Development of the technology demands a higher-level research on the mechanical behavior of materials. Structural members made of bi-modulus materials have different elastic modulus when they are under tension and compression. The stress and strain states of the point effect on the elastic modulus and Poisson ratio of every point in the bi-modulus material body. Accompanied by the uncertainty and nonlinearity of the elastic constitutive relation is the complicated nonlinear problem of the bi-modulus members. In this paper, the small displacement and large displacement finite element method for the bi-modulus members have been proposed. Displacement nonlinearity is considered in the elastic constitutive equation. Mechanical behavior of slender bi-modulus beam-column under different boundary conditions and loading patterns has been simulated by the proposed method. The influence factors on the ultimate bearing capacity of slender beam and columns have been studied. The results show that as the ratio of tensile modulus to compressive modulus increases, the error of the simulation employing the same elastic modulus theory exceeds the engineering permissible error.

Keywords: bi-modulus, ultimate capacity, beam-column, nonlinearity

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778 Heat Treatment on Malaysian Hardwood Timbers: The Effect of Heat Exposure at Different Levels of Temperature on Bending Strength Properties

Authors: Nur Ilya Farhana Md Noh, Zakiah Ahmad

Abstract:

Heat treatment on timbers is a process of applying heat to modify and equip the timbers with new improvised characteristics. It is environmental friendly compared to the common practice of treating timber by chemical preservatives. Malaysian hardwood timbers; Pauh Kijang and Kapur in green condition were heat treated at 150°C, 170°C, 190°C and 210°C in a specially design electronic furnace in one hour duration. The objectives were to determine the effect of heat treatment on bending strength properties of heat treated Pauh Kijang and Kapur in term of Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) and Modulus of Rupture (MOR) and to examine the significance changes at each temperature levels applied. Untreated samples for each species were used as a control sample. The results indicated that the bending strength properties for both species of timbers were affected by the heat exposure. Both MOE and MOR values for heat treated Pauh Kijang were increased when subjected to the specified temperature levels except at 210°C. The values were dropped compared to the control sample and sample treated at 190°C. Heat treated Kapur shows the same pattern of increment on its MOE and MOR values after exposure to heat at three temperature levels used and the values dropped at 210°C. However, differ to Pauh Kijang, even though there were decrement occurred at 210°C but the value is still higher compared to the control sample. The increments of MOE and MOR values are an indicator that heat treatment had successfully improvised the bending strength properties of these two species of hardwood timber. As the good strength of Malaysian timbers used as structural material is limited in numbers and expensive, heat treating timber with low strength properties is an alternative way to overcome this issue. Heat treatment is an alternative method need to be explored and made available in Malaysia as this country is still practicing chemical preservative treatment on the timbers.

Keywords: bending strength, hardwood timber, heat treatment, modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR)

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
777 On Definition of Modulus of Deformation of Ground by Laboratory Method

Authors: Olgha Giorgishvili

Abstract:

The work is mainly concerned with the determination of modulus of deformation by laboratory method. It is known that a modulus of deformation is defining by laboratory and field methods. By laboratory method the modulus of deformation is defined in the compressive devices. Our goal is to conduct experiments by both methods and finally make to interpret the obtained results. In this article is considered the definition by new offered laboratory method of deformation modulus that is closer to the real deformation modulus. Finally, the obtained results gives the possibility to us to raise the issue of change the state norms for determining ground by laboratory method.

Keywords: building, soil mechanic, deformation moulus, compression methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
776 Mechanical and Physical Properties of Wood Composite Panel from Recycled Plastic and Sawdust of Cordia alliodora (Ruiz and Pav.)

Authors: Ahmed Bolaji Alarape, Oluwatobi Damilola Aba, Usman Shehu

Abstract:

Wood plastic composite boards were made from sawn dust of Cordia alliodora and recycled polyethylene at a mixing ratio of 1.5ratio1, 2.5ratio1 and 3.5ratio1 and nominal densities of 600 kilograms per meter cube, 700 kilograms per meter cube, and 800 kilograms per meter cube, The material was hot pressed at 150-degree celsius to produce board of 250 millimeter by 250 millimeter by 6 millimeter of which 18 boards were produced. The experiment was subject to 3 by 3 factorial experiments in Completely Randomised Design (CRD). Analysis of variance and Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was adopted by 3 by 3 at 5 percent probability. The strength properties of the boards such as modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) were investigated, while the dimensional properties of the board such as the water absorption (WA) and thickness swelling (TS) were as well determined after 12hrs and 24hrs of water immersion. The result showed that the mean values of MOE ranged from 9100.73 Newtons per square millimeters to 12086.96 Newtons per square millimeters while MOR values ranged from 48.26 Newtons per square millimeters to 103.09 Newtons per square millimeters. The values of WA and TS after 12hrs immersion ranged from 1.21 percent to 1.56 percent and 0.00 percent to 0.13 percent, respectively. The values of WA and TS after 24hrs of water immersion ranged from 1.66 percent to 2.99 percent and 0.02 percent to 0.18 percent, respectively. The higher the value of board density and the high-density polythene /sawdust ratio, the stronger, the stiffer and more dimensionally stable the wood plastic composite boards obtained. In addition, as the density of the board increases, the strength property of the boards increases. Hence the board will be suitable for internal construction materials.

Keywords: wood Plastic composite, modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, dimensional stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
775 Behavior of Reinforced Soil by Polypropylene Fibers

Authors: M. Kamal Elbokl

Abstract:

The beneficial effects of reinforcing the subgrade soil in pavement system with randomly distributed polypropylene fibers were investigated. For this issue, two types of soils and one type of fiber were selected. Proctor, CBR and unconfined compression tests were conducted on unreinforced samples as well as reinforced ones at different concentrations and aspect ratio of fibers. OMC, CBR and modulus of elasticity were investigated and thereby, the optimum value of aspect ratio and fiber content were determined. The static and repeated triaxial tests were also conducted to study the behaviour of fiber reinforced soils under both static and repeated loading. The results indicated that CBR values of reinforced sand and clay were 3.1 and 4.2 times of their unreinforced values respectively. The modulus of elasticity of fiber reinforced soils has increased by 100% for silty sandy soil and 60.20% for silty clay soil due to fiber reinforcement. The reinforced soils exhibited higher failure stresses in the static triaxial tests than the unreinforced ones due to the apparent bond developed between soil particle and the fiber. Fiber reinforcement of subgrade soils can play an important role in control the rut formation in the pavement system.

Keywords: polypropylene fibers, CBR, static triaxial, cyclic triaxial, resilient strain, permanent strain

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
774 An Atomic Finite Element Model for Mechanical Properties of Graphene Sheets

Authors: Win-Jin Chang, Haw-Long Lee, Yu-Ching Yang

Abstract:

In this study, we use the atomic-scale finite element method to investigate the mechanical behavior of the armchair- and zigzag-structured nanoporous graphene sheets with the clamped-free-free-free boundary condition under tension and shear loadings. The effect of porosity on Young’s modulus and shear modulus of nanoporous graphene sheets is obvious. For the armchair- and zigzag-structured nanoporous graphene sheets, Young’s modulus and shear modulus decreases with increasing porosity. Young’s modulus and shear modulus of zigzag graphene are larger than that of armchair one for the same porosity. The results are useful for application in the design of nanoporous graphene sheets.

Keywords: graphene, nanoporous, Young's modulus, shear modulus

Procedia PDF Downloads 257