Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2886

Search results for: fire resistance

2886 Improving Fire Resistance of Wood and Wood-Based Composites and Fire Testing Systems

Authors: Nadir Ayrilmis

Abstract:

Wood and wood-based panels are one of the oldest structural materials used in the construction industry due to their significant advantages such as good mechanical properties, low density, renewable material, low-cost, recycling, etc. However, they burn when exposed to a flame source or high temperatures. This is very important when the wood products are used as structural or hemi-structural materials in the construction industry, furniture industry, so on. For this reason, the fire resistance is demanded property for wood products. They can be impregnated with fire retardants to improve their fire resistance. The most used fire retardants, fire-retardant mechanism, and fire-testing systems, and national and international fire-durability classifications and standard requirements for fire-durability of wood and wood-based panels were given in this study.

Keywords: fire resistance, wood-based panels, cone calorimeter, wood

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
2885 The Fire Performance of Exposed Timber Panels

Authors: Bernice V. Y. Wong, Kong Fah Tee

Abstract:

Cross-laminated timber is increasingly being used in the construction of high-rise buildings due to its simple manufacturing system. In term of fire resistance, cross-laminated timber panels are promoted as having excellent fire resistance, comparable to that of non-combustible materials and to heavy timber construction, due to the ability of thick wood assemblies to char slowly at a predictable rate while maintaining most of their strength during the fire exposure. This paper presents an overview of fire performance of cross-laminated timber and evaluation of its resistance to elevated temperature in comparison to homogeneous timber panels. Charring rates for cross-laminated timber panels of those obtained experimentally were compared with those provided by Eurocode simplified calculation methods.

Keywords: timber structure, cross-laminated timber, charring rate, timber fire resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
2884 Evaluation of Fire Resistance of High Strength Reinforced Concrete Columns with Spiral Wire Rope

Authors: Ki-Seok Kwon, Heung-Youl Kim

Abstract:

This research evaluated fire resistances of high-strengthened reinforced concrete (RC) column, spiral wire rope which applied with 60, and 100MPa. The fire resistance test of RC column with loading condition was conducted following the ISO 834 (3 hours). This experiment set mixing of fiber (PP fiber, Steel fiber) and types of horizontal reinforcement as a variable of reinforcement method. The fire resistance test measured the main steel bar’s max and mean temperatures also the shrinkage and shrinking ratio of columns(500 X 500 X 3,000mm) with loadings. As a result, the specimen of 60MPa attained three hours fire resistance with only spiral wire rope. Also, the specimen of 100MPa must be reinforced with fibers and spiral wire rope to attain three hours fire resistance.

Keywords: reinforced concrete column, high strength concrete, wire rope, fire resistance test

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
2883 Experiment and Analytical Study on Fire Resistance Performance of Slot Type Concrete-Filled Tube

Authors: Bum Yean Cho, Heung-Youl Kim, Ki-Seok Kwon, Kang-Su Kim

Abstract:

In this study, a full-scale test and analysis (numerical analysis) of fire resistance performance of bare CFT column on which slot was used instead of existing welding method to connect the steel pipe on the concrete-filled tube were conducted. Welded CFT column is known to be vulnerable to high or low temperature because of low brittleness of welding part. As a result of a fire resistance performance test of slot CFT column after removing the welding part and fixing it by a slot which was folded into the tube, slot type CFT column indicated the improved fire resistance performance than welded CFT column by 28% or more. And as a result of conducting finite element analysis of slot type column using ABAQUS, analysis result proved the reliability of the test result in predicting the fire behavior and fire resistance hour.

Keywords: CFT (concrete-filled tube) column, fire resistance performance, slot, weld

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
2882 A Review on Concrete Structures in Fire

Authors: S. Iffat, B. Bose

Abstract:

Concrete as a construction material is versatile because it displays high degree of fire-resistance. Concrete’s inherent ability to combat one of the most devastating disaster that a structure can endure in its lifetime, can be attributed to its constituent materials which make it inert and have relatively poor thermal conductivity. However, concrete structures must be designed for fire effects. Structural components should be able to withstand dead and live loads without undergoing collapse. The properties of high-strength concrete must be weighed against concerns about its fire resistance and susceptibility to spalling at elevated temperatures. In this paper, the causes, effects and some remedy of deterioration in concrete due to fire hazard will be discussed. Some cost effective solutions to produce a fire resistant concrete will be conversed through this paper.

Keywords: concrete, fire, spalling, temperature, compressive strength, density

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
2881 Emissivity Analysis of Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel in Fire

Authors: Christian Gaigl, Martin Mensinger

Abstract:

Once a fire resistance rating is necessary, it has to be proofed that the load bearing behavior of a steel construction under the exposure of fire still fits the static demands. High costs of passive fire protection, which satisfies the requirements, frequently result in a concrete solution. To optimize these expenses, one method is to determine the critical temperature according to the Eurocode DIN EN 1993-1-2. For this purpose, positive effects of hot-dip galvanized surface layers on the temperature development of steel members in the accidental situation of fire exposure has been investigated. The test results show a significant better heating behavior of hot-dip galvanized steel components compared to normal steel specimen. This leads in many cases to a R30 (30 minutes of ISO-fire) fire protection requirement of unprotected steel members and therefore to an economic added value.

Keywords: fire resistance, hot-dip galvanizing, steel constructions, R30 requirement, emissivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
2880 Prediction of the Heat Transfer Characteristics of Tunnel Concrete

Authors: Seung Cho Yang, Jae Sung Lee, Se Hee Park

Abstract:

This study suggests the analysis method to predict the damages of tunnel concrete caused by fires. The result obtained from the analyses of concrete temperatures at a fire in a tunnel using ABAQUS was compared with the test result. After the reliability of the analysis method was verified, the temperatures of a tunnel at a real fire and those of concrete during the fire were estimated to predict fire damages. The temperatures inside the tunnel were estimated by FDS, a CFD model. It was deduced that the fire performance of tunnel lining and the fire damages of the structure at an actual fire could be estimated by the analysis method.

Keywords: fire resistance, heat transfer, numerical analysis, tunnel fire

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
2879 Determining Fire Resistance of Wooden Construction Elements through Experimental Studies and Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Sakir Tasdemir, Mustafa Altin, Gamze Fahriye Pehlivan, Sadiye Didem Boztepe Erkis, Ismail Saritas, Selma Tasdemir

Abstract:

Artificial intelligence applications are commonly used in industry in many fields in parallel with the developments in the computer technology. In this study, a fire room was prepared for the resistance of wooden construction elements and with the mechanism here, the experiments of polished materials were carried out. By utilizing from the experimental data, an artificial neural network (ANN) was modeled in order to evaluate the final cross sections of the wooden samples remaining from the fire. In modelling, experimental data obtained from the fire room were used. In the system developed, the first weight of samples (ws-gr), preliminary cross-section (pcs-mm2), fire time (ft-minute), fire temperature (t-oC) as input parameters and final cross-section (fcs-mm2) as output parameter were taken. When the results obtained from ANN and experimental data are compared after making statistical analyses, the data of two groups are determined to be coherent and seen to have no meaning difference between them. As a result, it is seen that ANN can be safely used in determining cross sections of wooden materials after fire and it prevents many disadvantages.

Keywords: artificial neural network, final cross-section, fire retardant polishes, fire safety, wood resistance.

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
2878 The Influence of Steel Connection on Fire Resistance of Composite Steel-Framed Buildings

Authors: Mohammed Kadhim, Zhaohui Huang

Abstract:

Steel connections can play an important role in enhancing the robustness of structures under fire conditions. Therefore, it is significant to examine the influence of steel connections on the fire resistance of composite steel-framed buildings. In this paper, both the behavior of steel connections and their influence on composite steel frame are analyzed using the non-linear finite element computer software VULCAN at ambient and elevated temperatures. The chosen frame is subjected to ISO834 fire. The comparison between end plate connections, pinned connection, and rigid connection has been carried out. By applying different compartment fires, some cases are studied to show the behavior of steel connection when the fire is applied at certain beams. In addition, different plate thickness and deferent applied loads have been analyzed to examine the behavior of chosen steel connection under ISO834 fire. It was found from the analytical results that the beam with extended end plate is stronger and has better performance in terms of axial forces than those beams with flush end plate connection. It was also found that extended end plate connection has highest limiting temperatures compared to the flush end plate connection. In addition, it was found that the performance of end-plate connections is very close to rigid connection and very far from pinned connections. Furthermore, plate thickness has less effect on the influence of steel connection on fire resistance. In conclusion, the behavior of composite steel framed buildings is largely dependent on the steel connection due to their high impact under fire condition. It is recommended to consider the extended end-plate in the design proposes because of its higher properties compared to the flush end plate connection. Finally, this paper shows a steel connection has an important effect on the fire resistance of composite steel framed buildings.

Keywords: composite steel-framed buildings, connection behavior, end-plate connections, finite element modeling, fire resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
2877 Nano Composite of Clay and Modified Ketonic Resin as Fire Retardant Polyol for Polyurethane

Authors: D. Önen, N. Kızılcan, B. Yıldız, A. Akar

Abstract:

In situ modified cyclohexanone-formaldehyde resins were prepared by addition of alendronic acid during resin preparation. Clay nanocomposites in ketonic resins were achieved by adding clay into the flask at the beginning of the resin preparation. The prepared resins were used for the synthesis of fire resistant polyurethanes foam. Both phosphorous containing modifier compound alendronic acid and nanoclay increases fire resistance of the cyclohexanone-formaldehyde resin thus polyurethane produced from these resins. The effect of the concentrations of alendronic acid and clay on the fire resistance and physical properties of polyurethanes was studied.

Keywords: alendronic acid, clay, ketonic resin, polyurethane

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
2876 Effect of Reinforcement Steel Ratio on the Behavior of R. C. Columns Exposed to Fire

Authors: Hatem Ghith

Abstract:

This research paper experimentally investigates the effect of burning by fire flame from one face on the behavior and load carrying capacity for reinforced columns. Residual ultimate load carrying capacity, axial deformation, crack pattern and maximum crack width for column specimens with and without burning were recorded and discussed. Tested six reinforced concrete columns were divided into control specimen and two groups. The first group was exposed to a fire with a different temperature (300, 500, 700 °C) for an hour with reinforcement ratio 0.89% and the second group was exposed to a fire with a temperature 500 °C for an hour with different reinforcement ratio (0.89%, 2.18%, and 3.57%), then all columns were tested under short-term axial loading. From the obtained results, it could be concluded that the fire parameters significantly influence the fire resistance of R.C columns. The fire parameters cause axial deformation and moment on the column due to the eccentricity that generated from the difference in temperature and consequently the compressive stresses of both faces of the columns but the increased reinforcement ratio enhanced the resistance of columns for axial deformation and moment on the column due to the eccentricity.

Keywords: columns, reinforcement ratio, strength, time exposure

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
2875 The Experimental and Statistical Analysis of the Wood Strength against Pressure According to Different Wood Types, Sizes, and Coatings

Authors: Mustafa Altin, Gamze Fahriye Pehlivan, Sadiye Didem Boztepe Erkis, Sakir Tasdemir, Sevda Altin

Abstract:

In this study, an experimental study was executed related to the strength of wooden materials which have been commonly used both in the past and present against pressure and whether fire retardant materials used against fire have any effects or not. Totally, 81 samples which included three different wood species, three different sizes, two different fire retardants and two unprocessed samples were prepared. Compressive pressure tests were applied to the prepared samples, their variance analyses were executed in accordance with the obtained results and it was aimed to determine the most convenient wooden materials and fire-retardant coating material. It was also determined that the species of wood and the species of coating caused the decrease and/or increase in the resistance against pressure.

Keywords: resistance of wood against pressure, species of wood, variance analysis, wood coating, wood fire safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
2874 An Experimental Study on the Influence of Mineral Admixtures on the Fire Resistance of High-Strength Concrete

Authors: Ki-seok Kwon, Dong-woo Ryu, Heung-Youl Kim

Abstract:

Although high-strength concrete has many advantages over generic concrete at normal temperatures (around 20℃), it undergoes spalling at high temperatures, which constitutes its structurally fatal drawback. In this study, fire resistance tests were conducted for 3 hours in accordance with ASTM E119 on bearing wall specimens which were 3,000mm x 3,000mm x 300mm in dimensions to investigate the influence the type of admixtures would exert on the fire resistance performance of high-strength concrete. Portland cement, blast furnace slag, fly ash and silica fume were used as admixtures, among which 2 or 3 components were combined to make 7 types of mixtures. In 56MPa specimens, the severity of spalling was in order of SF5 > F25 > S65SF5 > S50. Specimen S50 where an admixture consisting of 2 components was added did not undergo spalling. In 70MPa specimens, the severity of spalling was in order of SF5 > F25SF5 > S45SF5 and the result was similar to that observed in 56MPa specimens. Acknowledgements— This study was conducted by the support of the project, “Development of performance-based fire safety design of the building and improvement of fire safety” (18AUDP-B100356-04) which is under the management of Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement as part of the urban architecture research project for the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, for which we extend our deep thanks.

Keywords: high strength concrete, mineral admixture, fire resistance, social disaster

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
2873 Engineering Analysis for Fire Safety Using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD)

Authors: Munirajulu M, Srikanth Modem

Abstract:

A large cricket stadium with the capacity to accommodate several thousands of spectators has the seating arena consisting of a two-tier arrangement with an upper and a lower bowl and an intermediate concourse podium level for pedestrian movement to access the bowls. The uniqueness of the stadium is that spectators can have an unobstructed view from all around the podium towards the field of play. Upper and lower bowls are connected by stairs. The stairs landing is a precast slab supported by cantilevered steel beams. These steel beams are fixed to precast columns supporting the stadium structure. The stair slabs are precast concrete supported on a landing slab and cantilevered steel beams. During an event of a fire at podium level between two staircases, fire resistance of steel beams is very critical to life safety. If the steel beam loses its strength due to lack of fire resistance, it will be weak in supporting stair slabs and may lead to a hazard in evacuating occupants from the upper bowl to the lower bowl. In this study, to ascertain fire rating and life safety, a performance-based design using CFD analysis is used to evaluate the steel beams' fire resistance. A fire size of 3.5 MW (convective heat output of fire) with a wind speed of 2.57 m/s is considered for fire and smoke simulation. CFD results show that the smoke temperature near the staircase/ around the staircase does not exceed 1500 C for the fire duration considered. The surface temperature of cantilevered steel beams is found to be less than or equal to 1500 C. Since this temperature is much less than the critical failure temperature of steel (5200 C), it is concluded that the design of structural steel supports on the staircase is adequate and does not need additional fire protection such as fire-resistant coating. CFD analysis provided an engineering basis for the performance-based design of steel structural elements and an opportunity to optimize fire protection requirements. Thus, performance-based design using CFD modeling and simulation of fire and smoke is an innovative way to evaluate fire rating requirements, ascertain life safety and optimize the design with regard to fire protection on structural steel elements.

Keywords: fire resistance, life safety, performance-based design, CFD analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
2872 Design and Optimization Fire Alarm System to Protect Gas Condensate Reservoirs With the Use of Nano-Technology

Authors: Hefzollah Mohammadian, Ensieh Hajeb, Mohamad Baqer Heidari

Abstract:

In this paper, for the protection and safety of tanks gases (flammable materials) and also due to the considerable economic value of the reservoir, the new system for the protection, the conservation and fire fighting has been cloned. The system consists of several parts: the Sensors to detect heat and fire with Nanotechnology (nano sensor), Barrier for isolation and protection from a range of two electronic zones, analyzer for detection and locating point of fire accurately, Main electronic board to announce fire, Fault diagnosis in different locations, such as relevant alarms and activate different devices for fire distinguish and announcement. An important feature of this system, high speed and capability of fire detection system in a way that is able to detect the value of the ambient temperature that can be adjusted. Another advantage of this system is autonomous and does not require human operator in place. Using nanotechnology, in addition to speeding up the work, reduces the cost of construction of the sensor and also the notification system and fire extinguish.

Keywords: analyser, barrier, heat resistance, general fault, general alarm, nano sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
2871 Investigation on the Fire Resistance of Ultra-High Performance Concrete with Natural Fibers

Authors: Dong Zhang, Kang Hai Tan, Aravind Dasari

Abstract:

Increasing concern on environmental sustainability and waste management has driven the construction and building sector towards renewable materials. In this work, we have explored the usage of natural fibers as an alternative to synthetic fibers like polypropylene (PP) in ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC). PP fibers are incorporated into concrete to resist explosive thermal spalling of UHPC during a fire exposure scenario. Experimental studies on the effect of natural fiber on the mechanical properties and spalling resistance of UHCP were conducted. The residual mechanical properties of UHPC with natural fibers were tested after heating to different temperatures. Spalling behavior of UHPC with natural fibers is also assessed by heating the samples according to ISO 834 fire curve. A range of analytical, physical and microscopic characterization techniques was also used on the concrete samples before and after being subjected to elevated temperature to investigate the phase and microstructural change of the sample. The findings show that natural fibers are able to improve fire resistance of UHPC. Adding natural fibers can prevent UHPC from spalling at high temperature. This study provides an alternative, which is at low cost and environmentally friendly, to prevent spalling of UHPC.

Keywords: high temperature, natural fiber, spalling, ultra-high performance concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
2870 Prospective Future of Frame Fire Tests

Authors: Chung-Hao Wu, Tung-Dju Lin, Ming-Chin Ho, Minehiro Nishiyama

Abstract:

This paper discusses reported fire tests of concrete beams and columns, future fire tests of beam/column frames, and an innovative concept for designing a beam/column furnace. The proposed furnace could be designed to maximize the efficiency of fire test procedures and minimize the cost of furnace construction and fuel consumption. ASTM E119 and ISO 834 standards were drafted based on prescriptive codes and have several weaknesses. The first involves a provision allowing the support regions of a test element to be protected from fire exposure. The second deals with the L/30 deflection end point instead of the structural end point (collapse) in order to protect the hydraulic rams from fire damage. Furthermore, designers commonly use the measured fire endurances of interior columns to assess fire ratings of edge and corner columns of the same building. The validity of such an engineering practice is theoretically unsound. Performance-Based Codes (PBC) require verification tests of structural frames including the beam/column joints to overcome these weaknesses but allow the use of element test data as reference only. In the last 30 years, PBC have gained global popularity because the innovative design and flexibility in achieving an ultimate performance goal.

Keywords: fire resistance, concrete structure, beam/column frame, fire tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
2869 Numerical Study of Fire Propagation in Confined and Open Area

Authors: Hadj Miloua, Abbes Azzi

Abstract:

The objective of the present paper is to understand, predict and modeled the fire behavior in confined and open area in different conditions and diverse fuels such as liquid pool fire and the vegetative materials. The distinctive problems are a ventilated road tunnel used for urban transport, by the characterization installations of ventilation and his influence in the mode of smoke dispersion and the flame shape. A general investigation is relatively traditional, based on the modeling and simulation the scenario of the pool fire interacted with wind ventilation by the use of numerical software fire dynamic simulator FDS ver.5 to simulate the fire in ventilated tunnel. The second simulation by WFDS.5 is Wildland fire which is always occurs in forest and rangeland fire environments and will thus have an impact on people, property and resources.

Keywords: fire, road tunnel, simulation, vegetation, wildland

Procedia PDF Downloads 420
2868 Impact of an Onboard Fire for the Evacuation of a Rolling Stock

Authors: Guillaume Craveur

Abstract:

This study highlights the impact of an onboard fire for the evacuation of a rolling stock. Two fires models are achieved. The first one is a zone model realized with the CFAST software. Then, this fire is imported in a building EXODUS model in order to determine the evacuation time with effects of fire effluents (temperature, smoke opacity, smoke toxicity) on passengers. The second fire is achieved with Fire Dynamics Simulator software. The fire defined is directly imported in the FDS+Evac model which will permit to determine the evacuation time and effects of fire effluents on passengers. These effects will be compared with tenability criteria defined in some standards in order to see if the situation is acceptable. Different power of fire will be underlined to see from what power source the hazard become unacceptable.

Keywords: fire safety engineering, numerical tools, rolling stock, evacuation

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
2867 An Experimental Study on the Optimum Installation of Fire Detector for Early Stage Fire Detecting in Rack-Type Warehouses

Authors: Ki Ok Choi, Sung Ho Hong, Dong Suck Kim, Don Mook Choi

Abstract:

Rack type warehouses are different from general buildings in the kinds, amount, and arrangement of stored goods, so the fire risk of rack type warehouses is different from those buildings. The fire pattern of rack type warehouses is different in combustion characteristic and storing condition of stored goods. The initial fire burning rate is different in the surface condition of materials, but the running time of fire is closely related with the kinds of stored materials and stored conditions. The stored goods of the warehouse are consisted of diverse combustibles, combustible liquid, and so on. Fire detection time may be delayed because the residents are less than office and commercial buildings. If fire detectors installed in rack type warehouses are inadaptable, the fire of the warehouse may be the great fire because of delaying of fire detection. In this paper, we studied what kinds of fire detectors are optimized in early detecting of rack type warehouse fire by real-scale fire tests. The fire detectors used in the tests are rate of rise type, fixed type, photo electric type, and aspirating type detectors. We considered optimum fire detecting method in rack type warehouses suggested by the response characteristic and comparative analysis of the fire detectors.

Keywords: fire detector, rack, response characteristic, warehouse

Procedia PDF Downloads 437
2866 Prediction of Fire Growth of the Office by Real-Scale Fire Experiment

Authors: Kweon Oh-Sang, Kim Heung-Youl

Abstract:

Estimating the engineering properties of fires is important to be prepared for the complex and various fire risks of large-scale structures such as super-tall buildings, large stadiums, and multi-purpose structures. In this study, a mock-up of a compartment which was 2.4(L) x 3.6 (W) x 2.4 (H) meter in dimensions was fabricated at the 10MW LSC (Large Scale Calorimeter) and combustible office supplies were placed in the compartment for a real-scale fire test. Maximum heat release rate was 4.1 MW and total energy release obtained through the application of t2 fire growth rate was 6705.9 MJ.

Keywords: fire growth, fire experiment, t2 curve, large scale calorimeter

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
2865 A Small-Scale Study of Fire Whirls and Investigation of the Effects of Near-Ground Height on the Behavior of Fire Whirls

Authors: M. Arabghahestani, A. Darwish Ahmad, N. K. Akafuah

Abstract:

In this work, small-scale experiments of fire whirl were conducted to study the spinning fire phenomenon and to gain comprehensive understandings of fire tornadoes and the factors that affect their behavior. High speed imaging was used to track the flames at both temporal and spatial scales. This allowed us to better understand the role of the near-ground height in creating a boundary layer flow profile that, in turn contributes to formation of vortices around the fire, and consequent fire whirls. Based on the results obtained from these observations, we were able to spot the differences in the fuel burning rate of the fire itself as a function of a newly defined specific non-dimensional near-ground height. Based on our observations, there is a cutoff non-dimensional height, beyond which a normal fire can be turned into a fire whirl. Additionally, the results showed that the fire burning rate decreases by moving the fire to a height higher than the ground level. These effects were justified by the interactions between vortices formed by, the back pressure and the boundary layer velocity profile, and the vortices generated by the fire itself.

Keywords: boundary layer profile, fire whirls, near-ground height, vortex interactions

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
2864 Forest Fire Risk Mapping Using Analytic Hierarchy Process and GIS-Based Application: A Case Study in Hua Sai District, Thailand

Authors: Narissara Nuthammachot, Dimitris Stratoulias

Abstract:

Fire is one of the main causes of environmental and ecosystem change. Therefore, it is a challenging task for fire risk assessment fire potential mapping. The study area is Hua Sai district, Nakorn Sri Thammarat province, which covers in a part of peat swamp forest areas. 55 fire points in peat swamp areas were reported from 2012 to 2016. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Geographic Information System (GIS) methods were selected for this study. The risk fire area map was arranged on these factors; elevation, slope, aspect, precipitation, distance from the river, distance from town, and land use. The results showed that the predicted fire risk areas are found to be in appreciable reliability with past fire events. The fire risk map can be used for the planning and management of fire areas in the future.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, fire risk assessment, geographic information system, peat swamp forest

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
2863 The Impact of Steel Connections on the Fire Resistance of Composite Buildings

Authors: Shuyuan Lin, Zhaohui Huang, Mizi Fan

Abstract:

In the majority of previous research into modelling large scale composite floor subjected to fire, the beam-to-column and beam-to-beam connections were assumed to behave either as pinned or rigid for simplicity, and the vertical shear and axial tension failures of the connection were not taken into account. We have recently developed robust two-noded connection models for modeling endplate and partial endplate steel connections under fire conditions. The main objective of this research is to systematically investigate the impact of the connections of protected beams, on the tensile membrane actions of supported floor slabs in which the failures of the connections, such as, axial tension, vertical shear and bending are accounted for. The models developed have very good numerical stability under a static solver condition, and can be used for large scale modelling of composite buildings in fire.

Keywords: fire, steel structure, component-based model, beam-to-column connections

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
2862 Fully Instrumented Small-Scale Fire Resistance Benches for Aeronautical Composites Assessment

Authors: Fabienne Samyn, Pauline Tranchard, Sophie Duquesne, Emilie Goncalves, Bruno Estebe, Serge Boubigot

Abstract:

Stringent fire safety regulations are enforced in the aeronautical industry due to the consequences that potential fire event on an aircraft might imply. This is so much true that the fire issue is considered right from the design of the aircraft structure. Due to the incorporation of an increasing amount of polymer matrix composites in replacement of more conventional materials like metals, the nature of the fire risks is changing. The choice of materials used is consequently of prime importance as well as the evaluation of its resistance to fire. The fire testing is mostly done using the so-called certification tests according to standards such as the ISO2685:1998(E). The latter describes a protocol to evaluate the fire resistance of structures located in fire zone (ability to withstand fire for 5min). The test consists in exposing an at least 300x300mm² sample to an 1100°C propane flame with a calibrated heat flux of 116kW/m². This type of test is time-consuming, expensive and gives access to limited information in terms of fire behavior of the materials (pass or fail test). Consequently, it can barely be used for material development purposes. In this context, the laboratory UMET in collaboration with industrial partners has developed a horizontal and a vertical small-scale instrumented fire benches for the characterization of the fire behavior of composites. The benches using smaller samples (no more than 150x150mm²) enables to cut downs costs and hence to increase sampling throughput. However, the main added value of our benches is the instrumentation used to collect useful information to understand the behavior of the materials. Indeed, measurements of the sample backside temperature are performed using IR camera in both configurations. In addition, for the vertical set up, a complete characterization of the degradation process, can be achieved via mass loss measurements and quantification of the gasses released during the tests. These benches have been used to characterize and study the fire behavior of aeronautical carbon/epoxy composites. The horizontal set up has been used in particular to study the performances and durability of protective intumescent coating on 2mm thick 2D laminates. The efficiency of this approach has been validated, and the optimized coating thickness has been determined as well as the performances after aging. Reductions of the performances after aging were attributed to the migration of some of the coating additives. The vertical set up has enabled to investigate the degradation process of composites under fire. An isotropic and a unidirectional 4mm thick laminates have been characterized using the bench and post-fire analyses. The mass loss measurements and the gas phase analyses of both composites do not present significant differences unlike the temperature profiles in the thickness of the samples. The differences have been attributed to differences of thermal conductivity as well as delamination that is much more pronounced for the isotropic composite (observed on the IR-images). This has been confirmed by X-ray microtomography. The developed benches have proven to be valuable tools to develop fire safe composites.

Keywords: aeronautical carbon/epoxy composite, durability, intumescent coating, small-scale ‘ISO 2685 like’ fire resistance test, X-ray microtomography

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
2861 Effect of Fire Exposure on the Ultimate Strength of Loaded Columns

Authors: Hatem Hamdy Ghieth

Abstract:

In the recent time many fires happened in many skeleton buildings. The fire may be continues for a long time. This fire may cause a collapse of the building. This collapse may be happened due to the time of exposure to fire as well as the rate of the loading to the carrying elements. In this research a laboratory study for reinforced concrete columns under effect of fire with temperature reaches (650 ْ C) on the behavior of columns which loaded with axial load and with exposing to fire temperature only from all sides of columns. the main parameters of this study are level of load applying to the column, and the temperature applied to the fire, this temperatures was 500oC and 650oc. Nine concrete columns with dimensions 20x20x100 cms were casted one of these columns was tested to determine the ultimate load while the least were fired according to the experimental schedule.

Keywords: columns, fire duration, concrete strength, level of loading

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
2860 Accidental Compartment Fire Dynamics: Experiment, Computational Fluid Dynamics Weakness and Expert Interview Analysis

Authors: Timothy Onyenobi

Abstract:

Accidental fires and its dynamic as it relates to building compartmentation and the impact of the compartment morphology, is still an on-going area of study; especially with the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling methods. With better knowledge on this subject come better solution recommendations by fire engineers. Interviews were carried out for this study where it was identified that the response perspectives to accidental fire were different with the fire engineer providing qualitative data which is based on “what is expected in real fires” and the fire fighters provided information on “what actually obtains in real fires”. This further led to a study and analysis of two real and comprehensively instrumented fire experiments: the Open Plan Office Project by National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) USA (to study time to flashover) and the TF2000 project by the Building Research Establishment (BRE) UK (to test for conformity with Building Regulation requirements). The findings from the analysis of the experiments revealed the relative yet critical weakness of fire prediction using a CFD model (usually used by fire engineers) as well as explained the differences in response perspectives of the fire engineers and firefighters from the interview analysis.

Keywords: CFD, compartment fire, experiment, fire fighters, fire engineers

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
2859 Canada Deuterium Uranium Updated Fire Probabilistic Risk Assessment Model for Canadian Nuclear Plants

Authors: Hossam Shalabi, George Hadjisophocleous

Abstract:

The Canadian Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) use some portions of NUREG/CR-6850 in carrying out Fire Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). An assessment for the applicability of NUREG/CR-6850 to CANDU reactors was performed and a CANDU Fire PRA was introduced. There are 19 operating CANDU reactors in Canada at five sites (Bruce A, Bruce B, Darlington, Pickering and Point Lepreau). A fire load density survey was done for all Fire Safe Shutdown Analysis (FSSA) fire zones in all CANDU sites in Canada. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 557 proposes that a fire load survey must be conducted by either the weighing method or the inventory method or a combination of both. The combination method results in the most accurate values for fire loads. An updated CANDU Fire PRA model is demonstrated in this paper that includes the fuel survey in all Canadian CANDU stations. A qualitative screening step for the CANDU fire PRA is illustrated in this paper to include any fire events that can damage any part of the emergency power supply in addition to FSSA cables.

Keywords: fire safety, CANDU, nuclear, fuel densities, FDS, qualitative analysis, fire probabilistic risk assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
2858 Optimizing Fire Suppression Time In Buildings By Forming A Fire Feedback Loop

Authors: Zhdanova A.O, Volkov R.S, Kuznetsov G.V, Strizhak P.A.

Abstract:

Fires in different types of facilities are a serious problem worldwide.It is still an unaccomplished science and technology objective to establish the minimum number and type of sensors in automatic systems of compartment fire suppression which would turn the fire-extinguishing agent spraying on and off in real time depending on the state of the fire, minimize the amount of agent applied, delay time in fire suppression and system response, as well as the time of combustion suppression. Based on the results of experimental studies, the conclusion was made that it is reasonable to use a gas analysis system and heat sensors (in the event of their prior activation) to determine the effectiveness of fire suppression (fire-extinguishing composition interacts with the fire). Thus, the concentration of CO in the interaction of the firefighting liquid with the fire increases to 0.7–1.2%, which indicates a slowdown in the flame combustion, and heat sensors stop responding at a gas medium temperature below 80 ºC, which shows a gradual decrease in the heat release from the fire. The evidence from this study suggests that the information received from the video recording equipment (video camera) should be used in real time as an additional parameter confirming fire suppression. Research was supported by Russian Science Foundation (project No 21-19-00009, https://rscf.ru/en/project/21-19-00009/).

Keywords: compartment fires, fire suppression, continuous control of fire behavior, feedback systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
2857 A Study for the Effect of Fire Initiated Location on Evacuation Success Rate

Authors: Jin A Ryu, Hee Sun Kim

Abstract:

As the number of fire accidents is gradually raising, many studies have been reported on evacuation. Previous studies have mostly focused on evaluating the safety of evacuation and the risk of fire in particular buildings. However, studies on effects of various parameters on evacuation have not been nearly done. Therefore, this paper aims at observing evacuation time under the effect of fire initiated location. In this study, evacuation simulations are performed on a 5-floor building located in Seoul, South Korea using the commercial program, Fire Dynamics Simulator with Evacuation (FDS+EVAC). Only the fourth and fifth floors are modeled with an assumption that fire starts in a room located on the fourth floor. The parameter for evacuation simulations is location of fire initiation to observe the evacuation time and safety. Results show that the location of fire initiation is closer to exit, the more time is taken to evacuate. The case having the nearest location of fire initiation to exit has the lowest ratio of successful occupants to the total occupants. In addition, for safety evaluation, the evacuation time calculated from computer simulation model is compared with the tolerable evacuation time according to code in Japan. As a result, all cases are completed within the tolerable evacuation time. This study allows predicting evacuation time under various conditions of fire and can be used to evaluate evacuation appropriateness and fire safety of building.

Keywords: fire simulation, evacuation simulation, temperature, evacuation safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 249