Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1611

Search results for: shear modulus

1611 An Atomic Finite Element Model for Mechanical Properties of Graphene Sheets

Authors: Win-Jin Chang, Haw-Long Lee, Yu-Ching Yang

Abstract:

In this study, we use the atomic-scale finite element method to investigate the mechanical behavior of the armchair- and zigzag-structured nanoporous graphene sheets with the clamped-free-free-free boundary condition under tension and shear loadings. The effect of porosity on Young’s modulus and shear modulus of nanoporous graphene sheets is obvious. For the armchair- and zigzag-structured nanoporous graphene sheets, Young’s modulus and shear modulus decreases with increasing porosity. Young’s modulus and shear modulus of zigzag graphene are larger than that of armchair one for the same porosity. The results are useful for application in the design of nanoporous graphene sheets.

Keywords: graphene, nanoporous, Young's modulus, shear modulus

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1610 Study on the Impact of Size and Position of the Shear Field in Determining the Shear Modulus of Glulam Beam Using Photogrammetry Approach

Authors: Niaz Gharavi, Hexin Zhang

Abstract:

The shear modulus of a timber beam can be determined using torsion test or shear field test method. The shear field test method is based on shear distortion measurement of the beam at the zone with the constant transverse load in the standardized four-point bending test. The current code of practice advises using two metallic arms act as an instrument to measure the diagonal displacement of the constructing square. The size and the position of the constructing square might influence the shear modulus determination. This study aimed to investigate the size and the position effect of the square in the shear field test method. A binocular stereo vision system has been employed to determine the 3D displacement of a grid of target points. Six glue laminated beams were produced and tested. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was performed on the acquired data to evaluate the significance of the size effect and the position effect of the square. The results have shown that the size of the square has a noticeable influence on the value of shear modulus, while, the position of the square within the area with the constant shear force does not affect the measured mean shear modulus.

Keywords: shear field test method, structural-sized test, shear modulus of Glulam beam, photogrammetry approach

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1609 Determination of Small Shear Modulus of Clayey Sand Using Bender Element Test

Authors: R. Sadeghzadegan, S. A. Naeini, A. Mirzaii

Abstract:

In this article, the results of a series of carefully conducted laboratory test program were represented to determine the small strain shear modulus of sand mixed with a range of kaolinite including zero to 30%. This was experimentally achieved using a triaxial cell equipped with bender element. Results indicate that small shear modulus tends to increase, while clay content decreases and effective confining pressure increases. The exponent of stress in the power model regression analysis was not sensitive to the amount of clay content for all sand clay mixtures, while coefficient A was directly affected by change in clay content.

Keywords: small shear modulus, bender element test, plastic fines, sand

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1608 Investigation of Extreme Gradient Boosting Model Prediction of Soil Strain-Shear Modulus

Authors: Ehsan Mehryaar, Reza Bushehri

Abstract:

One of the principal parameters defining the clay soil dynamic response is the strain-shear modulus relation. Predicting the strain and, subsequently, shear modulus reduction of the soil is essential for performance analysis of structures exposed to earthquake and dynamic loadings. Many soil properties affect soil’s dynamic behavior. In order to capture those effects, in this study, a database containing 1193 data points consists of maximum shear modulus, strain, moisture content, initial void ratio, plastic limit, liquid limit, initial confining pressure resulting from dynamic laboratory testing of 21 clays is collected for predicting the shear modulus vs. strain curve of soil. A model based on an extreme gradient boosting technique is proposed. A tree-structured parzan estimator hyper-parameter tuning algorithm is utilized simultaneously to find the best hyper-parameters for the model. The performance of the model is compared to the existing empirical equations using the coefficient of correlation and root mean square error.

Keywords: XGBoost, hyper-parameter tuning, soil shear modulus, dynamic response

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1607 Achieving Shear Wave Elastography by a Three-element Probe for Wearable Human-machine Interface

Authors: Jipeng Yan, Xingchen Yang, Xiaowei Zhou, Mengxing Tang, Honghai Liu

Abstract:

Shear elastic modulus of skeletal muscles can be obtained by shear wave elastography (SWE) and has been linearly related to muscle force. However, SWE is currently implemented using array probes. Price and volumes of these probes and their driving equipment prevent SWE from being used in wearable human-machine interfaces (HMI). Moreover, beamforming processing for array probes reduces the real-time performance. To achieve SWE by wearable HMIs, a customized three-element probe is adopted in this work, with one element for acoustic radiation force generation and the others for shear wave tracking. In-phase quadrature demodulation and 2D autocorrelation are adopted to estimate velocities of tissues on the sound beams of the latter two elements. Shear wave speeds are calculated by phase shift between the tissue velocities. Three agar phantoms with different elasticities were made by changing the weights of agar. Values of the shear elastic modulus of the phantoms were measured as 8.98, 23.06 and 36.74 kPa at a depth of 7.5 mm respectively. This work verifies the feasibility of measuring shear elastic modulus by wearable devices.

Keywords: shear elastic modulus, skeletal muscle, ultrasound, wearable human-machine interface

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1606 A Study on Shear Field Test Method in Timber Shear Modulus Determination Using Stereo Vision System

Authors: Niaz Gharavi, Hexin Zhang

Abstract:

In the structural timber design, the shear modulus of the timber beam is an important factor that needs to be determined accurately. According to BS EN 408, shear modulus can be determined using torsion test or shear field test method. Although torsion test creates pure shear status in the beam, it does not represent the real-life situation when the beam is in the service. On the other hand, shear field test method creates similar loading situation as in reality. The latter method is based on shear distortion measurement of the beam at the zone with the constant transverse load in the standardized four-point bending test as indicated in BS EN 408. Current testing practice code advised using two metallic arms act as an instrument to measure the diagonal displacement of the constructing square. Timber is not a homogenous material, but a heterogeneous and this characteristic makes timber to undergo a non-uniform deformation. Therefore, the dimensions and the location of the constructing square in the area with the constant transverse force might alter the shear modulus determination. This study aimed to investigate the impact of the shape, size, and location of the square in the shear field test method. A binocular stereo vision system was developed to capture the 3D displacement of a grid of target points. This approach is an accurate and non-contact method to extract the 3D coordination of targeted object using two cameras. Two group of three glue laminated beams were produced and tested by the mean of four-point bending test according to BS EN 408. Group one constructed using two materials, laminated bamboo lumber and structurally graded C24 timber and group two consisted only structurally graded C24 timber. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was performed on the acquired data to evaluate the significance of size and location of the square in the determination of shear modulus of the beam. The results have shown that the size of the square is an affecting factor in shear modulus determination. However, the location of the square in the area with the constant shear force does not affect the shear modulus.

Keywords: shear field test method, BS EN 408, timber shear modulus, photogrammetry approach

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1605 The Evaluation of Shear Modulus (Go) Consistency State of Consolidation Cohesive Soils and Seismic Reflection Survey Using Degree of Soil Consolidation

Authors: Abdul Halim Abdul, Wan Ismail Wan Yusoff

Abstract:

The geological formation at Limau Manis Besar area, are consist of low grade metamorphic rock and undulating mountaineers, rugged terrain and the quite steeply 45 degree slope gradient. The objectives of this paper are present the methods and devices used in measurement of P-wave velocity to estimate the initial Shear Modulus (Go) in steady state and critical state soil consolidation. The relationship between SPT-N values and the Shear Modulus (Go) at very small strain is widely considered to be evaluated. Based on the seismic reflection survey, the constant (K) poroelastic theory, mean effectives stress and primer wave velocity (Vs) increase as the soil depth increase. The steady state and critical state, Degree of Soil Consolidation(U) concept is used to interpret the behavior of Shear Modulus (Go). The relationship between Consolidation Test and Seismic Reflection Survey is also discussed.

Keywords: geological setting, shear modulus, poroelastic theory, steady state and none steady state degree of soil consolidation, consolidation test

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1604 Determination of Elastic Constants for Scots Pine Grown in Turkey Using Ultrasound

Authors: Ergun Guntekin

Abstract:

This study investigated elastic constants of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) grown in Turkey by means of ultrasonic waves. Three Young’s modulus, three shear modulus and six Poisson ratios were determined at constant moisture content (12 %). Three longitudinal and six shear wave velocities propagating along the principal axes of anisotropy, and additionally, three quasi-shear wave velocities at 45° with respect to the principal axes of anisotropy were measured using EPOCH 650 ultrasonic flaw detector. The measured average longitudinal wave velocities for the sapwood in L, R, T directions were 4795, 1713 and 1117 m/s, respectively. The measured average shear wave velocities ranged from 682 to 1382 m/s. The measured quasi-shear wave velocities varied between 642 and 1280 m/s. The calculated average modulus of elasticity values for the sapwood in L, R, T directions were 11913, 1565 and 663 N/mm2, respectively. The calculated shear modulus in LR, LT and RT planes were 1031, 541, 415 N/mm2. Comparing with available literature, the predicted elastic constants are acceptable.

Keywords: elastic constants, prediction, Scots pine, ultrasound

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1603 Effect of Density on the Shear Modulus and Damping Ratio of Saturated Sand in Small Strain

Authors: M. Kakavand, S. A. Naeini

Abstract:

Dynamic properties of soil in small strains, especially for geotechnical engineers, are important for describing the behavior of soil and estimation of the earth structure deformations and structures, especially significant structures. This paper presents the effect of density on the shear modulus and damping ratio of saturated clean sand at various isotropic confining pressures. For this purpose, the specimens were compared with two different relative densities, loose Dr = 30% and dense Dr = 70%. Dynamic parameters were attained from a series of consolidated undrained fixed – free type torsional resonant column tests in small strain. Sand No. 161 is selected for this paper. The experiments show that by increasing sand density and confining pressure, the shear modulus increases and the damping ratio decreases.

Keywords: dynamic properties, shear modulus, damping ratio, clean sand, density, confining pressure, resonant column/torsional simple shear, TSS

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1602 Effect of Rolling Shear Modulus and Geometric Make up on the Out-Of-Plane Bending Performance of Cross-Laminated Timber Panel

Authors: Md Tanvir Rahman, Mahbube Subhani, Mahmud Ashraf, Paul Kremer

Abstract:

Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is made from layers of timber boards orthogonally oriented in the thickness direction, and due to this, CLT can withstand bi-axial bending in contrast with most other engineered wood products such as laminated veneer lumber (LVL) and glued laminated timber (GLT). Wood is cylindrically anisotropic in nature and is characterized by significantly lower elastic modulus and shear modulus in the planes perpendicular to the fibre direction, and is therefore classified as orthotropic material and is thus characterized by 9 elastic constants which are three elastic modulus in longitudinal direction, tangential direction and radial direction, three shear modulus in longitudinal tangential plane, longitudinal radial plane and radial tangential plane and three Poisson’s ratio. For simplification, timber materials are generally assumed to be transversely isotropic, reducing the number of elastic properties characterizing it to 5, where the longitudinal plane and radial planes are assumed to be planes of symmetry. The validity of this assumption was investigated through numerical modelling of CLT with both orthotropic mechanical properties and transversely isotropic material properties for three softwood species, which are Norway spruce, Douglas fir, Radiata pine, and three hardwood species, namely Victorian ash, Beech wood, and Aspen subjected to uniformly distributed loading under simply supported boundary condition. It was concluded that assuming the timber to be transversely isotropic results in a negligible error in the order of 1 percent. It was also observed that along with longitudinal elastic modulus, ratio of longitudinal shear modulus (GL) and rolling shear modulus (GR) has a significant effect on a deflection for CLT panels of lower span to depth ratio. For softwoods such as Norway spruce and Radiata pine, the ratio of longitudinal shear modulus, GL to rolling shear modulus GR is reported to be in the order of 12 to 15 times in literature. This results in shear flexibility in transverse layers leading to increased deflection under out-of-plane loading. The rolling shear modulus of hardwoods has been found to be significantly higher than those of softwoods, where the ratio between longitudinal shear modulus to rolling shear modulus as low as 4. This has resulted in a significant rise in research into the manufacturing of CLT from entirely from hardwood, as well as from a combination of softwood and hardwoods. The commonly used beam theory to analyze the performance of CLT panels under out-of-plane loads are the Shear analogy method, Gamma method, and k-method. The shear analogy method has been found to be the most effective method where shear deformation is significant. The effect of the ratio of longitudinal shear modulus and rolling shear modulus of cross-layer on the deflection of CLT under uniformly distributed load with respect to its length to depth ratio was investigated using shear analogy method. It was observed that shear deflection is reduced significantly as the ratio of the shear modulus of the longitudinal layer and rolling shear modulus of cross-layer decreases. This indicates that there is significant room for improvement of the bending performance of CLT through developing hybrid CLT from a mix of softwood and hardwood.

Keywords: rolling shear modulus, shear deflection, ratio of shear modulus and rolling shear modulus, timber

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1601 Shear Modulus Degradation of a Liquefiable Sand Deposit by Shaking Table Tests

Authors: Henry Munoz, Muhammad Mohsan, Takashi Kiyota

Abstract:

Strength and deformability characteristics of a liquefiable sand deposit including the development of earthquake-induced shear stress and shear strain as well as soil softening via the progressive degradation of shear modulus were studied via shaking table experiments. To do so, a model of a liquefiable sand deposit was constructed and densely instrumented where accelerations, pressures, and displacements at different locations were continuously monitored. Furthermore, the confinement effects on the strength and deformation characteristics of the liquefiable sand deposit due to an external surcharge by placing a heavy concrete slab (i.e. the model of an actual structural rigid pavement) on the ground surface were examined. The results indicate that as the number of seismic-loading cycles increases, the sand deposit softens progressively as large shear strains take place in different sand elements. Liquefaction state is reached after the combined effects of the progressive degradation of the initial shear modulus associated with the continuous decrease in the mean principal stress, and the buildup of the excess of pore pressure takes place in the sand deposit. Finally, the confinement effects given by a concrete slab placed on the surface of the sand deposit resulted in a favorable increasing in the initial shear modulus, an increase in the mean principal stress and a decrease in the softening rate (i.e. the decreasing rate in shear modulus) of the sand, thus making the onset of liquefaction to take place at a later stage. This is, only after the sand deposit having a concrete slab experienced a higher number of seismic loading cycles liquefaction took place, in contrast to an ordinary sand deposit having no concrete slab.

Keywords: liquefaction, shear modulus degradation, shaking table, earthquake

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1600 Effect of Subsequent Drying and Wetting on the Small Strain Shear Modulus of Unsaturated Soils

Authors: A. Khosravi, S. Ghadirian, J. S. McCartney

Abstract:

Evaluation of the seismic-induced settlement of an unsaturated soil layer depends on several variables, among which the small strain shear modulus, Gmax, and soil’s state of stress have been demonstrated to be of particular significance. Recent interpretation of trends in Gmax revealed considerable effects of the degree of saturation and hydraulic hysteresis on the shear stiffness of soils in unsaturated states. Accordingly, the soil layer is expected to experience different settlement behaviors depending on the soil saturation and seasonal weathering conditions. In this study, a semi-empirical formulation was adapted to extend an existing Gmax model to infer hysteretic effects along different paths of the SWRC including scanning curves. The suitability of the proposed approach is validated against experimental results from a suction-controlled resonant column test and from data reported in literature. The model was observed to follow the experimental data along different paths of the SWRC, and showed a slight hysteresis in shear modulus along the scanning curves.

Keywords: hydraulic hysteresis, scanning path, small strain shear modulus, unsaturated soil

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1599 The Elastic Field of a Nano-Pore, and the Effective Modulus of Composites with Nano-Pores

Authors: Xin Chen, Moxiao Li, Xuechao Sun, Fei Ti, Shaobao Liu, Feng Xu, Tian Jian Lu

Abstract:

The composite materials with pores have the characteristics of light weight, sound insulation, and heat insulation, and have broad prospects in many fields, including aerospace. In general, the stiffness of such composite is less than the stiffness of the matrix material, limiting their applications. In this paper, we establish a theoretical model to analyze the deformation mechanism of a nano-pore. The interface between the pores and matrix material is described by the Gurtin-Murdoch model. By considering scale effect related with current deformation, we estimate the effective mechanical properties (e.g., effective shear modulus and bulk modulus) of a composite with nano-pores. Due to the scale effect, the elastic field in the composite was changed and local hardening was observed around the nano-pore, and the effective shear modulus and effective bulk modulus were found to be a function of the surface energy. The effective shear modulus increase with the surface energy and decrease with the size of the nano-pores, and the effective bulk modulus decrease with the surface energy and increase with the size of the nano-pores. These results have potential applications in the nanocomposite mechanics and aerospace field.

Keywords: composite mechanics, nano-inhomogeneity, nano-pores, scale effect

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1598 Effects of Heat Treatment on the Elastic Constants of Cedar Wood

Authors: Tugba Yilmaz Aydin, Ergun Guntekin, Murat Aydin

Abstract:

Effects of heat treatment on the elastic constants of cedar wood (Cedrus libani) were investigated. Specimens were exposed to heat under atmospheric pressure at four different temperatures (120, 150, 180, 210 °C) and three different time levels (2, 5, 8 hours). Three Young’s modulus (EL, ER, ET) and six Poisson ratios (μLR, μLT, μRL, μRT, μTL, μTR) were determined from compression test using bi-axial extensometer at constant moisture content (12 %). Three shear modulus were determined using ultrasound. Six shear wave velocities propagating along the principal axes of anisotropy were measured using EPOCH 650 ultrasonic flaw detector with 1 MHz transverse transducers. The properties of the samples tested were significantly affected by heat treatment by different degree. As a result, softer treatments yielded some amount of increase in Young modulus and shear modulus values, but increase of time and temperature resulted in significant decrease for both values. Poisson ratios seemed insensitive to heat treatment.

Keywords: cedar wood, elastic constants, heat treatment, ultrasound

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1597 Effect of Plastic Fines on Liquefaction Resistance of Sandy Soil Using Resonant Column Test

Authors: S. A. Naeini, M. Ghorbani Tochaee

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to assess the influence of plastic fines content on sand-clay mixtures on maximum shear modulus and liquefaction resistance using a series of resonant column tests. A high plasticity clay called bentonite was added to 161 Firoozkooh sand at the percentages of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 by dry weight. The resonant column tests were performed on the remolded specimens at constant confining pressure of 100 KPa and then the values of Gmax and liquefaction resistance were investigated. The maximum shear modulus and cyclic resistance ratio (CRR) are examined in terms of fines content. Based on the results, the maximum shear modulus and liquefaction resistance tend to decrease within the increment of fine contents.

Keywords: Gmax, liquefaction, plastic fines, resonant column, sand-clay mixtures, bentonite

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1596 Evaluation of the End Effect Impact on the Torsion Test for Determining the Shear Modulus of a Timber Beam through a Photogrammetry Approach

Authors: Niaz Gharavi, Hexin Zhang, Yanjun Xie

Abstract:

The timber beam end effect in the torsion test is evaluated using binocular stereo vision system. It is recommended by BS EN 408:2010+A1:2012 to exclude a distance of two to three times of cross-sectional thickness (b) from ends to avoid the end effect; whereas, this study indicates that this distance is not sufficiently far enough to remove this effect in slender cross-sections. The shear modulus of six timber beams with different aspect ratios is determined at the various angles and cross-sections. The result of this experiment shows that the end affected span of each specimen varies depending on their aspect ratios. It is concluded that by increasing the aspect ratio this span will increase. However, by increasing the distance from the ends to the values greater than 6b, the shear modulus trend becomes constant and end effect will be negligible. Moreover, it is concluded that end affected span is preferred to be depth-dependent rather than thickness-dependant.

Keywords: end clamp effect, full-size timber test, shear properties, torsion test, wood engineering

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1595 Dynamic Properties of Recycled Concrete Aggregate from Resonant Column Tests

Authors: Wojciech Sas, Emil Soból, Katarzyna Gabryś, Andrzej Głuchowski, Alojzy Szymański

Abstract:

Depleting of natural resources is forcing the man to look for alternative construction materials. One of them is recycled concrete aggregates (RCA). RCA from the demolition of buildings and crushed to proper gradation can be a very good replacement for natural unbound granular aggregates, gravels or sands. Physical and the mechanical properties of RCA are well known in the field of basic civil engineering applications, but to proper roads and railways design dynamic characteristic is need as well. To know maximum shear modulus (GMAX) and the minimum damping ratio (DMIN) of the RCA dynamic loads in resonant column apparatus need to be performed. The paper will contain literature revive about alternative construction materials and dynamic laboratory research technique. The article will focus on dynamic properties of RCA, but early studies conducted by the authors on physical and mechanical properties of this material also will be presented. The authors will show maximum shear modulus and minimum damping ratio. Shear modulus and damping ratio degradation curves will be shown as well. From exhibited results conclusion will be drawn at the end of the article.

Keywords: recycled concrete aggregate, shear modulus, damping ratio, resonant column

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1594 Modeling of Foundation-Soil Interaction Problem by Using Reduced Soil Shear Modulus

Authors: Yesim Tumsek, Erkan Celebi

Abstract:

In order to simulate the infinite soil medium for soil-foundation interaction problem, the essential geotechnical parameter on which the foundation stiffness depends, is the value of soil shear modulus. This parameter directly affects the site and structural response of the considered model under earthquake ground motions. Strain-dependent shear modulus under cycling loads makes difficult to estimate the accurate value in computation of foundation stiffness for the successful dynamic soil-structure interaction analysis. The aim of this study is to discuss in detail how to use the appropriate value of soil shear modulus in the computational analyses and to evaluate the effect of the variation in shear modulus with strain on the impedance functions used in the sub-structure method for idealizing the soil-foundation interaction problem. Herein, the impedance functions compose of springs and dashpots to represent the frequency-dependent stiffness and damping characteristics at the soil-foundation interface. Earthquake-induced vibration energy is dissipated into soil by both radiation and hysteretic damping. Therefore, flexible-base system damping, as well as the variability in shear strengths, should be considered in the calculation of impedance functions for achievement a more realistic dynamic soil-foundation interaction model. In this study, it has been written a Matlab code for addressing these purposes. The case-study example chosen for the analysis is considered as a 4-story reinforced concrete building structure located in Istanbul consisting of shear walls and moment resisting frames with a total height of 12m from the basement level. The foundation system composes of two different sized strip footings on clayey soil with different plasticity (Herein, PI=13 and 16). In the first stage of this study, the shear modulus reduction factor was not considered in the MATLAB algorithm. The static stiffness, dynamic stiffness modifiers and embedment correction factors of two rigid rectangular foundations measuring 2m wide by 17m long below the moment frames and 7m wide by 17m long below the shear walls are obtained for translation and rocking vibrational modes. Afterwards, the dynamic impedance functions of those have been calculated for reduced shear modulus through the developed Matlab code. The embedment effect of the foundation is also considered in these analyses. It can easy to see from the analysis results that the strain induced in soil will depend on the extent of the earthquake demand. It is clearly observed that when the strain range increases, the dynamic stiffness of the foundation medium decreases dramatically. The overall response of the structure can be affected considerably because of the degradation in soil stiffness even for a moderate earthquake. Therefore, it is very important to arrive at the corrected dynamic shear modulus for earthquake analysis including soil-structure interaction.

Keywords: clay soil, impedance functions, soil-foundation interaction, sub-structure approach, reduced shear modulus

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1593 Analysis of Geotechnical Parameters from Geophysical Information

Authors: Adewoyin O. Olusegun, Akinwumi I. Isaac

Abstract:

In some part of the world where legislations related to site investigations before constructions are not strictly enforced, the expenses and time required for carrying out a comprehensive geotechnical investigation to characterize a site can discourage prospective private residential building developers. Another factor that can discourage a developer is the fact that most of the geotechnical tests procedures utilized during site investigations, to a certain extent, alter the existing environment of the site. This study suggests a quick, non-destructive and non-intrusive method of obtaining key subsoil geotechnical properties necessary for foundation design for proposed engineering facilities. Seismic wave velocities generated from near surface refraction method was used to determine the bulk density of soil, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear modulus and allowable bearing capacity of a competent layer that can bear structural load at the particular study site. Also, regression equations were developed in order to directly obtain the bulk density of soil, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear modulus and allowable bearing capacity from the compressional wave velocities. The results obtained correlated with the results of standard geotechnical investigations carried out.

Keywords: characterize, environment, geophysical, geotechnical, regression

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1592 Comparison for Some Elastic and Mechanical Properties of Plutonium Dioxide

Authors: M. Guler, E. Guler

Abstract:

We report some elastic parameters of cubic fluorite type neptunium dioxide (NpO2) with a recent EAM type interatomic potential through geometry optimization calculations. Typical cubic elastic constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, young modulus and other relevant elastic parameters were also calculated during research. After calculations, we have compared our results with the available theoretical data. Our results agree well with the previous theoretical findings of the considered quantities of NpO2.

Keywords: NpO2, elastic properties, bulk modulus, mechanical properties

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1591 Numerical Investigation of Static and Dynamic Responses of Fiber Reinforced Sand

Authors: Sandeep Kumar, Mahesh Kumar Jat, Rajib Sarkar

Abstract:

Soil reinforced with randomly distributed fibers is an attractive means to improve the performance of soil in a cost effective manner. Static and dynamic characterization of fiber reinforced soil have become important to evaluate adequate performance for all classes of geotechnical engineering problems. Present study investigates the behaviour of fiber reinforced cohesionless soil through numerical simulation of triaxial specimen. The numerical model has been validated with the existing literature of laboratory triaxial compression testing. A parametric study has been done to find out optimum fiber content for shear resistance. Cyclic triaxial testing has been simulated and the stress-strain response of fiber-reinforced sand has been examined considering different combination of fiber contents. Shear modulus values and damping values of fiber-reinforced sand are evaluated. It has been observed from results that for 1.0 percent fiber content shear modulus increased 2.28 times and damping ratio decreased 4.6 times. The influence of amplitude of cyclic strain, confining pressure and frequency of loading on the dynamic properties of fiber reinforced sand has been investigated and presented.

Keywords: damping, fiber reinforced soil, numerical modelling, shear modulus

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1590 An Automated Bender Element System Used for S-Wave Velocity Tomography during Model Pile Installation

Authors: Yuxin Wu, Yu-Shing Wang, Zitao Zhang

Abstract:

A high-speed and time-lapse S-wave velocity measurement system has been built up for S-wave tomography in sand. This system is based on bender elements and applied to model pile tests in a tailor-made pressurized chamber to monitor the shear wave velocity distribution during pile installation in sand. Tactile pressure sensors are used parallel together with bender elements to monitor the stress changes during the tests. Strain gages are used to monitor the shaft resistance and toe resistance of pile. Since the shear wave velocity (Vs) is determined by the shear modulus of sand and the shaft resistance of pile is also influenced by the shear modulus of sand around the pile, the purposes of this study are to time-lapse monitor the S-wave velocity distribution change at a certain horizontal section during pile installation and to correlate the S-wave velocity distribution and shaft resistance of pile in sand.

Keywords: bender element, pile, shaft resistance, shear wave velocity, tomography

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1589 Effect of Polymer Concentration on the Rheological Properties of Polyelectrolyte Solutions

Authors: Khaled Benyounes, Abderrahmane Mellak

Abstract:

The rheology of aqueous solutions of polyelectrolyte (polyanionic cellulose, PAC) at high molecular weight was investigated using a controlled stress rheometer. Several rheological measurements; viscosity measurements, creep compliance tests at a constant low shear stress and oscillation experiments have been performed. The concentrations ranged by weight from 0.01 to 2.5% of PAC. It was found that the aqueous solutions of PAC do not exhibit a yield stress, the flow curves of PAC over a wide range of shear rate (0 to 1000 s-1) could be described by the cross model and the Williamson models. The critical concentrations of polymer c* and c** have been estimated. The dynamic moduli, i.e., storage modulus (G’) and loss modulus (G’’) of the polymer have been determined at frequency sweep from 0.01 to 10 Hz. At polymer concentration above 1%, the modulus G’ is superior to G’’. The relationships between the dynamic modulus and concentration of polymer have been established. The creep-recovery experiments demonstrated that polymer solutions show important viscoelastic properties of system water-PAC when the concentration of the polymer increases.

Keywords: polyanionic cellulose, viscosity, creep, oscillation, cross model

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1588 A Benchmark for Some Elastic and Mechanical Properties of Uranium Dioxide

Authors: E. Güler, M. Güler

Abstract:

We present some elastic parameters of cubic fluorite type uranium dioxide (UO2) with a recent EAM type interatomic potential through geometry optimization calculations. Typical cubic elastic constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, young modulus and other related elastic parameters were calculated during research. After calculations, we compared our results not only with the available theoretical data but also with previous experimental results. Our results are consistent with experiments and compare well the former theoretical results of the considered parameters of UO2.

Keywords: UO2, elastic constants, bulk modulus, mechanical properties

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1587 A Comparison for Some Elastic and Mechanical Properties of Neptunium Dioxide

Authors: E. Güler, M. Güler

Abstract:

We report some elastic quantities of cubic fluorite type plutonium dioxide (PuO2) with a recent EAM type interatomic potential through geometry optimization calculations. Typical cubic elastic constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, young modulus and other related elastic quantities were calculated during present research. After present calculations, we have compared our results with the existing theoretical data of literature. Our results are consistent with previous theoretical findings of the considered parameters of PuO2.

Keywords: PuO2, elastic properties, bulk modulus, mechanical properties

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1586 Determination of Elasticity Constants of Isotropic Thin Films Using Impulse Excitation Technique

Authors: M. F. Slim, A. Alhussein, F. Sanchette, M. François

Abstract:

Thin films are widely used in various applications to enhance the surface properties and characteristics of materials. They are used in many domains such as: biomedical, automotive, aeronautics, military, electronics and energy. Depending on the elaboration technique, the elastic behavior of thin films may be different from this of bulk materials. This dependence on the elaboration techniques and their parameters makes the control of the elasticity constants of coated components necessary. Our work is focused on the characterization of the elasticity constants of isotropic thin films by means of Impulse Excitation Techniques. The tests rely on the measurement of the sample resonance frequency before and after deposition. In this work, a finite element model was performed with ABAQUS software. This model was then compared with the analytical approaches used to determine the Young’s and shear moduli. The best model to determine the film Young’s modulus was identified and a relation allowing the determination of the shear modulus of thin films of any thickness was developed. In order to confirm the model experimentally, Tungsten films were deposited on glass substrates by DC magnetron sputtering of a 99.99% purity tungsten target. The choice of tungsten was done because it is well known that its elastic behavior at crystal scale is ideally isotropic. The macroscopic elasticity constants, Young’s and shear moduli and Poisson’s ratio of the deposited film were determined by means of Impulse Excitation Technique. The Young’s modulus obtained from IET was compared with measurements by the nano-indentation technique. We did not observe any significant difference and the value is in accordance with the one reported in the literature. This work presents a new methodology on the determination of the elasticity constants of thin films using Impulse Excitation Technique. A formulation allowing the determination of the shear modulus of a coating, whatever the thickness, was developed and used to determine the macroscopic elasticity constants of tungsten films. The developed model was validated numerically and experimentally.

Keywords: characterization, coating, dynamical resonant method, Poisson's ratio, PVD, shear modulus, Young's modulus

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1585 Numerical Modeling Analysis for the Double-Layered Asphalt Pavement Structure Behavior with Interface Bonding

Authors: Minh Tu Le, Quang Huy Nguyen, Mai Lan Nguyen

Abstract:

Bonding characteristics between pavement layers have an important influence on responses of pavement structures. This paper deals with analytical solution for the stresses, strains, and deflections of double-layered asphalt pavement structure. This solution is based on the homogeneous half-space of layered theory developed by Burmister (1943). The partial interaction between the layers is taken into account by considering an interface bonding behavior which is obtained by push-out shear test. Numerical applications considering three cases of bonding (unbonded, partially bonded, and fully bonded overlays) are carried out to the influence of the interface bonding on the structural behavior of asphalt pavement under static loading. Further, it was observed that numerical results indicate that the horizontal shear reaction modulus at the interface (Ks) will significantly affect pavement structure behavior.

Keywords: analytical solution, interface bonding, shear test keyword, double-layered asphalt, shear reaction modulus

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1584 Effect of Different Knee-Joint Positions on Passive Stiffness of Medial Gastrocnemius Muscle and Aponeuroses during Passive Ankle Motion

Authors: Xiyao Shan, Pavlos Evangelidis, Adam Kositsky, Naoki Ikeda, Yasuo Kawakami

Abstract:

The human triceps surae (two bi-articular gastrocnemii and one mono-articular soleus) have aponeuroses in the posterior and anterior aspects of each muscle, where the anterior aponeuroses of the gastrocnemii adjoin the posterior aponeurosis of the soleus, possibly contributing to the intermuscular force transmission between gastrocnemii and soleus. Since the mechanical behavior of these aponeuroses at different knee- and ankle-joint positions remains unclear, the purpose of this study was to clarify this through observations of the localized changes in passive stiffness of the posterior aponeuroses, muscle belly and adjoining aponeuroses of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) induced by different knee and ankle angles. Eleven healthy young males (25 ± 2 yr, 176.7 ± 4.7 cm, 71.1 ± 11.1 kg) participated in this study. Each subject took either a prone position on an isokinetic dynamometer while the knee joint was fully extended (K180) or a kneeling position while the knee joint was 90° flexed (K90), in a randomized and counterbalanced order. The ankle joint was then passively moved through a 50° range of motion (ROM) by the dynamometer from 30° of plantar flexion (PF) to 20° of dorsiflexion (DF) at 2°/s and the ultrasound shear-wave velocity was measured to obtain shear moduli of the posterior aponeurosis, MG belly, and adjoining aponeuroses. The main findings were: 1) shear modulus in K180 was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than K90 for the posterior aponeurosis (across all ankle angles, 10.2 ± 5.7 kPa-59.4 ± 28.7 kPa vs. 5.4 ± 2.2 kPa-11.6 ± 4.1 kPa), MG belly (from PF10° to DF20°, 9.7 ± 2.2 kPa-53.6 ± 18.6 kPa vs. 8.0 ± 2.7 kPa-9.5 ± 3.7 kPa), and adjoining aponeuroses (across all ankle angles, 17.3 ± 7.8 kPa-80 ± 25.7 kPa vs. 12.2 ± 4.5 kPa-52.4 ± 23.0 kPa); 2) shear modulus of the posterior aponeuroses significantly increased (p < 0.05) from PF10° to PF20° in K180, while shear modulus of MG belly significantly increased (p < 0.05) from 0° to PF20° only in K180 and shear modulus of adjoining aponeuroses significantly increased (p < 0.05) across the whole ROM of ankle both in K180 and K90. These results suggest that different knee-joint positions can affect not only the bi-articular gastrocnemius but also influence the mechanical behavior of aponeuroses. In addition, compared to the gradual stiffening of the adjoining aponeuroses across the whole ROM of ankle, the posterior aponeurosis became slack in the plantar flexed positions and then was stiffened gradually as the knee was fully extended. This suggests distinct stiffening for the posterior and adjoining aponeuroses which is joint position-dependent.

Keywords: aponeurosis, plantar flexion and dorsiflexion, shear modulus, shear wave elastography

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1583 The Effect of Shredded Polyurethane Foams on Shear Modulus and Damping Ratio of Sand

Authors: Javad Saeidaskari, Nader Khalafian

Abstract:

The undesirable impact of vibrations induced by road and railway traffic is an important concern in modern world. These vibrations are transmitted through soil and cause disturbances to the residence area and high-tech production facilities alongside the train/traffic lines. In this paper for the first time a new method of soil improvement with vibration absorber material, is used to increase the damping factor, in other word, to reduce the ability of wave transitions in sand. In this study standard Firoozkooh No. 161 sand is used as the host sand. The semi rigid polyurethane (PU) foam which used in this research is one of the common materials for vibration absorbing purposes. Series of cyclic triaxial tests were conducted on remolded samples with identical relative density of 70% of maximum dry density for different volume percentage of shredded PU foam. The frequency of tests was 0.1 Htz with shear strain of 0.37% and 0.75% and also the effective confining pressures during the tests were 100 kPa and 350 kPa. In order to find out the best soil-PU foam mixture, different volume percent of PU foam varying from 10% to 30% were examined. The results show that adding PU foam up to 20%, as its optimum content, causes notable enhancement in damping ratio for both shear strains of 0.37% (52.19% and 69% increase for effective confining pressures of 100 kPa and 350 kPa, respectively) and 0.75% (59.56% and 59.11% increase for effective confining pressures of 100 kPa and 350 kPa, respectively). The results related to shear modulus present significant reduction for both shear strains of 0.37% (82.22% and 56.03% decrease for effective confining pressures of 100 kPa and 350 kPa, respectively) and 0.75% (89.32% and 39.9% decrease for effective confining pressures of 100 kPa and 350 kPa, respectively). In conclusion, shredded PU foams effectively affect the dynamic properties of sand and act as vibration absorber in soil.

Keywords: polyurethane foam, sand, damping ratio, shear modulus

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1582 Determination of the Local Elastic Moduli of Shungite by Laser Ultrasonic Spectroscopy

Authors: Elena B. Cherepetskaya, Alexander A.Karabutov, Vladimir A. Makarov, Elena A. Mironova, Ivan A. Shibaev

Abstract:

In our study, the object of laser ultrasonic testing was plane-parallel plate of shungit (length 41 mm, width 31 mm, height 15 mm, medium exchange density 2247 kg/m3). We used laser-ultrasonic defectoscope with wideband opto-acoustic transducer in our investigation of the velocities of longitudinal and shear elastic ultrasound waves. The duration of arising elastic pulses was less than 100 ns. Under known material thickness, the values of the velocities were determined by the time delay of the pulses reflected from the bottom surface of the sample with respect to reference pulses. The accuracy of measurement was 0.3% in the case of longitudinal wave velocity and 0.5% in the case of shear wave velocity (scanning pitch along the surface was 2 mm). On the base of found velocities of elastic waves, local elastic moduli of shungit (Young modulus, shear modulus and Poisson's ratio) were uniquely determined.

Keywords: laser ultrasonic testing , local elastic moduli, shear wave velocity, shungit

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