Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2006

Search results for: metal gasket

2006 Development of 25A-Size Three-Layer Metal Gasket by Using FEM Simulation

Authors: Shigeyuki Haruyama, I Made Gatot Karohika, Akinori Sato, Didik Nurhadiyanto, Ken Kaminishi

Abstract:

Contact width and contact stress are important design parameters for optimizing corrugated metal gasket performance based on elastic and plastic contact stress. In this study, we used a three-layer metal gasket with Al, Cu, Ni as the outer layer, respectively. A finite element method was employed to develop simulation solution. The gasket model was simulated by using two simulation stages which are forming and tightening simulation. The simulation result shows that aluminum with tangent modulus, Ehal = Eal/150 has the highest slope for contact width. The slope of contact width for plastic mode gasket was higher than the elastic mode gasket.

Keywords: contact width, contact stress, layer, metal gasket, corrugated, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
2005 Optimization of Three-Layer Corrugated Metal Gasket by Using Finite Element Method

Authors: I Made Gatot Karohika, Shigeyuki Haruyama, Ken Kaminishi

Abstract:

In this study, we proposed a three-layer metal gasket with Al, Cu, and SUS304 as the material, respectively. A finite element method was employed to develop simulation solution and design of experiment (DOE). Taguchi method was used to analysis the effect of each parameter design and predicts optimal design of new 25A-size three layer corrugated metal gasket. The L18 orthogonal array of Taguchi method was applied to design experiment matrix for eight factors with three levels. Based on elastic mode and plastic mode, optimum design gasket is gasket with core metal SUS304, surface layer aluminum, p1 = 4.5 mm, p2 = 4.5 mm, p3 = 4 mm, Tg = 1.2 mm, R = 3.5 mm, h = 0.4 mm and Ts = 0.3 mm.

Keywords: contact width, contact stress, layer, metal gasket, corrugated, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
2004 Analysis of Contact Width and Contact Stress of Three-Layer Corrugated Metal Gasket

Authors: I. Made Gatot Karohika, Shigeyuki Haruyama, Ken Kaminishi, Oke Oktavianty, Didik Nurhadiyanto

Abstract:

Contact width and contact stress are important parameters related to the leakage behavior of corrugated metal gasket. In this study, contact width and contact stress of three-layer corrugated metal gasket are investigated due to the modulus of elasticity and thickness of surface layer for 2 type gasket (0-MPa and 400-MPa mode). A finite element method was employed to develop simulation solution to analysis the effect of each parameter. The result indicated that lowering the modulus of elasticity ratio of surface layer will result in better contact width but the average contact stresses are smaller. When the modulus of elasticity ratio is held constant with thickness ratio increase, its contact width has an increscent trend otherwise the average contact stress has decreased trend.

Keywords: contact width, contact stress, layer, metal gasket, corrugated, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
2003 Kirchoff Type Equation Involving the p-Laplacian on the Sierpinski Gasket Using Nehari Manifold Technique

Authors: Abhilash Sahu, Amit Priyadarshi

Abstract:

In this paper, we will discuss the existence of weak solutions of the Kirchhoff type boundary value problem on the Sierpinski gasket. Where S denotes the Sierpinski gasket in R² and S₀ is the intrinsic boundary of the Sierpinski gasket. M: R → R is a positive function and h: S × R → R is a suitable function which is a part of our main equation. ∆p denotes the p-Laplacian, where p > 1. First of all, we will define a weak solution for our problem and then we will show the existence of at least two solutions for the above problem under suitable conditions. There is no well-known concept of a generalized derivative of a function on a fractal domain. Recently, the notion of differential operators such as the Laplacian and the p-Laplacian on fractal domains has been defined. We recall the result first then we will address the above problem. In view of literature, Laplacian and p-Laplacian equations are studied extensively on regular domains (open connected domains) in contrast to fractal domains. In fractal domains, people have studied Laplacian equations more than p-Laplacian probably because in that case, the corresponding function space is reflexive and many minimax theorems which work for regular domains is applicable there which is not the case for the p-Laplacian. This motivates us to study equations involving p-Laplacian on the Sierpinski gasket. Problems on fractal domains lead to nonlinear models such as reaction-diffusion equations on fractals, problems on elastic fractal media and fluid flow through fractal regions etc. We have studied the above p-Laplacian equations on the Sierpinski gasket using fibering map technique on the Nehari manifold. Many authors have studied the Laplacian and p-Laplacian equations on regular domains using this Nehari manifold technique. In general Euler functional associated with such a problem is Frechet or Gateaux differentiable. So, a critical point becomes a solution to the problem. Also, the function space they consider is reflexive and hence we can extract a weakly convergent subsequence from a bounded sequence. But in our case neither the Euler functional is differentiable nor the function space is known to be reflexive. Overcoming these issues we are still able to prove the existence of at least two solutions of the given equation.

Keywords: Euler functional, p-Laplacian, p-energy, Sierpinski gasket, weak solution

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
2002 Metal Berthelot Tubes with Windows for Observing Cavitation under Static Negative Pressure

Authors: K. Hiro, Y. Imai, T. Sasayama

Abstract:

Cavitation under static negative pressure is not revealed well. The Berthelot method to generate such negative pressure can be a means to study cavitation inception. In this study, metal Berthelot tubes built in observation windows are newly developed and are checked whether high static negative pressure is generated or not. Negative pressure in the tube with a pair of a corundum plate and an aluminum gasket increased with temperature cycles. The trend was similar to that as reported before.

Keywords: Berthelot method, cavitation, negative pressure, observation

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
2001 Improvement of Thermal Stability in Ethylene Methyl Acrylate Composites for Gasket Application

Authors: Pemika Ketsuwan, Pitt Supaphol, Manit Nithitanakul

Abstract:

A typical used of ethylene methyl acrylate (EMA) gasket is in the manufacture of optical lens, and often, they are deteriorated rapidly due to high temperature during the process. The objective of this project is to improve the thermal stability of the EMA copolymer gasket by preparing EMA with cellulose and silica composites. Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and Carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) were used in preparing of EMA/cellulose composites and fumed silica (SiO2) was used in preparing EMA/silica composites with different amounts of filler (3, 5, 7, 10, 15 wt.%), using a twin screw extruder at 160 °C and the test specimens were prepared by the injection molding machine. The morphology and dispersion of fillers in the EMA matrix were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The thermal stability of the composite was determined by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Mechanical properties were evaluated by tensile testing. The developed composites were found to enhance thermal and mechanical properties when compared to that of the EMA copolymer alone.

Keywords: ethylene methyl acrylate, HPMC, Silica, Thermal stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
2000 Investigation of Leakage, Cracking and Warpage Issues Observed on Composite Valve Cover in Development Phase through FEA Simulation

Authors: Ashwini Shripatwar, Mayur Biyani, Nikhil Rao, Rajendra Bodake, Sachin Sane

Abstract:

This paper documents the correlation of valve cover sealing, cracking, and warpage Finite Element Modelling with observations on engine test development. The valve cover is a component mounted on engine head with a gasket which provides sealing against oil which flows around camshaft, valves, rockers, and other overhead components. Material nonlinearity and contact nonlinearity characteristics are taken into consideration because the valve cover is made of a composite material having temperature dependent elastic-plastic properties and because the gasket load-deformation curve is also nonlinear. The leakage is observed between the valve cover and the engine head due to the insufficient contact pressure. The crack is observed on the valve cover due to force application at a region with insufficient stiffness and with elevated temperature. The valve cover shrinkage is observed during the disassembly process on hot exhaust side bolt holes after the engine has been running. In this paper, an analytical approach is developed to correlate a Finite Element Model with the observed failures and to address the design issues associated with the failure modes in question by making design changes in the model.

Keywords: cracking issue, gasket sealing analysis, nonlinearity of contact and material, valve cover

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
1999 Facile Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles on Graphene via Galvanic Displacement Reaction for Sensing Application

Authors: Juree Hong, Sanggeun Lee, Jungmok Seo, Taeyoon Lee

Abstract:

We report a facile synthesis of metal nano particles (NPs) on graphene layer via galvanic displacement reaction between graphene-buffered copper (Cu) and metal ion-containing salts. Diverse metal NPs can be formed on graphene surface and their morphologies can be tailored by controlling the concentration of metal ion-containing salt and immersion time. The obtained metal NP-decorated single-layer graphene (SLG) has been used as hydrogen gas (H2) sensing material and exhibited highly sensitive response upon exposure to 2% of H2.

Keywords: metal nanoparticle, galvanic displacement reaction, graphene, hydrogen sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
1998 Propane Dehydrogenation with Better Stability by a Modified Pt-Based Catalyst

Authors: Napat Hataivichian

Abstract:

The effect of transition metal doping on Pt/Al2O3 catalyst used in propane dehydrogenation reaction at 500˚C was studied. The preparation methods investigated were sequential impregnation (Pt followed by the 2nd metal or the 2nd metal followed by Pt) and co-impregnation. The metal contents of these catalysts were fixed as the weight ratio of Pt per the 2nd metal of around 0.075. These catalysts were characterized by N2-physisorption, TPR, CO-chemisorption and NH3-TPD. It was found that the impregnated 2nd metal had an effect upon reducibility of Pt due to its interaction with transition metal-containing structure. This was in agreement with the CO-chemisorption result that the presence of Pt metal, which is a result from Pt species reduction, was decreased. The total acidity of bimetallic catalysts is decreased but the strong acidity is slightly increased. It was found that the stability of bimetallic catalysts prepared by co-impregnation and sequential impregnation where the 2nd metal was impregnated before Pt were better than that of monometallic catalyst (undoped Pt one) due to the forming of Pt sites located on the transition metal-oxide modified surface. Among all preparation methods, the sequential impregnation method- having Pt impregnated before the 2nd metal gave the worst stability because this catalyst lacked the modified Pt sites and some fraction of Pt sites was covered by the 2nd metal.

Keywords: alumina, dehydrogenation, platinum, transition metal

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
1997 Preparation of Porous Metal Membrane by Thermal Annealing for Thin Film Encapsulation

Authors: Jaibir Sharma, Lee JaeWung, Merugu Srinivas, Navab Singh

Abstract:

This paper presents thermal annealing dewetting technique for the preparation of porous metal membrane for thin film encapsulation application. Thermal annealing dewetting experimental results reveal that pore size in porous metal membrane depend upon i.e. 1. The substrate on which metal is deposited for formation of porous metal cap membrane, 2. Melting point of metal used for porous metal cap layer membrane formation, 3. Thickness of metal used for cap layer, 4. Temperature used for porous metal membrane formation. Silver (Ag) was used as a metal for preparation of porous metal membrane by annealing the film at different temperature. Pores in porous silver film were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). In order to check the usefulness of porous metal film for thin film encapsulation application, the porous silver film prepared on amorphous silicon (a-Si) was release using XeF2. Finally, guide line and structures are suggested to use this porous membrane for thin film encapsulation (TFE) application.

Keywords: dewetting, themal annealing, metal, melting point, porous

Procedia PDF Downloads 464
1996 Heavy Metal Concentration in Orchard Area, Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand

Authors: Sisuwan Kaseamsawat, Sivapan Choo-In

Abstract:

A study was conducted in May to July 2013 with the aim of determination of heavy metal concentration in orchard area. 60 samples were collected and analyzed for Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), and Zinc (Zn) by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The heavy metal concentrations in sediment of orchards, that use chemical for Cd (1.13 ± 0.26 mg/l), Cu (8.00 ± 1.05 mg/l), Pb (13.16 ± 2.01) and Zn (37.41 ± 3.20 mg/l). The heavy metal concentrations in sediment of the orchards, that do not use chemical for Cd (1.28 ± 0.50 mg/l), Cu (7.60 ± 1.20 mg/l), Pb (29.87 ± 4.88) and Zn (21.79 ± 2.98 mg/l). Statistical analysis between heavy metal in sediment from the orchard, that use chemical and the orchard, that not use chemical were difference statistic significant of 0.5 level of significant for Cd and Pb while no statistically difference for Cu and Zn.

Keywords: heavy metal, orchard, pollution and monitoring, sediment

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
1995 Use of Microbial Fuel Cell for Metal Recovery from Wastewater

Authors: Surajbhan Sevda

Abstract:

Metal containing wastewater is generated in large quintiles due to rapid industrialization. Generally, the metal present in wastewater is not biodegradable and can be accumulated in living animals, humans and plant tissue, causing disorder and diseases. The conventional metal recovery methods include chemical, physical and biological methods, but these are chemical and energy intensive. The recent development in microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology provides a new approach for metal recovery; this technology offers a flexible platform for both reduction and oxidation reaction oriented process. The use of MFCs will be a new platform for more efficient and low energy approach for metal recovery from the wastewater. So far metal recover was extensively studied using chemical, physical and biological methods. The MFCs present a new and efficient approach for removing and recovering metals from different wastewater, suggesting the use of different electrode for metal recovery can be a new efficient and effective approach.

Keywords: metal recovery, microbial fuel cell, wastewater, bioelectricity

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
1994 Investigation of Cylindrical Multi-Layer Hybrid Plasmonic Waveguides

Authors: Prateeksha Sharma, V. Dinesh Kumar

Abstract:

Performances of cylindrical multilayer hybrid plasmonic waveguides have been investigated in detail considering their structural and material aspects. Characteristics of hybrid metal insulator metal (HMIM) and hybrid insulator metal insulator (HIMI) waveguides have been compared on the basis of propagation length and confinement factor. Necessity of this study is to understand newer kind of waveguides that overcome the limitations of conventional waveguides. Investigation reveals that sub wavelength confinement can be obtained in two low dielectric spacer layers. This study provides gateway for many applications such as nano lasers, interconnects, bio sensors and optical trapping etc.

Keywords: hybrid insulator metal insulator, hybrid metal insulator metal, nano laser, surface plasmon polariton

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
1993 A Systamatic Review on Experimental, FEM Analysis and Simulation of Metal Spinning Process

Authors: Amol M. Jadhav, Sharad S. Chudhari, S. S. Khedkar

Abstract:

This review presents a through survey of research paper work on the experimental analysis, FEM Analysis & simulation of the metal spinning process. In this literature survey all the papers being taken from Elsevier publication and most of the from journal of material processing technology. In a last two decade or so, metal spinning process gradually used as chip less formation for the production of engineering component in a small to medium batch quantities. The review aims to provide include into the experimentation, FEM analysis of various components, simulation of metal spinning process and act as guide for research working on metal spinning processes. The review of existing work has several gaps in current knowledge of metal spinning processes. The evaluation of experiment is thickness strain, the spinning force, the twisting angle, the surface roughness of the conventional & shear metal spinning process; the evaluation of FEM of metal spinning to path definition with sufficient fine mesh to capture behavior of work piece; The evaluation of feed rate of roller, direction of roller,& type of roller stimulated. The metal spinning process has the more flexible to produce a wider range of product shape & to form more challenge material.

Keywords: metal spinning, FEM analysis, simulation of metal spinning, mechanical engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
1992 Reduction in Hot Metal Silicon through Statistical Analysis at G-Blast Furnace, Tata Steel Jamshedpur

Authors: Shoumodip Roy, Ankit Singhania, Santanu Mallick, Abhiram Jha, M. K. Agarwal, R. V. Ramna, Uttam Singh

Abstract:

The quality of hot metal at any blast furnace is judged by the silicon content in it. Lower hot metal silicon not only enhances process efficiency at steel melting shops but also reduces hot metal costs. The Hot metal produced at G-Blast furnace Tata Steel Jamshedpur has a significantly higher Si content than Benchmark Blast furnaces. The higher content of hot metal Si is mainly due to inferior raw material quality than those used in benchmark blast furnaces. With minimum control over raw material quality, the only option left to control hot metal Si is via optimizing the furnace parameters. Therefore, in order to identify the levers to reduce hot metal Si, Data mining was carried out, and multiple regression models were developed. The statistical analysis revealed that Slag B3{(CaO+MgO)/SiO2}, Slag Alumina and Hot metal temperature are key controllable parameters affecting hot metal silicon. Contour Plots were used to determine the optimum range of levels identified through statistical analysis. A trial plan was formulated to operate relevant parameters, at G blast furnace, in the identified range to reduce hot metal silicon. This paper details out the process followed and subsequent reduction in hot metal silicon by 15% at G blast furnace.

Keywords: blast furnace, optimization, silicon, statistical tools

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
1991 A Review on Aluminium Metal Matric Composites

Authors: V. Singh, S. Singh, S. S. Garewal

Abstract:

Metal matrix composites with aluminum as the matrix material have been heralded as the next great development in advanced engineering materials. Aluminum metal matrix composites (AMMC) refer to the class of light weight high performance material systems. Properties of AMMCs can be tailored to the demands of different industrial applications by suitable combinations of matrix, reinforcement and processing route. AMMC finds its application in automotive, aerospace, defense, sports and structural areas. This paper presents an overview of AMMC material systems on aspects relating to processing, types and applications with case studies.

Keywords: aluminum metal matrix composites, applications of aluminum metal matrix composites, lighting material processing of aluminum metal matrix composites

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
1990 Model of Elastic Fracture Toughness for Ductile Metal Pipes with External Longitudinal Cracks

Authors: Guoyang Fu, Wei Yang, Chun-Qing Li

Abstract:

The most common type of cracks that appear on metal pipes is longitudinal cracks. For ductile metal pipes, the existence of plasticity eases the stress intensity at the crack front and consequently increases the fracture resistance. It should be noted that linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) has been widely accepted by engineers. In order to make the LEFM applicable to ductile metal materials, the increase of fracture toughness due to plasticity should be excluded from the total fracture toughness of the ductile metal. This paper aims to develop a model of elastic fracture toughness for ductile metal pipes with external longitudinal cracks. The derived elastic fracture toughness is a function of crack geometry and material properties of the cracked pipe. The significance of the derived model is that the well-established LEFM can be used for ductile metal material in predicting the fracture failure.

Keywords: Ductile metal pipes, elastic fracture toughness, longitudinal crack, plasticity

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
1989 A Study on the Vegetative and Osmolyte Accumulation of Capsicum frutescens L. under Zinc Metal Stress

Authors: Ja’afar Umar, Adamu Aliyu Aliero

Abstract:

Plant growth, biochemical parameters, zinc metal concentrations were determined for Capsicum frutescens L. in response to varied concentration of zinc metal. The plant exhibited a decline in the vegetative parameters measured. Free proline and glycine betaine content increases with increasing concentration of zinc metal and differ significantly (P<0.05). It can be concluded that the osmolyte (pro and GB) accumulations, and high length of stem and wide leaf expansion are possible indicator of tolerance to heavy metals (Zinc) in Capsicum frutescens.

Keywords: zinc metal, osmolyte, Capsicum frutescens, stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
1988 Optimization of Catalyst Parameters to Get Chlorine Free Bimetallic Catalysts

Authors: Noreen Sajjad Ghulam Hussain

Abstract:

Catalysts are prepared by simple physical mixing and thermal treatment of support and metal acetate precursors.The effect of metal ratio and metal loading to produce highly active catalyst for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol are studied.

Keywords: catalyst, acetates, benzyl alcohols

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
1987 Experimental Study on the Vibration Isolation Performance of Metal-Net Rubber Vibration Absorber

Authors: Su Yi Ming, Hou Ying, Zou Guang Ping

Abstract:

Metal-net rubber is a new dry friction damping material, compared with the traditional metal rubber, which has high mechanization degree, and the mechanical performance of metal-net rubber is more stable. Through the sine sweep experiment and random vibration experiment of metal-net rubber vibration isolator, the influence of several important factors such as the lines slope, relative density and wire diameter on the transfer rate, natural frequency and root-mean-square response acceleration of metal-net rubber vibration isolation system, were studied through the method of control variables. Also, several relevant change curves under different vibration levels were derived, and the effects of vibration level on the natural frequency and root-mean-square response acceleration were analyzed through the curves.

Keywords: metal-net rubber vibration isolator, relative density, vibration level, wire diameter

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
1986 Synthetic Access to Complex Metal Carbonates and Hydroxycarbonates via Sol-Gel Chemistry

Authors: Schirin Hanf, Carlos Lizandara-Pueyo, Timmo P. Emmert, Ivana Jevtovikj, Roger Gläser, Stephan A. Schunk

Abstract:

Metal alkoxides are very versatile precursors for a broad array of complex functional materials. However, metal alkoxides, especially transition metal alkoxides, tend to form oligomeric structures due to the very strong M–O–M binding motif. This fact hinders their facile application in sol-gel-processes and complicates access to complex carbonate or oxidic compounds after hydrolysis of the precursors. Therefore, the development of a synthetic alternative with the aim to grant access to carbonates and hydroxycarbonates from simple metal alkoxide precursors via hydrolysis is key to this project. Our approach involves the reaction of metal alkoxides with unsaturated isoelectronic molecules, such as carbon dioxide. Subsequently, a stoichiometric insertion of the CO₂ into the alkoxide M–O bond takes place and leads to the formation of soluble metal alkyl carbonates. This strategy is a very elegant approach to solubilize metal alkoxide precursors to make them accessible for sol-gel chemistry. After hydrolysis of the metal alkyl carbonates, crystalline metal carbonates, and hydroxycarbonates can be obtained, which were then utilized for the synthesis of Cu/Zn based bulk catalysts for methanol synthesis. Using these catalysts, a comparable catalytic activity to commercially available MeOH catalysts could be reached. Based on these results, a complement for traditional precipitation techniques, which are usually utilized for the synthesis of bulk methanol catalysts, have been found based on an alternative solubilization strategy.

Keywords: metal alkoxides, metal carbonates, metal hydroxycarbonates, CO₂ insertion, solubilization

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
1985 Structural and Ion Exchange Studies of Terpolymer Resin Derived from 4, 4'-Biphenol-4,4'-Oxydianiline-Formaldehyde

Authors: Pawan P. Kalbende, Anil B. Zade

Abstract:

A novel terpolymer resin has been synthesized by condensation polymerization reaction of 4,4’-biphenol and 4,4’-oxydianiline with formaldehyde in presence of 2M hydrochloric acid as catalyst. Composition of resin was determined on the basis of their elemental analysis and further characterized by UV-Visible, infra-red and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to confine the most probable structure of synthesized terpolymer. Newly synthesized terpolymer was proved to be a selective chelating ion-exchanger for certain metal ions and were studied for Fe3+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+ and Pb2+ ions using their metal nitrate solutions. A batch equilibrium method was employed to study the selectivity of metal ions uptake involving the measurements of the distribution of a given metal ion between the terpolymer sample and a solution containing the metal ion. The study was carried out over a wide pH range, shaking time and in media of different electrolytes at different ionic strengths. Distribution ratios of metal ions were found to be increased by rising pH of the solutions. Hence, it can be used to recover certain metal ions from waste water for the purpose of purification of water and removal of iron from boiler water.

Keywords: terpolymers, ion-exchangers, distribution ratio, metal ion uptake

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
1984 Joining of Aluminum and Steel in Car Body Manufacturing

Authors: Mohammad Mahdi Mohammadi

Abstract:

Zinc-coated steel sheets have been joined with aluminum samples in an overlapping as well as in a butt-joint configuration. A bi-metal-wire composed from aluminum and steel was used for additional welding experiments. An advantage of the laser-assisted bi-metal-wire welding is that the welding process is simplified since the primary joint between aluminium and steel exists already and laser welding occurs only between similar materials. FEM-simulations of the process were chosen to determine the ideal dimensions with respect to the formability of the bi-metal-wire. A prototype demonstrated the feasibility of the process.

Keywords: car body, steel sheets, formability of bi-metal-wire, laser-assisted bi-metal-wire

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
1983 Compare Hot Forming and Cold Forming in Rolling Process

Authors: Ali Moarrefzadeh

Abstract:

In metalworking, rolling is a metal forming process in which metal stock is passed through a pair of rolls. Rolling is classified according to the temperature of the metal rolled. If the temperature of the metal is above its recrystallization temperature, then the process is termed as hot rolling. If the temperature of the metal is below its recrystallization temperature, the process is termed as cold rolling. In terms of usage, hot rolling processes more tonnage than any other manufacturing process, and cold rolling processes the most tonnage out of all cold working processes. This article describes the use of advanced tubing inspection NDT methods for boiler and heat exchanger equipment in the petrochemical industry to supplement major turnaround inspections. The methods presented include remote field eddy current, magnetic flux leakage, internal rotary inspection system and eddy current.

Keywords: hot forming, cold forming, metal, rolling, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
1982 Towards a Complete Automation Feature Recognition System for Sheet Metal Manufacturing

Authors: Bahaa Eltahawy, Mikko Ylihärsilä, Reino Virrankoski, Esko Petäjä

Abstract:

Sheet metal processing is automated, but the step from product models to the production machine control still requires human intervention. This may cause time consuming bottlenecks in the production process and increase the risk of human errors. In this paper we present a system, which automatically recognizes features from the CAD-model of the sheet metal product. By using these features, the system produces a complete model of the particular sheet metal product. Then the model is used as an input for the sheet metal processing machine. Currently the system is implemented, capable to recognize more than 11 of the most common sheet metal structural features, and the procedure is fully automated. This provides remarkable savings in the production time, and protects against the human errors. This paper presents the developed system architecture, applied algorithms and system software implementation and testing.

Keywords: feature recognition, automation, sheet metal manufacturing, CAD, CAM

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
1981 Induction Heating and Electromagnetic Stirring of Bi-Phasic Metal/Glass Molten Bath for Mixed Nuclear Waste Treatment

Authors: P. Charvin, R. Bourrou, F. Lemont, C. Lafon, A. Russello

Abstract:

For nuclear waste treatment and confinement, a specific IN-CAN melting module based on low-frequency induction heating have been designed. The frequency of 50Hz has been chosen to improve penetration length through metal. In this design, the liquid metal, strongly stirred by electromagnetic effects, presents shape of a dome caused by strong Laplace forces developing in the bulk of bath. Because of a lower density, the glass phase is located above the metal phase and is heated and stirred by metal through interface. Electric parameters (Intensity, frequency) give precious information about metal load and composition (resistivity of alloy) through impedance modification. Then, power supply can be adapted to energy transfer efficiency for suitable process supervision. Modeling of this system allows prediction of metal dome shape (in agreement with experimental measurement with a specific device), glass and metal velocity, heat and motion transfer through interface. MHD modeling is achieved with COMSOL and Fluent. First, a simplified model is used to obtain the shape of the metal dome. Then the shape is fixed to calculate the fluid flow and the thermal part.

Keywords: electromagnetic stirring, induction heating, interface modeling, metal load

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
1980 Synthesis of NiO and ZnO Nanoparticles and Charactiration for the Eradication of Lead (Pb) from Wastewater

Authors: Sadia Ata, Anila Tabassum, Samina ghafoor, Ijaz ul Mohsin, Azam Muktar

Abstract:

Heavy metal ions such as Pb2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Ni2+ and Hg2+, in wastewater are considered as the serious environmental problem. Among these heavy metals, Lead or Pb (II) is the most toxic heavy metal. Exposure to lead causes damage of nervous system, mental retardation, renal kidney disease, anemia and cancer in human beings. Adsorption is the most widely used method to remove metal ions based on the physical interaction between metal ions and sorbents. With the development of nanotechnology, nano-sized materials are proved to be effective sorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater due to their unique structural properties. The present work mainly focuses on the synthesis of NiO and ZnO nanoparticles for the removal of Lead ions, their preparation, characterization by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TEM, adsorption characteristics and mechanism, along with adsorption isotherm model and adsorption kinetics to understand the adsorption procedure.

Keywords: heavy metal, adsorption isotherms, nanoparticles, wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 475
1979 Latest Finding about Copper Sulfide Biomineralization and General Features of Metal Sulfide Biominerals

Authors: Yeseul Park

Abstract:

Biopolymers produced by organisms highly contribute to the production of metal sulfides, both in extracellular and intracellular biomineralization. We discovered a new type of intracellular biomineral composed of copper sulfide in the periplasm of a sulfate-reducing bacterium. We suggest that the structural features of biomineral composed of 1-2 nm subgrains are based on biopolymer-based capping agents and an organic compartment. We further compare with other types of metal sulfide biominerals.

Keywords: biomineralization, copper sulfide, metal sulfide, biopolymer, capping agent

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
1978 Biosorption of Lead (II) from Aqueous Solution Using Marine Algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa

Authors: Pramod Kumar, A. V. N. Swamy, C. V. Sowjanya, C. V. Ramachandra Murthy

Abstract:

Biosorption is one of the effective methods for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. Results are presented showing the sorption of Pb(II) from solutions by biomass of commonly available marine algae Chlorella sp. The ability of marine algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa to remove heavy metal ion (Pb(II)) from aqueous solutions has been studied in this work. The biosorption properties of the biosorbent like equilibrium agitation time, optimum pH, temperature and initial solute concentration were investigated on metal uptake by showing respective profiles. The maximum metal uptake was found to be 10.27 mg/g. To achieve this metal uptake, the optimum conditions were found to be 30 min as equilibrium agitation time, 4.6 as optimum pH, 60 ppm of initial solute concentration. Lead concentration is determined by atomic absorption spectrometer. The process was found to be well fitted for pseudo-second order kinetics.

Keywords: biosorption, heavy metal ions, agitation time, metal uptake, aqueous solution

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1977 Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Roadside Soils along Shenyang-Dalian Highway in Liaoning Province, China

Authors: Zhang Hui, Wu Caiqiu, Yuan Xuyin, Qiu Jie, Zhang Hanpei

Abstract:

The heavy metal contaminations were determined with a detailed soil survey in roadside soils along Shenyang-Dalian Highway of Liaoning Province (China) and Pb, Cu, Cd, Ni and Zn were analyzed using the atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. The average concentration of Pb, Cu, Cd, Ni and Zn in roadside soils was determined to be 43.8, 26.5, 0.119, 32.1, 71.3 mg/kg respectively, and all of the heavy metal contents were higher than the background values. Different heavy metal distribution regularity was found in different land use type of roadside soil, there was an obvious peak of heavy concentration at 25m from road edge in the farmland, while in the forest and orchard soil, all heavy metals gradually decreased with the increase of distance from road edge and conformed to the exponential model. Furthermore, the heavy metal contents of heavy metals except Cd were markedly increased compared with those in 1999 and 2007, and the heavy metals concentrations of Shenyang- Dalian Highway were considered medium or low in comparison with those in other cities around the world. The assessment of heavy metal contamination of roadside soils illustrated a common low pollution for all heavy metal and recommended that more attention should be paid to Pb contamination in roadside soils in Shenyang-Dalian Highway.

Keywords: heavy metal contamination, roadside, highway, Nemerow Pollution Index

Procedia PDF Downloads 180