Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22263

Search results for: asymptotic analysis

22263 Asymptotic Expansion of the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers Equation

Authors: Jian-Jun Shu


It is common knowledge that many physical problems (such as non-linear shallow-water waves and wave motion in plasmas) can be described by the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, which possesses certain special solutions, known as solitary waves or solitons. As a marriage of the KdV equation and the classical Burgers (KdVB) equation, the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB) equation is a mathematical model of waves on shallow water surfaces in the presence of viscous dissipation. Asymptotic analysis is a method of describing limiting behavior and is a key tool for exploring the differential equations which arise in the mathematical modeling of real-world phenomena. By using variable transformations, the asymptotic expansion of the KdVB equation is presented in this paper. The asymptotic expansion may provide a good gauge on the validation of the corresponding numerical scheme.

Keywords: asymptotic expansion, differential equation, Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB) equation, soliton

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22262 Polar Bergman Polynomials on Domain with Corners

Authors: Laskri Yamina, Rehouma Abdel Hamid


In this paper we present a new class named polar of monic orthogonal polynomials with respect to the area measure supported on G, where G is a bounded simply-connected domain in the complex planeℂ. We analyze some open questions and discuss some ideas properties related to solving asymptotic behavior of polar Bergman polynomials over domains with corners and asymptotic behavior of modified Bergman polynomials by affine transforms in variable and polar modified Bergman polynomials by affine transforms in variable. We show that uniform asymptotic of Bergman polynomials over domains with corners and by Pritsker's theorem imply uniform asymptotic for all their derivatives.

Keywords: Bergman orthogonal polynomials, polar rthogonal polynomials, asymptotic behavior, Faber polynomials

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22261 Analysis of the Secondary Stationary Flow Around an Oscillating Circular Cylinder

Authors: Artem Nuriev, Olga Zaitseva


This paper is devoted to the study of a viscous incompressible flow around a circular cylinder performing harmonic oscillations, especially the steady streaming phenomenon. The research methodology is based on the asymptotic explanation method combined with the computational bifurcation analysis. Present studies allow to identify several regimes of the secondary streaming with different flow structures. The results of the research are in good agreement with experimental and numerical simulation data.

Keywords: oscillating cylinder, secondary streaming, flow regimes, asymptotic and bifurcation analysis

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22260 Analysis of an Error Estimate for the Asymptotic Solution of the Heat Conduction Problem in a Dilated Pipe

Authors: E. Marušić-Paloka, I. Pažanin, M. Prša


Subject of this study is the stationary heat conduction problem through a pipe filled with incompressible viscous fluid. In previous work, we observed the existence and uniqueness theorems for the corresponding boundary-value problem and within we have taken into account the effects of the pipe's dilatation due to the temperature of the fluid inside of the pipe. The main difficulty comes from the fact that flow domain changes depending on the solution of the observed heat equation leading to a non-standard coupled governing problem. The goal of this work is to find solution estimate since the exact solution of the studied problem is not possible to determine. We use an asymptotic expansion in order of a small parameter which is presented as a heat expansion coefficient of the pipe's material. Furthermore, an error estimate is provided for the mentioned asymptotic approximation of the solution for inner area of the pipe. Close to the boundary, problem becomes more complex so different approaches are observed, mainly Theory of Perturbations and Separations of Variables. In view of that, error estimate for the whole approximation will be provided with additional software simulations of gotten situation.

Keywords: asymptotic analysis, dilated pipe, error estimate, heat conduction

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22259 Boundedness and Asymptotic Behavior of Solutions for Gierer-Meinhardt Systems

Authors: S. Henine, A. Youkana


This work is devoted to study the global existence and asymptotic behavior of solutions for Gierer-Meinhardt systems arising in biological phenomena. We prove that the solutions are global and uniformly bounded by a positive constant independent of the time. Our technique is based on Lyapunov functional argument. Under suitable conditions, we established a result on the asymptotic behavior of solutions. These results are valid for any positive continuous initial data, and improve some recently results established.

Keywords: asymptotic behavior, Gierer-Meinhardt systems, global existence, Lyapunov functional

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22258 Asymptotic Spectral Theory for Nonlinear Random Fields

Authors: Karima Kimouche


In this paper, we consider the asymptotic problems in spectral analysis of stationary causal random fields. We impose conditions only involving (conditional) moments, which are easily verifiable for a variety of nonlinear random fields. Limiting distributions of periodograms and smoothed periodogram spectral density estimates are obtained and applications to the spectral domain bootstrap are given.

Keywords: spatial nonlinear processes, spectral estimators, GMC condition, bootstrap method

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22257 Portfolio Optimization under a Hybrid Stochastic Volatility and Constant Elasticity of Variance Model

Authors: Jai Heui Kim, Sotheara Veng


This paper studies the portfolio optimization problem for a pension fund under a hybrid model of stochastic volatility and constant elasticity of variance (CEV) using asymptotic analysis method. When the volatility component is fast mean-reverting, it is able to derive asymptotic approximations for the value function and the optimal strategy for general utility functions. Explicit solutions are given for the exponential and hyperbolic absolute risk aversion (HARA) utility functions. The study also shows that using the leading order optimal strategy results in the value function, not only up to the leading order, but also up to first order correction term. A practical strategy that does not depend on the unobservable volatility level is suggested. The result is an extension of the Merton's solution when stochastic volatility and elasticity of variance are considered simultaneously.

Keywords: asymptotic analysis, constant elasticity of variance, portfolio optimization, stochastic optimal control, stochastic volatility

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22256 Asymptotic Analysis of the Viscous Flow through a Pipe and the Derivation of the Darcy-Weisbach Law

Authors: Eduard Marusic-Paloka


The Darcy-Weisbach formula is used to compute the pressure drop of the fluid in the pipe, due to the friction against the wall. Because of its simplicity, the Darcy-Weisbach formula became widely accepted by engineers and is used for laminar as well as the turbulent flows through pipes, once the method to compute the mysterious friction coefficient was derived. Particularly in the second half of the 20th century. Formula is empiric, and our goal is to derive it from the basic conservation law, via rigorous asymptotic analysis. We consider the case of the laminar flow but with significant Reynolds number. In case of the perfectly smooth pipe, the situation is trivial, as the Navier-Stokes system can be solved explicitly via the Poiseuille formula leading to the friction coefficient in the form 64/Re. For the rough pipe, the situation is more complicated and some effects of the roughness appear in the friction coefficient. We start from the Navier-Stokes system in the pipe with periodically corrugated wall and derive an asymptotic expansion for the pressure and for the velocity. We use the homogenization techniques and the boundary layer analysis. The approximation derived by formal analysis is then justified by rigorous error estimate in the norm of the appropriate Sobolev space, using the energy formulation and classical a priori estimates for the Navier-Stokes system. Our method leads to the formula for the friction coefficient. The formula involves resolution of the appropriate boundary layer problems, namely the boundary value problems for the Stokes system in an infinite band, that needs to be done numerically. However, theoretical analysis characterising their nature can be done without solving them.

Keywords: Darcy-Weisbach law, pipe flow, rough boundary, Navier law

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22255 A Variant of Newton's Method with Free Second-Order Derivative

Authors: Young Hee Geum


In this paper, we present the iterative method and determine the control parameters to converge cubically for solving nonlinear equations. In addition, we derive the asymptotic error constant.

Keywords: asymptotic error constant, iterative method, multiple root, root-finding, order of convergent

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22254 Further Analysis of Global Robust Stability of Neural Networks with Multiple Time Delays

Authors: Sabri Arik


In this paper, we study the global asymptotic robust stability of delayed neural networks with norm-bounded uncertainties. By employing the Lyapunov stability theory and Homeomorphic mapping theorem, we derive some new types of sufficient conditions ensuring the existence, uniqueness and global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for the class of neural networks with discrete time delays under parameter uncertainties and with respect to continuous and slopebounded activation functions. An important aspect of our results is their low computational complexity as the reported results can be verified by checking some properties symmetric matrices associated with the uncertainty sets of network parameters. The obtained results are shown to be generalization of some of the previously published corresponding results. Some comparative numerical examples are also constructed to compare our results with some closely related existing literature results.

Keywords: neural networks, delayed systems, lyapunov functionals, stability analysis

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22253 Asymptotic Expansion of Double Oscillatory Integrals: Contribution of Non Stationary Critical Points of the Second Kind

Authors: Abdallah Benaissa


In this paper, we consider the problem of asymptotics of double oscillatory integrals in the case of critical points of the second kind, the order of contact between the boundary and a level curve of the phase being even, the situation when the order of contact is odd will be studied in other occasions. Complete asymptotic expansions will be derived and the coefficient of the leading term will be computed in terms of the original data of the problem. A multitude of people have studied this problem using a variety of methods, but only in a special case when the order of contact is minimal: the more cited papers are a paper of Jones and Kline and an other one of Chako. These integrals are encountered in many areas of science, especially in problems of diffraction of optics.

Keywords: asymptotic expansion, double oscillatory integral, critical point of the second kind, optics diffraction

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22252 On Constructing a Cubically Convergent Numerical Method for Multiple Roots

Authors: Young Hee Geum


We propose the numerical method defined by xn+1 = xn − λ[f(xn − μh(xn))/]f'(xn) , n ∈ N, and determine the control parameter λ and μ to converge cubically. In addition, we derive the asymptotic error constant. Applying this proposed scheme to various test functions, numerical results show a good agreement with the theory analyzed in this paper and are proven using Mathematica with its high-precision computability.

Keywords: asymptotic error constant, iterative method, multiple root, root-finding

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22251 Micromechanics Modeling of 3D Network Smart Orthotropic Structures

Authors: E. M. Hassan, A. L. Kalamkarov


Two micromechanical models for 3D smart composite with embedded periodic or nearly periodic network of generally orthotropic reinforcements and actuators are developed and applied to cubic structures with unidirectional orientation of constituents. Analytical formulas for the effective piezothermoelastic coefficients are derived using the Asymptotic Homogenization Method (AHM). Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is subsequently developed and used to examine the aforementioned periodic 3D network reinforced smart structures. The deformation responses from the FE simulations are used to extract effective coefficients. The results from both techniques are compared. This work considers piezoelectric materials that respond linearly to changes in electric field, electric displacement, mechanical stress and strain and thermal effects. This combination of electric fields and thermo-mechanical response in smart composite structures is characterized by piezoelectric and thermal expansion coefficients. The problem is represented by unit-cell and the models are developed using the AHM and the FEA to determine the effective piezoelectric and thermal expansion coefficients. Each unit cell contains a number of orthotropic inclusions in the form of structural reinforcements and actuators. Using matrix representation of the coupled response of the unit cell, the effective piezoelectric and thermal expansion coefficients are calculated and compared with results of the asymptotic homogenization method. A very good agreement is shown between these two approaches.

Keywords: asymptotic homogenization method, finite element analysis, effective piezothermoelastic coefficients, 3D smart network composite structures

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22250 Global Stability Analysis of a Coupled Model for Healthy and Cancerous Cells Dynamics in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Authors: Abdelhafid Zenati, Mohamed Tadjine


The mathematical formulation of biomedical problems is an important phase to understand and predict the dynamic of the controlled population. In this paper we perform a stability analysis of a coupled model for healthy and cancerous cells dynamics in Acute Myeloid Leukemia, this represents our first aim. Second, we illustrate the effect of the interconnection between healthy and cancer cells. The PDE-based model is transformed to a nonlinear distributed state space model (delay system). For an equilibrium point of interest, necessary and sufficient conditions of global asymptotic stability are given. Thus, we came up to give necessary and sufficient conditions of global asymptotic stability of the origin and the healthy situation and control of the dynamics of normal hematopoietic stem cells and cancerous during myelode Acute leukemia. Simulation studies are given to illustrate the developed results.

Keywords: distributed delay, global stability, modelling, nonlinear models, PDE, state space

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22249 The Sequential Estimation of the Seismoacoustic Source Energy in C-OTDR Monitoring Systems

Authors: Andrey V. Timofeev, Dmitry V. Egorov


The practical efficient approach is suggested for estimation of the seismoacoustic sources energy in C-OTDR monitoring systems. This approach represents the sequential plan for confidence estimation both the seismoacoustic sources energy, as well the absorption coefficient of the soil. The sequential plan delivers the non-asymptotic guaranteed accuracy of obtained estimates in the form of non-asymptotic confidence regions with prescribed sizes. These confidence regions are valid for a finite sample size when the distributions of the observations are unknown. Thus, suggested estimates are non-asymptotic and nonparametric, and also these estimates guarantee the prescribed estimation accuracy in the form of the prior prescribed size of confidence regions, and prescribed confidence coefficient value.

Keywords: nonparametric estimation, sequential confidence estimation, multichannel monitoring systems, C-OTDR-system, non-lineary regression

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22248 A Heteroskedasticity Robust Test for Contemporaneous Correlation in Dynamic Panel Data Models

Authors: Andreea Halunga, Chris D. Orme, Takashi Yamagata


This paper proposes a heteroskedasticity-robust Breusch-Pagan test of the null hypothesis of zero cross-section (or contemporaneous) correlation in linear panel-data models, without necessarily assuming independence of the cross-sections. The procedure allows for either fixed, strictly exogenous and/or lagged dependent regressor variables, as well as quite general forms of both non-normality and heteroskedasticity in the error distribution. The asymptotic validity of the test procedure is predicated on the number of time series observations, T, being large relative to the number of cross-section units, N, in that: (i) either N is fixed as T→∞; or, (ii) N²/T→0, as both T and N diverge, jointly, to infinity. Given this, it is not expected that asymptotic theory would provide an adequate guide to finite sample performance when T/N is "small". Because of this, we also propose and establish asymptotic validity of, a number of wild bootstrap schemes designed to provide improved inference when T/N is small. Across a variety of experimental designs, a Monte Carlo study suggests that the predictions from asymptotic theory do, in fact, provide a good guide to the finite sample behaviour of the test when T is large relative to N. However, when T and N are of similar orders of magnitude, discrepancies between the nominal and empirical significance levels occur as predicted by the first-order asymptotic analysis. On the other hand, for all the experimental designs, the proposed wild bootstrap approximations do improve agreement between nominal and empirical significance levels, when T/N is small, with a recursive-design wild bootstrap scheme performing best, in general, and providing quite close agreement between the nominal and empirical significance levels of the test even when T and N are of similar size. Moreover, in comparison with the wild bootstrap "version" of the original Breusch-Pagan test our experiments indicate that the corresponding version of the heteroskedasticity-robust Breusch-Pagan test appears reliable. As an illustration, the proposed tests are applied to a dynamic growth model for a panel of 20 OECD countries.

Keywords: cross-section correlation, time-series heteroskedasticity, dynamic panel data, heteroskedasticity robust Breusch-Pagan test

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22247 Quantile Coherence Analysis: Application to Precipitation Data

Authors: Yaeji Lim, Hee-Seok Oh


The coherence analysis measures the linear time-invariant relationship between two data sets and has been studied various fields such as signal processing, engineering, and medical science. However classical coherence analysis tends to be sensitive to outliers and focuses only on mean relationship. In this paper, we generalized cross periodogram to quantile cross periodogram and provide richer inter-relationship between two data sets. This is a general version of Laplace cross periodogram. We prove its asymptotic distribution under the long range process and compare them with ordinary coherence through numerical examples. We also present real data example to confirm the usefulness of quantile coherence analysis.

Keywords: coherence, cross periodogram, spectrum, quantile

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22246 High Accuracy Analytic Approximations for Modified Bessel Functions I₀(x)

Authors: Pablo Martin, Jorge Olivares, Fernando Maass


A method to obtain analytic approximations for special function of interest in engineering and physics is described here. Each approximate function will be valid for every positive value of the variable and accuracy will be high and increasing with the number of parameters to determine. The general technique will be shown through an application to the modified Bessel function of order zero, I₀(x). The form and the calculation of the parameters are performed with the simultaneous use of the power series and asymptotic expansion. As in Padé method rational functions are used, but now they are combined with other elementary functions as; fractional powers, hyperbolic, trigonometric and exponential functions, and others. The elementary function is determined, considering that the approximate function should be a bridge between the power series and the asymptotic expansion. In the case of the I₀(x) function two analytic approximations have been already determined. The simplest one is (1+x²/4)⁻¹/⁴(1+0.24273x²) cosh(x)/(1+0.43023x²). The parameters of I₀(x) were determined using the leading term of the asymptotic expansion and two coefficients of the power series, and the maximum relative error is 0.05. In a second case, two terms of the asymptotic expansion were used and 4 of the power series and the maximum relative error is 0.001 at x≈9.5. Approximations with much higher accuracy will be also shown. In conclusion a new technique is described to obtain analytic approximations to some functions of interest in sciences, such that they have a high accuracy, they are valid for every positive value of the variable, they can be integrated and differentiated as the usual, functions, and furthermore they can be calculated easily even with a regular pocket calculator.

Keywords: analytic approximations, mathematical-physics applications, quasi-rational functions, special functions

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22245 Resolution and Experimental Validation of the Asymptotic Model of a Viscous Laminar Supersonic Flow around a Thin Airfoil

Authors: Eddegdag Nasser, Naamane Azzeddine, Radouani Mohammed, Ensam Meknes


In this study, we are interested in the asymptotic modeling of the two-dimensional stationary supersonic flow of a viscous compressible fluid around wing airfoil. The aim of this article is to solve the partial differential equations of the flow far from the leading edge and near the wall using the triple-deck technique is what brought again in precision according to the principle of least degeneration. In order to validate our theoretical model, these obtained results will be compared with the experimental results. The comparison of the results of our model with experimentation has shown that they are quantitatively acceptable compared to the obtained experimental results. The experimental study was conducted using the AF300 supersonic wind tunnel and a NACA Reduced airfoil model with two pressure Taps on extrados. In this experiment, we have considered the incident upstream supersonic Mach number over a dissymmetric NACA airfoil wing. The validation and the accuracy of the results support our model.

Keywords: supersonic, viscous, triple deck technique, asymptotic methods, AF300 supersonic wind tunnel, reduced airfoil model

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22244 Validation of Asymptotic Techniques to Predict Bistatic Radar Cross Section

Authors: M. Pienaar, J. W. Odendaal, J. C. Smit, J. Joubert


Simulations are commonly used to predict the bistatic radar cross section (RCS) of military targets since characterization measurements can be expensive and time consuming. It is thus important to accurately predict the bistatic RCS of targets. Computational electromagnetic (CEM) methods can be used for bistatic RCS prediction. CEM methods are divided into full-wave and asymptotic methods. Full-wave methods are numerical approximations to the exact solution of Maxwell’s equations. These methods are very accurate but are computationally very intensive and time consuming. Asymptotic techniques make simplifying assumptions in solving Maxwell's equations and are thus less accurate but require less computational resources and time. Asymptotic techniques can thus be very valuable for the prediction of bistatic RCS of electrically large targets, due to the decreased computational requirements. This study extends previous work by validating the accuracy of asymptotic techniques to predict bistatic RCS through comparison with full-wave simulations as well as measurements. Validation is done with canonical structures as well as complex realistic aircraft models instead of only looking at a complex slicy structure. The slicy structure is a combination of canonical structures, including cylinders, corner reflectors and cubes. Validation is done over large bistatic angles and at different polarizations. Bistatic RCS measurements were conducted in a compact range, at the University of Pretoria, South Africa. The measurements were performed at different polarizations from 2 GHz to 6 GHz. Fixed bistatic angles of β = 30.8°, 45° and 90° were used. The measurements were calibrated with an active calibration target. The EM simulation tool FEKO was used to generate simulated results. The full-wave multi-level fast multipole method (MLFMM) simulated results together with the measured data were used as reference for validation. The accuracy of physical optics (PO) and geometrical optics (GO) was investigated. Differences relating to amplitude, lobing structure and null positions were observed between the asymptotic, full-wave and measured data. PO and GO were more accurate at angles close to the specular scattering directions and the accuracy seemed to decrease as the bistatic angle increased. At large bistatic angles PO did not perform well due to the shadow regions not being treated appropriately. PO also did not perform well for canonical structures where multi-bounce was the main scattering mechanism. PO and GO do not account for diffraction but these inaccuracies tended to decrease as the electrical size of objects increased. It was evident that both asymptotic techniques do not properly account for bistatic structural shadowing. Specular scattering was calculated accurately even if targets did not meet the electrically large criteria. It was evident that the bistatic RCS prediction performance of PO and GO depends on incident angle, frequency, target shape and observation angle. The improved computational efficiency of the asymptotic solvers yields a major advantage over full-wave solvers and measurements; however, there is still much room for improvement of the accuracy of these asymptotic techniques.

Keywords: asymptotic techniques, bistatic RCS, geometrical optics, physical optics

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22243 Robust Attitude Control for Agile Satellites with Vibration Compensation

Authors: Jair Servín-Aguilar, Yu Tang


We address the problem of robust attitude tracking for agile satellites under unknown bounded torque disturbances using a double-gimbal variable-speed control-moment gyro (DGVSCMG) driven by a cluster of three permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs). Uniform practical asymptotic stability is achieved at the torque control level first. The desired speed of gimbals and the acceleration of the spin wheel to produce the required torque are then calculated by a velocity-based steering law and tracked at the PMSM speed-control level by designing a speed-tracking controller with compensation for the vibration caused by eccentricity and imbalance due to mechanical imperfection in the DGVSCMG. Uniform practical asymptotic stability of the overall system is ensured by loan relying on the analysis of the resulting cascaded system. Numerical simulations are included to show the performance improvement of the proposed controller.

Keywords: agile satellites, vibration compensation, internal model, stability

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22242 Confidence Intervals for Quantiles in the Two-Parameter Exponential Distributions with Type II Censored Data

Authors: Ayman Baklizi


Based on type II censored data, we consider interval estimation of the quantiles of the two-parameter exponential distribution and the difference between the quantiles of two independent two-parameter exponential distributions. We derive asymptotic intervals, Bayesian, as well as intervals based on the generalized pivot variable. We also include some bootstrap intervals in our comparisons. The performance of these intervals is investigated in terms of their coverage probabilities and expected lengths.

Keywords: asymptotic intervals, Bayes intervals, bootstrap, generalized pivot variables, two-parameter exponential distribution, quantiles

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22241 Large Time Asymptotic Behavior to Solutions of a Forced Burgers Equation

Authors: Satyanarayana Engu, Ahmed Mohd, V. Murugan


We study the large time asymptotics of solutions to the Cauchy problem for a forced Burgers equation (FBE) with the initial data, which is continuous and summable on R. For which, we first derive explicit solutions of FBE assuming a different class of initial data in terms of Hermite polynomials. Later, by violating this assumption we prove the existence of a solution to the considered Cauchy problem. Finally, we give an asymptotic approximate solution and establish that the error will be of order O(t^(-1/2)) with respect to L^p -norm, where 1≤p≤∞, for large time.

Keywords: Burgers equation, Cole-Hopf transformation, Hermite polynomials, large time asymptotics

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22240 Progressive Type-I Interval Censoring with Binomial Removal-Estimation and Its Properties

Authors: Sonal Budhiraja, Biswabrata Pradhan


This work considers statistical inference based on progressive Type-I interval censored data with random removal. The scheme of progressive Type-I interval censoring with random removal can be described as follows. Suppose n identical items are placed on a test at time T0 = 0 under k pre-fixed inspection times at pre-specified times T1 < T2 < . . . < Tk, where Tk is the scheduled termination time of the experiment. At inspection time Ti, Ri of the remaining surviving units Si, are randomly removed from the experiment. The removal follows a binomial distribution with parameters Si and pi for i = 1, . . . , k, with pk = 1. In this censoring scheme, the number of failures in different inspection intervals and the number of randomly removed items at pre-specified inspection times are observed. Asymptotic properties of the maximum likelihood estimators (MLEs) are established under some regularity conditions. A β-content γ-level tolerance interval (TI) is determined for two parameters Weibull lifetime model using the asymptotic properties of MLEs. The minimum sample size required to achieve the desired β-content γ-level TI is determined. The performance of the MLEs and TI is studied via simulation.

Keywords: asymptotic normality, consistency, regularity conditions, simulation study, tolerance interval

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22239 The Asymptotic Hole Shape in Long Pulse Laser Drilling: The Influence of Multiple Reflections

Authors: Torsten Hermanns, You Wang, Stefan Janssen, Markus Niessen, Christoph Schoeler, Ulrich Thombansen, Wolfgang Schulz


In long pulse laser drilling of metals, it can be demonstrated that the ablation shape approaches a so-called asymptotic shape such that it changes only slightly or not at all with further irradiation. These findings are already known from ultra short pulse (USP) ablation of dielectric and semiconducting materials. The explanation for the occurrence of an asymptotic shape in long pulse drilling of metals is identified, a model for the description of the asymptotic hole shape numerically implemented, tested and clearly confirmed by comparison with experimental data. The model assumes a robust process in that way that the characteristics of the melt flow inside the arising melt film does not change qualitatively by changing the laser or processing parameters. Only robust processes are technically controllable and thus of industrial interest. The condition for a robust process is identified by a threshold for the mass flow density of the assist gas at the hole entrance which has to be exceeded. Within a robust process regime the melt flow characteristics can be captured by only one model parameter, namely the intensity threshold. In analogy to USP ablation (where it is already known for a long time that the resulting hole shape results from a threshold for the absorbed laser fluency) it is demonstrated that in the case of robust long pulse ablation the asymptotic shape forms in that way that along the whole contour the absorbed heat flux density is equal to the intensity threshold. The intensity threshold depends on the special material and radiation properties and has to be calibrated be one reference experiment. The model is implemented in a numerical simulation which is called AsymptoticDrill and requires such a few amount of resources that it can run on common desktop PCs, laptops or even smart devices. Resulting hole shapes can be calculated within seconds what depicts a clear advantage over other simulations presented in literature in the context of industrial every day usage. Against this background the software additionally is equipped with a user-friendly GUI which allows an intuitive usage. Individual parameters can be adjusted using sliders while the simulation result appears immediately in an adjacent window. A platform independent development allow a flexible usage: the operator can use the tool to adjust the process in a very convenient manner on a tablet during the developer can execute the tool in his office in order to design new processes. Furthermore, at the best knowledge of the authors AsymptoticDrill is the first simulation which allows the import of measured real beam distributions and thus calculates the asymptotic hole shape on the basis of the real state of the specific manufacturing system. In this paper the emphasis is placed on the investigation of the effect of multiple reflections on the asymptotic hole shape which gain in importance when drilling holes with large aspect ratios.

Keywords: asymptotic hole shape, intensity threshold, long pulse laser drilling, robust process

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22238 Singular Perturbed Vector Field Method Applied to the Problem of Thermal Explosion of Polydisperse Fuel Spray

Authors: Ophir Nave


In our research, we present the concept of singularly perturbed vector field (SPVF) method, and its application to thermal explosion of diesel spray combustion. Given a system of governing equations, which consist of hidden Multi-scale variables, the SPVF method transfer and decompose such system to fast and slow singularly perturbed subsystems (SPS). The SPVF method enables us to understand the complex system, and simplify the calculations. Later powerful analytical, numerical and asymptotic methods (e.g method of integral (invariant) manifold (MIM), the homotopy analysis method (HAM) etc.) can be applied to each subsystem. We compare the results obtained by the methods of integral invariant manifold and SPVF apply to spray droplets combustion model. The research deals with the development of an innovative method for extracting fast and slow variables in physical mathematical models. The method that we developed called singular perturbed vector field. This method based on a numerical algorithm applied to global quasi linearization applied to given physical model. The SPVF method applied successfully to combustion processes. Our results were compared to experimentally results. The SPVF is a general numerical and asymptotical method that reveals the hierarchy (multi-scale system) of a given system.

Keywords: polydisperse spray, model reduction, asymptotic analysis, multi-scale systems

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22237 Analytical Solutions for Corotational Maxwell Model Fluid Arising in Wire Coating inside a Canonical Die

Authors: Muhammad Sohail Khan, Rehan Ali Shah


The present paper applies the optimal homotopy perturbation method (OHPM) and the optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM) introduced recently to obtain analytic approximations of the non-linear equations modeling the flow of polymer in case of wire coating of a corotational Maxwell fluid. Expression for the velocity field is obtained in non-dimensional form. Comparison of the results obtained by the two methods at different values of non-dimensional parameter l10, reveal that the OHPM is more effective and easy to use. The OHPM solution can be improved even working in the same order of approximation depends on the choices of the auxiliary functions.

Keywords: corotational Maxwell model, optimal homotopy asymptotic method, optimal homotopy perturbation method, wire coating die

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22236 Coupled Space and Time Homogenization of Viscoelastic-Viscoplastic Composites

Authors: Sarra Haouala, Issam Doghri


In this work, a multiscale computational strategy is proposed for the analysis of structures, which are described at a refined level both in space and in time. The proposal is applied to two-phase viscoelastic-viscoplastic (VE-VP) reinforced thermoplastics subjected to large numbers of cycles. The main aim is to predict the effective long time response while reducing the computational cost considerably. The proposed computational framework is a combination of the mean-field space homogenization based on the generalized incrementally affine formulation for VE-VP composites, and the asymptotic time homogenization approach for coupled isotropic VE-VP homogeneous solids under large numbers of cycles. The time homogenization method is based on the definition of micro and macro-chronological time scales, and on asymptotic expansions of the unknown variables. First, the original anisotropic VE-VP initial-boundary value problem of the composite material is decomposed into coupled micro-chronological (fast time scale) and macro-chronological (slow time-scale) problems. The former is purely VE, and solved once for each macro time step, whereas the latter problem is nonlinear and solved iteratively using fully implicit time integration. Second, mean-field space homogenization is used for both micro and macro-chronological problems to determine the micro and macro-chronological effective behavior of the composite material. The response of the matrix material is VE-VP with J2 flow theory assuming small strains. The formulation exploits the return-mapping algorithm for the J2 model, with its two steps: viscoelastic predictor and plastic corrections. The proposal is implemented for an extended Mori-Tanaka scheme, and verified against finite element simulations of representative volume elements, for a number of polymer composite materials subjected to large numbers of cycles.

Keywords: asymptotic expansions, cyclic loadings, inclusion-reinforced thermoplastics, mean-field homogenization, time homogenization

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22235 Lyapunov and Input-to-State Stability of Stochastic Differential Equations

Authors: Arcady Ponosov, Ramazan Kadiev


Input-to-State Stability (ISS) is widely used in deterministic control theory but less known in the stochastic case. Roughly speaking, the theory explains when small perturbations of the right-hand sides of the system on the entire semiaxis cause only small changes in the solutions of the system, again on the entire semiaxis. This property is crucial in many applications. In the report, we explain how to define and study ISS for systems of linear stochastic differential equations with or without delays. The central result connects ISS with the property of Lyapunov stability. This relationship is well-known in the deterministic setting, but its stochastic version is new. As an application, a method of studying asymptotic Lyapunov stability for stochastic delay equations is described and justified. Several examples are provided that confirm the efficiency and simplicity of the framework.

Keywords: asymptotic stability, delay equations, operator methods, stochastic perturbations

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22234 High Accuracy Analytic Approximation for Special Functions Applied to Bessel Functions J₀(x) and Its Zeros

Authors: Fernando Maass, Pablo Martin, Jorge Olivares


The Bessel function J₀(x) is very important in Electrodynamics and Physics, as well as its zeros. In this work, a method to obtain high accuracy approximation is presented through an application to that function. In most of the applications of this function, the values of the zeros are very important. In this work, analytic approximations for this function have been obtained valid for all positive values of the variable x, which have high accuracy for the function as well as for the zeros. The approximation is determined by the simultaneous used of the power series and asymptotic expansion. The structure of the approximation is a combination of two rational functions with elementary functions as trigonometric and fractional powers. Here us in Pade method, rational functions are used, but now there combined with elementary functions us fractional powers hyperbolic or trigonometric functions, and others. The reason of this is that now power series of the exact function are used, but together with the asymptotic expansion, which usually includes fractional powers trigonometric functions and other type of elementary functions. The approximation must be a bridge between both expansions, and this can not be accomplished using only with rational functions. In the simplest approximation using 4 parameters the maximum absolute error is less than 0.006 at x ∼ 4.9. In this case also the maximum relative error for the zeros is less than 0.003 which is for the second zero, but that value decreases rapidly for the other zeros. The same kind of behaviour happens for the relative error of the maximum and minimum of the functions. Approximations with higher accuracy and more parameters will be also shown. All the approximations are valid for any positive value of x, and they can be calculated easily.

Keywords: analytic approximations, asymptotic approximations, Bessel functions, quasirational approximations

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