Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4523

Search results for: contact stress

4523 Analysis of Contact Width and Contact Stress of Three-Layer Corrugated Metal Gasket

Authors: I. Made Gatot Karohika, Shigeyuki Haruyama, Ken Kaminishi, Oke Oktavianty, Didik Nurhadiyanto


Contact width and contact stress are important parameters related to the leakage behavior of corrugated metal gasket. In this study, contact width and contact stress of three-layer corrugated metal gasket are investigated due to the modulus of elasticity and thickness of surface layer for 2 type gasket (0-MPa and 400-MPa mode). A finite element method was employed to develop simulation solution to analysis the effect of each parameter. The result indicated that lowering the modulus of elasticity ratio of surface layer will result in better contact width but the average contact stresses are smaller. When the modulus of elasticity ratio is held constant with thickness ratio increase, its contact width has an increscent trend otherwise the average contact stress has decreased trend.

Keywords: contact width, contact stress, layer, metal gasket, corrugated, simulation

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4522 Checking Planetary Clutch on the Romania Tractor Using Mathematical Equations

Authors: Mohammad Vahedi Torshizi


In this investigation, at first, bending stress, contact stress, Safety factor of bending and Safety factor of contact between sun gear and planet gear tooth was determined using mathematical equations. Also, The amount of Sun Revolution in, Speed carrier, power Transmitted of the sun, sun torque, sun peripheral speed, Enter the tangential force gears, was calculated using mathematical equations. According to the obtained results, maximum of bending stress and contact stress occurred in three plantary and low status of four plantary. Also, maximum of Speed carrier, sun peripheral speed, Safety factor of bending and Safety factor of contact obtained in four plantary and maximum of power Transmitted of the sun, Enter the tangential force gears, bending stress and contact stress was in three pantry and factors And other factors were equal in the two planets.

Keywords: bending stress, contact stress, plantary, mathematical equations

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4521 Development of 25A-Size Three-Layer Metal Gasket by Using FEM Simulation

Authors: Shigeyuki Haruyama, I Made Gatot Karohika, Akinori Sato, Didik Nurhadiyanto, Ken Kaminishi


Contact width and contact stress are important design parameters for optimizing corrugated metal gasket performance based on elastic and plastic contact stress. In this study, we used a three-layer metal gasket with Al, Cu, Ni as the outer layer, respectively. A finite element method was employed to develop simulation solution. The gasket model was simulated by using two simulation stages which are forming and tightening simulation. The simulation result shows that aluminum with tangent modulus, Ehal = Eal/150 has the highest slope for contact width. The slope of contact width for plastic mode gasket was higher than the elastic mode gasket.

Keywords: contact width, contact stress, layer, metal gasket, corrugated, simulation

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4520 Simulation the Stress Distribution of Wheel/Rail at Contact Region

Authors: Norie A. Akeel, Z. Sajuri, A. K. Ariffin


This paper discusses the effect of different loading analysis on crack initiation life of wheel/rail in the contact region. A simulated three dimensional (3D) elasto plastic model of a wheel/rail contact is modeled using the fine mesh technique in the contact region by using Finite Element Method FEM code ANSYS 11.0 software. Different loads of approximately from 70 to 140 KN was applied on the wheel tread through the running surface on the railhead surface to simulate stress distribution (Von Mises) and a life prediction of the crack initiation under rolling contact motion. Stress analysis is achieved and the fatigue life to the rail head surface is calculated numerically by using a multi-axial fatigue life of crack initiation model. All results obtained from the previous researches are compared with this research.

Keywords: FEM, rolling contact, rail track, stress distribution, fatigue life

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4519 Stress Distribution in Axisymmetric Indentation of an Elastic Layer-Substrate Body

Authors: Kotaro Miura, Makoto Sakamoto, Yuji Tanabe


We focus on internal stress and displacement of an elastic axisymmetric contact problem for indentation of a layer-substrate body. An elastic layer is assumed to be perfectly bonded to an elastic semi-infinite substrate. The elastic layer is smoothly indented with a flat-ended cylindrical indenter. The analytical and exact solutions were obtained by solving an infinite system of simultaneous equations using the method to express a normal contact stress at the upper surface of the elastic layer as an appropriate series. This paper presented the numerical results of internal stress and displacement distributions for hard-coating system with constant values of Poisson’s ratio and the thickness of elastic layer.

Keywords: indentation, contact problem, stress distribution, coating materials, layer-substrate body

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4518 Fracture Control of the Soda-Lime Glass in Laser Thermal Cleavage

Authors: Jehnming Lin


The effects of the contact ball-lens on the soda lime glass in laser thermal cleavage with a cw Nd-YAG laser were investigated in this study. A contact ball-lens was adopted to generate a bending force on the crack formation of the soda-lime glass in the laser cutting process. The Nd-YAG laser beam (wavelength of 1064 nm) was focused through the ball-lens and transmitted to the soda-lime glass, which was coated with a carbon film on the surface with a bending force from a ball-lens to generate a tensile stress state on the surface cracking. The fracture was controlled by the contact ball-lens and a straight cutting was tested to demonstrate the feasibility. Experimental observations on the crack propagation from the leading edge, main section and trailing edge of the glass sheet were compared with various mechanical and thermal loadings. Further analyses on the stress under various laser powers and contact ball loadings were made to characterize the innovative technology. The results show that the distributions of the side crack at the leading and trailing edges are mainly dependent on the boundary condition, contact force, cutting speed and laser power. With the increase of the mechanical and thermal loadings, the region of the side cracks might be dramatically reduced with proper selection of the geometrical constraints. Therefore, the application of the contact ball-lens is a possible way to control the fracture in laser cleavage with improved cutting qualities.

Keywords: laser cleavage, stress analysis, crack visualization, laser

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4517 Prediction of Fracture Aperture in Fragmented Rocks

Authors: Hossein Agheshlui, Stephan Matthai


In fractured rock masses open fractures tend to act as the main pathways of fluid flow. The permeability of a rock fracture depends on its aperture. The change of aperture with stress can cause a many-orders-of-magnitude change in the hydraulic conductivity at moderate compressive stress levels. In this study, the change of aperture in fragmented rocks is investigated using finite element analysis. A full 3D mechanical model of a simplified version of an outcrop analog is created and studied. A constant initial aperture value is applied to all fractures. Different far field stresses are applied and the change of aperture is monitored considering the block to block interaction. The fragmented rock layer is assumed to be sandwiched between softer layers. Frictional contact forces are defined at the layer boundaries as well as among contacting rock blocks. For a given in situ stress, the blocks slide and contact each other, resulting in new aperture distributions. A map of changed aperture is produced after applying the in situ stress and compared to the initial apertures. Subsequently, the permeability of the system before and after the stress application is compared.

Keywords: fractured rocks, mechanical model, aperture change due to stress, frictional interface

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4516 Electro-Discharge Drilling in Residual Stress Measurement of Annealed St.37 Steel

Authors: H. Gholami, M. Jalali Azizpour


For materials such as hard coating whose stresses state are difficult to obtain by a widely used method called high-speed hole-drilling method (ASTM Standard E837). It is important to develop a non contact method. This process itself imposes an additional stresses. The through thickness residual stress of st37 steel using elector-discharge was investigated. The strain gage and dynamic strain indicator used in all cases was FRS-2-11 rosette type and TML 221, respectively. The average residual stress in depth of 320 µm was -6.47 MPa.

Keywords: HVOF, residual stress, thermal spray, WC-Co

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
4515 Simulation of Stress in Graphite Anode of Lithium-Ion Battery: Intra and Inter-Particle

Authors: Wenxin Mei, Jinhua Sun, Qingsong Wang


The volume expansion of lithium-ion batteries is mainly induced by intercalation induced stress within the negative electrode, resulting in capacity degradation and even battery failure. Stress generation due to lithium intercalation into graphite particles is investigated based on an electrochemical-mechanical model in this work. The two-dimensional model presented is fully coupled, inclusive of the impacts of intercalation-induced stress, stress-induced intercalation, to evaluate the lithium concentration, stress generation, and displacement intra and inter-particle. The results show that the distribution of lithium concentration and stress exhibits an analogous pattern, which reflects the relation between lithium diffusion and stress. The results of inter-particle stress indicate that larger Von-Mises stress is displayed where the two particles are in contact with each other, and deformation at the edge of particles is also observed, predicting fracture. Additionally, the maximum inter-particle stress at the end of lithium intercalation is nearly ten times the intraparticle stress. And the maximum inter-particle displacement is increased by 24% compared to the single-particle. Finally, the effect of graphite particle arrangement on inter-particle stress is studied. It is found that inter-particle stress with tighter arrangement exhibits lower stress. This work can provide guidance for predicting the intra and inter-particle stress to take measures to avoid cracking of electrode material.

Keywords: electrochemical-mechanical model, graphite particle, lithium concentration, lithium ion battery, stress

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4514 Evaluate the Changes in Stress Level Using Facial Thermal Imaging

Authors: Amin Derakhshan, Mohammad Mikaili, Mohammad Ali Khalilzadeh, Amin Mohammadian


This paper proposes a stress recognition system from multi-modal bio-potential signals. For stress recognition, Support Vector Machines (SVM) and LDA are applied to design the stress classifiers and its characteristics are investigated. Using gathered data under psychological polygraph experiments, the classifiers are trained and tested. The pattern recognition method classifies stressful from non-stressful subjects based on labels which come from polygraph data. The successful classification rate is 96% for 12 subjects. It means that facial thermal imaging due to its non-contact advantage could be a remarkable alternative for psycho-physiological methods.

Keywords: stress, thermal imaging, face, SVM, polygraph

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4513 A Study of Electric Generation Characteristics for Thin-Film Piezoelectric PbZrTiO₃ Ceramic Plate during the Static and Cyclic Loading Conditions

Authors: Tsukasa Ogawa, Mitsuhiro Okayasu


To examine the generation properties of electric power for piezoelectric (PbZrTiO3) ceramic plates, the electric-power generation characteristics were examined experimentally and numerically during cyclic bending under various loading fixtures with different contact condition, i.e., point and area contact. In the low applied loading condition between 10 and 50 N, increasing the load-contact area on the piezoelectric ceramic led to a nonlinear decrease in the generated voltage. Decreasing contact area, including the point contact, basically enhanced the generated voltage, although the voltage saturated during loading when the contact area is less than ϕ5 mm, which was attributed to the high strain status, resulting in the material failure, i.e., high stress concentration. In this case, severe plastic deformation and the domain switching were dominated failure modes in the ceramic. From this approach, it is clear that the applied load became more larger (50 ~100 N), larger contact area (ϕ10 ~ ϕ20 mm) became advantageous for power generation. Based upon this cyclic loading was carried out to investigate the fatigue characteristics of the piezoelectric ceramic late. For all contact conditions, electric voltage dropped in the beginning of the cyclic loading, although the higher electric generation was stable in the further cyclic loading for the contact area of ϕ10 ~ ϕ20 mm. In constant, further decrement of electric generation occurred for the point contact condition, and the low electric voltage was generated for the larger contact condition.

Keywords: electric power generation, piezoelectric ceramic, lead zirconate titanate ceramic, loading conditions

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4512 Mixed Mode Fracture Analyses Using Finite Element Method of Edge Cracked Heavy Annulus Pulley

Authors: Bijit Kalita, K. V. N. Surendra


The pulley works under both compressive loading due to contacting belt in tension and central torque due to cause rotation. In a power transmission system, the belt pulley assemblies offer a contact problem in the form of two mating cylindrical parts. In this work, we modeled a pulley as a heavy two-dimensional circular disk. Stress analysis due to contact loading in the pulley mechanism is performed. Finite element analysis (FEA) is conducted for a pulley to investigate the stresses experienced on its inner and outer periphery. In most of the heavy-duty applications, most frequently used mechanisms to transmit power in applications such as automotive engines, industrial machines, etc. is Belt Drive. Usually, very heavy circular disks are used as pulleys. A pulley could be entitled as a drum and may have a groove between two flanges around the circumference. A rope, belt, cable or chain can be the driving element of a pulley system that runs over the pulley inside the groove. A pulley is experienced by normal and shear tractions on its contact region in the process of motion transmission. The region may be belt-pulley contact surface or pulley-shaft contact surface. In 1895, Hertz solved the elastic contact problem for point contact and line contact of an ideal smooth object. Afterward, this hypothesis is generally utilized for computing the actual contact zone. Detailed stress analysis in such contact region of such pulleys is quite necessary to prevent early failure. In this paper, the results of the finite element analyses carried out on the compressed disk of a belt pulley arrangement using fracture mechanics concepts are shown. Based on the literature on contact stress problem induced in the wide field of applications, generated stress distribution on the shaft-pulley and belt-pulley interfaces due to the application of high-tension and torque was evaluated in this study using FEA concepts. Finally, the results obtained from ANSYS (APDL) were compared with the Hertzian contact theory. The study is mainly focused on the fatigue life estimation of a rotating part as a component of an engine assembly using the most famous Paris equation. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) analyses have been performed using the open-source software. From the displacement computed using the images acquired at a minimum and maximum force, displacement field amplitude is computed. From these fields, the crack path is defined and stress intensity factors and crack tip position are extracted. A non-linear least-squares projection is used for the purpose of the estimation of fatigue crack growth. Further study will be extended for the various application of rotating machinery such as rotating flywheel disk, jet engine, compressor disk, roller disk cutter etc., where Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) calculation plays a significant role on the accuracy and reliability of a safe design. Additionally, this study will be progressed to predict crack propagation in the pulley using maximum tangential stress (MTS) criteria for mixed mode fracture.

Keywords: crack-tip deformations, contact stress, stress concentration, stress intensity factor

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4511 Atomistic Insight into the System of Trapped Oil Droplet/ Nanofluid System in Nanochannels

Authors: Yuanhao Chang, Senbo Xiao, Zhiliang Zhang, Jianying He


The role of nanoparticles (NPs) in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is being increasingly emphasized. In this study, the motion of NPs and local stress distribution of tapped oil droplet/nanofluid in nanochannels are studied with coarse-grained modeling and molecular dynamic simulations. The results illustrate three motion patterns for NPs: hydrophilic NPs are more likely to adsorb on the channel and stay near the three-phase contact areas, hydrophobic NPs move inside the oil droplet as clusters and more mixed NPs are trapped at the oil-water interface. NPs in each pattern affect the flow of fluid and the interfacial thickness to various degrees. Based on the calculation of atomistic stress, the characteristic that the higher value of stress occurs at the place where NPs aggregate can be obtained. Different occurrence patterns correspond to specific local stress distribution. Significantly, in the three-phase contact area for hydrophilic NPs, the local stress distribution close to the pattern of structural disjoining pressure is observed, which proves the existence of structural disjoining pressure in molecular dynamics simulation for the first time. Our results guide the design and screen of NPs for EOR and provide a basic understanding of nanofluid applications.

Keywords: local stress distribution, nanoparticles, enhanced oil recovery, molecular dynamics simulation, trapped oil droplet, structural disjoining pressure

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4510 Static and Dynamic Load on Hip Contact of Hip Prosthesis and Thai Femoral Bones

Authors: K. Chalernpon, P. Aroonjarattham, K. Aroonjarattham


Total hip replacement had been one of the most successful operations in hip arthritis surgery. The purpose of this research had been to develop a dynamic hip contact of Thai femoral bone to analyze the stress distribution on the implant and the strain distribution on the bone model under daily activities and compared with the static load simulation. The results showed the different of maximum von Mises stress 0.14 percent under walking and 0.03 percent under climbing stair condition and the different of equivalent total strain 0.52 percent under walking and 0.05 percent under climbing stair condition. The muscular forces should be evaluated with dynamic condition to reduce the maximum von Mises stress and equivalent total strain.

Keywords: dynamic loading, static load, hip prosthesis, Thai femur, femoral bone, finite element analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
4509 The Contact between a Rigid Substrate and a Thick Elastic Layer

Authors: Nicola Menga, Giuseppe Carbone


Although contact mechanics has been widely focused on the study of contacts between half-space, it has been recently pointed out that in presence of finite thickness elastic layers the results of the contact problem show significant difference in terms of the main contact quantities (e.g. contact area, penetration, mean pressure, etc.). Actually, there exist a wide range of industrial application demanding for this kind of studies, such as seals leakage prediction or pressure-sensitive coatings for electrical applications. In this work, we focus on the contact between a rigid profile and an elastic layer of thickness h confined under two different configurations: rigid constrain and applied uniform pressure. The elastic problem at hand has been formalized following Green’s function method and then numerically solved by means of a matrix inversion. We study different contact conditions, both considering and neglecting adhesive interactions at the interface. This leads to different solution techniques: Adhesive contacts equilibrium solution is found, in term of contact area for given penetration, making stationary the total free energy of the system; whereas, adhesiveless contacts are addressed defining an equilibrium criterion, again on the contact area, relying on the fracture mechanics stress intensity factor KI. In particular, we make the KI vanish at the edges of the contact area, as peculiar for adhesiveless elastic contacts. The results are obtained in terms of contact area, penetration, and mean pressure for both adhesive and adhesiveless contact conditions. As expected, in the case of a uniform applied pressure the slab turns out much more compliant than the rigidly constrained one. Indeed, we have observed that the peak value of the contact pressure, for both the adhesive and adhesiveless condition, is much higher for the rigidly constrained configuration than in the case of applied uniform pressure. Furthermore, we observed that, for little contact area, both systems behave the same and the pull-off occurs at approximately the same contact area and mean contact pressure. This is an expected result since in this condition the ratio between the layers thickness and the contact area is very high and both layer configurations recover the half-space behavior where the pull-off occurrence is mainly controlled by the adhesive interactions, which are kept constant among the cases.

Keywords: contact mechanics, adhesion, friction, thick layer

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4508 Finite Element Modeling for Clamping Stresses Developed in Hot-Driven Steel Structural Riveted Connections

Authors: Jackeline Kafie-Martinez, Peter B. Keating


A three-dimensional finite element model is developed to capture the stress field generated in connected plates during the installation of hot-driven rivets. Clamping stress is generated when a steel rivet heated to approximately 1000 °C comes in contact with the material to be fastened at ambient temperature. As the rivet cools, thermal contraction subjects the rivet into tensile stress, while the material being fastened is subjected to compressive stress. Model characteristics and assumptions, as well as steel properties variation with respect to temperature are discussed. The thermal stresses developed around the rivet hole are assessed and reported. Results from the analysis are utilized to detect possible regions for fatigue crack propagation under cyclic loads.

Keywords: clamping stress, fatigue, finite elements, rivet, riveted railroad bridges

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4507 Ruthenium Based Nanoscale Contact Coatings for Magnetically Controlled MEMS Switches

Authors: Sergey M. Karabanov, Dmitry V. Suvorov


Magnetically controlled microelectromechanical system (MCMEMS) switches is one of the directions in the field of micropower switching technology. MCMEMS switches are a promising alternative to Hall sensors and reed switches. The most important parameter for MCMEMS is the contact resistance, which should have a minimum value and is to be stable for the entire duration of service life. The value and stability of the contact resistance is mainly determined by the contact coating material. This paper presents the research results of a contact coating based on nanoscale ruthenium films obtained by electrolytic deposition. As a result of the performed investigations, the deposition modes of ruthenium films are chosen, the regularities of the contact resistance change depending on the number of contact switching, and the coating roughness are established. It is shown that changing the coating roughness makes it possible to minimize the contact resistance.

Keywords: contact resistance, electrode coating, electrolytic deposition, magnetically controlled MEMS

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4506 The Interaction between Hydrogen and Surface Stress in Stainless Steel

Authors: Osamu Takakuwa, Yuta Mano, Hitoshi Soyama


This paper reveals the interaction between hydrogen and surface stress in austenitic stainless steel by X-ray diffraction stress measurement and thermal desorption analysis before and after being charged with hydrogen. The surface residual stress was varied by surface finishing using several disc polishing agents. The obtained results show that the residual stress near surface had a significant effect on hydrogen absorption behavior, that is, tensile residual stress promoted the hydrogen absorption and compressive one did opposite. Also, hydrogen induced equi-biaxial stress and this stress has a linear correlation with hydrogen content.

Keywords: hydrogen embrittlement, residual stress, surface finishing, stainless steel

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4505 An Original and Suitable Induction Method of Repeated Hypoxic Stress by Hydralazine to Investigate the Integrity of an in Vitro Contact Co-Culture Blood Brain Barrier Model

Authors: Morgane Chatard, Clémentine Puech, Nathalie Perek, Frédéric Roche


Several neurological disorders are linked to repeated hypoxia. The impact of such repeated hypoxic stress, on endothelial cells function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is little studied in the literature. Indeed, the study of hypoxic stress in cellular pathways is complex using hypoxia exposure because HIF 1α (factor induced by hypoxia) has a short half life. Our study presents an innovative induction method of repeated hypoxic stress, more reproducible, which allows us to study its impacts on an in vitro contact co-culture BBB model. Repeated hypoxic stress was induced by hydralazine (a mimetic agent of hypoxia pathway) during two hours and repeated during 24 hours. Then, BBB integrity was assessed by permeability measurements (transendothelial electrical resistance and membrane permeability), tight junction protein expressions (cell-ELISA and confocal microscopy) and by studying expression and activity of efflux transporters. First, this study showed that repeated hypoxic stress leads to a BBB’s dysfunction illustrated by a significant increase in permeability. This loss of membrane integrity was linked to a significant decrease of tight junctions’ protein expressions, facilitating a possible transfer of potential cytotoxic compounds in the brain. Secondly, we demonstrated that brain microvascular endothelial cells had set-up defence mechanism. These endothelial cells significantly increased the activity of their efflux transporters which was associated with a significant increase in their expression. In conclusion, repeated hypoxic stress lead to a loss of BBB integrity with a decrease of tight junction proteins. In contrast, endothelial cells increased the expression of their efflux transporters to fight against cytotoxic compounds brain crossing. Unfortunately, enhanced efflux activity could also lead to reducing pharmacological drugs delivering to the brain in such hypoxic conditions.

Keywords: BBB model, efflux transporters, repeated hypoxic stress, tigh junction proteins

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4504 Scaling Analysis of the Contact Line and Capillary Interaction Induced by a Floating Tilted Cylinder

Authors: ShiQing Gao, XingYi Zhang, YouHe Zhou


When a floating tilted cylinder pierces a fluid interface, the fulfilment of constant-contact-angle condition along the cylinder results in shift, stretch and distortion of the contact line, thus leading to a capillary interaction. We perform an investigation of the scaling dependence of tilt angle, contact angle, and cylinder radius on the contact line profile and the corresponding capillary interaction by numerical simulation and experiment. Characterized by three characteristic parameters respectively, the dependences for each deformation mode are systematically analyzed. Both the experiment and simulation reveals an invariant structure that is independent of contact angle and radius to characterize the stretch of the contact line for every tilted case. Based on this observation, we then propose a general capillary force scaling law to incredibly grasp all the simulated results, by simply approximating the contact line profile as tilted ellipse.

Keywords: gas-liquid/liquid-fluid interface, colloidal particle, contact line shape, capillary interaction, surface evolver (SE)

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
4503 Social Contact Patterns among School-Age Children in Taiwan

Authors: Dih Ling Luh, Zhi Shih You, Szu Chieh Chen


Social contact patterns among school-age children play an important role in the epidemiology of infectious disease. Since many of the greatest threats to human health are spread by direct person-to-person contact, understanding the spread of respiratory pathogens and patterns of human interactions are public health priorities. This study used social contact diaries to compare the number of contacts per day per participant across different flu/non-flu seasons and weekend/weekday. We also present contact properties such as sex, age, masking, setting, frequency, duration, and contact types among school-age children (grades 7–8). The sample size with pair-wise comparisons for the seasons (flu/non-flu) and stratification by location were 54 and 83, respectively. There was no difference in the number of contacts during the flu and non-flu seasons, with averages of 16.3 (S.D. = 12.9) and 14.6 (S.D. = 9.5) people, respectively. Weekdays were associated with 23% and 28% more contacts than weekend days during the non-flu and flu seasons, respectively (p < 0.001) (Wilcoxon signed-rank test).

Keywords: contact patterns, behavior, influenza, social mixing

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4502 The Estimation Method of Stress Distribution for Beam Structures Using the Terrestrial Laser Scanning

Authors: Sang Wook Park, Jun Su Park, Byung Kwan Oh, Yousok Kim, Hyo Seon Park


This study suggests the estimation method of stress distribution for the beam structures based on TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanning). The main components of method are the creation of the lattices of raw data from TLS to satisfy the suitable condition and application of CSSI (Cubic Smoothing Spline Interpolation) for estimating stress distribution. Estimation of stress distribution for the structural member or the whole structure is one of the important factors for safety evaluation of the structure. Existing sensors which include ESG (Electric strain gauge) and LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer) can be categorized as contact type sensor which should be installed on the structural members and also there are various limitations such as the need of separate space where the network cables are installed and the difficulty of access for sensor installation in real buildings. To overcome these problems inherent in the contact type sensors, TLS system of LiDAR (light detection and ranging), which can measure the displacement of a target in a long range without the influence of surrounding environment and also get the whole shape of the structure, has been applied to the field of structural health monitoring. The important characteristic of TLS measuring is a formation of point clouds which has many points including the local coordinate. Point clouds is not linear distribution but dispersed shape. Thus, to analyze point clouds, the interpolation is needed vitally. Through formation of averaged lattices and CSSI for the raw data, the method which can estimate the displacement of simple beam was developed. Also, the developed method can be extended to calculate the strain and finally applicable to estimate a stress distribution of a structural member. To verify the validity of the method, the loading test on a simple beam was conducted and TLS measured it. Through a comparison of the estimated stress and reference stress, the validity of the method is confirmed.

Keywords: structural healthcare monitoring, terrestrial laser scanning, estimation of stress distribution, coordinate transformation, cubic smoothing spline interpolation

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4501 Mindful Habits to Remain Unruffled by Stress in the Workplace

Authors: Sandeep Nath


There are good stresses and bad stresses. To tell the difference, recognize early signs of stress, and label stress conditions correctly, we need to understand stress triggers and the mechanism of stress as it arises. By understanding this through mindfulness of body, mind, and spirit, we can be prepared to prevent harmful stress from escalating and ruining health; physical, mental, and emotional. We can also prepare others/peers to be stress-free. The understanding of this is available in a form closest to our natural being, in ancient oriental wisdom, and is brought together as actionable habits in the movement called RENEWALism. The constructs of RENEWALism Habits are detailed in this paper, and case studies presented of how mindfulness has equipped individuals with both capability and capacity to handle their situations and environments despite the odds.

Keywords: habits, mindfulness, renewalism, stress

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4500 The Influence of Contact Models on Discrete Element Modeling of the Ballast Layer Subjected to Cyclic Loading

Authors: Peyman Aela, Lu Zong, Guoqing Jing


Recently, there has been growing interest in numerical modeling of ballast railway tracks. A commonly used mechanistic modeling approach for ballast is the discrete element method (DEM). Up to now, the effects of the contact model on ballast particle behavior have not been precisely examined. In this regard, selecting the appropriate contact model is mainly associated with the particle characteristics and the loading condition. Since ballast is cohesionless material, different contact models, including the linear spring, Hertz-Mindlin, and Hysteretic models, could be used to calculate particle-particle or wall-particle contact forces. Moreover, the simulation of a dynamic test is vital to investigate the effect of damping parameters on the ballast deformation. In this study, ballast box tests were simulated by DEM to examine the influence of different contact models on the mechanical behavior of the ballast layer under cyclic loading. This paper shows how the contact model can affect the deformation and damping of a ballast layer subjected to cyclic loading in a ballast box.

Keywords: ballast, contact model, cyclic loading, DEM

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4499 The Contact Behaviors of Seals Under Combined Normal and Tangential Loading: A Multiscale Finite Element Contact Analysis

Authors: Runliang Wang, Jianhua Liu, Duo Jia, Xiaoyu Ding


The contact between sealing surfaces plays a vital role in guaranteeing the sealing performance of various seals. To date, analyses of sealing structures have rarely considered both structural parameters (macroscale) and surface roughness information (microscale) of sealing surfaces due to the complex modeling process. Meanwhile, most of the contact analyses applied to seals were conducted only under normal loading, which still existssome distance from real loading conditions in engineering. In this paper, a multiscale rough contact model, which took both macrostructural parameters of seals and surface roughness information of sealing surfaces into consideration for the cone-cone seal, was established. By using the finite element method (FEM), the combined normal and tangential loading was applied to the model to simulate the assembly process of the cone-cone seal. The evolution of the contact behaviors during the assembly process, such as the real contact area (RCA), the distribution of contact pressure, and contact status, are studied in detail. The results showed the non-linear relationship between the RCA and the load, which was different from the normal loading cases. In addition, the evolution of the real contact area of cone-cone seals with isotropic and anisotropic rough surfaces are also compared quantitatively.

Keywords: contact mechanics, FEM, randomly rough surface, real contact area, sealing

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4498 Two-Dimensional Seismic Response of Concrete Gravity Dams Including Base Sliding

Authors: Djamel Ouzandja, Boualem Tiliouine


The safety evaluation of the concrete gravity dams subjected to seismic excitations is really very complex as the earthquake response of the concrete gravity dam depends upon its contraction joints with foundation soil. This paper presents the seismic response of concrete gravity dams considering friction contact and welded contact. Friction contact is provided using contact elements. Two-dimensional (2D) finite element model of Oued Fodda concrete gravity dam, located in Chlef at the west of Algeria, is used for this purpose. Linear and nonlinear analyses considering dam-foundation soil interaction are performed using ANSYS software. The reservoir water is modeled as added mass using the Westergaard approach. The Drucker-Prager model is preferred for dam and foundation rock in nonlinear analyses. The surface-to-surface contact elements based on the Coulomb's friction law are used to describe the friction. These contact elements use a target surface and a contact surface to form a contact pair. According to this study, the seismic analysis of concrete gravity dams including base sliding. When the friction contact is considered in joints, the base sliding displacement occurs along the dam-foundation soil contact interface. Besides, the base sliding may generally decrease the principal stresses in the dam.

Keywords: concrete gravity dam, dynamic soil-structure interaction, friction contact, sliding

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4497 Cable Diameter Effect on the Contact Temperature of Power Automotive Connector

Authors: Amine Beloufa, Mohamed Amirat


In the electric vehicle, high power leads to high current; automotive power connector should resist to this high current in order to avoid a serious damage caused by the increase of contact temperature. The purpose of this paper is to analyze experimentally and numerically the effect of the cable diameter variation on the decrease of contact temperature. For this reason, a finite element model was developed to calculate the numerical contact temperature for several cable diameters and several electrical high currents. Also, experimental tests were established in order to validate this numerical model. Results show that the influence of cable diameter on the contact temperature is never neglected.

Keywords: contact temperature, experimental test, finite element, power automotive connector

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4496 The Effect of Adhesion on the Frictional Hysteresis Loops at a Rough Interface

Authors: M. Bazrafshan, M. B. de Rooij, D. J. Schipper


Frictional hysteresis is the phenomenon in which mechanical contacts are subject to small (compared to contact area) oscillating tangential displacements. In the presence of adhesion at the interface, the contact repulsive force increases leading to a higher static friction force and pre-sliding displacement. This paper proposes a boundary element model (BEM) for the adhesive frictional hysteresis contact at the interface of two contacting bodies of arbitrary geometries. In this model, adhesion is represented by means of a Dugdale approximation of the total work of adhesion at local areas with a very small gap between the two bodies. The frictional contact is divided into sticking and slipping regions in order to take into account the transition from stick to slip (pre-sliding regime). In the pre-sliding regime, the stick and slip regions are defined based on the local values of shear stress and normal pressure. In the studied cases, a fixed normal force is applied to the interface and the friction force varies in such a way to start gross sliding in one direction reciprocally. For the first case, the problem is solved at the smooth interface between a ball and a flat for different values of work of adhesion. It is shown that as the work of adhesion increases, both static friction and pre-sliding distance increase due to the increase in the contact repulsive force. For the second case, the rough interface between a glass ball against a silicon wafer and a DLC (Diamond-Like Carbon) coating is considered. The work of adhesion is assumed to be identical for both interfaces. As adhesion depends on the interface roughness, the corresponding contact repulsive force is different for these interfaces. For the smoother interface, a larger contact repulsive force and consequently, a larger static friction force and pre-sliding distance are observed.

Keywords: boundary element model, frictional hysteresis, adhesion, roughness, pre-sliding

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4495 Measurements of Recovery Stress and Recovery Strain of Ni-Based Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: W. J. Kim


The behaviors of the recovery stress and strain of an ultrafine-grained Ni-50.2 at.% Ti alloy prepared by high-ratio differential speed rolling (HRDSR) were examined by a specially designed tensile-testing set up, and the factors that influence the recovery stress and strain were studied. After HRDSR, both the recovery stress and strain were enhanced compared to the initial condition. The constitutive equation showing that the maximum recovery stress is a sole function of the recovery strain was developed based on the experimental data. The recovery strain increased as the yield stress increased. The maximum recovery stress increased with an increase in yield stress. The residual recovery stress was affected by the yield stress as well as the austenite-to-martensite transformation temperature. As the yield stress increased and as the martensitic transformation temperature decreased, the residual recovery stress increased.

Keywords: high-ratio differential speed rolling, tensile testing, severe plastic deformation, shape memory alloys

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4494 Parents-Children Communication in College

Authors: Yin-Chen Liu, Chih-Chun Wu, Mei-He Shih


In this technology society, using ICT(Information and communications technology) to contact each other is very common. Interpersonal ICT communication maintains social support. Therefore, the study investigated the ICT communication between undergraduates and their parents, and gender differences were also detected. The sample size was 1,209 undergraduates, including 624(51.6%) males, 584(48.3%) females, and 1 gender unidentified. In the sample, 91.8% of the sample used phones to contact their fathers and 93.8% of them use phones to contact their mothers. 78.5% and 87.6% of the sample utilized LINE to contact their fathers and mothers respectively. As for Facebook, only 13.4% and 16.5% of the sample would use to contact their fathers and mothers respectively. Aforementioned results implied that the undergraduates nowadays use phone and LINE to contact their parents more common than Facebook. According to results from Pearson correlations, the more undergraduates refused to add their fathers as their Facebook friends, the more they refused to add their mothers as Facebook friends. The possible reasons for it could be that to distinguish different social network such as family and friends. Another possible reason could be avoiding parents’ controlling. It could be why the kids prefer to use phone and LINE to Facebook when contacting their parents. Result from Pearson correlations showed that the more undergraduates actively contact their fathers, the more they actively contact their mothers. On the other hand, the more their fathers actively contact them, the more their mothers actively contact them. Based on the results, this study encourages both parents and undergraduates to contact each other, for any contact between any two family members is associated with contact between other two family members. Obviously, the contact between family members is bidirectional. Future research might want to investigate if this bidirectional contact is associated with the family relation. For gender differences, results from the independent t-tests showed that compared to sons, daughters actively contacted their parents more. Maybe it is because parents keep saying that it is dangerous out there for their daughters, so they build up the habit for their daughters to contact them more. Results from paired sample t-tests showed that the undergraduates agreed that talking to mother on the phone had more satisfaction, felt more intimacy and supported than fathers.

Keywords: family ICT communication, parent-child ICT communication, FACEBOOK and LINE, gender differences

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