Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 224

Search results for: Christian Schulze

224 The Racialized Experiences of African American Boys in Non-Denominational American Christian Schools

Authors: Evan Willis

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The research surrounding African American boys in Christian schools often centers around the Achievement Gap. Unfortunately, this academic dialogue positions black boys as a vulnerable population. Little to know, the research examines the experiences of black boys in American Christian schools. This phenomenological study fills this gap by examining the racialized experiences of black boys in predominantly white Christian schools in the United States of America. The interviews were collected, transcribed, and coded using open coding and both thematic and line-by-line analysis. The findings revealed that black boys experienced Christ-like racism; these boys found the schools to be white sanctuaries and felt they existed behind enemy lines. For Christian education in America to be equitable it requires Christian educators to promote social justice starting in their classrooms. This presentation will highlight a problem in Christian education and provide practical, measurable, attainable solutions so that Christian education can better exemplify human rights.

Keywords: black boys, Christian schools, religious education, racial micro-aggressions

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223 Religious Tattoos Symbols amongst Underground Communities in Surabaya and Sidoarjo, Indonesia: Their Functions and Significances

Authors: Constantius Tri Handoko

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Tattoos on the body of Christian youths seemed interesting as the majority of Christian look at tattoo and tattooing activity are prohibited. This research besides to understand the motivation behind why Christian youth in Surabaya and Sidoarjo, Indonesia being tattooed also focus on the regard to what functions and meanings of the tattoos are. By using visual discourse analysis, the tattoos had relation to the informants’ social lives dimension, such as the Christian symbol tattoos expressed their spiritual life journey, a faith symbol to God, as personal symbols (identity), art expression, as well as fashion. On the other hands, tattoos also became a hatred symbol to Jesus and the Christian faith, since the tattoo wearers who were a former Christians felt disappointed to God as they thought God never help them to survive in their lives.

Keywords: tattoo, representation, identity, belief, Christian

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222 Constitutive Role of Light in Christian Sacred Architecture

Authors: Sokol Gojnik, Zorana; Gojnik, Igor

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Light is the central theme of sacred architecture of all religions and so of Christianity. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the inner sense of light and its constitutive role in Christian sacred architecture. The theme of light in Christian sacred architecture is fundamentally connected to its meaning and symbolism of light in Christian theology and liturgy. This fundamental connection is opening the space to the symbolic and theological comprehending of light which was present throughout the history of Christianity and which is lacking in contemporary sacred architecture.

Keywords: light, sacred architecture, religious architecture, phenomenology of architecture

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221 The Impact of Judeo-Christian Myth and Celtic Myth in Selected Plays of William Shakespeare

Authors: Smriti Mary Gupta

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This article intends to show strong facts of ‘Judeo-Christian myth’ and ‘Celtic myth’ in selected plays of William Shakespeare. Giving the vast proliferation of Shakespeare studies we examine the strong impact of Bible in his plays. Inevitably, for instance, the study of Shakespeare and the Bible overlaps the study of Shakespeare and religion, which justify the use of Judeo-Christian myth in his works. There is some evidence that Shakespeare had read and used the ‘Geneva Bible’ in his works. The glimpse of parables and references of Biblical myth can be seen very clearly in Macbeth, King Lear and Measure for Measure. Defining a religion based on myths is difficult because it is built upon a belief of large number of people in the society. The Judeo-Christian myth which is based on the Bible, Celtic religious myth will also be discussed in this paper which had a strong impact on the audience of sixteenth century and it is still continuing at the present time.

Keywords: Celtic myth, Geneva Bible, Judeo-Christian myth, Shakespearean plays

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220 Measurement of the Dynamic Modulus of Elasticity of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens Used for the Cyclic Indirect Tensile Test

Authors: Paul G. Bolz, Paul G. Lindner, Frohmut Wellner, Christian Schulze, Joern Huebelt

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Concrete, as a result of its use as a construction material, is not only subject to static loads but is also exposed to variables, time-variant, and oscillating stresses. In order to ensure the suitability of construction materials for resisting these cyclic stresses, different test methods are used for the systematic fatiguing of specimens, like the cyclic indirect tensile test. A procedure is presented that allows the estimation of the degradation of cylindrical concrete specimens during the cyclic indirect tensile test by measuring the dynamic modulus of elasticity in different states of the specimens’ fatigue process. Two methods are used in addition to the cyclic indirect tensile test in order to examine the dynamic modulus of elasticity of cylindrical concrete specimens. One of the methods is based on the analysis of eigenfrequencies, whilst the other one uses ultrasonic pulse measurements to estimate the material properties. A comparison between the dynamic moduli obtained using the three methods that operate in different frequency ranges shows good agreement. The concrete specimens’ fatigue process can therefore be monitored effectively and reliably.

Keywords: concrete, cyclic indirect tensile test, degradation, dynamic modulus of elasticity, eigenfrequency, fatigue, natural frequency, ultrasonic, ultrasound, Young’s modulus

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219 Deciphering Chinese Calligraphy as the Architectural Essence of Tao Fong Shan Christian Center in Hong Kong

Authors: Chak Kwong Lau

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Many buildings in Hong Kong are graced with enchanting works of Chinese calligraphy. An excellent example is Tao Fong Shan Christian Center founded by a Norwegian missionary, Karl Ludvig Reichelt (1877-1952) in 1930. Adorned with many inspiring works of Chinese calligraphy, the center functions as a place for the study of Christianity where people of different religions can meet to have religious discussions and intellectual exchanges. This paper examines the pivotal role played by Chinese calligraphy in creating a significant context for the center to fulfill her visions and missions. The methodology of this research involves stylistic and textual analyses of works of calligraphy, in particular through an examination and interpretation of their extended meanings in terms of architectural symbology and social and cultural contexts. Findings showed that Chinese calligraphy was effectively used as a powerful vehicle for a purposeful development of contextual Christian spirituality in Hong Kong.

Keywords: Chinese calligraphy, Hong Kong architecture, Hong Kong calligraphy, Johannes Prip-Møller, Karl Ludvig Reichelt, Norwegian missionary, Tao Fong Shan Christian Center, traditional Chinese architecture

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218 The Orthodox Church's Heritage in Syria and the Journey of Syriac Music between Originality and Renewal

Authors: Marilyn Maksoud

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This article discusses the heritage of the Orthodox Church, additionally it describes the origins, composition, and characteristics of the Orthodox Christian cultural identity in Syria and the liturgical traditions of the Church in the literature. Also, the eight tunes and their original use, the historical and anthropological importance of the most important Orthodox churches in Syria, were discussed. Finally, the role and works of the composer Nuri Iskandar in reviving Christian music were mentioned. "Cultural dialogue" methodology based on the recognition of equal cultures, practical and bibliographic sources of books and articles in many languages German, French, Arabic, and English, in addition to my practical experience in chanting the Syriac Aramaic language in some churches in Syria and Russia. This study concluded that the roots of the characteristics of Orthodox Christian culture in Syria go back to the original eight Syriac melodies. Additionally, The originality of Major and Minor scales were tracked as an extension of Syriac Christian melodies originated thousands of years ago in Syrian land.

Keywords: church culture in Syria, Syriac orthodox music, Syriac orthodox church, Aramaic semitic language, Syriac, Syrian church melodies

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217 Religious Beliefs and Their Effects on the Use of Contraceptives in Female College Students

Authors: Amy Kless , Peter Reuter

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The purpose of this study was to explore the association between the teachings of religious doctrine on the use of contraceptives and its influence on the behavior of female college students. The religious doctrine of both Christian and non-Christian religions states that sexual intercourse shall only take place between people that are married. Additionally, the teachings of most Christian and non-Christian religions prohibit the use of contraceptives during sexual intercourse. Being away from home for the first time, students that grew up in religious households may stop attending church services or stop practicing religion entirety. The college years are also a time for sexual exploration. The desire for sexual exploration leaves many students, both religious and non-religious, with having to choose between abstaining from sexual intercourse or using a form of contraceptive to prevent pregnancy. Of 1,130 female students anonymously surveyed at a southern university between Spring 2016 and Fall 2020, 50% reported having religious beliefs. Less than 50% of the students who reported having religious beliefs attend church services on a regular basis. Nearly 75% of the same students reported having participated in sexual intercourse with close to 60% utilizing some form of contraceptive to prevent pregnancy. The data suggest that female college students do not follow religious teachings on abstinence from premarital sex or the ban on the use of contraceptives.

Keywords: contraceptives, females, intercourse, religion

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216 Spiritual Warriors: Christian Testimony and Psychotherapy in Ritual Abuse Memoir

Authors: Jocelyn Cohen

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This paper identifies a powerful synchronicity of two traditions of life-story writing in the autobiographies of ritual abuse (RA) survivors, the Christian conversion narrative and the memoir of healing from childhood sexual trauma. Using methodologies from literary studies, history, and psychology, a close reading of three RA memoirs sheds light on a taboo and deeply suspect form of violence. Treatment of RA survivors and the unique role of psychotherapists, in particular, deserve far greater attention from multi-disciplinary scholars. Each story reflects salient characteristics of the Christian conversion narrative, a genre which originated in the US in the early 19th century with the serendipitous confluence of the simultaneous emergence of print culture and the basic structures of evangelicalism during the Second Great Awakening. The impulse of writing is thus to give testimony against the sin they witnessed and endured as young children during ritual violence perpetrated within the church. Importantly, RA is seen as an inherent if obscure aspect of Christian discourse itself, not in opposition to it, and not as an aberration. In RA's memoir, healing comes in part from the Christian narrative praxis of personal redemption, framed as prevailing in a war between good and evil. In other words, storytelling itself affects the healing, much as it does by means of each writer’s 'talking cure,' in the relationship with a psychotherapist who guides her through a repair of the life-story through the excavation of traumatic memories and their integration into the writer’s psyche. Integrating literary techniques into the psychotherapeutic relationship, therapists leverage the deep linguistic structures that clients possess as a resource to aid in their healing.

Keywords: memoir, psychotherapy, religion, trauma

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215 The Consistency of Gerhard Kittel’s “Christian” Antisemitism in His "Die Judenfrage" and "Meine Verteidigung"

Authors: Catherine Harrison

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Faced with arrest, imprisonment and the denazification process in 1945, Tübingen University’s Professor of Theology, Gerhard Kittel, refused to abandon the “Christian” antisemitism which he had first expounded in his Die Judenfrage [The Jewish Question] (1933 and 1934). At the heart of this paper is a critical engagement with Die Judenfrage, the first in English. Putting Die Judenfrage into dialogue with Kittel’s 1946, Meine Verteidigung [My Defence] (1945-6) exposes the remarkable consistency of Kittel’s idiosyncratic but closely argued Christian theology of antisemitism. Girdling his career as a foremost theologian, antisemite and enthusiastic supporter of Hitler and the NSDAP, the consistency between Die Judenfrage and Meine Verteidigung attests Kittel’s consistent and authentic, intellectual position. In both texts, he claims to be advancing Christian, as opposed to “vulgar” or racial, antisemitism. Yet, in the thirteen years which divide them, Kittel had mediated contact with Nazi illuminati Rudolph Hess, Alfred Rosenberg, Winnifred Wagner, Josef Goebbels and Baldur von Schirach, through his publications in various antisemitic journals. The paper argues: Die Judenfrage, as both a text and as a theme, is axiomatic to Kittel’s defence statement; and that Die Judenfrage constitutes the template of Kittel’s arcane, personal “Christian” antisemitism of which Meine Verteidigung is a faithful impression. Both are constructed on the same theologically chimeric and abstruse hypotheses regarding Volk, Spätjudentum [late Judaism] and Heilgeschichte [salvation history]. Problematising these and other definitional vagaries that make up Kittel’s “Christian” antisemitism highlight the remarkable theoretical consistency between Die Judenfrage and Meine Verteidigung. It is concluded that a deadly synergy of Nazi racial antisemitism and the New Testament antisemitism shaped Kittel’s judgement to the degree that, despite the slipstream of concentration camp footage which was shaking the foundations of post-war German academia, Meine Verteidigung is a simple restatement of the antisemitsm conveyed in Die Judenfrage.

Keywords: Gerhard Kittel, Third Reich theology, the Jewish Question, Nazi antisemitism

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214 Effective Parameter Selection for Audio-Based Music Mood Classification for Christian Kokborok Song: A Regression-Based Approach

Authors: Sanchali Das, Swapan Debbarma

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Music mood classification is developing in both the areas of music information retrieval (MIR) and natural language processing (NLP). Some of the Indian languages like Hindi English etc. have considerable exposure in MIR. But research in mood classification in regional language is very less. In this paper, powerful audio based feature for Kokborok Christian song is identified and mood classification task has been performed. Kokborok is an Indo-Burman language especially spoken in the northeastern part of India and also some other countries like Bangladesh, Myanmar etc. For performing audio-based classification task, useful audio features are taken out by jMIR software. There are some standard audio parameters are there for the audio-based task but as known to all that every language has its unique characteristics. So here, the most significant features which are the best fit for the database of Kokborok song is analysed. The regression-based model is used to find out the independent parameters that act as a predictor and predicts the dependencies of parameters and shows how it will impact on overall classification result. For classification WEKA 3.5 is used, and selected parameters create a classification model. And another model is developed by using all the standard audio features that are used by most of the researcher. In this experiment, the essential parameters that are responsible for effective audio based mood classification and parameters that do not significantly change for each of the Christian Kokborok songs are analysed, and a comparison is also shown between the two above model.

Keywords: Christian Kokborok song, mood classification, music information retrieval, regression

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213 A Pragma-Rhetorical Study of Christian Religious Pentecostal Sermons in Nigeria

Authors: Samuel Alaba Akinwotu

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Effectiveness in communication requires the deployment of pragmatic and rhetorical strategies in religious sermons. In spite of high volume of works in religious discourse, scholars have not adequately accounted for the persuasive and argumentation strategies employed in Christian religious Pentecostal sermons. This study examines communicative intentions and the pragma-rhetorical strategies deployed to maintain balance and effectiveness in selected sermons of Pastor E. A. Adeboye, Bishop D. Oyedepo and Pastor W. F. Kumuyi. Fifteen sermons, delivered orally and transcribed into the written mode, were selected and analysed using Jacob Mey’s theory of pragmeme, Aristotle’s rhetoric and the theory of argumentation by van Eemeren and Grootendorst. Speakers pract stating, encouraging, assuring, warning, condemning, directing, praising, thanking, etc. through rhetorical question, repetition, direct address, direct command and structural parallelism. They assume divine role by speaking authoritatively and they tactically and logically select words to legitimise their ideology. They also categorise and portray individuals and/or issues either as good or bad, sinner/sin or righteous/righteousness, etc. The study provides clearer insight into the pragmatic import and the communicative effectiveness of Christian Pentecostal sermons. Further research can juxtapose the pragma-rhetorical and argumentation strategies of preachers of two clearly differentiated movements within the Christian religion.

Keywords: argumentation, communicative intentions, pentecostal sermons, pragmeme, rhetoric

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212 Urban Refugees and Education in Developing Countries

Authors: Sheraz Akhtar

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In recent years, a massive influx of refugees into developing countries has placed significant constraints on the host government’s capacities to provide social services, including education, to all. As a result, the refugee communities often find themselves deprived of their rights to education in these host countries, particularly for those who to live outside camps in urban locations. While previous research has examined the educational experiences of refugees who have resettled in developed nations, there remains a dearth of research on the educational experiences of urban refugees in developing nations. This study examines this issue through a case study of Pakistani Christian refugees living in urban settings in Thailand. Using a combination of observations within community learning centres set up by international non-government organisations (INGOs) working with these communities, and interviews with young Pakistani Christian refugees and their families, the research aims to give greater voice to the Pakistani Christian refugee community living in Thailand, and better understand their educational aspirations.

Keywords: Education, Developing Countries , INGOs, Urban Refugees

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211 Liturgical Elements and Symbolism of Light in Christian Sacred Space

Authors: Zorana Sokol Gojnik, Igor Gojnik, Marina Simunic Bursic

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The light is one of the major themes of theology of sacred space. Christian theology, but also architecture in its complexity, is permeated by the symbolism of light from its beginning. The aim of this paper is to deeply analyse the symbolism of light in every single element of contemporary Christian sacred space such as altar, ambo, baptistery, tabernacle, confessionals, stations of the cross, etc. The research will be carried out using the methodology of research of literature and comparatively observation of contemporary examples of sacred architecture. The research will use the insights of analyzed literature and examples of sacred architecture in order to describe the background of the problem as well as to complement the received results with the reliable scientific findings. The paper will highlight the importance of symbolic and theological points of view in contemporary church design using the light as a building part of every single part of sacred architecture as there is an insight that, in contemporary sacred architecture, there is a lack of understanding of symbolic and theological aspect of light while designing new sacred spaces.

Keywords: architecture, liturgy, sacred architecture, theology of space

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210 Well-Being in the Workplace: Do Christian Leaders Behave Differently?

Authors: Mariateresa Torchia, Helene Cristini, Hannele Kauppinen

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Leadership plays a vital role in organizations. Leaders provide directions and facilitate the processes that enable organizations to achieve their goals and objectives. However, while productivity and financial objectives are often given the greatest emphasis, leaders also have the responsibility for instituting standards of ethical conduct and moral values that guide the behavior of employees. Leaders’ behaviors such as support, empowerment and a high-quality relationship with their employees might not only prevent stress, but also improve employees’ stress coping meanwhile contributing to their affective well-being. Stemming from Girard’s Mimetic Theory, this study aims at understanding how leaders can foster well-being in organizations. To do so, we explore which is the role leaders play in conflict management, resentment management and negative emotions dissipation. Furthermore, we examine whether and to what extent religiosity impacts the way in which leaders operate in relation to employees’ well-being. Indeed, given that organizational values are crucial to ethical behavior and firms’ values may be steeled by a deep sense of spirituality and religious identification, there is a need to take a closer look at the role religion and spirituality play in influencing the way leaders impact employees’ well-being. Thus, religion might work as an overarching logic that provides a set of principles guiding leaders’ everyday practices and relations with employees. We answer our research questions using a qualitative approach. We interviewed 27 Christian leaders (members of the Christian Entrepreneurs and Leaders Association – EDC, a non-profit organization created in 1926 including 3,000 French Christian Leaders & Entrepreneurs). Our results show that well-being can have a different meaning in relation to the type of companies, size, culture, country of analysis. Moreover the values and believes of leaders influence the way they see and foster well-being among employees. Furthermore, leaders can have both a positive or negative impact on well-being. Indeed on the one side, they could increase well-being in the company while on the other hand, they could be the source of resentment and conflicts among employees. Finally, we observed that Christian leaders possess characteristics that are sometimes missing in leaders (humility, inability to compare with others, attempt to be coherent with their values and beliefs, interest in the common good instead of the personal interest, having tougher dilemmas, collectively undertaking the firm). Moreover the Christian leader believes that the common good should come before personal interest. In other words, to them, not only short –termed profit shouldn’t guide strategical decisions but also leaders should feel responsible for their employees’ well-being. Last but not least, the study is not an apologia of Christian, yet it discusses the implications of these values through the light of Girard’s mimetic theory for both theory and practice.

Keywords: Christian leaders, employees well-being, leadership, mimetic theory

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209 Techno-Apocalypse in Christian End-Time Literature

Authors: Sean O'Callaghan

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Around 2011/2012, a whole new genre of Christian religious writing began to emerge, focused on the role of advanced technologies, particularly the GRIN technologies (Genetics, Robotics, Information Technology and Nanotechnology), in bringing about a techno-apocalypse, leading to catastrophic events which would usher in the end of the world. This genre, at first niche, has now begun to grow in significance in many quarters of the more fundamentalist and biblically literalist branches of evangelicalism. It approaches science and technology with more than extreme skepticism. It accuses transhumanists of being in league with satanic powers and a satanic agenda and contextualizes transhumanist scientific progress in terms of its service to what it believes to be a soon to come Antichrist figure. The genre has moved beyond literature and videos about its message can be found on YouTube and other forums, where many of the presentations there get well over a quarter of a million views. This paper will examine the genre and its genesis, referring to the key figures involved in spreading the anti-intellectualist and anti-scientific message. It will demonstrate how this genre of writing is similar in many respects to other forms of apocalyptic writing which have emerged in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, all in response to both scientific and political events which are interpreted in the light of biblical prophecy. It will also set the genre in the context of a contemporary pre-occupation with conspiracy theory. The conclusions of the research conducted in this field by the author are that it does a grave disservice to both the scientific and Christian audiences which it targets, by misrepresenting scientific advances and by creating a hermeneutic of suspicion which makes it impossible for Christians to place their trust in scientific claims.

Keywords: antichrist, catastrophic, Christian, techno-apocalypse

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208 Towards Understanding the Notions of Quality Education among Internationally-Accredited Christian Schools in Southeast Asia

Authors: Selaphares Jatico Tajale

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This research aims to understand the notions of quality education by conducting case studies among internationally-accredited Christian schools in Southeast Asia. Five internationally-accredited Christian schools from Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, The Philippines, and Singapore will be chosen as cases for this study. This study will utilize the processes of interviews, filling up of questionnaires, and writing of reflections in order to obtain data and relevant information. These processes will be conducted through multi-sectoral respondents such as administrators, academic heads, and faculty. This study employs five aspects within the realm of education as guides in the formulation of questionnaire and guide questions in the interview, namely: a) school context, b) classroom, c) quality assurance, d) stakeholders, e) faculty and staff. Guide interview questions and questions in the questionnaires are formulated to uncover information on how those five aspects were managed to achieve desired student learning outcomes and uncover other information useful for the study.

Keywords: internationally-accredited, notions of quality education, quality education, quality education in Southeast Asia

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207 Indian Christian View of God: Exploring Its Trajectory in 20th Century

Authors: James Ponniah

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Christianity is the largest religious tradition of the world. What makes Christianity a world religion is its characteristics of universality and particularity. Its universality and particularity are closely interrelated. Its university is realized and embodied in its particularities and its particularity is recognized and legitimized through its universality. This paper focuses on the dimension of the particularity of Christianity in that it looks at the particularized ideas and discourses of Christian thinking in India in the 20th century and pays attention to the differing shifts and new shades of meaning in Indian Christian notion of God. Drawing upon the writings of select Indian theologians such as Brahmabandhab Upadhyaya, Sundar Sing, A.J Appasamy, Raymond Panikkar, Amalorpavadass and George Soares Prabhhu, this paper delves into how the contexts—be it personal, political, historical or ecclesial—bear upon the way Indian theologians have conceived and constructed the notion of God in their work. Focusing upon how they responded to the signs of their time through their theological narratives, the paper argues that the religion of Christianity can sustain its universality only when it translates its key notions such as God into indigenous categories and local idioms and thus makes itself relevant to the people among whom it is spread. Monotheistic God of Christianity has to accommodate plurality of expressions if Christian idea God has to capture and convey everyone’s experience of God. The case of Indian Christianity then reveals that a monolithic world religion will be experienced and recognised as truly universal only when it sheds its homogeneity and assumes a heterogeneous portrait through the acquisition of local idioms. Allowing culturally diverse idioms to influence theological categories is not inconsequential to—‘accommodating differences and accepting diversities,’ an issue we encounter within and beyond religious domains in our contemporary times.

Keywords: concept of God, heterogeneity, Indian Christianity, indigenous categories

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206 Leviathan, the Myth of Evil, Based on Northrop Frye's Archetypal Criticism

Authors: Maryam Pirdehghan

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The myth of Leviathan, its ontology and appearance is often one of the problems of Judeo-Christian religious commentators so that some of them have tried to interpret and explain formation or symbolic implications of this myth in different contexts their specific methods and proofs. However, the Bible has presented only vague references in this field and it is not clear why and how to develop such mentions to create a powerful myth with allegorical and symbolic capacity as Leviathan. Therefore, the paper aims to clarify the process of formation of Leviathan and explore the mythical and symbolic systems related to it, first by adopting the imagological approach and then using the Northrop Frye's Archetypal Criticism. Finally, it is concluded that The Leviathan is rooted in the stories of legendary battles of the beginning of creation and almost continues to live with the same nature into the Old Testament, but continuously, in an interactive process between the Greek and Egyptian mythological networks, it attracts more stories and implications about his existence while maintaining its satanic nature. After intense metamorphosis in Jewish interpretations, it appears in the book of Revelation and finally, becomes one of the princes of Hell in the tradition of Christian demonology. The myth, that has become the archetype and fluidized symbol of evil because of the ambiguity and lack of objectivity on its apparent characteristics, finds symbolical extensive capabilities in Judeo-Christian culture, especially in the mysticism, so that its presence or death has special implications and also fighting against it is taken into account as an external and more internal action.

Keywords: Leviathan, The Evil, Bible, myth, Northrop Frye

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205 WWSE School Development in German Christian Schools Revisited: Organizational Development Taken to a Test

Authors: Marco Sewald

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WWSE School Development (Wahrnehmungs- und wertorientierte Schulentwicklung) contains surveys on pupils, teachers and parents and enables schools to align the development to the requirements mentioned by these three stakeholders. WWSE includes a derivative set of questions for Christian schools, meeting their specific needs. The conducted research on WWSE is reflecting contemporary questions on school development, questioning the quality of the implementation of the results of past surveys, delivered by WWSE School Development in Christian schools in Germany. The research focused on questions connected to organizational development, including leadership and change management. This is done contoured to the two other areas of WWSE: human resources development and development of school teaching methods. The chosen research methods are: (1) A quantitative triangulation on three sets of data. Data from a past evaluation taken in 2011, data from a second evaluation covering the same school conducted in 2014 and a structured survey among the teachers, headmasters and members of the school board taken within the research. (2) Interviews with teachers and headmasters have been conducted during the research as a second stage to fortify the result of the quantitative first stage. Results: WWSE is supporting modern school development. While organizational development, leadership, and change management are proofed to be important for modern school development, these areas are widespread underestimated by teachers and headmasters. Especially in comparison to the field of human resource development and to an even bigger extent in comparison to the area of development of school teaching methods. The research concluded, that additional efforts in the area of organizational development are necessary to meet modern demands and the research also shows which areas are the most important ones.

Keywords: school as a social organization, school development, school leadership, WWSE, Wahrnehmungs- und wertorientierte Schulentwicklung

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204 The Book of Lies: The Christian Bible's Colonialism over and Appropriation of Occultism

Authors: Samantha Huff

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This research seeks to examine the relationship between occultism and the traditional religion of Christianity. The focus of this particular project is to deconstruct occultism and occult religion: how it develops, where it is applied, how and when it is applied. The next step is to make connections between the structure of occultism and the structure of Christianity. Do Christianity and the Occult appear, textually, the same way? What does that mean culturally? This project seeks to examine the historical similarities of occultism and Christianity practices and tradition, and how, as a whole, Christianity appropriates and colonializes occultism through examination into the Christian Bible and popular occult texts: The Book of the Law by Aleister Crowley and The Secret Doctrine: The Synthesis of Science, Religion, and Philosophy by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky. Through examining occultism and Christianity and applying it to popular cultural theories (Ritual Space by Nick Couldry, Muted Group Theory by Shirley Ardener, and Mythologies by Roland Barethes), it is entirely possible to see how Christianity appropriates occultism and uses their stronghold on society as a means to colonialize occult traditions and practices.

Keywords: appropriation, Christianity, colonialism, cultural theory, muted group theory, mythologies, occultism, ritual space

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203 Villar Settlement Farm School for the Aetas: Assimilation through American Colonial Education in Zambales, Philippines

Authors: Julian E. Abuso, Alberto T. Paala Jr.

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The creation of settlement farm schools at the outset of American colonization of the Philippines was not a matter of accident; rather, their establishment was a major component of a grand plan on public education based on the benevolent assimilation policy of the United States. This argument is illustrated by the case of Villar Settlement Farm School, a school for the Aetas as a non-Christian tribal community in 1907. The study aims to: (1) identify and describe the antecedents for the establishment of Settlement Farm School, (2) explicate the cultural conflicts encountered by Aetas in school, (3) appraise the consequences of education as acculturation among Aeta population. The study made use of the following: historical data based on primary and secondary sources and life histories from primary informants. The Settlement Farm School for the Aetas was borne out of the American’s change in policy from military to civilian authority, recognition of education as a tool for benevolent assimilation. The narratives of informants manifested resistance to certain aspects of the educational process.

Keywords: settlement farm school Aetas, tribe, colonial education, Aeta, non-Christian tribal community

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202 Religious Cognition and Intergroup Bias in the Trolley Dilemma: Experimental Fieldwork in Fiji

Authors: Crystal Shackleford, Michael Pasek, Julia Smith, Jeremy Ginges

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There is extensive debate about the causal role of religion in intergroup conflict. It is commonly accepted that religious beliefs promote in-group cohesion, but religion is often believed to exacerbate inter-group conflict. Fiji is religiously diverse and has a lengthy history of ethno-religious conflict. In a preregistered field experiment using a modified version of the trolley problem dilemma, Christian and Muslim Fijians were asked, first from their own perspective, and then from their God’s perspective, whether a religious ingroup member should sacrifice their life to save five children who were ingroup or outgroup members. Almost all Muslim participants believed that the person should always sacrifice themselves to save the children. Amongst Christian participants, thinking from God’s perspective increased their likelihood of saying the children should be saved by 35% and removed a 27% gap between responses to saving ingroup versus outgroup children. These results replicate previous findings from a Palestinian sample and demonstrate, in another cross-cultural context with a history of violent conflict, that religious cognition can decrease bias and promote the application of universal moral principles.

Keywords: conflict, moral dilemma, psychology, religion, thought experiments

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201 Santo Niño in Canada: Religion, Migration, and the Filipino Underside

Authors: Alison Marshall

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“Santo Niño in Canada – Religion, Migration, and the Filipino Underside” seeks to explore the intersection of religion, migration and the Filipino underside through research participant narratives, archival research, and fieldwork on the cult of Santo Niño in Canada. Santo Niño is the single most revered saint in Filipino religiosity. According to popular lore, the original statue of Santo Niño was brought to the Philippines by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan in 1521, who claimed the islands on behalf of Spain. While Santo Niño is meant to be a manifestation of Jesus as a child, in Filipino thought and culture he very much resembles pre-Hispanic spirits, as well as patron saints introduced by the Spanish. Santo Niño shrines appear in churches, restaurants, businesses, and homes throughout the diaspora suggesting that he was much more than a Catholic image. He represents a deity who often shares a business or home shrine with non-Christian statues such as lucky cats, the Buddha, Guanyin, and Guangong, and sometimes the Chinese God of the Earth. He represents how Christian culture has been refashioned through indigenous, Chinese, Malay, and Indonesian influences. He embodies the religious superstructure that defines Christian piety and habits. On the one hand, he stands for Jesus, a pious son of God, and yet, on the other hand, he can be a simple vindictive child who punishes those who ignore him. Santo Niño is a complex character linked to the past before Christianity. As Filipinos engage with Santo Niño in Canada, they connect to him as Jesus, the son of God. They are also connecting to a childlike figure who sometimes uses his spiritual power to punish. A hybrid figure who comes came into being at the beginning of the Spanish colonial moment, he is maintained throughout the American one and continues to be a powerful reminder of Filipino identity and resilience when people leave the Philippines for migrant work. As this paper argues, Santo Niño beliefs, practices, and stories unite people in the diaspora regardless of language, gender, or nation. Santo Niño enables one to think about and understand what it means to be Filipino and living migrant lives in the diaspora today. In this way, the cult of Santo Niño expresses both Catholic orthodoxy and the heterodox Filipino underside that includes the use of magical amulets, healing, visions, and spirit mediumship.

Keywords: ethnography, migration, Philippines, religion

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200 Being Authentic is the New “Pieces”: A Mixed Methods Study on Authenticity among African Christian Millennials

Authors: Victor Counted

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Staying true to self is complicated. In most cases, we might not fully come to terms with this realities. Just like any journey, a self-discovery experience with the ‘self’, is like a rollercoaster ride. The researcher attempts to engage the reader in an empirical study on authenticity tendencies of African Christian Millennials. Hence, attempting the all-important question: What does it actually mean to be true to self for the African youth? A comprehensive, yet an unfinished business that applies the authenticity theory in its exploratory navigations to uncover the “lived world” of the participants who were part of this study. Using a mixed methods approach, the researcher will exhaustively give account to the authenticity tendencies and experiences of the respondents in the study by providing the reader with a unique narrative for understanding what it means to be true to oneself in Africa. At the quantitative study, the participants recorded higher scores on the Authenticity Scale (AS) authentic living, while showing a significant correlation within the subscales. Hypotheses were tested at the quantitative phase, which statistically supported gender and church affiliation as possible predictors for the authenticity orientations of the participants, while being a Christian native and race/ethnicity were not impact factors statistically. The results helped the researcher to develop the objectives behind the qualitative study, where only fifteen AS-authentic living participants were interviewed to understand why they scored high on authentic living, in order to understand what it means to be authentic. The hallmark of the qualitative case study exploration was the common coping mechanism of splitting adopted by the respondents to deal with their self-crisis as they tried to remain authentic to self, whilst self-regulating and self-investing the self to discover ‘self’. Specifically, the researcher observed the concurrent utilization of some kind of the religious-self by the respondents to regulate their self crisis, as they relate with self fragmenting through different splitting stages in hope for some kind of redemption. It was an explanation that led to the conclusion that being authentic is the new pieces. Authenticity is in fragments. This proposition led the researcher to introduce a hermeneutical support-system that will enable future researchers engage more critically and responsibly with their “living human documents” in order to inspire timely solutions that resolve the concerns of authenticity and wellbeing among Millennials in Africa.

Keywords: authenticity, self, identity, self-fragmentation, weak self integration, postmodern self, splitting

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199 From Abraham to Average Man: Game Theoretic Analysis of Divine Social Relationships

Authors: Elizabeth Latham

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Billions of people worldwide profess some feeling of psychological or spiritual connection with the divine. The majority of them attribute this personal connection to the God of the Christian Bible. The objective of this research was to discover what could be known about the exact social nature of these relationships and to see if they mimic the interactions recounted in the bible; if a worldwide majority believes that the Christian Bible is a true account of God’s interactions with mankind, it is reasonable to assume that the interactions between God and the aforementioned people would be similar to the ones in the bible. This analysis required the employment of an unusual method of biblical analysis: Game Theory. Because the research focused on documented social interaction between God and man in scripture, it was important to go beyond text-analysis methods. We used stories from the New Revised Standard Version of the bible to set up “games” using economics-style matrices featuring each player’s motivations and possible courses of action, modeled after interactions in the Old and New Testaments between the Judeo-Christian God and some mortal person. We examined all relevant interactions for the objectives held by each party and their strategies for obtaining them. These findings were then compared to similar “games” created based on interviews with people subscribing to different levels of Christianity who ranged from barely-practicing to clergymen. The range was broad so as to look for a correlation between scriptural knowledge and game-similarity to the bible. Each interview described a personal experience someone believed they had with God and matrices were developed to describe each one as social interaction: a “game” to be analyzed quantitively. The data showed that in most cases, the social features of God-man interactions in the modern lives of people were like those present in the “games” between God and man in the bible. This similarity was referred to in the study as “biblical faith” and it alone was a fascinating finding with many implications. The even more notable finding, however, was that the amount of game-similarity present did not correlate with the amount of scriptural knowledge. Each participant was also surveyed on family background, political stances, general education, scriptural knowledge, and those who had biblical faith were not necessarily the ones that knew the bible best. Instead, there was a high degree of correlation between biblical faith and family religious observance. It seems that to have a biblical psychological relationship with God, it is more important to have a religious family than to have studied scripture, a surprising insight with massive implications on the practice and preservation of religion.

Keywords: bible, Christianity, game theory, social psychology

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198 Komedya: St. Denis' Philippine Theater in the US

Authors: Nenita Pambid Domingo

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The komedya otherwise known as moro-moro or pretending to be Moors, is a traditional Filipino play in the vernacular adapted from the Spanish comedia de capa y espada. It was used by Spanish colonizers in the Philippines, circa 1766 to evangelize and strengthen the faith of Indios or Filipino natives to Christianity. Unlike the Moros y Cristianos festival held all over Spain celebrating the Reconquista from the 8th to the 15th century, the Philippine Moro-Moro or Komedya is a romance between a Muslim and a Christian and the battles between Christians and Moros, where the Moros are always defeated and the Muslim prince is converted to the Christian faith and marries the Christian princess at the end of the play. For over 200 years, the komedya has been part of the Filipinos’ life and has been dubbed by some Philippine scholars as the Philippine’s national theater. Until now postings of performances in different parts of the Philippines in different Philippine languages are uploaded at youtube. In the US, “San Dionisio sa America (SDA),” an organization of natives from Barrio San Dionisio, Parañaque, Philippines has been performing the komedya for the past 16 years during their town’s fiesta, in honor of the barrio's patron saints St Denis of Paris, France and Saint Joseph whom the devotees fondly call "Tata Dune" and "Tata Hosep". The komedya performed in the US is infused with modern elements in the production and content, but retain the basic form in verse and the stylized war dance, marches, and singsong delivery of lines. Most of the Celebras or town fiestas and komedya performances are held at The Barnsdall Art Park and Gallery Theatre in Hollywood, Los Angeles. The presentation will focus on the linguistic and content analysis of the Tagalog verses in the 2010 komedya entitled Mga Prinsesa ng Cordova (The Princesses of Cordova) publicized as a modern komedya. The presentation will also touch on the healing function of the language and performance that is part of the town’s religious festivities. It will also look into the aesthetics of the production, audience reception, participation of the sponsors, producers called Hermana/Hermano Mayor, the performers who are a mix of Filipinos from the Philippines and Filipino-Americans who are starting to lose the Tagalog language and the non-Filipino participants, as well as the general audience who are from Parañaque and those not from Parañaque, who come to witness the event and enjoy the festivities.

Keywords: devotion, diaspora nationalism, komedya, st. denis of Paris, France, traditional Philippine theater

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197 Evaluating Accuracy of Foetal Weight Estimation by Clinicians in Christian Medical College Hospital, India and Its Correlation to Actual Birth Weight: A Clinical Audit

Authors: Aarati Susan Mathew, Radhika Narendra Patel, Jiji Mathew

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A retrospective study conducted at Christian Medical College (CMC) Teaching Hospital, Vellore, India on 14th August 2014 to assess the accuracy of clinically estimated foetal weight upon labour admission. Estimating foetal weight is a crucial factor in assessing maternal and foetal complications during and after labour. Medical notes of ninety-eight postnatal women who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were studied to evaluate the correlation between their recorded Estimated Foetal Weight (EFW) on admission and actual birth weight (ABW) of the newborn after delivery. Data concerning maternal and foetal demographics was also noted. Accuracy was determined by absolute percentage error and proportion of estimates within 10% of ABW. Actual birth weights ranged from 950-4080g. A strong positive correlation between EFW and ABW (r=0.904) was noted. Term deliveries (≥40 weeks) in the normal weight range (2500-4000g) had a 59.5% estimation accuracy (n=74) compared to pre-term (<40 weeks) with an estimation accuracy of 0% (n=2). Out of the term deliveries, macrosomic babies (>4000g) were underestimated by 25% (n=3) and low birthweight (LBW) babies were overestimated by 12.7% (n=9). Registrars who estimated foetal weight were accurate in babies within normal weight ranges. However, there needs to be an improvement in predicting weight of macrosomic and LBW foetuses. We have suggested the use of an amended version of the Johnson’s formula for the Indian population for improvement and a need to re-audit once implemented.

Keywords: clinical palpation, estimated foetal weight, pregnancy, India, Johnson’s formula

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196 The Impact of Socio-Economic and Type of Religion on the Behavior of Obedience among Arab-Israeli Teenagers

Authors: Sadhana Ghnayem

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This article examines the relationship between several socio-economic and background variables of Arab-Israeli families and their effect on the conflict management style of forcing, where teenage children are expected to obey their parents without questioning. The article explores the inter-generational gap and the desire of Arab-Israeli parents to force their teenage children to obey without questioning. The independent variables include: the sex of the parent, religion (Christian or Muslim), income of the parent, years of education of the parent, and the sex of the teenage child. We use the dependent variable of “Obedience Without Questioning” that is reported twice: by each of the parents as well as by the children. We circulated a questionnaire and collected data from a sample of 180 parents and their adolescent child living in the Galilee area during 2018. In this questionnaire we asked each of the parent and his/her teenage child about whether the latter is expected to follow the instructions of the former without questioning. The outcome of this article indicates, first, that Christian-Arab families are less authoritarian than Muslims families in demanding sheer obedience from their children. Second, female parents indicate more than male parents that their teenage child indeed obeys without questioning. Third, there is a negative correlation between the variable “Income” and “Obedience without Questioning.” Yet, the regression coefficient of this variable is close zero. Fourth, there is a positive correlation between years of education and obedience reported by the children. In other words, more educated parents are more likely to demand obedience from their children.  Finally, after running the regression, the study also found that the impact of the variables of religion as well as the sex of the child on the dependent variable of obedience is also significant at above 95 and 90%, respectively.

Keywords: conflict, religion, conflict management style, obedience

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195 Interpreting Ecclesiastical Heritage: Meaning Making and Contentious Conversations

Authors: Alexis Thouki

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In our post-Christian societies, ecclesiastical heritage acquired a new extrovert profile aiming to reach out an increasingly diverse audience. In this context, the various motivations, interests, personalities and cultural exchanges, found in the ‘post-modern pilgrimage’, bequeath a hybrid and multidimensional character to religious tourism education. In consequence, churches have acquired the challenging role of enriching visitors cultural and spiritual capital. Despite this promising diversification to relate, reveal and provoke constructive discourses, due to the various ‘conflicting interests’, practitioners attempt to tame the rich in symbolism and meanings religious environment through ‘neutral interpretations’. This paper aims to present the results of an ongoing developing strategy related to the presentation of contentious meanings in English churches. The paper will explore some of the underlying issues related to the capacity of ‘neutrality’ to spark, downplay or eliminate contentious conversations relating to the cultural, religious, and social dimension of Christian cultural heritage thematology. In an effort to understand this issue, the paper examines the concept of neutrality and what it stands for, executing a discourse analysis in the semantic context in which the theological lexicon is interwoven with the cultural and social meanings of sacred sites. Following that, the paper examines whether the preferable interpretive strategies meet the post-modern interpretative framework which is marked by polysemy and critical active engagement. The ultimate aim of the paper is to investigate the hypothesis that the preferable neutral strategies, managing the ‘conflicting’ demands of worshippers and visitors, result in the uneven treatment of both, the religious and historical spirit of the place.

Keywords: contentious dialogue, interpretation, meaning making, religious tourism

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