Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1219

Search results for: cuprous oxide

1219 Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Dye Using Cuprous Oxide/Graphene Nanocomposite

Authors: Bekan Bogale, Tsegaye Girma Asere, Tilahun Yai, Fekadu Melak


Aims: To study photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye on cuprous oxide/graphene nanocomposite. Background: Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanoparticles are among the metal oxides that demonstrated photocatalytic activity. However, the stability of Cu2O nanoparticles due to the fast recombination rate of electron/hole pairs remains a significant challenge in their photocatalytic applications. This, in turn, leads to mismatching of the effective bandgap separation, tending to reduce the photocatalytic activity of the desired organic waste (MB). To overcome these limitations, graphene has been combined with cuprous oxides, resulting in cuprous oxide/graphene nanocomposite as a promising photocatalyst. Objective: In this study, Cu2O/graphene nanocomposite was synthesized and evaluated for its photocatalytic performance of methylene blue (MB) dye degradation. Method: Cu2O/graphene nanocomposites were synthesized from graphite powder and copper nitrate using the facile sol-gel method. Batch experiments have been conducted to assess the applications of the nanocomposites for MB degradation. Parameters such as contact time, catalyst dosage, and pH of the solution were optimized for maximum MB degradation. The prepared nanocomposites were characterized by using UV-Vis, FTIR, XRD, and SEM. The photocatalytic performance of Cu2O/graphene nanocomposites was compared against Cu2O nanoparticles for cationic MB dye degradation. Results: Cu2O/graphene nanocomposite exhibits higher photocatalytic activity for MB degradation (with a degradation efficiency of 94%) than pure Cu2O nanoparticles (67%). This has been accomplished after 180 min of irradiation under visible light. The kinetics of MB degradation by Cu2O/graphene composites can be demonstrated by the second-order kinetic model. The synthesized nanocomposite can be used for more than three cycles of photocatalytic MB degradation. Conclusion: This work indicated new insights into Cu2O/graphene nanocomposite as high-performance in photocatalysis to degrade MB, playing a great role in environmental protection in relation to MB dye.

Keywords: methylene blue, photocatalysis, cuprous oxide, graphene nanocomposite

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1218 Preparation of Cupric Oxides Nanoparticles for Antibacterial Applications

Authors: Yong-Cin Chen, Meng-Jiy Wang


This study reports to prepare cuprous oxide (Cu2O) particles with different dimension and shape for evaluating the antibacterial applications. In the preparation of Cu2O, the surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), was used as templates to modulate the size of the prepared Cu2O particles. Furthermore, ammonia water was used for adjusting the pH environment that four different shapes of particles including cubic, spherical, octahedral, and star-like Cu2O were synthesized. The physical characteristics of Cu2O particles were evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV/VIS spectrophotometer, and zeta potential meter/particle size analyzer (ZetaPALS). The resistance to bacteria was investigated against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) by applying the synthesized Cu2O particles that the qualitative analyses were facilitated by measuring the inhibition zone on Agar plate.

Keywords: copper oxide, cupric oxide, nanoparticles, antibacetrial

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1217 Binder-Free Porous Photocathode Based on Cuprous Oxide for High-Performing P-Type Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

Authors: Marinela Miclau, Melinda Vajda, Nicolae Miclau, Daniel Ursu


Characterized by a simple structure, easy and low cost fabrication, the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) attracted the interest of the scientific community as an attractive alternative of conventional Si-based solar cells and thin-film solar cells. Over the past 20 years, the main efforts have attempted to enhance the efficiency of n-type DSSCs, the highest efficiency record of 14.30% was achieved using the co-sensitization of two metal-free organic dyes and Co (II/III) tris(phenanthroline)-based redox electrolyte. In the last years, the development of the efficient p-type DSSC has become a research focus owing to the fact that the concept of tandem solar cell was proposed as the solution to increase the power conversion efficiency. A promising alternative for the photocathodes of p-type DSSC, cuprous (Cu2O) and cupric (CuO) oxides have been investigated because of its nontoxic nature, low cost, high natural abundance, a good absorption coefficient for visible light and a higher dielectric constant than NiO. In case of p-type DSSC based on copper oxides with I3-/I- as redox mediator, the highest conversion efficiency of 0.42% (Cu2O) and 0.03% (CuO) has achieved. Towards the increase in the performance, we have fabricated and analyzed the performance of p-type DSSC prepared with the binder-free porous Cu2O photocathodes. Porous thin film could be an attractive alternative for DSSC because of their large surface areas which enable the efficient absorption of the dyes and light. We propose a simple and one-step hydrothermal method for the preparation of porous Cu2O thin film using copper substrate, cupric acetate and ethyl cellulose. The cubic structure of Cu2O has been determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and porous morphology of thin film was emphasized by Scanning Electron Microscope Inspect S (SEM). Optical and Mott-Schottky measurements attest of the high quality of the Cu2O thin film. The binder-free porous Cu2O photocathode has confirmed the excellent photovoltaic properties, the best value reported for p-type DSSC (1%) in similar conditions being reached.

Keywords: cuprous oxide, dye-sensitized solar cell, hydrothermal method, porous photocathode

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1216 Growth and Characterization of Cuprous Oxide (Cu2O) Nanorods by Reactive Ion Beam Sputter Deposition (Ibsd) Method

Authors: Assamen Ayalew Ejigu, Liang-Chiun Chao


In recent semiconductor and nanotechnology, quality material synthesis, proper characterizations, and productions are the big challenges. As cuprous oxide (Cu2O) is a promising semiconductor material for photovoltaic (PV) and other optoelectronic applications, this study was aimed at to grow and characterize high quality Cu2O nanorods for the improvement of the efficiencies of thin film solar cells and other potential applications. In this study, well-structured cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanorods were successfully fabricated using IBSD method in which the Cu2O samples were grown on silicon substrates with a substrate temperature of 400°C in an IBSD chamber of pressure of 4.5 x 10-5 torr using copper as a target material. Argon, and oxygen gases were used as a sputter and reactive gases, respectively. The characterization of the Cu2O nanorods (NRs) were done in comparison with Cu2O thin film (TF) deposited with the same method but with different Ar:O2 flow rates. With Ar:O2 ratio of 9:1 single phase pure polycrystalline Cu2O NRs with diameter of ~500 nm and length of ~4.5 µm were grow. Increasing the oxygen flow rates, pure single phase polycrystalline Cu2O thin film (TF) was found at Ar:O2 ratio of 6:1. The field emission electron microscope (FE-SEM) measurements showed that both samples have smooth morphologies. X-ray diffraction and Rama scattering measurements reveals the presence of single phase Cu2O in both samples. The differences in Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL) bands of the two samples were also investigated and the results showed us there are differences in intensities, in number of bands and in band positions. Raman characterization shows that the Cu2O NRs sample has pronounced Raman band intensities, higher numbers of Raman bands than the Cu2O TF which has only one second overtone Raman signal at 2 (217 cm-1). The temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectra measurements, showed that the defect luminescent band centered at 720 nm (1.72 eV) is the dominant one for the Cu2O NRs and the 640 nm (1.937 eV) band was the only PL band observed from the Cu2O TF. The difference in optical and structural properties of the samples comes from the oxygen flow rate change in the process window of the samples deposition. This gave us a roadmap for further investigation of the electrical and other optical properties for the tunable fabrication of the Cu2O nano/micro structured sample for the improvement of the efficiencies of thin film solar cells in addition to other potential applications. Finally, the novel morphologies, excellent structural and optical properties seen exhibits the grown Cu2O NRs sample has enough quality to be used in further research of the nano/micro structured semiconductor materials.

Keywords: defect levels, nanorods, photoluminescence, Raman modes

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1215 Copper Doped P-Type Nickel Oxide Transparent Conducting Oxide Thin Films

Authors: Kai Huang, Assamen Ayalew Ejigu, Mu-Jie Lin, Liang-Chiun Chao


Nickel oxide and copper-nickel oxide thin films have been successfully deposited by reactive ion beam sputter deposition. Experimental results show that nickel oxide deposited at 300°C is single phase NiO while best crystalline quality is achieved with an O_pf of 0.5. XRD analysis of nickel-copper oxide deposited at 300°C shows a Ni2O3 like crystalline structure at low O_pf while changes to NiO like crystalline structure at high O_pf. EDS analysis shows that nickel-copper oxide deposited at low O_pf is CuxNi2-xO3 with x = 1, while nickel-copper oxide deposited at high O_pf is CuxNi1-xO with x = 0.5, which is supported by Raman analysis. The bandgap of NiO is ~ 3.5 eV regardless of O_pf while the band gap of nickel-copper oxide decreases from 3.2 to 2.3 eV as Opf reaches 1.0.

Keywords: copper, ion beam, NiO, oxide, resistivity, transparent

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1214 Green Synthesis of Copper Oxide and Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticles Using Spinacia Oleracea Leaf Extract

Authors: Yameen Ahmed, Jamshid Hussain, Farman Ullah, Sohaib Asif


The investigation aims at the synthesis of copper oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles using Spinacia oleracea leaf extract. These nanoparticles have many properties and applications. They possess antimicrobial catalytic properties and also they can be used in energy storage materials, gas sensors, etc. The Spinacia oleracea leaf extract behaves as a reducing agent in nanoparticle synthesis. The plant extract was first prepared and then treated with copper and cobalt salt solutions to get the precipitate. The salt solutions used for this purpose are copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO₄.5H₂O) and cobalt chloride hexahydrate (CoCl₂.6H₂O). The UV-Vis, XRD, EDX, and SEM techniques are used to find the optical, structural, and morphological properties of copper oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles. The UV absorption peaks are at 326 nm and 506 nm for copper oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles.

Keywords: cobalt oxide, copper oxide, green synthesis, nanoparticles

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1213 High Quality Gallium Oxide Microstructures by Catalyst-Free Thermal Oxidation

Authors: Jiang-Bei Qin, Rui-Xia Miao, Wei Ren


In this study, high crystalline gallium oxide microstructures (wires, belts, and sheets) were synthesized by catalyst-free thermal oxidation. Structural studies such as X-ray diffraction, Raman and transmission electron microscope (TEM) investigations on the microstructures showed monoclinic phase of gallium oxide and single crystalline structure. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations revealed that a huge super microsheet even grows up to 450 µm in length and 206 µm in width. Gallium oxide microstructures exhibit high crystallinity along (002) and (401), respectively. The PL spectrum of these microstructures excites a blue light band centered at 441 and 489nm. The growth mechanism of gallium oxide microstructures is discussed. These gallium oxide microstructures have great potential in functional devices.

Keywords: catalyst-free, gallium oxide, microstructures, thermal oxide

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1212 Nitrite Sensor Platform Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide with Thionine Dye Based

Authors: Nurulasma Zainudin, Mashitah Mohd Yusoff, Kwok Feng Chong


Functionalized reduced graphene oxide is essential importance for their end applications. Chemical functionalization of reduced graphene oxide with strange atoms is a leading strategy to modify the properties of the materials moreover maintains the inherent properties of reduced graphene oxide. A thionine functionalized reduce graphene oxide electrode was fabricated and was used to electrochemically determine nitrite. The electrochemical behaviour of thionine functionalized reduced graphene oxide towards oxidation of nitrite via cyclic voltammetry was studied and the proposed method exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic behaviour.

Keywords: nitrite, sensor, thionine, reduced graphene oxide

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1211 Facile Fabrication of Nickel/Zinc Oxide Hollow Spheres Nanostructure and Photodegradation of Congo Red

Authors: Seyed Mohsen Mousavi, Ali Reza Mahjoub, Behjat Afshari


In this work, Nickel/Zinc Oxide hollow spherical structures with high surface area using the template Fructose was prepared by the hydrothermal method using a ultrasonic bath at room temperature was produced and were identified by FTIR, XRD, FE-SEM. The photocatalytic activity of synthesized hollow spherical Nickel/Zinc Oxide was studied in the destruction of Congo red as Azo dye. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity of Nickel/ Zinc Oxide hollow spherical nanostructures is improved compared with zinc oxide hollow sphere and other morphologies.

Keywords: azo dye, hollow spheres, photocatalyst, nickel/zinc oxide

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1210 Covalent Functionalization of Graphene Oxide with Aliphatic Polyisocyanate

Authors: E. Changizi, E. Ghasemi, B. Ramezanzadeh, M. Mahdavian


In this study, the graphene oxide was functionalized with polyisocyanate (piGO). The functionalization was carried out at 45⁰C for 24 hrs under nitrogen atmosphere. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were utilized in order to evaluate the GO functionalization. The GO and piGO stability were then investigated in polar and nonpolar solvents. Results obtained showed that polyisocyanate was successfully grafted on the surface of graphen oxide sheets through covalent bonds formation. The surface nature of the graphen oxide was changed into the hydrophobic after functionalization. Moreover, the graphen oxide sheets interlayer distance increased after modification.

Keywords: graphen oxide, functionalization, polyisocyanate, XRD, TGA, FTIR

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1209 Key Roles of the N-Type Oxide Layer in Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells

Authors: Thierry Pauporté


Wide bandgap n-type oxide layers (TiO2, SnO2, ZnO etc.) play key roles in perovskite solar cells. They act as electron transport layers, and they permit the charge separation. They are also the substrate for the preparation of perovskite in the direct architecture. Therefore, they have a strong influence on the perovskite loading, its crystallinity and they can induce a degradation phenomenon upon annealing. The interface between the oxide and the perovskite is important, and the quality of this heterointerface must be optimized to limit the recombination of charges phenomena and performance losses. One can also play on the oxide and use two oxide contact layers for improving the device stability and durability. These aspects will be developed and illustrated on the basis of recent results obtained at Chimie-ParisTech.

Keywords: oxide, hybrid perovskite, solar cells, impedance

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1208 Removal of Nickel and Zinc Ions from Aqueous Solution by Graphene Oxide and Graphene Oxide Functionalized Glycine

Authors: M. Rajabi, O. Moradi


In this study, removal of Nickel and Zinc by graphene oxide and functionalized graphene oxide–gelaycin surfaces was examined. Amino group was added to surface of graphene oxide to produced functionalized graphene oxide–gelaycin. Effect of contact time and initial concentration of Ni (II) and Zn(II) ions were studied. Results showed that with increase of initial concentration of Ni (II) and Zn(II) adsorption capacity was increased. After 50 min has not a large change at adsorption capacity therefore, 50 min was selected as optimaze time. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy spectra used for the analysis confirmed the successful fictionalization of the Graphene oxide surface. Adsorption experiments of Ni (II) and Zn(II) ions graphene oxide and functionalized graphene oxide–gelaycin surfaces fixed at 298 K and pH=6. The Pseudo Firs-order and the Pseudo Second-order (types I, II, III and IV) kinetic models were tested for adsorption process and results showed that the kinetic parameters best fits with to type (I) of pseudo-second-order model because presented low X2 values and also high R2 values.

Keywords: graphene oxide, gelaycin, nickel, zinc, adsorption, kinetic, graphene oxide, gelaycin, nickel, zinc, adsorption, kinetic

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1207 Delamination of Scale in a Fe Carbon Steel Surface by Effect of Interface Roughness and Oxide Scale Thickness

Authors: J. M. Lee, W. R. Noh, C. Y. Kim, M. G. Lee


Delamination of oxide scale has been often discovered at the interface between Fe carbon steel and oxide scale. Among several mechanisms of this delamination behavior, the normal tensile stress to the substrate-scale interface has been described as one of the main factors. The stress distribution at the interface is also known to be affected by thermal expansion mismatch between substrate and oxide scale, creep behavior during cooling and the geometry of the interface. In this study, stress states near the interface in a Fe carbon steel with oxide scale have been investigated using FE simulations. The thermal and mechanical properties of oxide scales are indicated in literature and Fe carbon steel is measured using tensile testing machine. In particular, the normal and shear stress components developed at the interface during bending are investigated. Preliminary numerical sensitivity analyses are provided to explain the effects of the interface geometry and oxide thickness on the delamination behavior.

Keywords: oxide scale, delamination, Fe analysis, roughness, thickness, stress state

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1206 Fabrication of Tin Oxide and Metal Doped Tin Oxide for Gas Sensor Application

Authors: Goban Kumar Panneer Selvam


In past years, there is lots of death caused due to harmful gases. So its very important to monitor harmful gases for human safety, and semiconductor material play important role in producing effective gas sensors.A novel solvothermal synthesis method based on sol-gel processing was prepared to deposit tin oxide thin films on glass substrate at high temperature for gas sensing application. The structure and morphology of tin oxide were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM analysis of how spheres shape in tin oxide nanoparticles. The structure characterization of tin oxide studied by X-ray diffraction shows 8.95 nm (calculated by sheers equation). The UV visible spectroscopy indicated a maximum absorption band shown at 390 nm. Further dope tin oxide with selected metals to attain maximum sensitivity using dip coating technique with different immersion and sensing characterization are measured.

Keywords: tin oxide, gas sensor, chlorine free, sensitivity, crystalline size

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1205 Characterization of Graphene Oxide Coated Gold Electrodes for Bioimpedance Measurements

Authors: Fatma Gülden Şi̇mşek, Osman Meli̇h Can, Mehmet Yumak, Bora Gari̇pcan, Yekta Ülgen


In this study, the impedance spectroscopy is used as a detection tool in order to characterize surface coating with graphene oxide. Gold electrodes are produced by standard lithography procedures and then coated with graphene oxide using self-assembly method. The impedance of redox solution through bare gold electrodes and graphene oxide coated gold electrodes is measured in the low and high frequency range. The graphene oxide coating reduces the impedance value of the gold electrode and this reduction is distinguishable in the low-frequency range.

Keywords: bioimpedance, electrode characterization, graphene oxide, gold electrodes, impedance spectroscopy

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1204 Electrochemical Growth and Properties of Cu2O Nanostructures

Authors: A. Azizi, S. Laidoudi, G. Schmerber, A. Dinia


Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) is a well-known oxide semiconductor with a band gap of 2.1 eV and a natural p-type conductivity, which is an attractive material for device applications because of its abundant availability, non toxicity, and low production cost. It has a higher absorption coefficient in the visible region and the minority carrier diffusion length is also suitable for use as a solar cell absorber layer and it has been explored in junction with n type ZnO for photovoltaic applications. Cu2O nanostructures have been made by a variety of techniques; the electrodeposition method has emerged as one of the most promising processing routes as it is particularly provides advantages such as a low-cost, low temperature and a high level of purity in the products. In this work, Cu2O nanostructures prepared by electrodeposition from aqueous cupric sulfate solution with citric acid at 65°C onto a fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates were investigated. The effects of deposition potential on the electrochemical, surface morphology, structural and optical properties of Cu2O thin films were investigated. During cyclic voltammetry experiences, the potential interval where the electrodeposition of Cu2O is carried out was established. The Mott–Schottky (M-S) plot demonstrates that all the films are p-type semiconductors, the flat-band potential and the acceptor density for the Cu2O thin films are determined. AFM images reveal that the applied potential has a very significant influence on the surface morphology and size of the crystallites of thin Cu2O. The XRD measurements indicated that all the obtained films display a Cu2O cubic structure with a strong preferential orientation of the (111) direction. The optical transmission spectra in the UV-Visible domains revealed the highest transmission (75 %), and their calculated gap values increased from 1.93 to 2.24 eV, with increasing potentials.

Keywords: Cu2O, electrodeposition, Mott–Schottky plot, nanostructure, optical properties, XRD

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1203 CuO Thin Films Deposition by Spray Pyrolysis: Influence of Precursor Solution Properties

Authors: M. Lamri Zeggar, F. Bourfaa, A. Adjimi, F. Boutebakh, M. S. Aida, N. Attaf


CuO thin films were deposited by spray ultrasonic pyrolysis with different precursor solution. Two staring solution slats were used namely: Copper acetate and copper chloride. The influence of these solutions on CuO thin films proprieties of is instigated. The X rays diffraction (XDR) analysis indicated that the films deposed with copper acetate are amorphous however the films elaborated with copper chloride have monoclinic structure. UV- Visible transmission spectra showed a strong absorbance of the deposited CuO thin films in the visible region. Electrical characterization has shown that CuO thin films prepared with copper acetate have a higher electrical conductivity.

Keywords: thin films, cuprous oxide, spray pyrolysis, precursor solution

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1202 Synthesize of Cobalt Oxide Nanoballs/Carbon Aerogel Nanostructures: Towards High-Performance Materials for Supercapacitors

Authors: A. Bahadoran, M. Zomorodian


The synthesizer of cobalt oxide nanoballs (length 3−4 μm, width 250−400 nm) was achieved by a simple high-temperature supercritical solution method. Multiwalled carbon aerogels are a step towards high-density nanometer-scale nanostructures. Cobalt oxide nanoballs were prepared by supercritical solution method. Synthesis in an aqueous solution containing cobalt hydroxide at ∼80 °C without any further heat treatment at high temperature. The formation of cobalt oxide nanoballs on carbon aerogel was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The FE-SEM images showed the presence of cobalt oxide nanoballs. The reaction mechanism of the ultrasound-assisted synthesis of cobalt oxide nanostructures was proposed on the basis of the XRD, X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis and FE-SEM observation of the reaction products taken during the course of the synthesis.

Keywords: cobalt oxide nano balls, carbon aerogel, synthesize, nanostructure

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1201 Eresa, Hospital General Universitario de Elche

Authors: Ashish Kumar Singh, Mehak Gulati, Neelam Verma


Arginine majorly acts as a substrate for the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) for the production of nitric oxide, a strong vasodilator. Current study demonstrated a novel amperometric approach for estimation of arginine using nitric oxide synthase. The enzyme was co-immobilized in carbon paste electrode with NADP+, FAD and BH4 as cofactors. The detection principle of the biosensor is enzyme NOS catalyzes the conversion of arginine into nitric oxide. The developed biosensor could able to detect up to 10-9M of arginine. The oxidation peak of NO was observed at 0.65V. The developed arginine biosensor was used to monitor arginine content in fruit juices.

Keywords: arginine, biosensor, carbon paste elctrode, nitric oxide

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1200 Changes in Amounts of Glycyrrhizin and Phenolic Compounds of Glycrrhiza glabra L. Seedlings Treated by Copper and Zinc Oxide

Authors: Roya Razavizadeh, Razieh Soltaninejad, Hakimeh Oloumi


Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Licorice) is one of the oldest medicinal plants in Iran and secondary metabolites present in the plant root is used in food and pharmaceutical industries. With the use of heavy metals as elicitors, plant secondary metabolite production can be increased. In this study, the effects of the concentrations of 1 and 10 μM of zinc oxide and copper oxide on the contents of reducing sugars (as precursor of secondary metabolites), proline, glycyrrhizin, total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and anthocyanin in Glycyrrhiza glabra seedlings were investigated. Also, the correlation between the content of these metabolites in the treated seedlings was examined using Pearson's test. The amount of reducing sugars at concentration of 10 μM zinc oxide was decreased. Whereas, the amounts of proline and glycyrrhizin under treatment 1 and 10 μM copper oxide and 1 μM zinc oxide compared with the control plants was increased. The content of total phenolic compounds was increased with increasing concentrations of copper oxide. The highest amount of flavonoids was observed at concentrations of 1 and 10 μM copper oxide. Anthocyanin content was increased in concentration of 1 μM copper oxide. Also, the tannin content of the Glycyrrhiza glabra seedlings at concentrations of 10 μM zinc oxide was increased. Based on the result it seemed that at concentrations of 1 and 10 μM copper oxide the amount of glycyrrhizin, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins were significantly increased, whereas, zinc oxide had no significant impact on the levels of these metabolites.

Keywords: zinc oxide, copper oxide, phenolic compounds, licorice (glycyrrhiza glabra L.), glycyrrhizin

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1199 Effects of Phase and Morphology on the Electrochemical and Electrochromic Performances of Tungsten Oxide and Tungsten-Molybdenum Oxide Nanostructures

Authors: Jinjoo Jung, Hayeon Won, Doyeong Jeong, Do Hyung Kim


We present the electrochemical and electrochromic performance of the novel crystalline tungsten oxide and tungsten-molybdenum oxide nanostructures synthesized by utilizing solvo-thermal method with hexacarbonyl tungsten, hexacarbonyl molybdenum, and ethyl alcohol. The morphology and phase of the prepared products were highly dependent on the synthesis conditions such as synthesis and annealing temperature, synthesis time, and precursor ratio. The tungsten oxide nanostructures (TCNs) have urchin-like or spherical nanostructure with different phase of W18O49 and WO3. The morphology of tungsten-molybdenum oxide nanostructures (TMONs) is basically similar to that of TCNs. However, the morphology and phase of TMONs are more diverse and are strongly dependent on the composition ratios of W/Mo in the precursor. The electrochemical properties depending on their morphologies and phases of TCNs and TMONs are compared using cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. The relationship between the electrochromic performance and phase structures/morphologies of nanostructured TCNs and TMONs are systematically investigated.

Keywords: electrochemical, electrochromic, tungsten oxide, tungsten-molybdenum oxide

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1198 Turmeric Mediated Synthesis and Characterization of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles

Authors: Nithin Krisshna Gunasekaran, Prathima Prabhu Tumkur, Nicole Nazario Bayon, Krishnan Prabhakaran, Joseph C. Hall, Govindarajan T. Ramesh


Cerium oxide and turmeric have antioxidant properties, which have gained interest among researchers to study their applications in the field of biomedicine, such asanti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antimicrobial applications. In this study, the turmeric extract was prepared and mixed with cerium nitrate hexahydrate, stirred continuously to obtain a homogeneous solution and then heated on a hot plate to get the supernatant evaporated, then calcinated at 600°C to obtain the cerium oxide nanoparticles. Characterization of synthesized cerium oxide nanoparticles through Scanning Electron Microscopy determined the particle size to be in the range of 70 nm to 250 nm. Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy determined the elemental composition of cerium and oxygen. Individual particles were identified through the characterization of cerium oxide nanoparticles using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, in which the particles were determined to be spherical and in the size of around 70 nm. The presence of cerium oxide was assured by analyzing the spectrum obtained through the characterization of cerium oxide nanoparticles by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The crystal structure of cerium oxide nanoparticles was determined to be face-centered cubic by analyzing the peaks obtained through theX-Ray Diffraction method. The crystal size of cerium oxide nanoparticles was determined to be around 13 nm by using the Debye Scherer equation. This study confirmed the synthesis of cerium oxide nanoparticles using turmeric extract.

Keywords: antioxidant, characterization, cerium oxide, synthesis, turmeric

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1197 An Experimental Investigation on the Fuel Characteristics of Nano-Aluminium Oxide and Nano-Cobalt Oxide Particles Blended in Diesel Fuel

Authors: S. Singh, P. Patel, D. Kachhadiya, Swapnil Dharaskar


The research objective is to integrate nanoparticles into fuels- i.e. diesel, biodiesel, biodiesel blended with diesel, plastic derived fuels, etc. to increase the fuel efficiency. The metal oxide nanoparticles will reduce the carbon monoxide emissions by donating oxygen atoms from their lattices to catalyze the combustion reactions and to aid complete combustion; due to this, there will be an increase in the calorific value of the blend (fuel + metal nanoparticles). Aluminium oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized by sol-gel method. The characterization was done by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The size of the particles was determined by XRD to be 28.6 nm and 28.06 nm for aluminium oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles respectively. Different concentration blends- 50, 100, 150 ppm were prepared by adding the required weight of metal oxides in 1 liter of diesel and sonicating for 30 minutes at 500W. The blend properties- calorific value, viscosity, and flash point were determined by bomb calorimeter, Brookfield viscometer and pensky-martin apparatus. For the aluminum oxide blended diesel, there was a maximum increase of 5.544% in the calorific value, but at the same time, there was an increase in the flash point from 43°C to 58.5°C and an increase in the viscosity from 2.45 cP to 3.25 cP. On the other hand, for the cobalt oxide blended diesel there was a maximum increase of 2.012% in the calorific value while the flash point increased from 43°C to 51.5°C and the viscosity increased from 2.45 cP to 2.94 cP. There was a linear increase in the calorific value, viscosity and flash point when the concentration of the metal oxide nanoparticles in the blend was increased. For the 50 ppm Al₂O₃ and 50 ppm Co₃O₄ blend the increasing the calorific value was 1.228 %, and the viscosity changed from 2.45 cP to 2.64 cP and the flash point increased from 43°C to 50.5°C. Clearly the aluminium oxide nanoparticles increase the calorific value but at the cost of flash point and viscosity, thus it is better to use the 50 ppm aluminium oxide, and 50 ppm cobalt oxide blended diesel.

Keywords: aluminium oxide nanoparticles, cobalt oxide nanoparticles, fuel additives, fuel characteristics

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1196 Studies on Modified Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles as Potential Drug Carrier

Authors: Jolanta Pulit-Prociak, Olga Dlugosz, Marcin Banach


The toxicity of bare zinc oxide nanoparticles used as drug carriers may be the result of releasing zinc ions. Thus, zinc oxide nanoparticles modified with galactose were obtained. The process of their formation was conducted in the microwave field. The physicochemical properties of the obtained products were studied. The size and electrokinetic potential were defined by using dynamic light scattering technique. The crystalline properties were assessed by X-ray diffractometry. In order to confirm the formation of the desired products, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used. The releasing of zinc ions from the prepared products when comparing to the bare oxide was analyzed. It was found out that modification of zinc oxide nanoparticles with galactose limits the releasing of zinc ions which are responsible for the toxic effect of the whole carrier-drug conjugate.

Keywords: nanomaterials, zinc oxide, drug delivery system, toxicity

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1195 Effective Photodegradation of Tetracycline by a Heteropoly Acid/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Based on Uio-66

Authors: Anasheh Maridiroosi, Ali Reza Mahjoub, Hanieh Fakhri


Heteropoly acid nanoparticles anchored on graphene oxide based on UiO-66 were synthesized via in-situ growth hydrothermal method and tested for photodegradation of a tetracycline as critical pollutant. Results showed that presence of graphene oxide and UiO-66 with high specific surface area, great electron mobility and various functional groups make an excellent support for heteropoly acid and improve photocatalytic efficiency up to 95% for tetracycline. Furthermore, total organic carbon (TOC) analysis verified 79% mineralization of this pollutant under optimum condition.

Keywords: heteropoly acid, graphene oxide, MOF, tetracycline

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1194 A Study on Kinetic of Nitrous Oxide Catalytic Decomposition over CuO/HZSM-5

Authors: Y. J. Song, Q. S. Xu, X. C. Wang, H. Wang, C. Q. Li


The catalyst of copper oxide loaded on HZSM-5 was developed for nitrous oxide (N₂O) direct decomposition. The kinetic of nitrous oxide decomposition was studied for CuO/HZSM-5 catalyst prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method. The external and internal diffusion of catalytic reaction were considered in the investigation. Experiment results indicated that the external diffusion was basically eliminated when the reaction gas mixture gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) was higher than 9000h⁻¹ and the influence of the internal diffusion was negligible when the particle size of the catalyst CuO/HZSM-5 was small than 40-60 mesh. The experiment results showed that the kinetic of catalytic decomposition of N₂O was a first-order reaction and the activation energy and the pre-factor of the kinetic equation were 115.15kJ/mol and of 1.6×109, respectively.

Keywords: catalytic decomposition, CuO/HZSM-5, kinetic, nitrous oxide

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1193 The Effect of Aging of ZnO, AZO, and GZO films on the Microstructure and Photoelectric Property

Authors: Zue-Chin Chang


RF magnetron sputtering is used on the ceramic targets, each of which contains zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc oxide doped with aluminum (AZO) and zinc oxide doped with gallium (GZO). The XRD analysis showed a preferred orientation along the (002) plane for ZnO, AZO, and GZO films. The AZO film had the best electrical properties; it had the lowest resistivity of 6.6 × 10-4 cm, the best sheet resistance of 2.2 × 10-1 Ω/square, and the highest carrier concentration of 4.3 × 1020 cm-3, as compared to the ZnO and GZO films.

Keywords: aging, films, microstructure, photoelectric property

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1192 The Effects of pH on the Electrochromism in Nickel Oxide Films

Authors: T. Taşköprü, M. Zor, E. Turan


The advantages of nickel oxide as an electrochromic material are its good contrast of transmittance and its suitable use as a secondary electrochromic film with WO3 for electrochromic devices. Electrochromic nickel oxide film was prepared by using a simple and inexpensive chemical deposition bath (CBD) technique onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates from nickel nitrate solution. The films were ace centered cubic NiO with preferred orientation in the (2 0 0) direction. The electrochromic (EC) properties of the films were studied as a function of pH (8, 9, 10 and 11) in an aqueous alkaline electrolyte (0.3 M KOH) using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The EC cell was formed with the following configuration; FTO/nickel oxide film/0.3 M KOH/Pt The potential was cycled from 0.1 to 0.6V at diffferent potential sweep rates in the range 10- 50 mV/s. The films exhibit anodic electrochromism, changing colour from transparent to black.CV results of a nickel oxide film showed well-resolved anodic current peak at potential; 45 mV and cathodic peak at potential 28 mV. The structural, morphological, and optical changes in NiO film following the CV were investigated by means of X-ray diffractometer (XRD), field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) and UV-Vis- NIR spectrophotometry. No change was observed in XRD, besides surface morphology undergoes change due to the electrical discharge. The change in tansmittance between the bleached and colored state is 68% for the film deposited with pH=11 precursor.

Keywords: nickel oxide, XRD, SEM, cyclic voltammetry

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1191 Phase Stability and Grain Growth Kinetics of Oxide Dispersed CoCrFeMnNi

Authors: Prangya P. Sahoo, B. S. Murty


The present study deals with phase evolution of oxide dispersed CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy as a function of amount of added Y2O3 during mechanical alloying and analysis of grain growth kinetics of CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy without and with oxide dispersion. Mechanical alloying of CoCrFeMnNi resulted in a single FCC phase. However, evolution of chromium carbide was observed after heat treatment between 1073 and 1473 K. Comparison of grain growth time exponents and activation energy barrier is also reported. Micro structural investigations, using electron microscopy and EBSD techniques, were carried out to confirm the enhanced grain growth resistance which is attributed to the presence oxide dispersoids.

Keywords: grain growth kinetics, mechanical alloying, oxide dispersion, phase evolution

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1190 Preparation of Catalyst-Doped TiO2 Nanotubes by Single Step Anodization and Potential Shock

Authors: Hyeonseok Yoo, Kiseok Oh, Jinsub Choi


Titanium oxide nanotubes have attracted great attention because of its photocatalytic activity and large surface area. For enhancing electrochemical properties, catalysts should be doped into the structure because titanium oxide nanotubes themselves have low electroconductivity and catalytic activity. It has been reported that Ru and Ir doped titanium oxide electrodes exhibit high efficiency and low overpotential in the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) for water splitting. In general, titanium oxide nanotubes with high aspect ratio cannot be easily doped by conventional complex methods. Herein, two types of facile routes, namely single step anodization and potential shock, for Ru doping into high aspect ratio titanium oxide nanotubes are introduced in detail. When single step anodization was carried out, stability of electrodes were increased. However, onset potential was shifted to anodic direction. On the other hand, when high potential shock voltage was applied, a large amount of ruthenium/ruthenium oxides were doped into titanium oxide nanotubes and thick barrier oxide layers were formed simultaneously. Regardless of doping routes, ruthenium/ ruthenium oxides were homogeneously doped into titanium oxide nanotubes. In spite of doping routes, doping in aqueous solution generally led to incorporate high amount of Ru in titanium oxide nanotubes, compared to that in non-aqueous solution. The amounts of doped catalyst were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The optimum condition for water splitting was investigated in terms of the amount of doped Ru and thickness of barrier oxide layer.

Keywords: doping, potential shock, single step anodization, titanium oxide nanotubes

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