Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 562

Search results for: graphene nanocomposite

562 Graphene/ZnO/Polymer Nanocomposite Thin Film for Separation of Oil-Water Mixture

Authors: Suboohi Shervani, Jingjing Ling, Jiabin Liu, Tahir Husain

Abstract:

Offshore oil-spill has become the most emerging problem in the world. In the current paper, a graphene/ZnO/polymer nanocomposite thin film is coated on stainless steel mesh via layer by layer deposition method. The structural characterization of materials is determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and separation efficiency have been measured via gas chromatography – flame ionization detector (GC-FID). TPHs are reduced to 2 ppm and separation efficiency of the nanocomposite coated mesh is reached ≥ 99% for the final sample. The nanocomposite coated mesh acts as a promising candidate for the separation of oil- water mixture.

Keywords: oil spill, graphene, oil-water separation, nanocomposite

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561 Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Dye Using Cuprous Oxide/Graphene Nanocomposite

Authors: Bekan Bogale, Tsegaye Girma Asere, Tilahun Yai, Fekadu Melak

Abstract:

Aims: To study photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye on cuprous oxide/graphene nanocomposite. Background: Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanoparticles are among the metal oxides that demonstrated photocatalytic activity. However, the stability of Cu2O nanoparticles due to the fast recombination rate of electron/hole pairs remains a significant challenge in their photocatalytic applications. This, in turn, leads to mismatching of the effective bandgap separation, tending to reduce the photocatalytic activity of the desired organic waste (MB). To overcome these limitations, graphene has been combined with cuprous oxides, resulting in cuprous oxide/graphene nanocomposite as a promising photocatalyst. Objective: In this study, Cu2O/graphene nanocomposite was synthesized and evaluated for its photocatalytic performance of methylene blue (MB) dye degradation. Method: Cu2O/graphene nanocomposites were synthesized from graphite powder and copper nitrate using the facile sol-gel method. Batch experiments have been conducted to assess the applications of the nanocomposites for MB degradation. Parameters such as contact time, catalyst dosage, and pH of the solution were optimized for maximum MB degradation. The prepared nanocomposites were characterized by using UV-Vis, FTIR, XRD, and SEM. The photocatalytic performance of Cu2O/graphene nanocomposites was compared against Cu2O nanoparticles for cationic MB dye degradation. Results: Cu2O/graphene nanocomposite exhibits higher photocatalytic activity for MB degradation (with a degradation efficiency of 94%) than pure Cu2O nanoparticles (67%). This has been accomplished after 180 min of irradiation under visible light. The kinetics of MB degradation by Cu2O/graphene composites can be demonstrated by the second-order kinetic model. The synthesized nanocomposite can be used for more than three cycles of photocatalytic MB degradation. Conclusion: This work indicated new insights into Cu2O/graphene nanocomposite as high-performance in photocatalysis to degrade MB, playing a great role in environmental protection in relation to MB dye.

Keywords: methylene blue, photocatalysis, cuprous oxide, graphene nanocomposite

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560 Electrical Properties of Nanocomposite Fibres Based On Cellulose and Graphene Nanoplatelets Prepared Using Ionic Liquids

Authors: Shaya Mahmoudian, Mohammad Reza Sazegar, Nazanin Afshari

Abstract:

Graphene, a single layer of carbon atoms in a hexagonal lattice, has recently attracted great attention due to its unique mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. The high aspect ratio and unique surface features of graphene resulted in significant improvements of the nano composites properties. In this study, nano composite fibres made of cellulose and graphene nano platelets were wet spun from solution by using ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIMAc) as solvent. The effect of graphene loading on the thermal and electrical properties of the nanocomposite fibres was investigated. The nano composite fibres characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. XRD analysis revealed a cellulose II crystalline structure for regenerated cellulose and the nano composite fibres. SEM images showed a homogenous morphology and round cross section for the nano composite fibres along with well dispersion of graphene nano platelets in regenerated cellulose matrix. The incorporation of graphene into cellulose matrix generated electrical conductivity. At 6 wt. % of graphene, the electrical conductivity was 4.7 × 10-4 S/cm. The nano composite fibres also showed considerable improvements in thermal stability and char yield compared to pure regenerated cellulose fibres. This work provides a facile and environmentally friendly method of preparing nano composite fibres based on cellulose and graphene nano platelets that can find several applications in cellulose-based carbon fibres, conductive fibres, apparel, etc.

Keywords: nanocomposite, graphene nanoplatelets, regenerated cellulose, electrical properties

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559 Preparation and Properties of PP/EPDM Reinforced with Graphene

Authors: M. Haghnegahdar, G. Naderi, M. H. R. Ghoreishy

Abstract:

Polypropylene(PP)/Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) samples (80/20) containing 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 (expressed in mass fraction) graphene were prepared using melt compounding method to investigate microstructure, mechanical properties, and thermal stability as well as electrical resistance of samples. X-Ray diffraction data confirmed that graphene platelets are well dispersed in PP/EPDM. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, impact strength and hardness demonstrated increasing trend by graphene loading which exemplifies substantial reinforcing nature of this kind of nano filler and it's good interaction with polymer chains. At the same time it is found that thermo-oxidative degradation of PP/EPDM nanocomposites is noticeably retarded with the increasing of graphene content. Electrical surface resistivity of the nanocomposite was dramatically changed by forming electrical percolation threshold and leads to change electrical behavior from insulator to semiconductor. Furthermore, these results were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

Keywords: nanocomposite, graphene, microstructure, mechanical properties

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558 Novel Hybrid Ceramic Nanocomposites Fabricated by Rapid Sintering Technology

Authors: Iftikhar Ahmad, Abulhakim Almajid

Abstract:

Alumina (Al2O3) is an attractive structural ceramic however; brittleness turns Al2O3 down for advanced applications. Development of multi-phase phase ceramics systems is promising to curtail the brittleness and the incorporation of strong/elastic graphene, as third phase, into dual phase (Al2O3-SiC) is striking for mechanical upgrading purpose. Thin graphene nanosheets (GNS) were prepared by thermal exfoliation process and reinforced into dual phase ceramic system. The hybrid nanocomposite was consolidated by novel HF-IH (high-frequency induction heating) sintering furnace at 1500 °C under 50 MPa in vacuum conditions. Structural features and grain size of the resulting nanocomposite were analyzed by SEM and TEM whilst the mechanical properties were assessed by microhardness and nanoindentation techniques. The fracture toughness of the hybrid nanocomposites was appraised by direct crack measurement method. Electron microscopic investigations confirmed the preparation of thin (< 10 nm) graphene nanosheets (GNS). HF-IH sintering route condensed the three-phase (GNS-Al2O3-SiC) hybrid nanocomposite system to > 99% relative densities. SEM of the hybrid nanocomposites fractured surfaces revealed even distribution of the nanocomposite constituents and changed in fracture-mode. Structurally, 88% grain reduction into hybrid nanocomposite was also obtained. Mechanically, enhanced fracture toughness (50%) and hardness (53%) were also achieved for hybrid nanocomposites were attained against bench marked monolithic Al2O3.

Keywords: alumina, graphene, hybrid nanocomposites, rapid sintering

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557 ZnS and Graphene Quantum Dots Nanocomposite as Potential Electron Acceptor for Photovoltaics

Authors: S. M. Giripunje, Shikha Jindal

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Zinc sulphide (ZnS) quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized successfully via simple sonochemical method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis revealed the average size of QDs of the order of 3.7 nm. The band gap of the QDs was tuned to 5.2 eV by optimizing the synthesis parameters. UV-Vis absorption spectra of ZnS QD confirm the quantum confinement effect. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis confirmed the formation of single phase ZnS QDs. To fabricate the diode, blend of ZnS QDs and P3HT was prepared and the heterojunction of PEDOT:PSS and the blend was formed by spin coating on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate. The diode behaviour of the heterojunction was analysed, wherein the ideality factor was found to be 2.53 with turn on voltage 0.75 V and the barrier height was found to be 1.429 eV. ZnS-Graphene QDs nanocomposite was characterised for the surface morphological study. It was found that the synthesized ZnS QDs appear as quasi spherical particles on the graphene sheets. The average particle size of ZnS-graphene nanocomposite QDs was found to be 8.4 nm. From voltage-current characteristics of ZnS-graphene nanocomposites, it is observed that the conductivity of the composite increases by 104 times the conductivity of ZnS QDs. Thus the addition of graphene QDs in ZnS QDs enhances the mobility of the charge carriers in the composite material. Thus, the graphene QDs, with high specific area for a large interface, high mobility and tunable band gap, show a great potential as an electron-acceptors in photovoltaic devices.

Keywords: graphene, heterojunction, quantum confinement effect, quantum dots(QDs), zinc sulphide(ZnS)

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556 Thermal Characterization of Graphene Oxide-Epoxy Nanocomposites Produced by Aqueous Emulsion

Authors: H. A. Brandão Cordeiro, M. G. Bocardo, N. C. Penteado, V. T. de Moraes, S. M. Giampietri Lebrão, G. W. Lebrão

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The present study desired to obtain a nanocomposite of epoxy resin reinforced with graphene oxide (OG), for aerospace application, produced by aqueous emulsion. It was obtained proof bodies with 0.00 wt%, 0.10 wt%, 0.25 wt% and 0.50 wt% in weight of nanoparticles, to check the influence of it in the final quality of the obtained product. The validation of the results was done by the application thermal characterization by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was seen that the nanocomposite reinforced with 0.10 wt% of OG showed the best results, the average glass transition temperature, at 2 °C, compared to the pure resin.

Keywords: aqueous emulsion, graphene, nanocomposites, thermal characterization

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555 Study on the Morphology and Dynamic Mechanical and Thermal Properties of HIPS/Graphene Nanocomposites

Authors: Amirhosein Rostampour, Mehdi Sharif

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In this article, a series of high impact polystyrene/graphene (HIPS/Gr) nanocomposites were prepared by solution mixing method and their morphology and dynamic mechanical properties were investigated as a function of graphene content. SEM images and X-Ray diffraction data confirm that the graphene platelets are well dispersed in HIPS matrix for the nanocomposites with Gr contents up to 5.0 wt%. Mechanical properties analysis demonstrates that yielding strength and initial modulus of HIPS/Gr nanocomposites are highly improved with the increment of Gr content compared to pure HIPS.

Keywords: nanocomposite, graphene, dynamic mechanical properties, morphology

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554 An Efficient Aptamer-Based Biosensor Developed via Irreversible Pi-Pi Functionalisation of Graphene/Zinc Oxide Nanocomposite

Authors: Sze Shin Low, Michelle T. T. Tan, Poi Sim Khiew, Hwei-San Loh

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An efficient graphene/zinc oxide (PSE-G/ZnO) platform based on pi-pi stacking, non-covalent interactions for the development of aptamer-based biosensor was presented in this study. As a proof of concept, the DNA recognition capability of the as-developed PSE-G/ZnO enhanced aptamer-based biosensor was evaluated using Coconut Cadang-cadang viroid disease (CCCVd). The G/ZnO nanocomposite was synthesised via a simple, green and efficient approach. The pristine graphene was produced through a single step exfoliation of graphite in sonochemical alcohol-water treatment while the zinc nitrate hexahydrate was mixed with the graphene and subjected to low temperature hydrothermal growth. The developed facile, environmental friendly method provided safer synthesis procedure by eliminating the need of harsh reducing chemicals and high temperature. The as-prepared nanocomposite was characterised by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to evaluate its crystallinity, morphology and purity. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was employed for the detection of CCCVd sequence with the use of potassium ferricyanide (K3[Fe(CN)6]). Recognition of the RNA analytes was achieved via the significant increase in resistivity for the double stranded DNA, as compared to single-stranded DNA. The PSE-G/ZnO enhanced aptamer-based biosensor exhibited higher sensitivity than the bare biosensor, attributing to the synergistic effect of high electrical conductivity of graphene and good electroactive property of ZnO.

Keywords: aptamer-based biosensor, graphene/zinc oxide nanocomposite, green synthesis, screen printed carbon electrode

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553 Synthesis of TiO₂/Graphene Nanocomposites with Excellent Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity Based on Chemical Exfoliation Method

Authors: Nhan N. T. Ton, Anh T. N. Dao, Kouichirou Katou, Toshiaki Taniike

Abstract:

Facile electron-hole recombination and the broad band gap are two major drawbacks of titanium dioxide (TiO₂) when applied in visible-light photocatalysis. Hybridization of TiO₂ with graphene is a promising strategy to lessen these pitfalls. Recently, there have been many reports on the synthesis of TiO₂/graphene nanocomposites, in most of which graphene oxide (GO) was used as a starting material. However, the reduction of GO introduced a large number of defects on the graphene framework. In addition, the sensitivity of titanium alkoxide to water (GO usually contains) significantly obstructs the uniform and controlled growth of TiO₂ on graphene. Here, we demonstrate a novel technique to synthesize TiO₂/graphene nanocomposites without the use of GO. Graphene dispersion was obtained through the chemical exfoliation of graphite in titanium tetra-n-butoxide with the aid of ultrasonication. The dispersion was directly used for the sol-gel reaction in the presence of different catalysts. A TiO₂/reduced graphene oxide (TiO₂/rGO) nanocomposite, which was prepared by a solvothermal method from GO, and the commercial TiO₂-P25 were used as references. It was found that titanium alkoxide afforded the graphene dispersion of a high quality in terms of a trace amount of defects and a few layers of dispersed graphene. Moreover, the sol-gel reaction from this dispersion led to TiO₂/graphene nanocomposites featured with promising characteristics for visible-light photocatalysts including: (I) the formation of a TiO₂ nano layer (thickness ranging from 1 nm to 5 nm) that uniformly and thinly covered graphene sheets, (II) a trace amount of defects on the graphene framework (low ID/IG ratio: 0.21), (III) a significant extension of the absorption edge into the visible light region (a remarkable extension of the absorption edge to 578 nm beside the usual edge at 360 nm), and (IV) a dramatic suppression of electron-hole recombination (the lowest photoluminescence intensity compared to reference samples). These advantages were successfully demonstrated in the photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. The TiO₂/graphene nanocomposites exhibited 15 and 5 times higher activity than TiO₂-P25 and the TiO₂/rGO nanocomposite, respectively.

Keywords: chemical exfoliation, photocatalyst, TiO₂/graphene, sol-gel reaction

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552 Effective Photodegradation of Tetracycline by a Heteropoly Acid/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Based on Uio-66

Authors: Anasheh Maridiroosi, Ali Reza Mahjoub, Hanieh Fakhri

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Heteropoly acid nanoparticles anchored on graphene oxide based on UiO-66 were synthesized via in-situ growth hydrothermal method and tested for photodegradation of a tetracycline as critical pollutant. Results showed that presence of graphene oxide and UiO-66 with high specific surface area, great electron mobility and various functional groups make an excellent support for heteropoly acid and improve photocatalytic efficiency up to 95% for tetracycline. Furthermore, total organic carbon (TOC) analysis verified 79% mineralization of this pollutant under optimum condition.

Keywords: heteropoly acid, graphene oxide, MOF, tetracycline

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551 Graphene-Based Nanocomposites as Ecofriendly Antifouling Surfaces

Authors: Mohamed S. Selim, Nesreen A. Fatthallah, Shimaa A. Higazy, Zhifeng Hao, Xiang Chen

Abstract:

After the prohibition of tin-based fouling-prevention coatings in 2003, the researchers were directed toward eco-friendly coatings. Because of their nonstick, environmental, and economic benefits, foul-release nanocoatings have received a lot of attention. They use physical anti-adhesion terminology to deter any fouling attachment.Natural bioinspired surfaces have micro/nano-roughness and low surface free energy features, which may inspire the design of dynamic antifouling coatings. Graphene-based nanocomposite surfaces were designed to combat marine-fouling adhesion with ecological as well as eco-friendly effects rather than biocidal solutions. Polymer–graphenenanofiller hybrids are a novel class of composite materials in fouling-prevention applications. The controlled preparation of nanoscale orientation, arrangement, and direction along the composite building blocks would result in superior fouling prohibition. This work representsfoul-release nanocomposite top coats for marine coating applications with superhydrophobicity, surface inertness against fouling adherence, cost-effectiveness, and increased lifetime.

Keywords: foul-release nanocoatings, graphene-based nanocomposite, polymer, nanofillers

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550 Investigation on Morphologies, Forming Mechanism, Photocatalytic and Electronic Properties of Co-Zn Ferrite Nanostructure Grown on the Reduced Graphene Oxide Support

Authors: Qinglei Liu, Ali Charkhesht, Tiva Sharifi, Ashkan Bahadoran

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Graphene sheets are promising nanoscale building blocks as a support material for the dispersion of nanoparticles. In this work, a solvothermal method employed to directly grow Co1-xZnxFe2O4 ferrite nanospheres on graphene oxide support that is subsequently reduced to graphene. The samples morphology, structure and crystallography were investigated using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The influences of the Zn2+ content on photocatalytic activity, electrical conductivity and magnetic property of the samples are also investigated. The results showed that Co1-x Znx Fe2 O4 nanoparticles are dispersed on graphene sheets and obtained nanocomposites are soft magnetic materials. In addition the samples showed excellent photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation.

Keywords: reduced graphene oxide, ferrite, magnetic nanocomposite, photocatalytic activity, solvothermal method

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549 Hybrid Graphene Based Nanomaterial as Highly Efficient Catalyst for the Electrochemical Determination of Ciprofloxacin

Authors: Tien S. H. Pham, Peter J. Mahon, Aimin Yu

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The detection of drug molecules by voltammetry has attracted great interest over the past years. However, many drug molecules exhibit poor electrochemical signals at common electrodes which result in low sensitivity in detection. An efficient way to overcome this problem is to modify electrodes with functional materials. Since discovered in 2004, graphene (or reduced graphene oxide) has emerged as one of the most studied two-dimensional carbon materials in condensed matter physics, electrochemistry, and so on due to its exceptional physicochemical properties. Additionally, the continuous development of technology has opened the new window for the successful fabrications of many novel graphene-based nanomaterials to serve in electrochemical analysis. This research aims to synthesize and characterize gold nanoparticle coated beta-cyclodextrin functionalized reduced graphene oxide (Au NP–β-CD–RGO) nanocomposites with highly conductive and strongly electro-catalytic properties as well as excellent supramolecular recognition abilities for the modification of electrodes. The electrochemical responses of ciprofloxacin at the as-prepared nanocomposite modified electrode was effectively amplified was much higher in comparison with that at the bare electrode. The linear concentration range was from 0.01 to 120 µM, with a detection limit of 2.7 nM using differential pulse voltammetry. Thus, Au NP–β-CD–RGO nanocomposite has great potential as an ideal material to construct sensitive sensors for the electrochemical determination of ciprofloxacin or similar antibacterial drugs in the future based on its excellent stability, selectivity, and reproducibility.

Keywords: Au nanoparticles, β-CD, ciprofloxacin, electrochemical determination, graphene based nanomaterials

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548 Enhanced Field Emission from Plasma Treated Graphene and 2D Layered Hybrids

Authors: R. Khare, R. V. Gelamo, M. A. More, D. J. Late, Chandra Sekhar Rout

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Graphene emerges out as a promising material for various applications ranging from complementary integrated circuits to optically transparent electrode for displays and sensors. The excellent conductivity and atomic sharp edges of unique two-dimensional structure makes graphene a propitious field emitter. Graphene analogues of other 2D layered materials have emerged in material science and nanotechnology due to the enriched physics and novel enhanced properties they present. There are several advantages of using 2D nanomaterials in field emission based devices, including a thickness of only a few atomic layers, high aspect ratio (the ratio of lateral size to sheet thickness), excellent electrical properties, extraordinary mechanical strength and ease of synthesis. Furthermore, the presence of edges can enhance the tunneling probability for the electrons in layered nanomaterials similar to that seen in nanotubes. Here we report electron emission properties of multilayer graphene and effect of plasma (CO2, O2, Ar and N2) treatment. The plasma treated multilayer graphene shows an enhanced field emission behavior with a low turn on field of 0.18 V/μm and high emission current density of 1.89 mA/cm2 at an applied field of 0.35 V/μm. Further, we report the field emission studies of layered WS2/RGO and SnS2/RGO composites. The turn on field required to draw a field emission current density of 1μA/cm2 is found to be 3.5, 2.3 and 2 V/μm for WS2, RGO and the WS2/RGO composite respectively. The enhanced field emission behavior observed for the WS2/RGO nanocomposite is attributed to a high field enhancement factor of 2978, which is associated with the surface protrusions of the single-to-few layer thick sheets of the nanocomposite. The highest current density of ~800 µA/cm2 is drawn at an applied field of 4.1 V/μm from a few layers of the WS2/RGO nanocomposite. Furthermore, first-principles density functional calculations suggest that the enhanced field emission may also be due to an overlap of the electronic structures of WS2 and RGO, where graphene-like states are dumped in the region of the WS2 fundamental gap. Similarly, the turn on field required to draw an emission current density of 1µA/cm2 is significantly low (almost half the value) for the SnS2/RGO nanocomposite (2.65 V/µm) compared to pristine SnS2 (4.8 V/µm) nanosheets. The field enhancement factor β (~3200 for SnS2 and ~3700 for SnS2/RGO composite) was calculated from Fowler-Nordheim (FN) plots and indicates emission from the nanometric geometry of the emitter. The field emission current versus time plot shows overall good emission stability for the SnS2/RGO emitter. The DFT calculations reveal that the enhanced field emission properties of SnS2/RGO composites are because of a substantial lowering of work function of SnS2 when supported by graphene, which is in response to p-type doping of the graphene substrate. Graphene and 2D analogue materials emerge as a potential candidate for future field emission applications.

Keywords: graphene, layered material, field emission, plasma, doping

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547 Comparative Electrochemical Studies of Enzyme-Based and Enzyme-less Graphene Oxide-Based Nanocomposite as Glucose Biosensor

Authors: Chetna Tyagi. G. B. V. S. Lakshmi, Ambuj Tripathi, D. K. Avasthi

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Graphene oxide provides a good host matrix for preparing nanocomposites due to the different functional groups attached to its edges and planes. Being biocompatible, it is used in therapeutic applications. As enzyme-based biosensor requires complicated enzyme purification procedure, high fabrication cost and special storage conditions, we need enzyme-less biosensors for use even in a harsh environment like high temperature, varying pH, etc. In this work, we have prepared both enzyme-based and enzyme-less graphene oxide-based biosensors for glucose detection using glucose-oxidase as enzyme and gold nanoparticles, respectively. These samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy to confirm the successful synthesis of the working electrodes. Electrochemical measurements were performed for both the working electrodes using a 3-electrode electrochemical cell. Cyclic voltammetry curves showed the homogeneous transfer of electron on the electrodes in the scan range between -0.2V to 0.6V. The sensing measurements were performed using differential pulse voltammetry for the glucose concentration varying from 0.01 mM to 20 mM, and sensing was improved towards glucose in the presence of gold nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles in graphene oxide nanocomposite played an important role in sensing glucose in the absence of enzyme, glucose oxidase, as evident from these measurements. The selectivity was tested by measuring the current response of the working electrode towards glucose in the presence of the other common interfering agents like cholesterol, ascorbic acid, citric acid, and urea. The enzyme-less working electrode also showed storage stability for up to 15 weeks, making it a suitable glucose biosensor.

Keywords: electrochemical, enzyme-less, glucose, gold nanoparticles, graphene oxide, nanocomposite

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546 Methyl Red Dye Adsorption On PMMA/GO and PMMA/GO-Fe3O4 Nanocomposites: Equilibrium Isotherm Studies

Authors: Mostafa Rajabi, Kazem Mahanpoor

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Performances of the methyl red (MR) dye adsorption on poly(methyl methacrylate)/graphene oxide (PMMA/GO) and poly(methyl methacrylate)/graphene oxide-Fe3O4 (PMMA/GO-Fe3O4) nanocomposites as adsorbents were investigated. Our results showed that for adsorption of MR dye on PMMA/GO-Fe3O4 and PMMA/GO nanocomposites, 80 minutes, 298 K, and pH 2 were the best contact time, temperature and pH value for process, respectively, because the optimum adsorption of the MR dye with both nanocomposite adsorbents were observed in these values of the parameters. The equilibrium study results showed that PMMA/GO-Fe3O4 and PMMA/GO were suitable adsorbents for MR dye removing and were best in agreement with the Langmuir isotherm model.

Keywords: adsorption, isotherm, methyl methacrylate, methyl red, nanocomposite, nano magnetic Fe3O4

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545 Preparation of Novel Silicone/Graphene-based Nanostructured Surfaces as Fouling Release Coatings

Authors: Mohamed S. Selim, Nesreen A. Fatthallah, Shimaa A. Higazy, Zhifeng Hao, Ping Jing Mo

Abstract:

As marine fouling-release (FR) surfaces, two new superhydrophobic nanocomposite series of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) loaded with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and graphene oxide/boehmite nanorods (GO-γ-AlOOH) nanofillers were created. The self-cleaning and antifouling capabilities were modified by controlling the nanofillers' shapes and distribution in the silicone matrix. With an average diameter of 10-20 nm and a length of 200 nm, γ-AlOOH nanorods showed a single crystallinity. RGO was made using a hydrothermal process, whereas GO-γ-AlOOH nanocomposites were made using a chemical deposition method for use as fouling-release coating materials. These nanofillers were disseminated in the silicone matrix using the solution casting method to explore the synergetic effects of graphene-based materials on the surface, mechanical, and FR characteristics. Water contact angle (WCA), scanning electron, and atomic force microscopes were used to investigate the surface's hydrophobicity and antifouling capabilities (SEM and AFM). The roughness, superhydrophobicity, and surface mechanical characteristics of coatings all increased the homogeneity of the nanocomposite dispersion. To examine the antifouling effects of the coating systems, laboratory tests were conducted for 30 days using specified bacteria.PDMS/GO-γ-AlOOH nanorod composite demonstrated superior antibacterial efficacy against several bacterial strains than PDMS/RGO nanocomposite. The high surface area and stabilizing effects of the GO-γ-AlOOH hybrid nanofillers are to blame for this. The biodegradability percentage of the PDMS/GO-γ-AlOOH nanorod composite (3 wt.%) was the lowest (1.6%), while the microbial endurability percentages for gram-positive, gram-negative, and fungi were 86.42%, 97.94%, and 85.97%, respectively. The homogeneity of the GO-γ-AlOOH (3 wt.%) dispersion, which had a WCA of 151° and a rough surface, was the most profound superhydrophobic antifouling nanostructured coating.

Keywords: superhydrophobic nanocomposite, fouling release, nanofillers, surface coating

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544 Sunlight-Activated Graphene Heterostructure Transparent Cathodes for High-Performance Graphene/Si Schottky Junction Photovoltaics

Authors: Po-Sun Ho, Chun-Wei Chen

Abstract:

This work demonstrated a “sunlight-activated” graphene-heterostructure transparent electrode in which photogenerated charges from a light-absorbing material are transferred to graphene, resulting in the modulation of electrical properties of the graphene transparent electrode caused by a strong light–matter interaction at graphene-heterostructure interfaces. A photoactive graphene/TiOx-heterostructure transparent cathode was used to fabricate an n-graphene/p-Si Schottky junction solar cell, achieving a record-high power conversion efficiency (>10%). The photoactive graphene-heterostructure transparent electrode, which exhibits excellent tunable electrical properties under sunlight illumination, has great potential for use in the future development of graphene-based photovoltaics and optoelectronics.

Keywords: graphene, transparent electrode, graphene/Si Schottky junction, solar cells

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543 Scanning Electronic Microscopy for Analysis of the Effects of Surfactants on De-Wrinkling and Dispersion of Graphene

Authors: Kostandinos Katsamangas, Fawad Inam

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Graphene was dispersed using a tip sonicator and the effect of surfactants were analysed. Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS) and Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) were compared to observe whether or not they had any effect on any de-wrinkling, and secondly whether they aided to achieve better dispersions. There is a huge demand for wrinkle free graphene as this will greatly increase its usefulness in various engineering applications. A comprehensive literature on de-wrinkling graphene has been discussed. Low magnification Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) was conducted to assess the quality of graphene de-wrinkling. The utilization of the PVA has a significant effect on de-wrinkling whereas SDS had minimal effect on the de-wrinkling of graphene.

Keywords: Graphene, de-wrinkling, dispersion, surfactants, scanning electronic microscopy

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542 Antireflection Performance of Graphene Directly Deposited on Silicon Substrate by the Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Method

Authors: Samira Naghdi, Kyong Yop Rhee

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Transfer-free synthesis of graphene on dielectric substrates is highly desirable but remains challenging. Here, by using a thin sacrificial platinum layer as a catalyst, graphene was deposited on a silicon substrate through a simple and transfer-free synthesis method. During graphene growth, the platinum layer evaporated, resulting in direct deposition of graphene on the silicon substrate. In this work, different growth conditions of graphene were optimized. Raman spectra of the produced graphene indicated that the obtained graphene was bilayer. The sheet resistance obtained from four-point probe measurements demonstrated that the deposited graphene had high conductivity. Reflectance spectroscopy of graphene-coated silicon showed a decrease in reflectance across the wavelength range of 200-800 nm, indicating that the graphene coating on the silicon surface had antireflection capabilities.

Keywords: antireflection coating, chemical vapor deposition, graphene, the sheet resistance

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541 Annealing of the Contact between Graphene and Metal: Electrical and Raman Study

Authors: A. Sakavičius, A. Lukša, V. Nargelienė, V. Bukauskas, G. Astromskas, A. Šetkus

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We investigate the influence of annealing on the properties of a contact between graphene and metal (Au and Ni), using circular transmission line model (CTLM) contact geometry. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and Raman spectroscopy are applied for characterization of the surface and interface properties. Annealing causes a decrease of the metal-graphene contact resistance for both Ni and Au.

Keywords: Au/Graphene contacts, graphene, Kelvin force probe microscopy, NiC/Graphene contacts, Ni/Graphene contacts, Raman spectroscopy

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540 Synthesis, Spectral Characterization and Photocatalytic Applications of Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite with Copper Doped Zinc Oxide

Authors: Humaira Khan, Mohsin Javed, Sammia Shahid

Abstract:

The reinforced photocatalytic activity of graphene oxide (GO) along with composites of ZnO nanoparticles and copper-doped ZnO nanoparticles were studied by synthesizing ZnO and copper- doped ZnO nanoparticles by co-precipitation method. Zinc acetate and copper acetate were used as precursors, whereas graphene oxide was prepared from pre-oxidized graphite in the presence of H2O2.The supernatant was collected carefully and showed high-quality single-layer characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy), SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), XRD (X-ray Diffraction Analysis), EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectrometry). The degradation of methylene blue as standard pollutant under UV-Visible irradiation gave results for photocatalytic activity of dopants. It could be concluded that shrinking of optical band caused by composites of Cu-dopped nanoparticles with GO enhances the photocatalytic activity.

Keywords: degradation, graphene oxide, photocatalysis, ZnO nanoparticles and copper-doped ZnO nanoparticles

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539 Evaluation of Cytotoxic Effect of Mitoxantrone Conjugated Magnetite Nanoparticles and Graphene Oxide-Magnetite Nanocomposites on Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Authors: Abbas Jafarizad, Duygu Ekinci

Abstract:

In this work targeted drug delivery is proposed to decrease adverse effect of drugs with concomitant reduces in consumption and treatment outgoings. Nanoparticles (NPs) can be prepared from a variety of materials such as lipid, biodegradable polymer that prevent the drugs cytotoxicity in healthy cells, etc. One of the most important drugs used in chemotherapy is mitoxantrone (MTX) which prevents cell proliferation by inhibition of topoisomerase II and DNA repair; however, it is not selective and has some serious side effects. In this study, mentioned aim is achieved by using several nanocarriers like magnetite (Fe3O4) and their composites with magnetic graphene oxide ([email protected]). Also, cytotoxic potential of Fe3O4, Fe3O4-MTX, and [email protected] nanocomposite were evaluated on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this study, we reported the synthesis of monodisperse Fe3O4 NPs and [email protected] nanocomposite and their structures were investigated by using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, atomic force microscopy (AFM), Brauneur Emmet Teller (BET) isotherm and contact angle studies. Moreover, we used 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay to evaluate cytotoxic effects of MTX, Fe3O4 NPs, Fe3O4-MTX and [email protected] nanocomposite on MSCs. The in-vitro MTT results indicated that all concentrations of MTX and [email protected] nanocomposites showed cytotoxic effects while all concentrations of Fe3O4 NPs and Fe3O4-MTX NPs did not show any cytotoxic effect on stem cells. The results from this study indicated that using Fe3O4 NPs as anticancer drug delivery systems could be a trustworthy method for cancer treatment. But for reaching excellent and accurate results, further investigation is necessary.

Keywords: mitoxantrone, magnetite, magnetic graphene oxide, MTT assay, mesenchymal stem cells

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538 Radiation Effects in the PVDF/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites

Authors: Juliana V. Pereira, Adriana S. M. Batista, Jefferson P. Nascimento, Clascídia A. Furtado, Luiz O. Faria

Abstract:

Exposure to ionizing radiation has been found to induce changes in poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) homopolymers. The high dose gamma irradiation process induces the formation of C=C and C=O bonds in its [CH2-CF2]n main chain. The irradiation also provokes crosslinking and chain scission. All these radio-induced defects lead to changes in the PVDF crystalline structure. As a consequence, it is common to observe a decrease in the melting temperature (TM) and melting latent heat (LM) and some changes in its ferroelectric features. We have investigated the possibility of preparing nanocomposites of PVDF with graphene oxide (GO) through the radio-induction of molecular bonds. In this work, we discuss how the gamma radiation interacts with the nanocomposite crystalline structure.

Keywords: gamma irradiation, graphene oxide, nanocomposites, PVDF

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537 Nitrite Sensor Platform Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide with Thionine Dye Based

Authors: Nurulasma Zainudin, Mashitah Mohd Yusoff, Kwok Feng Chong

Abstract:

Functionalized reduced graphene oxide is essential importance for their end applications. Chemical functionalization of reduced graphene oxide with strange atoms is a leading strategy to modify the properties of the materials moreover maintains the inherent properties of reduced graphene oxide. A thionine functionalized reduce graphene oxide electrode was fabricated and was used to electrochemically determine nitrite. The electrochemical behaviour of thionine functionalized reduced graphene oxide towards oxidation of nitrite via cyclic voltammetry was studied and the proposed method exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic behaviour.

Keywords: nitrite, sensor, thionine, reduced graphene oxide

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536 Effect of Hydroxyl Functionalization on the Mechanical and Fracture Behaviour of Monolayer Graphene

Authors: Akarsh Verma, Avinash Parashar

Abstract:

The aim of this article is to study the effects of hydroxyl functional group on the mechanical strength and fracture toughness of graphene. This functional group forms the backbone of intrinsic atomic structure of graphene oxide (GO). Molecular dynamics-based simulations were performed in conjunction with reactive force field (ReaxFF) parameters to capture the mode-I fracture toughness of hydroxyl functionalised graphene. Moreover, these simulations helped in concluding that spatial distribution and concentration of hydroxyl functional group significantly affects the fracture morphology of graphene nanosheet. In contrast to literature investigations, atomistic simulations predicted a transition in the failure morphology of hydroxyl functionalised graphene from brittle to ductile as a function of its spatial distribution on graphene sheet.

Keywords: graphene, graphene oxide, ReaxFF, molecular dynamics

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535 Facile Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles on Graphene via Galvanic Displacement Reaction for Sensing Application

Authors: Juree Hong, Sanggeun Lee, Jungmok Seo, Taeyoon Lee

Abstract:

We report a facile synthesis of metal nano particles (NPs) on graphene layer via galvanic displacement reaction between graphene-buffered copper (Cu) and metal ion-containing salts. Diverse metal NPs can be formed on graphene surface and their morphologies can be tailored by controlling the concentration of metal ion-containing salt and immersion time. The obtained metal NP-decorated single-layer graphene (SLG) has been used as hydrogen gas (H2) sensing material and exhibited highly sensitive response upon exposure to 2% of H2.

Keywords: metal nanoparticle, galvanic displacement reaction, graphene, hydrogen sensor

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534 Next Generation Membrane for Water Desalination: Facile Fabrication of Patterned Graphene Membrane

Authors: Jae-Kyung Choi, Soon-Yong Kwon, Hyung Duk Yun, Hyun-Sang Chung, Seongho Seo, Kukjin Bae

Abstract:

Recently, there were several attempts to utilize a graphene layer as a water desalination membrane. In order to use a graphene layer as a water desalination membrane, fabrication of crack-free suspension of graphene on a porous membrane, having hydrophobic surface, and generation of a uniform holes on a graphene are very important. In here, we showed a simple chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method to create a patterned graphene membrane on a patterned platinum film. After CVD growth process of patterned graphene layer/patterned Pt on SiO2 substrates, the patterned graphene layer can be successfully transferred onto arbitrary substrates via thermal-assisted transfer method. In this result, the transferred patterned graphene membrane has so hydrophobic surface which will certainly impact on the naturally and speed pass way for fresh water. In addition to this, we observed that overlapping of patterned graphene membranes reported previously by our group may generate different size of holes.

Keywords: chemical vapor deposition (CVD), hydrophobic surface, membrane desalination, porous graphene

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533 Facile, Cost Effective and Green Synthesis of Graphene in Alkaline Aqueous Solution

Authors: Illyas Isa, Siti Nur Akmar Mohd Yazid, Norhayati Hashim

Abstract:

We report a simple, green and cost effective synthesis of graphene via chemical reduction of graphene oxide in alkaline aqueous solution. Extensive characterizations have been studied to confirm the formation of graphene in sodium carbonate solution. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the electrochemical properties of the prepared graphene-modified glassy carbon electrode using potassium ferricyanide as a redox probe. Based on the result, with the addition of graphene to the glassy carbon electrode the current flow increases and the peak also broadens as compared to graphite and graphene oxide. This method is fast, cost effective, and green as nontoxic solvents are used which will not result in contamination of the products. Thus, this method can serve for the preparation of graphene which can be effectively used in sensors, electronic devices and supercapacitors.

Keywords: chemical reduction, electrochemical, graphene, green synthesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 253