Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 941

Search results for: catalytic decomposition

941 A Study on Kinetic of Nitrous Oxide Catalytic Decomposition over CuO/HZSM-5

Authors: Y. J. Song, Q. S. Xu, X. C. Wang, H. Wang, C. Q. Li


The catalyst of copper oxide loaded on HZSM-5 was developed for nitrous oxide (N₂O) direct decomposition. The kinetic of nitrous oxide decomposition was studied for CuO/HZSM-5 catalyst prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method. The external and internal diffusion of catalytic reaction were considered in the investigation. Experiment results indicated that the external diffusion was basically eliminated when the reaction gas mixture gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) was higher than 9000h⁻¹ and the influence of the internal diffusion was negligible when the particle size of the catalyst CuO/HZSM-5 was small than 40-60 mesh. The experiment results showed that the kinetic of catalytic decomposition of N₂O was a first-order reaction and the activation energy and the pre-factor of the kinetic equation were 115.15kJ/mol and of 1.6×109, respectively.

Keywords: catalytic decomposition, CuO/HZSM-5, kinetic, nitrous oxide

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940 Catalytic Degradation of Tetracycline in Aqueous Solution by Magnetic Ore Pyrite Nanoparticles

Authors: Allah Bakhsh Javid, Ali Mashayekh-Salehi, Fatemeh Davardoost


This study presents the preparation, characterization and catalytic activity of a novel natural mineral-based catalyst for destructive adsorption of tetracycline (TTC) as water emerging compounds. Degradation potential of raw and calcined magnetite catalyst was evaluated at different experiments situations such as pH, catalyst dose, reaction time and pollutant concentration. Calcined magnetite attained greater catalytic potential than the raw ore in the degradation of tetracycline, around 69% versus 3% at reaction time of 30 min and TTC aqueous solution of 50 mg/L, respectively. Complete removal of TTC could be obtained using 2 g/L calcined nanoparticles at reaction time of 60 min. The removal of TTC increased with the increase in solution temperature. Accordingly, considering its abundance in nature together with its very high catalytic potential, calcined pyrite is a promising and reliable catalytic material for destructive decomposition for catalytic decomposition and mineralization of such pharmaceutical compounds as TTC in water and wastewater.

Keywords: catalytic degradation, tetracycline, pyrite, emerging pollutants

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939 Comparison of Effect of Promoter and K Addition of Co₃O₄ for N₂O Decomposition Reaction

Authors: R. H. Hwang, J. H. Park, K. B. Yi


Nitrous oxide (N2O) is now distinguished as an environmental pollutant. N2O is one of the representative greenhouse gases and N2O is produced by both natural and anthropogenic sources. So, it is very important to reduce N2O. N2O abatement processes are various processes such as HC-SCR, NH3-SCR and decomposition process. Among them, decomposition process is advantageous because it does not use a reducing agent. N2O decomposition is a reaction in which N2O is decomposed into N2 and O2. There are noble metals, transition metal ion-exchanged zeolites, pure and mixed oxides for N2O decomposition catalyst. Among the various catalysts, cobalt-based catalysts derived from hydrotalcites gathered much attention because spinel catalysts having large surface areas and high thermal stabilities. In this study, the effect of promoter and K addition on the activity was compared and analyzed. Co3O4 catalysts for N2O decomposition were prepared by co- precipitation method. Ce and Zr were added during the preparation of the catalyst as promoter with the molar ratio (Ce or Zr) / Co = 0.05. In addition, 1 wt% K2CO3 was doped to the prepared catalyst with impregnation method to investigate the effect of K on the catalyst performance. Characterizations of catalysts were carried out with SEM, BET, XRD, XPS and H2-TPR. The catalytic activity tests were carried out at a GHSV of 45,000 h-1 and a temperature range of 250 ~ 375 ℃. The Co3O4 catalysts showed a spinel crystal phase, and the addition of the promoter increased the specific surface area and reduced the particle and crystal size. It was exhibited that the doping of K improves the catalytic activity by increasing the concentration of Co2+ in the catalyst which is an active site for catalytic reaction. As a result, the K-doped catalyst showed higher activity than the promoter added. Also, it was found through experiments that Co2+ concentration and reduction temperature greatly affect the reactivity.

Keywords: Co₃O4, K-doped, N₂O decomposition, promoter

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938 Progressive Loading Effect of Co Over SiO2/Al2O3 Catalyst for Cox Free Hydrogen and Carbon Nanotubes Production via Catalytic Decomposition of Methane

Authors: Sushil Kumar Saraswat, K. K. Pant


Co metal supported on SiO2 and Al2O3 catalysts with a metal loading varied from 30 of 70 wt.% were evaluated for decomposition of methane to CO/CO2 free hydrogen and carbon nano materials. The catalytic runs were carried out from 550-800 oC under atmospheric pressure using fixed bed vertical flow reactor. The fresh and spent catalysts were characterized by BET surface area analyzer, TPR, XRD, SEM, TEM, and TG analysis. The data showed that 50% Co/Al2O3 catalyst exhibited remarkable higher activity and stability up to 10 h time-on-stream at 750 oC with respect to H2 production compared to rest of the catalysts. However, the catalytic activity and durability was greatly declined at a higher temperature. The main reason for the catalytic inhibition of Co containing SiO2 catalysts is the higher reduction temperature of Co2SiO4. TEM images illustrate that the carbon materials with various morphologies, carbon nanofibers (CNFs), helical-shaped CNFs, and branched CNFs depending on the catalyst composition and reaction temperature, were obtained. The TG data showed that a higher yield of MWCNTs was achieved over 50% Co/Al2O3 catalyst compared to other catalysts.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, cobalt, hydrogen production, methane decomposition

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937 Phenolic-Based Chemical Production from Catalytic Depolymerization of Alkaline Lignin over Fumed Silica Catalyst

Authors: S. Totong, P. Daorattanachai, N. Laosiripojana


Lignin depolymerization into phenolic-based chemicals is an interesting process for utilizing and upgrading a benefit and value of lignin. In this study, the depolymerization reaction was performed to convert alkaline lignin into smaller molecule compounds. Fumed SiO₂ was used as a catalyst to improve catalytic activity in lignin decomposition. The important parameters in depolymerization process (i.e., reaction temperature, reaction time, etc.) were also investigated. In addition, gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), flame-ironized detector (GC-FID), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to analyze and characterize the lignin products. It was found that fumed SiO₂ catalyst led the good catalytic activity in lignin depolymerization. The main products from catalytic depolymerization were guaiacol, syringol, vanillin, and phenols. Additionally, metal supported on fumed SiO₂ such as Cu/SiO₂ and Ni/SiO₂ increased the catalyst activity in terms of phenolic products yield.

Keywords: alkaline lignin, catalytic, depolymerization, fumed SiO₂, phenolic-based chemicals

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936 Reuse of Spent Lithium Battery for the Production of Environmental Catalysts

Authors: Jyh-Cherng Chen, Chih-Shiang You, Jie-Shian Cheng


This study aims to recycle and reuse of spent lithium-cobalt battery and lithium-iron battery in the production of environmental catalysts. The characteristics and catalytic activities of synthesized catalysts for different air pollutants are analyzed and tested. The results show that the major metals in spent lithium-cobalt batteries are lithium 5%, cobalt 50%, nickel 3%, manganese 3% and the major metals in spent lithium-iron batteries are lithium 4%, iron 27%, and copper 4%. The catalytic activities of metal powders in the anode of spent lithium batteries are bad. With using the precipitation-oxidation method to prepare the lithium-cobalt catalysts from spent lithium-cobalt batteries, their catalytic activities for propane decomposition, CO oxidation, and NO reduction are well improved and excellent. The conversion efficiencies of the regenerated lithium-cobalt catalysts for those three gas pollutants are all above 99% even at low temperatures 200-300 °C. However, the catalytic activities of regenerated lithium-iron catalysts from spent lithium-iron batteries are unsatisfied.

Keywords: catalyst, lithium-cobalt battery, lithium-iron battery, recycle and reuse

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935 Reaction Rate Behavior of a Methane-Air Mixture over a Platinum Catalyst in a Single Channel Catalytic Reactor

Authors: Doo Ki Lee, Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim


Catalytic combustion is an environmentally friendly technique to combust fuels in gas turbines. In this paper, the behavior of surface reaction rate on catalytic combustion is studied with respect to the heterogeneous oxidation of methane-air mixture in a catalytic reactor. Plug flow reactor (PFR), the simplified single catalytic channel assists in investigating the catalytic combustion phenomenon over the Pt catalyst by promoting the desired chemical reactions. The numerical simulation with multi-step elementary surface reactions is governed by the availability of free surface sites onto the catalytic surface and thereby, the catalytic combustion characteristics are demonstrated by examining the rate of the reaction for lean fuel mixture. Further, two different surface reaction mechanisms are adopted and compared for surface reaction rates to indicate the controlling heterogeneous reaction for better fuel conversion. The performance of platinum catalyst under heterogeneous reaction is analyzed under the same temperature condition, where the catalyst with the higher kinetic rate of reaction would have a maximum catalytic activity for enhanced methane catalytic combustion.

Keywords: catalytic combustion, heterogeneous reaction, plug flow reactor, surface reaction rate

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934 Investigation of Flow Behavior inside the Single Channel Catalytic Combustor for Lean Mixture

Authors: Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim


Catalytic combustor substantially reduces emission entailing fuel-air premixing at very low equivalence ratios. The catalytic combustion of natural gas has the potential to become sufficiently active at light off temperature by the convection of heat from the catalyst surface. Only one channel is selected to investigate both the gas and surface reactions in the catalyst bed because of the honeycomb structure of the catalytic combustor. The objective of the present study is to find the methane catalytic combustion behavior inside the catalytic combustor, where the gas phase kinetics is employed by homogeneous methane combustion and surface chemistry is described with the heterogeneous catalysis of the oxidation of methane on a platinum catalyst. The reaction of the premixed mixture in the catalytic regime improves flame stability with complete combustion for lower operating flame temperature. An overview of the flow behavior is presented inside the single channel catalytic combustor including the operation of catalytic combustion with various F/A ratios and premixed inlet temperature.

Keywords: catalytic combustor, equivalence ratios, flame temperature, heterogeneous catalysis, homogeneous combustion

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933 Carbon Supported Cu and TiO2 Catalysts Applied for Ozone Decomposition

Authors: Katya Milenova, Penko Nikolov, Irina Stambolova, Plamen Nikolov, Vladimir Blaskov


In the recent article, a comparison was made between Cu and TiO2 supported catalysts on activated carbon for ozone decomposition reaction. The activated carbon support in the case of TiO2/AC sample was prepared by physicochemical pyrolysis and for Cu/AC samples the supports are chemically modified carbons. The prepared catalysts were synthesized by impregnation method. The samples were annealed in two different regimes-in air and under vacuum. To examine adsorption efficiency of the samples BET method was used. All investigated catalysts supported on chemically modified carbons have higher specific surface area compared to the specific surface area of TiO2 supported catalysts, varying in the range 590÷620 m2/g. The method of synthesis of the precursors had influenced catalytic activity.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption, copper, ozone decomposition, TiO2

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932 The Catalytic Activity of CU2O Microparticles

Authors: Kanda Wongwailikhit


Copper (I) oxide microparticles with the morphology of cubic and hollow sphere were synthesized with the assistance of a surfactant as the shape controller. Both particles were then subjected to a study of the catalytic activity and the results of shape effects of catalysts on rate of catalytic reaction was observed. The decolorizing reaction of crystal violet and sodium hydroxide was chosen and the decrease of reactant with respect to time was measured using a spectrophotometer. The result revealed that morphology of the crystal had no effect on the catalytic activity for the crystal violet reaction but contributed to total surface area predominantly.

Keywords: copper (I) oxide, catalytic activity, crystal violet

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931 Three Dimensional Simulation of the Transient Modeling and Simulation of Different Gas Flows Velocity and Flow Distribution in Catalytic Converter with Porous Media

Authors: Amir Reza Radmanesh, Sina Farajzadeh Khosroshahi, Hani Sadr


The transient catalytic converter performance is governed by complex interactions between exhaust gas flow and the monolithic structure of the catalytic converter. Stringent emission regulations around the world necessitate the use of highly-efficient catalytic converters in vehicle exhaust systems. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a powerful tool for calculating the flow field inside the catalytic converter. Radial velocity profiles, obtained by a commercial CFD code, present very good agreement with respective experimental results published in the literature. However the applicability of CFD for transient simulations is limited by the high CPU demands. In the present work, Geometric modeling ceramic monolith substrate is done with square shaped channel type of Catalytic converter and it is coated platinum and palladium. This example illustrates the effect of flow distribution on thermal response of a catalytic converter and different gas flow velocities, during the critical phase of catalytic converter warm up.

Keywords: catalytic converter, computational fluid dynamic, porous media, velocity distribution

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930 Numerical Simulation of Urea Water Solution Evaporation Behavior inside the Diesel Selective Catalytic Reduction System

Authors: Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim


Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) converts the nitrogen oxides with the aid of a catalyst by adding aqueous urea into the exhaust stream. In this work, the urea water droplets are sprayed over the exhaust gases by treating with Lagrangian particle tracking. The evaporation of ammonia from a single droplet of urea water solution is investigated computationally by convection-diffusion controlled model. The conversion to ammonia due to thermolysis of urea water droplets is measured downstream at different sections using finite rate/eddy dissipation model. In this paper, the mixer installed at the upstream enhances the distribution of ammonia over the entire domain which is calculated for different time steps. Calculations are made within the respective duration such that the complete decomposition of urea is possible at a much shorter residence time.

Keywords: convection-diffusion controlled model, lagrangian particle tracking, selective catalytic reduction, thermolysis

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929 Cooperative Coevolution for Neuro-Evolution of Feed Forward Networks for Time Series Prediction Using Hidden Neuron Connections

Authors: Ravneil Nand


Cooperative coevolution uses problem decomposition methods to solve a larger problem. The problem decomposition deals with breaking down the larger problem into a number of smaller sub-problems depending on their method. Different problem decomposition methods have their own strengths and limitations depending on the neural network used and application problem. In this paper we are introducing a new problem decomposition method known as Hidden-Neuron Level Decomposition (HNL). The HNL method is competing with established problem decomposition method in time series prediction. The results show that the proposed approach has improved the results in some benchmark data sets when compared to the standalone method and has competitive results when compared to methods from literature.

Keywords: cooperative coevaluation, feed forward network, problem decomposition, neuron, synapse

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928 Catalytic Pyrolysis of Sewage Sludge for Upgrading Bio-Oil Quality Using Sludge-Based Activated Char as an Alternative to HZSM5

Authors: Ali Zaker, Zhi Chen


Due to the concerns about the depletion of fossil fuel sources and the deteriorating environment, the attempt to investigate the production of renewable energy will play a crucial role as a potential to alleviate the dependency on mineral fuels. One particular area of interest is the generation of bio-oil through sewage sludge (SS) pyrolysis. SS can be a potential candidate in contrast to other types of biomasses due to its availability and low cost. However, the presence of high molecular weight hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds in the SS bio-oil hinders some of its fuel applications. In this context, catalytic pyrolysis is another attainable route to upgrade bio-oil quality. Among different catalysts (i.e., zeolites) studied for SS pyrolysis, activated chars (AC) are eco-friendly alternatives. The beneficial features of AC derived from SS comprise the comparatively large surface area, porosity, enriched surface functional groups, and presence of a high amount of metal species that can improve the catalytic activity. Hence, a sludge-based AC catalyst was fabricated in a single-step pyrolysis reaction with NaOH as the activation agent and was compared with HZSM5 zeolite in this study. The thermal decomposition and kinetics were invested via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for guidance and control of pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis and the design of the pyrolysis setup. The results indicated that the pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis contains four obvious stages, and the main decomposition reaction occurred in the range of 200-600°C. The Coats-Redfern method was applied in the 2nd and 3rd devolatilization stages to estimate the reaction order and activation energy (E) from the mass loss data. The average activation energy (Em) values for the reaction orders n = 1, 2, and 3 were in the range of 6.67-20.37 kJ for SS; 1.51-6.87 kJ for HZSM5; and 2.29-9.17 kJ for AC, respectively. According to the results, AC and HZSM5 both were able to improve the reaction rate of SS pyrolysis by abridging the Em value. Moreover, to generate and examine the effect of the catalysts on the quality of bio-oil, a fixed-bed pyrolysis system was designed and implemented. The composition analysis of the produced bio-oil was carried out via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The selected SS to catalyst ratios were 1:1, 2:1, and 4:1. The optimum ratio in terms of cracking the long-chain hydrocarbons and removing oxygen-containing compounds was 1:1 for both catalysts. The upgraded bio-oils with AC and HZSM5 were in the total range of C4-C17, with around 72% in the range of C4-C9. The bio-oil from pyrolysis of SS contained 49.27% oxygenated compounds, while with the presence of AC and HZSM5 dropped to 13.02% and 7.3%, respectively. Meanwhile, the generation of benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) compounds was significantly improved in the catalytic process. Furthermore, the fabricated AC catalyst was characterized by BET, SEM-EDX, FT-IR, and TGA techniques. Overall, this research demonstrated AC is an efficient catalyst in the pyrolysis of SS and can be used as a cost-competitive catalyst in contrast to HZSM5.

Keywords: catalytic pyrolysis, sewage sludge, activated char, HZSM5, bio-oil

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927 Heterogeneous Catalytic Ozonation of Diethyl Phthalate

Authors: Chedly Tizaoui, Hussain Mohammed, Lobna Mansouri, Nidal Hilal, Latifa Bousselmi


The degradation of diethyl phthalate (DEP) was studied using heterogeneous catalytic ozonation. Activated carbon was used as a catalyst. The degradation of DEP with ozone alone was slow while catalytic ozonation increased degradation rates. Second-order reaction kinetics was used to describe the experimental data, and the corresponding rate constant values were 1.19 and 3.94 M-1.s-1 for ozone and ozone/activated carbon respectively.

Keywords: ozone, heterogeneous catalytic ozonation, diethyl phthalate, endocrine disrupting chemicals

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926 BI- And Tri-Metallic Catalysts for Hydrogen Production from Hydrogen Iodide Decomposition

Authors: Sony, Ashok N. Bhaskarwar


Production of hydrogen from a renewable raw material without any co-synthesis of harmful greenhouse gases is the current need for sustainable energy solutions. The sulfur-iodine (SI) thermochemical cycle, using intermediate chemicals, is an efficient process for producing hydrogen at a much lower temperature than that required for the direct splitting of water. No net byproduct forms in the cycle. Hydrogen iodide (HI) decomposition is a crucial reaction in this cycle, as the product, hydrogen, forms only in this step. It is an endothermic, reversible, and equilibrium-limited reaction. The theoretical equilibrium conversion at 550°C is just a meagre of 24%. There is a growing interest, therefore, in enhancing the HI conversion to near-equilibrium values at lower reaction temperatures and by possibly improving the rate. The reaction is relatively slow without a catalyst, and hence catalytic decomposition of HI has gained much significance. Bi-metallic Ni-Co, Ni-Mn, Co-Mn, and tri-metallic Ni-Co-Mn catalysts over zirconia support were tested for HI decomposition reaction. The catalysts were synthesized via a sol-gel process wherein Ni was 3wt% in all the samples, and Co and Mn had equal weight ratios in the Co-Mn catalyst. Powdered X-ray diffraction and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area characterizations indicated the polycrystalline nature and well-developed mesoporous structure of all the samples. The experiments were performed in a vertical laboratory-scale packed bed reactor made of quartz, and HI (55 wt%) was fed along with nitrogen at a WHSV of 12.9 hr⁻¹. Blank experiments at 500°C for HI decomposition suggested conversion of less than 5%. The activities of all the different catalysts were checked at 550°C, and the highest conversion of 23.9% was obtained with the tri-metallic 3Ni-Co-Mn-ZrO₂ catalyst. The decreasing order of the performance of catalysts could be expressed as: 3Ni-Co-Mn-ZrO₂ > 3Ni-2Co-ZrO₂ > 3Ni-2Mn-ZrO₂ > 2.5Co-2.5Mn-ZrO₂. The tri-metallic catalyst remained active till 360 mins at 550°C without any observable drop in its activity/stability. Among the explored catalyst compositions, the tri-metallic catalyst certainly has a better performance for HI conversion when compared to the bi-metallic ones. Owing to their low costs and ease of preparation, these trimetallic catalysts could be used for large-scale hydrogen production.

Keywords: sulfur-iodine cycle, hydrogen production, hydrogen iodide decomposition, bi-, and tri-metallic catalysts

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925 Optimizing Approach for Sifting Process to Solve a Common Type of Empirical Mode Decomposition Mode Mixing

Authors: Saad Al-Baddai, Karema Al-Subari, Elmar Lang, Bernd Ludwig


Empirical mode decomposition (EMD), a new data-driven of time-series decomposition, has the advantage of supposing that a time series is non-linear or non-stationary, as is implicitly achieved in Fourier decomposition. However, the EMD suffers of mode mixing problem in some cases. The aim of this paper is to present a solution for a common type of signals causing of EMD mode mixing problem, in case a signal suffers of an intermittency. By an artificial example, the solution shows superior performance in terms of cope EMD mode mixing problem comparing with the conventional EMD and Ensemble Empirical Mode decomposition (EEMD). Furthermore, the over-sifting problem is also completely avoided; and computation load is reduced roughly six times compared with EEMD, an ensemble number of 50.

Keywords: empirical mode decomposition (EMD), mode mixing, sifting process, over-sifting

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924 On the Catalytic Combustion Behaviors of CH4 in a MCFC Power Generation System

Authors: Man Young Kim


Catalytic combustion is generally accepted as an environmentally preferred alternative for the generation of heat and power from fossil fuels mainly due to its advantages related to the stable combustion under very lean conditions with low emissions of NOx, CO, and UHC at temperatures lower than those occurred in conventional flame combustion. Despite these advantages, the commercial application of catalytic combustion has been delayed because of complicated reaction processes and the difficulty in developing appropriate catalysts with the required stability and durability. To develop the catalytic combustors, detailed studies on the combustion characteristics of catalytic combustion should be conducted. To the end, in current research, quantitative studies on the combustion characteristics of the catalytic combustors, with a Pd-based catalyst for MCFC power generation systems, relying on numerical simulations have been conducted. In addition, data from experimental studies of variations in outlet temperatures and fuel conversion, taken after operating conditions have been used to validate the present numerical approach. After introducing the governing equations for mass, momentum, and energy equations as well as a description of catalytic combustion kinetics, the effects of the excess air ratio, space velocity, and inlet gas temperature on the catalytic combustion characteristics are extensively investigated. Quantitative comparisons are also conducted with previous experimental data. Finally, some concluding remarks are presented.

Keywords: catalytic combustion, methane, BOP, MCFC power generation system, inlet temperature, excess air ratio, space velocity

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923 Effects of Nitrogen Addition on Litter Decomposition and Nutrient Release in a Temperate Grassland in Northern China

Authors: Lili Yang, Jirui Gong, Qinpu Luo, Min Liu, Bo Yang, Zihe Zhang


Anthropogenic activities have increased nitrogen (N) inputs to grassland ecosystems. Knowledge of the impact of N addition on litter decomposition is critical to understand ecosystem carbon cycling and their responses to global climate change. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of N addition and litter types on litter decomposition of a semi-arid temperate grassland during growing and non-growing seasons in Inner Mongolia, northern China, and to identify the relation between litter decomposition and C: N: P stoichiometry in the litter-soil continuum. Six levels of N addition were conducted: CK, N1 (0 g Nm−2 yr−1), N2 (2 g Nm−2 yr−1), N3 (5 g Nm−2 yr−1), N4 (10 g Nm−2 yr−1) and N5 (25 g Nm−2 yr−1). Litter decomposition rates and nutrient release differed greatly among N addition gradients and litter types. N addition promoted litter decomposition of S. grandis, but exhibited no significant influence on L. chinensis litter, indicating that the S. grandis litter decomposition was more sensitive to N addition than L. chinensis. The critical threshold for N addition to promote mixed litter decomposition was 10 -25g Nm−2 yr−1. N addition altered the balance of C: N: P stoichiometry between litter, soil and microbial biomass. During decomposition progress, the L. chinensis litter N: P was higher in N2-N4 plots compared to CK, while the S. grandis litter C: N was lower in N3 and N4 plots, indicating that litter N or P content doesn’t satisfy microbial decomposers with the increasing of N addition. As a result, S. grandis litter exhibited net N immobilization, while L. chinensis litter net P immobilization. Mixed litter C: N: P stoichiometry satisfied the demand of microbial decomposers, showed net mineralization during the decomposition process. With the increasing N deposition in the future, mixed litter would potentially promote C and nutrient cycling in grassland ecosystem by increasing litter decomposition and nutrient release.

Keywords: C: N: P stoichiometry, litter decomposition, nitrogen addition, nutrient release

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922 A Study of Using Multiple Subproblems in Dantzig-Wolfe Decomposition of Linear Programming

Authors: William Chung


This paper is to study the use of multiple subproblems in Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition of linear programming (DW-LP). Traditionally, the decomposed LP consists of one LP master problem and one LP subproblem. The master problem and the subproblem is solved alternatively by exchanging the dual prices of the master problem and the proposals of the subproblem until the LP is solved. It is well known that convergence is slow with a long tail of near-optimal solutions (asymptotic convergence). Hence, the performance of DW-LP highly depends upon the number of decomposition steps. If the decomposition steps can be greatly reduced, the performance of DW-LP can be improved significantly. To reduce the number of decomposition steps, one of the methods is to increase the number of proposals from the subproblem to the master problem. To do so, we propose to add a quadratic approximation function to the LP subproblem in order to develop a set of approximate-LP subproblems (multiple subproblems). Consequently, in each decomposition step, multiple subproblems are solved for providing multiple proposals to the master problem. The number of decomposition steps can be reduced greatly. Note that each approximate-LP subproblem is nonlinear programming, and solving the LP subproblem must faster than solving the nonlinear multiple subproblems. Hence, using multiple subproblems in DW-LP is the tradeoff between the number of approximate-LP subproblems being formed and the decomposition steps. In this paper, we derive the corresponding algorithms and provide some simple computational results. Some properties of the resulting algorithms are also given.

Keywords: approximate subproblem, Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition, large-scale models, multiple subproblems

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921 Multistage Adomian Decomposition Method for Solving Linear and Non-Linear Stiff System of Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: M. S. H. Chowdhury, Ishak Hashim


In this paper, linear and non-linear stiff systems of ordinary differential equations are solved by the classical Adomian decomposition method (ADM) and the multi-stage Adomian decomposition method (MADM). The MADM is a technique adapted from the standard Adomian decomposition method (ADM) where standard ADM is converted into a hybrid numeric-analytic method called the multistage ADM (MADM). The MADM is tested for several examples. Comparisons with an explicit Runge-Kutta-type method (RK) and the classical ADM demonstrate the limitations of ADM and promising capability of the MADM for solving stiff initial value problems (IVPs).

Keywords: stiff system of ODEs, Runge-Kutta Type Method, Adomian decomposition method, Multistage ADM

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920 Catalytic Cracking of Hydrocarbon over Zeolite Based Catalysts

Authors: Debdut Roy, Vidyasagar Guggilla


In this research, we highlight our exploratory work on modified zeolite based catalysts for catalytic cracking of hydrocarbons for production of light olefin i.e. ethylene and propylene. The work is focused on understanding the catalyst structure and activity correlation. Catalysts are characterized by surface area and pore size distribution analysis, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) of ammonia, pyridine Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermo-gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and correlated with the catalytic activity. It is observed that the yield of lighter olefins increases with increase of Bronsted acid strength.

Keywords: catalytic cracking, zeolite, propylene, structure-activity correlation

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919 Investigation of the Flow Characteristics in a Catalytic Muffler with Perforated Inlet Cone

Authors: Gyo Woo Lee, Man Young Kim


Emission regulations for diesel engines are being strengthened and it is impossible to meet the standards without exhaust after-treatment systems. Lack of the space in many diesel vehicles, however, make it difficult to design and install stand-alone catalytic converters such as DOC, DPF, and SCR in the vehicle exhaust systems. Accordingly, those have been installed inside the muffler to save the space, and referred to the catalytic muffler. However, that has complex internal structure with perforated plate and pipe for noise and monolithic catalyst for emission reduction. For this reason, flow uniformity and pressure drop, which affect efficiency of catalyst and engine performance, respectively, should be examined when the catalytic muffler is designed. In this work, therefore, the flow uniformity and pressure drop to improve the performance of the catalytic converter and the engine have been numerically investigated by changing various design parameters such as inlet shape, porosity, and outlet shape of the muffler using the three-dimensional turbulent flow of the incompressible, non-reacting, and steady state inside the catalytic muffler. Finally, it can be found that the shape, in which the muffler has perforated pipe inside the inlet part, has higher uniformity index and lower pressure drop than others considered in this work.

Keywords: catalytic muffler, perforated inlet cone, catalysts, perforated pipe, flow uniformity, pressure drop

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918 Butene Catalytic Cracking to Propylene over Iron and Phosphorus Modified HZSM-5

Authors: Jianwen Li, Hongfang Ma, Haitao Zhang, Qiwen Sun, Weiyong Ying


HZSM-5 zeolites modified by iron and phosphorus were applied in catalytic cracking of butene. N2 adsorption and NH3-TPD were employed to measure the structure and acidity of catalysts. The results indicate that increasing phosphorus loading decreased surface area, pore volume and strong acidity of catalysts. The introduction of phosphorus significantly decreased butene conversion and promoted propylene selectivity. The catalytic performance of catalyst was strongly dependent on the reaction conditions. Appropriate reaction conditions could suppress side reactions and enhance propylene selectivity.

Keywords: butene catalytic cracking, HZSM-5, modification, reaction conditions

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917 HD-WSComp: Hypergraph Decomposition for Web Services Composition Based on QoS

Authors: Samah Benmerbi, Kamal Amroun, Abdelkamel Tari


The increasing number of Web service (WS)providers throughout the globe, have produced numerous Web services providing the same or similar functionality. Therefore, there is a need of tools developing the best answer of queries by selecting and composing services with total transparency. This paper reviews various QoS based Web service selection mechanisms and architectures which facilitate qualitatively optimal selection, in other fact Web service composition is required when a request cannot be fulfilled by a single web service. In such cases, it is preferable to integrate existing web services to satisfy user’s request. We introduce an automatic Web service composition method based on hypergraph decomposition using hypertree decomposition method. The problem of selection and the composition of the web services is transformed into a resolution in a hypertree by exploring the relations of dependency between web services to get composite web service via employing an execution order of WS satisfying global request.

Keywords: web service, web service selection, web service composition, QoS, hypergraph decomposition, BE hypergraph decomposition, hypertree resolution

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916 Geometric Optimization of Catalytic Converter

Authors: P. Makendran, M. Pragadeesh, N. Narash, N. Manikandan, A. Rajasri, V. Sanal Kumar


The growing severity of government-obligatory emissions legislation has required continuous improvement in catalysts performance and the associated reactor systems. IC engines emit a lot of harmful gases into the atmosphere. These gases are toxic in nature and a catalytic converter is used to convert these toxic gases into less harmful gases. The catalytic converter converts these gases by Oxidation and reduction reaction. Stoichiometric engines usually use the three-way catalyst (TWC) for simultaneously destroying all of the emissions. CO and NO react to form CO2 and N2 over one catalyst, and the remaining CO and HC are oxidized in a subsequent one. Literature review reveals that typically precious metals are used as a catalyst. The actual reactor is composed of a washcoated honeycomb-style substrate, with the catalyst being contained in the washcoat. The main disadvantage of a catalytic converter is that it exerts a back pressure to the exhaust gases while entering into them. The objective of this paper is to optimize the back pressure developed by the catalytic converter through geometric optimization of catalystic converter. This can be achieved by designing a catalyst with a optimum cone angle and a more surface area of the catalyst substrate. Additionally, the arrangement of the pores in the catalyst substrate can be changed. The numerical studies have been carried out using k-omega turbulence model with varying inlet angle of the catalytic converter and the length of the catalyst substrate. We observed that the geometry optimization is a meaningful objective for the lucrative design optimization of a catalytic converter for industrial applications.

Keywords: catalytic converter, emission control, reactor systems, substrate for emission control

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915 Investigation of the Thermal Flow inside the Catalytic Combustor for Lean CH4-Air Mixture on a Platinum Catalyst with H2 Addition

Authors: Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim


In order to elaborate the main idea of investigating the flow physics inside the catalytic combustor, the characteristics of the catalytic surface reactions are analyzed by employing the CHEMKIN methodology with detailed gas and surface chemistries. The presence of a catalyst inside an engine enables complete combustion at lower temperatures which promotes desired chemical reactions. A single channel from the honeycomb monolith catalytic combustor is preferred to analyze the gas and surface reactions in the catalyst bed considering the fact that every channel in the honeycomb monolith behaves in similar fashion. The simplified approach with single catalyst channel using plug flow reactor can be used to predict the flow behavior inside the catalytic combustor. The hydrogen addition to the combustion reactants offers a way to light-off catalytic combustion of methane on platinum catalyst and aids to reduce the surface ignition temperature. Indeed, the hydrogen adsorption is higher on the uncovered Pt(s) surface sites because the sticking coefficient of hydrogen is larger than that of methane. The location of flame position in the catalyst bed is validated by igniting the methane fuel with the presence of hydrogen for corresponding multistep surface reactions.

Keywords: catalytic combustor, hydrogen adsorption, plug flow reactor, surface ignition temperature

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914 The Effect of Calcining Temperature on Photocatalytic Activity of Porous ZnO Architecture

Authors: M. Masar, P. Janota, J. Sedlak, M. Machovsky, I. Kuritka


Zinc oxide (ZnO) nano crystals assembled porous architecture was prepared by thermal decomposition of zinc oxalate precursor at various temperatures ranging from 400-900°C. The effect of calcining temperature on structure and morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetry, and BET adsorption analysis. The porous nano crystalline ZnO morphology was developed due to the release of volatile precursor products, while the overall shape of ZnO micro crystals was retained as a legacy of the precursor. The average crystallite size increased with increasing temperature of calcination from approximately 21 nm to 79 nm, while the specific surface area decreased from 30 to 1.7 m2g-1. The photo catalytic performance of prepared ZnO powders was evaluated by degradation of methyl violet 2B, a model compound. The significantly highest photo catalytic activity was achieved with powder calcined at 500°C. This may be attributed to the sufficiently well-developed crystalline arrangement, while the specific surface area is still high enough.

Keywords: ZnO, porous structure, photodegradation, methyl violet

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913 Thermal Decomposition Behaviors of Hexafluoroethane (C2F6) Using Zeolite/Calcium Oxide Mixtures

Authors: Kazunori Takai, Weng Kaiwei, Sadao Araki, Hideki Yamamoto


HFC and PFC gases have been commonly and widely used as refrigerant of air conditioner and as etching agent of semiconductor manufacturing process, because of their higher heat of vaporization and chemical stability. On the other hand, HFCs and PFCs gases have the high global warming effect on the earth. Therefore, we have to be decomposed these gases emitted from chemical apparatus like as refrigerator. Until now, disposal of these gases were carried out by using combustion method like as Rotary kiln treatment mainly. However, this treatment needs extremely high temperature over 1000 °C. In the recent year, in order to reduce the energy consumption, a hydrolytic decomposition method using catalyst and plasma decomposition treatment have been attracted much attention as a new disposal treatment. However, the decomposition of fluorine-containing gases under the wet condition is not able to avoid the generation of hydrofluoric acid. Hydrofluoric acid is corrosive gas and it deteriorates catalysts in the decomposition process. Moreover, an additional process for the neutralization of hydrofluoric acid is also indispensable. In this study, the decomposition of C2F6 using zeolite and zeolite/CaO mixture as reactant was evaluated in the dry condition at 923 K. The effect of the chemical structure of zeolite on the decomposition reaction was confirmed by using H-Y, H-Beta, H-MOR and H-ZSM-5. The formation of CaF2 in zeolite/CaO mixtures after the decomposition reaction was confirmed by XRD measurements. The decomposition of C2F6 using zeolite as reactant showed the closely similar behaviors regardless the type of zeolite (MOR, Y, ZSM-5, Beta type). There was no difference of XRD patterns of each zeolite before and after reaction. On the other hand, the difference in the C2F6 decomposition for each zeolite/CaO mixtures was observed. These results suggested that the rate-determining process for the C2F6 decomposition on zeolite alone is the removal of fluorine from reactive site. In other words, the C2F6 decomposition for the zeolite/CaO improved compared with that for the zeolite alone by the removal of the fluorite from reactive site. HMOR/CaO showed 100% of the decomposition for 3.5 h and significantly improved from zeolite alone. On the other hand, Y type zeolite showed no improvement, that is, the almost same value of Y type zeolite alone. The descending order of C2F6 decomposition was MOR, ZSM-5, beta and Y type zeolite. This order is similar to the acid strength characterized by NH3-TPD. Hence, it is considered that the C-F bond cleavage is closely related to the acid strength.

Keywords: hexafluoroethane, zeolite, calcium oxide, decomposition

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912 Numerical Analysis of Catalytic Combustion in a Tabular Reactor with Methane and Air Mixtures over Platinum Catalyst

Authors: Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim


The presence of a catalyst inside an engine enables complete combustion at lower temperatures which promote desired chemical reactions. The objective of this work is to design and simulate a catalytic combustor by using CHEMKIN with detailed gas and surface chemistries. The simplified approach with single catalyst channel using plug flow reactor (PFR) can be used to predict reasonably well with the effect of various operating parameters such as the inlet temperature, velocity and fuel/air ratios. The numerical results are validated by comparing the surface chemistries in single channel catalytic combustor. The catalytic combustor operates at much lower temperature than the conventional combustor since lean-fuel mixture is used where the complete methane conversion is achieved. The coupling between gas and surface reactions in the catalyst bed is studied by investigating the commencement of flame ignition with respect to the surface site species.

Keywords: catalytic combustion, honeycomb monolith, plug flow reactor, surface reactions

Procedia PDF Downloads 155