Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 343

Search results for: hollow spheres

343 Fabrication of Hollow Germanium Spheres by Dropping Method

Authors: Kunal D. Bhagat, Truong V. Vu, John C. Wells, Hideyuki Takakura, Yu Kawano, Fumio Ogawa


Hollow germanium alloy quasi-spheres of diameters 1 to 2 mm with a relatively smooth inner and outer surface have been produced. The germanium was first melted at around 1273 K and then exuded from a coaxial nozzle into an inert atmosphere by argon gas supplied to the inner nozzle. The falling spheres were cooled by water spray and collected in a bucket. The spheres had a horn type of structure on the outer surface, which might be caused by volume expansion induced by the density difference between solid and gas phase. The frequency of the sphere formation was determined from the videos to be about 133 Hz. The outer diameter varied in the range of 1.3 to 1.8 mm with a wall thickness in the range of 0.2 to 0.5 mm. Solid silicon spheres are used for spherical silicon solar cells (S₃CS), which have various attractive features. Hollow S₃CS promise substantially higher energy conversion efficiency if their wall thickness can be kept to 0.1–0.2 mm and the inner surface can be passivated. Our production of hollow germanium spheres is a significant step towards the production of hollow S₃CS with, we hope, higher efficiency and lower material cost than solid S₃CS.

Keywords: hollow spheres, semiconductor, compound jet, dropping method

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342 Development of Ceramic Spheres Buoyancy Modules for Deep-Sea Oil Exploration

Authors: G. Blugan, B. Jiang, J. Thornberry, P. Sturzenegger, U. Gonzenbach, M. Misson, D. Cartlidge, R. Stenerud, J. Kuebler


Low-cost ceramic spheres were developed and manufactured from the engineering ceramic aluminium oxide. Hollow spheres of 50 mm diameter with a wall thickness of 0.5-1.0 mm were produced via an adapted slip casting technique. It was possible to produce the spheres with good repeatability and with no defects or failures in the spheres due to the manufacturing process. The spheres were developed specifically for use in buoyancy devices for deep-sea exploration conditions at depths of 3000 m below sea level. The spheres with a 1.0 mm wall thickness exhibit a buoyancy of over 54% while the spheres with a 0.5 mm wall thickness exhibit a buoyancy of over 73%. The mechanical performance of the spheres was confirmed by performing a hydraulic burst pressure test on individual spheres. With a safety factor of 3, all spheres with 1.0 mm wall thickness survived a hydraulic pressure of greater than 150 MPa which is equivalent to a depth of more than 5000 m below sea level. The spheres were then incorporated into a buoyancy module. These hollow aluminium oxide ceramic spheres offer an excellent possibility of deep-sea exploration to depths greater than the currently used technology.

Keywords: buoyancy, ceramic spheres, deep-sea, oil exploration

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
341 Facile Fabrication of Nickel/Zinc Oxide Hollow Spheres Nanostructure and Photodegradation of Congo Red

Authors: Seyed Mohsen Mousavi, Ali Reza Mahjoub, Behjat Afshari


In this work, Nickel/Zinc Oxide hollow spherical structures with high surface area using the template Fructose was prepared by the hydrothermal method using a ultrasonic bath at room temperature was produced and were identified by FTIR, XRD, FE-SEM. The photocatalytic activity of synthesized hollow spherical Nickel/Zinc Oxide was studied in the destruction of Congo red as Azo dye. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity of Nickel/ Zinc Oxide hollow spherical nanostructures is improved compared with zinc oxide hollow sphere and other morphologies.

Keywords: azo dye, hollow spheres, photocatalyst, nickel/zinc oxide

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340 Green and Facile Fabrication and Characterization of Fe/ZnO Hollow Spheres and Photodegradation of Azo Dyes

Authors: Seyed Mohsen Mousavi, Ali Reza Mahjoub, Bahjat Afshari Razani


In this work, Fe/ZnO hollow spherical structures with high surface area using the template glucose was prepared by the hydrothermal method using an ultrasonic bath at room temperature was produced and were identified by FT-IR, XRD, FE-SEM and BET. The photocatalytic activity of synthesized spherical Fe/ZnO hollow sphere were studied in the destruction of Congo Red and Methylene Blue as Azo dyes. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity of Fe/ZnO hollow spherical structures is improved compared with ZnO hollow sphere and other morphologys.

Keywords: azo dyes, Fe/ZnO hollow sphere, hollow sphere nanostructures, photocatalyst

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
339 Solar Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production from Glycerol Reforming Using Ternary Cu/TiO2/Graphene

Authors: Tumelo W. P. Seadira, Thabang Ntho, Cornelius M. Masuku, Michael S. Scurrell


A ternary Cu/TiO2/rGO photocatalysts was prepared using solvothermal method. Firstly, pure anatase TiO2 hollow spheres were prepared with titanium butoxide, ethanol, ammonium sulphate, and urea via hydrothermal method; and Cu nanoparticles were subsequently loaded on the surface of the hollow spheres by wet impregnation. During the solvothermal process, the deposition and well dispersion of Cu-TiO2 hollow spheres composites onto the graphene oxide surface, as well as the reduction of graphene oxide to graphene were achieved. The morphological and structural properties of the prepared samples were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Tellet (BET), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and UV-vis DRS, and photoelectrochemical. The activities of the prepared catalysts were tested for hydrogen production via simultaneous photocatalytic water-splitting and glycerol reforming under visible light irradiation. The excellent photocatalytic activity of the Cu-TiO2-hollow-spheres/rGO catalyst was attributed the rGO which acts as both storage and transferor of electrons generated at the Cu and TiO2 heterojunction, thus increasing the electron-hole pairs separation. This paper reports the preparation of photocatalyst which is highly active by coupling reduced graphene oxide with nano-structured TiO2 with high surface area that can efficiently harvest the visible light for effective water-splitting and glycerol photocatalytic reforming in order to achieve efficient hydrogen evolution.

Keywords: glycerol reforming, hydrogen evolution, graphene oxide, Cu/TiO2-hollow-spheres/rGO

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338 Synthesis and Functionalization of MnFe₂O₄ Nano−Hollow Spheres for Optical and Catalytic Properties

Authors: Indranil Chakraborty, Kalyan Mandal


Herein, we synthesize MnFe₂O₄ nano−hollow spheres (NHSs) of average diameter 100 nm through a facile template free solvothermal process and carry out a time dependent morphological study to investigate their process of core excavation. Further, a surface engineering of as−synthesized MnFe₂O₄ NHSs has been executed with organic disodium tartrate dihydrate ligand and interestingly, the surface modified MnFe₂O₄ NHSs are found to capable of emerging multicolor fluorescence starting from blue, green to red. The magnetic measurements through vibrating sample magnetometer demonstrate that room temperature superparamagnetic nature of MnFe₂O₄ NHSs remains unaltered after surface modification. Moreover, functionalized MnFe₂O₄ NHSs are found to exhibit excellent reusable photocatalytic efficiency in the degradation of cationic dye, methylene blue with rate constant of 2.64×10−2 min.

Keywords: nano hollow sphere, tartrate modification, multiple fluorescence, catalytic property

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
337 The Effect of Geometrical Ratio and Nanoparticle Reinforcement on the Properties of Al-based Nanocomposite Hollow Sphere Structures

Authors: Mostafa Amirjan


In the present study, the properties of Al-Al2O3 nanocomposite hollow sphere structures were investigated. For this reason, the Al-based nanocomposite hollow spheres with different amounts of nano alumina reinforcement (0-10wt %) and different ratio of thickness to diameter (t/D: 0.06-0.3) were prepared via a powder metallurgy method. Then, the effect of mentioned parameters was studied on physical and quasi static mechanical properties of their related prepared structures (open/closed cell) such as density, hardness, strength and energy absorption. It was found that as the t/D ratio increases the relative density, compressive strength and energy absorption increase. The highest values of strength and energy absorption were obtained from the specimen with 5 wt. % of nanoparticle reinforcement, t/D of 0.3 (t=1 mm, D=400µm) as 22.88 MPa and 13.24 MJ/m3, respectively. The moderate specific strength of prepared composites in the present study showed the good consistency with the properties of others low carbon steel composite with similar structure.

Keywords: hollow sphere structure foam, nanocomposite, thickness and diameter (t/D ), powder metallurgy

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336 Monodisperse Hallow Sandwich MOF for the Catalytic Oxidation of Benzene at Room Temperature

Authors: Srinivasapriyan Vijayan


Phenol is one of the most vital chemical in industry. Nowadays, phenol production is based upon the three-step cumene process, which involves a hazardous cumene hydroperoxide intermediate and produces nearly equimolar amounts of acetone as a coproduct. An attractive route in phenol production is the direct one-step selective hydroxylation of benzene using eco-friendly oxidants such as O2, N2O, and H2O2. In particular, the direct hydroxylation of benzene to form phenol with O2 has recently attracted extensive research attention because this process is green clean and eco-friendly. However, most of the catalytic systems involving O2 have a low rate of hydroxylation because the direct introduction of hydroxyl functionality into benzene is challenging. Almost all the developed catalytic systems require an elevated temperature and suffer from low conversion because of the notoriously low reactivity of aromatic C–H bonds. Moreover, increased reactivity of phenol relative to benzene makes the selective oxidation of benzene to phenol very difficult, especially under heating conditions. Hollow spheres, a very fascinating class of materials with good permeation and low density, highly monodisperse MOF hollow sandwich spheres have been rationally synthesized using monodisperse polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles as templates through a versatile step-by-step self-assembly strategy. So, our findings could pave the way toward highly efficient nonprecious catalysts for low-temperature oxidation reactions in heterogeneous catalysis. Because it is easy post-reaction separation, its cheap, green and recyclable.

Keywords: benzene hydroxylation, Fe-based metal organic frameworks, molecular oxygen, phenol

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
335 Advanced Electric Motor Design Using Hollow Conductors for Maximizing Power, Density and Degree of Efficiency

Authors: Michael Naderer, Manuel Hartong, Raad Al-Kinani


The use of hollow conductors is known in electric generators of large MW scale. The application of motors of small scale between 50 and 200kW is new. The latest results in the practical application and set up of machines show that the power density can be raised significantly and the common problem of derating of the motors is prevented. Furthermore, new design dimensions can be realised as continuous current densities up to 75A/mm² are achievable. This paper shows the results of the application of hollow conductors for a motor design used for automotive traction machines comparing common coolings with hollow conductor cooling.

Keywords: degree of efficiency, electric motor design, hollow conductors, power density

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334 Current Status of 5A Lab6 Hollow Cathode Life Tests in Lanzhou Institute of Physics, China

Authors: Yanhui Jia, Ning Guo, Juan Li, Yunkui Sun, Wei Yang, Tianping Zhang, Lin Ma, Wei Meng, Hai Geng


The current statuses of lifetime test of LaB6 hollow cathode at the Lanzhou institute of physics (LIP), China, was described. 5A LaB6 hollow cathode was designed for LIPS-200 40mN Xenon ion thruster and it could be used for LHT-100 80 mN Hall thruster, too. Life test of the discharge and neutralizer modes of LHC-5 hollow cathode were stared in October 2011, and cumulative operation time reached 17,300 and 16,100 hours in April 2015, respectively. The life of cathode was designed more than 11,000 hours. Parameters of discharge and key structure dimensions were monitored in different stage of life test indicated that cathodes were health enough. The test will continue until the cathode cannot work or operation parameter is not in normally. The result of the endurance test of cathode demonstrated that the LaB6 hollow cathode is satisfied for the required of thruster in life and performance.

Keywords: LaB6, hollow cathode, thruster, lifetime test, electric propulsion

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333 Research for Hollow Reinforced Concrete Bridge Piers in Korea

Authors: Ho Young Kim, Jae Hoon Lee, Do Kyu Hwang, Im Jong Kwahk, Tae Hoon Kim, Seung Hoon Lee


Hollow section for bridge columns has some advantages. However, current seismic design codes do not provide design regulations for hollow bridge piers. There have been many experimental studied for hollow reinforced concrete piers in the world. But, Study for hollow section for bridge piers in Korea has been begun with approximately 2000s. There has been conducted experimental study for hollow piers of flexural controlled sections by Yeungnam University, Sung kyunkwan University, Korea Expressway Corporation in 2009. This study concluded that flexural controlled sections for hollow piers showed the similar behavior to solid sections. And there have been conducted experimental study for hollow piers of compression controlled sections by Yeungnam University, Korea Institute of Construction Technology in 2012. This study concluded that compression controlled sections for hollow piers showed compression fracture of concrete in inside wall face. Samsung C&T Engineering & Construction Group has been conducted study with Yeungnam University for reduce the quantity of reinforcement details about hollow piers. Reduce the quantity of reinforcement details are triangular cross tie. This study concluded that triangular reinforcement details showed the similar behavior as compared with existing reinforcement details.

Keywords: hollow pier, flexural controlled section, compression controlled section, reduce the quantity of reinforcement, details

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332 Effect of Hollow and Solid Recycled-Poly Fibers on the Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Short-Fiber-Reinforced Polypropylene Composites

Authors: S. Kerakra, S. Bouhelal, M. Poncot


The aim of this study is to give a comprehensive overview of the effect of short hollow and solid recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers in different breaking tenacities reinforced isotactic polypropylene (iPP) composites on the mechanical and morphological properties. Composites of iPP/3, 7and 10 wt% of solid and hollow recycled PET fibers were prepared by batched melt mixing in a Brabender. The incorporation of solid recycled-PET fibers in isotactic polypropylene increase Young’s modulus of iPP relatively, meanwhile it increased proportionally with hollow fibers content. An improvement of the storage modulus, and a shift up in glass transition temperatures of hollow fibers/iPP composites was determined by DMA results. The morphology of composites was determined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical polarized microscopy (OM) showing a good dispersion of the hollow fibers. Also, their flexible aspect (folding, bending) was observed. But, one weak interaction between the polymer/fibers phases was shown. Polymers can be effectively reinforced with short hollow recycled PET fibers due to their characteristics like recyclability, lightweight and the flexible aspect, which allows the absorbance of the energy of a striker with a minimum damage of the matrix. Aiming to improve the affinity matrix–recycled hollow PET fibers, it is suggested the addition of compatibilizers, as maleic anhydride.

Keywords: isotactic polypropylene, hollow recycled PET fibers, solid recycled-PET fibers, composites, short fiber, scanning electron microscope

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
331 Synchronization of Traveling Waves within a Hollow-Core Vortex

Authors: H. Ait Abderrahmane, M. Fayed, H. D. Ng, G. H. Vatistas


The present paper expands details and confirms the transition mechanism between two subsequent polygonal patterns of the hollow-core vortex. Using power spectral analysis, we confirm in this work that the transition from any N-gon to (N+1)-gon pattern observed within a hollow-core vortex of shallow rotating flows occurs in two steps. The regime was quasi-periodic before the frequencies lock (synchronization). The ratios of locking frequencies were found to be equal to (N-1)/N.

Keywords: patterns, swirling, quasi-periodic, synchronization

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
330 Preparation of Silicon-Based Oxide Hollow Nanofibers Using Single-Nozzle Electrospinning

Authors: Juiwen Liang, Choliang Chung


In this study, the silicon-base oxide nanofibers with hollow structure were prepared using single-nozzle electrospinning and heat treatment. Firstly, precursor solution was prepared: the Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) dissolved in ethanol and to make sure the concentration of solution in appropriate using single-nozzle electrospinning to produce the nanofibers. Secondly, control morphology of the electrostatic spinning nanofibers was conducted, and design the temperature profile to created hollow nanofibers, exploring the morphology and properties of nanofibers. The characterized of nanofibers, following instruments were used: Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Photoluminescence (PL), X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The AFM was used to scan the nanofibers, and 3D Graphics were applied to explore the surface morphology of fibers. FE-SEM and TEM were used to explore the morphology and diameter of nanofibers and hollow nanofiber. The excitation and emission spectra explored by PL. Finally, XRD was used for identified crystallization of ceramic nanofibers. Using electrospinning technique followed by subsequent heat treatment, we have successfully prepared silicon-base oxide nanofibers with hollow structure. Thus, the microstructure and morphology of electrostatic spinning silicon-base oxide hollow nanofibers were explored. Major characteristics of the nanofiber in terms of crystalline, optical properties and crystal structure were identified.

Keywords: electrospinning, single-nozzle, hollow, nanofibers

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329 Investigations on the Seismic Performance of Hot-Finished Hollow Steel Sections

Authors: Paola Pannuzzo, Tak-Ming Chan


In seismic applications, hollow steel sections show, beyond undeniable esthetical appeal, promising structural advantages since, unlike open section counterparts, they are not susceptible to weak-axis and lateral-torsional buckling. In particular, hot-finished hollow steel sections have homogeneous material properties and favorable ductility but have been underutilized for cyclic bending. The main reason is that the parameters affecting their hysteretic behaviors are not yet well understood and, consequently, are not well exploited in existing codes of practice. Therefore, experimental investigations have been conducted on a wide range of hot-finished rectangular hollow section beams with the aim to providing basic knowledge for evaluating their seismic performance. The section geometry (width-to-thickness and depth-to-thickness ratios) and the type of loading (monotonic and cyclic) have been chosen as the key parameters to investigate the cyclic effect on the rotational capacity and to highlight the differences between monotonic and cyclic load conditions. The test results provide information on the parameters that affect the cyclic performance of hot-finished hollow steel beams and can be used to assess the design provisions stipulated in the current seismic codes of practice.

Keywords: bending, cyclic test, finite element modeling, hollow sections, hot-finished sections

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328 Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Hollow Silica Particle through DODAB Vesicle Templating

Authors: Eun Ju Park, Wendy Rusli, He Tao, Alexander M. Van Herk, Sanggu Kim


Hollow micro-/nano- structured materials have proven to be promising in wide range of applications, such as catalysis, drug delivery and controlled release, biotechnology, and personal and consumer care. Hollow sphere structures can be obtained through various templating approaches; colloid templates, emulsion templates, multi-surfactant templates, and single crystal templates. Vesicles are generally the self-directed assemblies of amphiphilic molecules including cationic, anionic, and cationic surfactants in aqueous solutions. The directed silica capsule formations were performed at the surface of dioctadecyldimethylammoniumbromide(DODAB) bilayer vesicles as soft template. The size of DODAB bilayer vesicles could be tuned by extrusion of a preheated dispersion of DODAB. The synthesized hollow silica particles were characterized by conventional TEM, cryo-TEM and SEM to determine the morphology and structure of particles and dynamic light scattering (DLS) method to measure the particle size and particle size distribution.

Keywords: characterization, DODAB, hollow silica particle, synthesis, vesicle

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327 The Extraction and Stripping of Hg(II) from Produced Water via Hollow Fiber Contactor

Authors: Dolapop Sribudda, Ura Pancharoen


The separation of Hg(II) from produced water by hollow fiber contactors (HFC) was investigation. This system included of two hollow fiber modules in the series connecting. The first module used for the extraction reaction and the second module for stripping reaction. Aliquat336 extractant was fed from the organic reservoirs into the shell side of the first hollow fiber module and continuous to the shell side of the second module. The organic liquid was continuously feed recirculate and back to the reservoirs. The feed solution was pumped into the lumen (tube side) of the first hollow fiber module. Simultaneously, the stripping solution was pumped in the same way in tube side of the second module. The feed and stripping solution was fed which had a counter current flow. Samples were kept in the outlet of feed and stripping solution for 1 hour and characterized concentration of Hg(II) by Inductively Couple Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Feed solution was produced water from natural gulf of Thailand. The extractant was Aliquat336 dissolved in kerosene diluent. Stripping solution used was nitric acid (HNO3) and thiourea (NH2CSNH2). The effect of carrier concentration and type of stripping solution were investigated. Results showed that the best condition were 10 % (v/v) Aliquat336 and 1.0 M NH2CSNH2. At the optimum condition, the extraction and stripping of Hg(II) were 98% and 44.2%, respectively.

Keywords: Hg(II), hollow fiber contactor, produced water, wastewater treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
326 Synthesis, Characterization, Photocatalytic and Photovoltaic Performance of Ag-Doped ZnO2 Loaded on the Pt-Carbon Spheres

Authors: M. Mujahid, Omar A. Al-Hartomy


Ag-doped ZnO2 loaded on the Pt-carbon spheres have been synthesized and characterized by standard analytical techniques. i.e., UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). In order to find the effect of loading of Ag doping on ZnO2, the concentration of Ag was varied from 0-3.5%. The XRD analysis showed that the obtained particles are anatase phase. The SEM images showed Ag-doped ZnO2 are loaded on the surface of the Pt-carbon spheres. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized particles was tested by studying the degradation of methyl orange dye and 4-chlorophenol as a function of time on irradiation in aqueous suspension. Ag-doped [email protected] sphere particle with platinum concentration of 3.0 % showed the highest photocatalytic activity as compared to the other Ag concentrations for the degradation of methyl orange and 4-chlorophenol.

Keywords: Ag-ZnO2, Pt-carbon spheres, degradation, methyl orange, 4-chlorophenol

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325 Preparation of Ceramic Hollow Fiber Membranes for CO2 Capture

Authors: Kai-Wei Huang, Yi-Feng Lin


The purpose of this study is to have chemical resistance, high heat resistance and mechanical strength of ceramic hollow fiber membrane into a membrane contactor, and the combustion process is applied (Post-combustion capture) of the carbon dioxide absorption device. In this paper, we would investigate the effect of the ceramic membrane hydrophobicity to the flux of the carbon dioxide adsorption. To improve the applicability of the ceramic film. We use the dry-wet spinning method with the high temperature sintering process for preparing a ceramic hollow fiber membranes to increase the filling density per unit volume of the membrane. The PESf/Al2O3 ratio of 1:5 was prepared ceramic hollow fibers membrane precursors and investigate the relationship of the different sintering temperature to the membrane pore size and porosity. It can be found that the membrane via the sintering temperature of 1400 °C prepared with the highest porosity of 70%, while the membrane via the sintering temperature of 1600 °C prepared although has a minimum porosity of about 54%, but also has the smallest average pore size of about 0.2 μm. The hydrophilic ceramic hollow fiber membranes which after high-temperature sintering were changed into hydrophobic successfully via the 0.02M FAS modifier. The hydrophobic ceramic hollow fiber membranes with different sintering temperature, the membrane which was prepared via 1400 °C sintering has the highest carbon dioxide adsorption about 4.2 × 10-4 (mole/m2s). The membrane prepared via 1500 °C sintering has the carbon dioxide adsorption about 3.8 × 10-3 (mole/m2s),and the membrane prepared via 1600 °C sintering has the lowest carbon dioxide adsorption about 2.68 × 10-3 (mole/m2s).All of them have reusability and in long time operation, the membrane which was prepared via 1600 °C sintering has the smallest pores and also could operate for three days. After the test, the 1600 °C sintering ceramic hollow fiber membrane was most suitable for the factory.

Keywords: carbon dioxide capture, membrane contactor, ceramic membrane, ceramic hollow fiber membrane

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
324 Preconcentration and Determination of Cyproheptadine in Biological Samples by Hollow Fiber Liquid Phase Microextraction Coupled with High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Sh. Najari Moghadam, M. Qomi, F. Raofie, J. Khadiv


In this study, a liquid phase microextraction by hollow fiber (HF-LPME) combined with high performance liquid chromatography-UV detector was applied to preconcentrate and determine trace levels of Cyproheptadine in human urine and plasma samples. Cyproheptadine was extracted from 10 mL alkaline aqueous solution (pH: 9.81) into an organic solvent (n-octnol) which was immobilized in the wall pores of a hollow fiber. Then, it was back-extracted into an acidified aqueous solution (pH: 2.59) located inside the lumen of the hollow fiber. This method is simple, efficient and cost-effective. It is based on pH gradient and differences between two aqueous phases. In order to optimize the HF-LPME, some affecting parameters including the pH of donor and acceptor phases, the type of organic solvent, ionic strength, stirring rate, extraction time and temperature were studied and optimized. Under optimal conditions enrichment factor, limit of detection (LOD) and relative standard deviation (RSD(%), n=3) were up to 112, 15 μg.L−1 and 2.7, respectively.

Keywords: biological samples, cyproheptadine, hollow fiber, liquid phase microextraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
323 Stimulated Raman Scattering of Ultra Intense Hollow Gaussian Beam

Authors: Prerana Sharma


Effect of relativistic nonlinearity on stimulated Raman scattering of the propagating laser beam carrying null intensity in center (hollow Gaussian beam) by excited plasma wave are studied in a collisionless plasma. The construction of the equations is done employing the fluid theory which is developed with partial differential equation and Maxwell’s equations. The analysis is done using eikonal method. The phenonmenon of Stimulated Raman scattering is shown along with the excitation of seed plasma wave. The power of plasma wave and back reflectivity is observed for higher order of hollow Gaussian beam. Back reflectivity is studied numerically for various orders of HGLB with different value of plasma density, laser power and beam radius. Numerical analysis shows that these parameters play vital role on reflectivity characteristics.

Keywords: Hollow Gaussian beam, relativistic nonlinearity, plasma physics, Raman scattering

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322 One-Step Synthesis of Titanium Dioxide Porous Microspheres by Picosecond Pulsed Laser Welding

Authors: Huiwu Yu, Xiangyou Li, Xiaoyan Zeng


Porous spheres have been widely used in many fields due to their attractive features. In this work, an approach for fabricating porous spheres of nanoparticles was presented, in which the nanoparticles were welded together to form micro spheres by simply irradiating the nanoparticles in liquid medium by a picosecond laser. As an example, anatase titanium dioxide was chosen as a typical material on account of its metastability. The structure and morphologies of the products were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Raman, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), respectively. The results showed that, anatase titanium dioxide micro spheres (2-10 μm) with macroporous (10-100 nm) were prepared from nano-anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles (10-100 nm). The formation process of polycrystalline anatase titanium dioxide microspheres was investigated with different liquid mediums and the input laser fluences. Thus, this facile laser irradiation approach might provide a way for the fabrication of porous microspheres without phase-transition.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, porous microspheres, picosecond laser, nano-welding

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
321 Physicochemical Characterization of MFI–Ceramic Hollow Fibres Membranes for CO2 Separation with Alkali Metal Cation

Authors: A. Alshebani, Y. Swesi, S. Mrayed, F. Altaher


This paper present some preliminary work on the preparation and physicochemical caracterization of nanocomposite MFI-alumina structures based on alumina hollow fibres. The fibers are manufactured by a wet spinning process. α-alumina particles were dispersed in a solution of polysulfone in NMP. The resulting slurry is pressed through the annular gap of a spinneret into a precipitation bath. The resulting green fibres are sintered. The mechanical strength of the alumina hollow fibres is determined by a three-point-bending test while the pore size is characterized by bubble-point testing. The bending strength is in the range of 110 MPa while the average pore size is 450 nm for an internal diameter of 1 mm and external diameter of 1.7 mm. To characterize the MFI membranes various techniques were used for physicochemical characterization of MFI–ceramic hollow fibres membranes: The nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy combined with X emission microanalysis. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Microanalysis by the X-ray were used to observe the morphology of the hollow fibre membranes (thickness, infiltration into the carrier, defects, homogeneity). No surface film, has been obtained, as observed by SEM and EDX analysis and confirmed by high temperature variation of N2 and CO2 gas permeances before cation exchange. Local analysis and characterise (SEM and EDX) and overall (by ICP elemental analysis) were conducted on two samples exchanged to determine the quantity and distribution of the cation of cesium on the cross section fibre of the zeolite between the cavities.

Keywords: physicochemical characterization of MFI, ceramic hollow fibre, CO2, ion-exchange

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320 Separation of CO2 Using MFI-Alumina Nanocomposite Hollow Fiber Ion-Exchanged with Alkali Metal Cation

Authors: A. Alshebani, Y. Swesi, S. Mrayed, F. Altaher, I. Musbah


Cs-type nanocomposite zeolite membrane was successfully synthesized on an alumina ceramic hollow fibre with a mean outer diameter of 1.7 mm; cesium cationic exchange test was carried out inside test module with mean wall thickness of 230 μm and an average crossing pore size smaller than 0.2 μm. Separation factor of n-butane/H2 obtained indicate that a relatively high quality closed to 20. Maxwell-Stefan modeling provides an equivalent thickness lower than 1 µm. To compare the difference an application to CO2/N2 separation has been achieved, reaching separation factors close to (4,18) before and after cation exchange on H-zeolite membrane formed within the pores of a ceramic alumina substrate.

Keywords: MFI membrane, nanocomposite, ceramic hollow fibre, CO2, ion-exchange

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319 Separation of CO2 Using MFI-Alumina Nanocomposite Hollow Fibre Ion-Exchanged with Alkali Metal Cation

Authors: A. Alshebani, Y. Swesi, S. Mrayed, F. Altaher, I. Musbah


Cs-type nanocomposite zeolite membrane was successfully synthesized on a alumina ceramic hollow fibre with a mean outer diameter of 1.7 mm, cesium cationic exchange test was carried out inside test module with mean wall thickness of 230 μm and an average crossing pore size smaller than 0.2 μm. Separation factor of n-butane/H2 obtained indicate that a relatively high quality closed to 20. Maxwell-Stefan modeling provides an equivalent thickness lower than 1 µm. To compare the difference an application to CO2/N2 separation has been achieved, reaching separation factors close to (4,18) before and after cation exchange on H-zeolite membrane formed within the pores of a ceramic alumina substrate.

Keywords: MFI membrane, CO2, nanocomposite, ceramic hollow fibre, ion-exchange

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318 Effect of Air Gap Distance on the Structure of PVDF Hollow Fiber Membrane Contactors for Physical CO2 Absorption

Authors: J. Shiri, A. Mansourizadeh, F. Faghih, H. Vaez


In this study, porous polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membranes are fabricated via a wet phase-inversion Process and used in the gas–liquid membrane contactor for physical CO2 absorption. Effect of different air gap on the structure and CO2 flux of the membrane was investigated. The hollow fibers were prepared using the wet spinning process using a dope solution containing PVDF/NMP/Licl (18%, 78%, 4%) at the extrusion rate of 4.5ml/min and air gaps of 0, 7, 15cm. Water was used as internal and external coagulants. Membranes were characterized using various techniques such as Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Gas permeation test, Critical Water Entry Pressure (CEPw) to select the best membrane structure for Co2 absorption. The characterization results showed that the prepared membrane at which air gap possess small pore size with high surface porosity and wetting resistance, which are favorable for gas absorption application air gap increased, CEPw had a decrease, but the N2 permeation was decreased. Surface porosity and also Co2 absorption was increased.

Keywords: porous PVDF hollow fiber membrane, CO2 absorption, phase inversion, air gap

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
317 Analysis of Soft and Hard X-Ray Intensities Using Different Shapes of Anodes in a 4kJ Mather Type Plasma Focus Facility

Authors: Mahsa Mahtab, Morteza Habibi


The effect of different anode tip geometries on the intensity of soft and hard x-ray emitted from a 4 kJ plasma focus device is investigated. For this purpose, 5 different anode tips are used. The shapes of the uppermost region of these anodes have been cylindrical-flat, cylindrical-hollow, spherical-convex, cone-flat and cone-hollow. Analyzed data have shown that cone-flat, spherical-convex and cone-hollow anodes significantly increase X-ray intensity respectively in comparison with cylindrical-flat anode; while the cylindrical-hollow tip decreases. Anode radius reduction at its end in conic or spherical anodes enhance SXR by increasing plasma density through collecting a greater mass of gas and more gradual transition phase to form a more stable dense plasma pinch. Also, HXR is enhanced by increasing the energy of electrons colliding with the anode surface through raise of induced electrical field. Finally, the cone-flat anode is introduced to use in cases in which the plasma focus device is used as an X-ray source due to its highest yield of X-ray emissions.

Keywords: plasma focus, anode tip, HXR, SXR, pinched plasma

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316 Transient Heat Conduction in Nonuniform Hollow Cylinders with Time Dependent Boundary Condition at One Surface

Authors: Sen Yung Lee, Chih Cheng Huang, Te Wen Tu


A solution methodology without using integral transformation is proposed to develop analytical solutions for transient heat conduction in nonuniform hollow cylinders with time-dependent boundary condition at the outer surface. It is shown that if the thermal conductivity and the specific heat of the medium are in arbitrary polynomial function forms, the closed solutions of the system can be developed. The influence of physical properties on the temperature distribution of the system is studied. A numerical example is given to illustrate the efficiency and the accuracy of the solution methodology.

Keywords: analytical solution, nonuniform hollow cylinder, time-dependent boundary condition, transient heat conduction

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315 Complex Cooling Approach in Microchannel Heat Exchangers Using Solid and Hollow Fins

Authors: Nahum Yustus Godi


A three-dimensional numerical optimisation of combined microchannels with constructal solid, half hollow, and hollow circular fins is documented in this paper. The technique seeks to minimize peak temperature in the entire volume of the microchannel heat sink. The volume and axial length were all fixed, while the width of the microchannel could morph. High-density heat flux was applied at the bottom wall of the microchannel. The coolant employed to remove the heat deposited at the bottom surface of the microchannel was a single-phase fluid (water) in a forced convection laminar condition, and heat transfer was a conjugate problem. The unit cell symmetrical computation domain was discretised, and governing equations were solved using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code. The results reveal that the combined microchannel with hollow circular fins and solid fins performed better at different Reynolds numbers. The numerical study was validated for the single microchannel without fins and found to be in good agreement with previous studies.

Keywords: constructal fins, complex heat exchangers, cooling technique, numerical optimisation

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314 Separation of Mercury(Ii) from Petroleum Produced Water via Hollow Fiber Supported Liquid Membrane and Mass Transfer Modeling

Authors: Srestha Chaturabul, Wanchalerm Srirachat, Thanaporn Wannachod, Prakorn Ramakul, Ura Pancharoen, Soorathep Kheawhom


The separation of mercury(II) from petroleum-produced water from the Gulf of Thailand was carried out using a hollow fiber supported liquid membrane system (HFSLM). Optimum parameters for feed pretreatment were 0.2 M HCl, 4% (v/v) Aliquat 336 for extractant and 0.1 M thiourea for stripping solution. The best percentage obtained for extraction was 99.73% and for recovery 90.11%, respectively. The overall separation efficiency noted was 94.92% taking account of both extraction and recovery prospects. The model for this separation developed along a combined flux principle i.e. convection–diffusion–kinetic. The results showed excellent agreement with theoretical data at an average standard deviation of 1.5% and 1.8%, respectively.

Keywords: separation, mercury(ii), petroleum produced water, hollow fiber, liquid membrane

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