Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Search results for: contextualization

28 Improoving Readability for Tweet Contextualization Using Bipartite Graphs

Authors: Amira Dhokar, Lobna Hlaoua, Lotfi Ben Romdhane

Abstract:

Tweet contextualization (TC) is a new issue that aims to answer questions of the form 'What is this tweet about?' The idea of this task was imagined as an extension of a previous area called multi-document summarization (MDS), which consists in generating a summary from many sources. In both TC and MDS, the summary should ideally contain the most relevant information of the topic that is being discussed in the source texts (for MDS) and related to the query (for TC). Furthermore of being informative, a summary should be coherent, i.e. well written to be readable and grammatically compact. Hence, coherence is an essential characteristic in order to produce comprehensible texts. In this paper, we propose a new approach to improve readability and coherence for tweet contextualization based on bipartite graphs. The main idea of our proposed method is to reorder sentences in a given paragraph by combining most expressive words detection and HITS (Hyperlink-Induced Topic Search) algorithm to make up a coherent context.

Keywords: bipartite graphs, readability, summarization, tweet contextualization

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
27 Visual Impairment Through Contextualized Lived Experiences: The Story of James

Authors: Jentel Van Havermaet, Geert Van Hove, Elisabeth De Schauwer

Abstract:

This study re-conceptualizes visual impairment in the interdependent context of James, his family, and allies. Living with a visual impairment is understood as an entanglement of assemblages, dynamics, disablism, systems… We narrated this diffractively into two meaningful events: decisions and processes on (inclusive) education and hinderances in connecting with others. We entangled and (un)raveled lived experiences in assemblages in which the contextualized meaning of visual impairment became more clearly. The contextualized narrative of James interwove complex intra-actions; showed the complexity and contextualization of entangled relationalities.

Keywords: disability studies, contextualization, visual impairment, assemblage, entanglement, lived experiences

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
26 Contextualization and Localization: Acceptability of the Developed Activity Sheets in Science 5 Integrating Climate Change Adaptation

Authors: Kim Alvin De Lara

Abstract:

The research aimed to assess the level of acceptability of the developed activity sheets in Science 5 integrating climate change adaptation of grade 5 science teachers in the District of Pililla school year 2016-2017. In this research, participants were able to recognize and understand the importance of environmental education in improving basic education and integrating them in lessons through localization and contextualization. The researcher conducted the study to develop a material to use by Science teachers in Grade 5. It served also as a self-learning resource for students. The respondents of the study were the thirteen Grade 5 teachers teaching Science 5 in the District of Pililla. Respondents were selected purposively and identified by the researcher. A descriptive method of research was utilized in the research. The main instrument was a checklist which includes items on the objectives, content, tasks, contextualization and localization of the developed activity sheets. The researcher developed a 2-week lesson in Science 5 for 4th Quarter based on the curriculum guide with integration of climate change adaptation. The findings revealed that majority of respondents are female, 31 years old and above, 10 years above in teaching science and have units in master’s degree. With regards to the level of acceptability, the study revealed developed activity sheets in science 5 is very much acceptable. In view of the findings, lessons in science 5 must be contextualized and localized to improve to make the curriculum responds, conforms, reflects, and be flexible to the needs of the learners, especially the 21st century learners who need to be holistically and skillfully developed. As revealed by the findings, it is more acceptable to localized and contextualized the learning materials for pupils. Policy formation and re-organization of the lessons and competencies in Science must be reviewed and re-evaluated. Lessons in science must also be integrated with climate change adaptation since nowadays, people are experiencing change in climate due to global warming and other factors. Through developed activity sheets, researcher strongly supports environmental education and believes this to serve as a way to instill environmental literacy to students.

Keywords: activity sheets, climate change adaptation, contextualization, localization

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
25 Effects of Audiovisual Contextualization of L2 Idioms on Enhancing Students’ Comprehension and Retention

Authors: Monica Karlsson

Abstract:

The positive effect of a supportive written context on comprehension and retention when faced with a previously unknown idiomatic expression is today an indisputable fact, especially if relevant clues are given in close proximity of the item in question. Also, giving learners a chance of visualizing the meaning of an idiom by offering them its source domain and/or by elaborating etymologically, i.e. providing a mental picture in addition to the spoken/written form (referred to as dual coding), seems to enhance comprehension and retention even further, especially if the idiom is of a more transparent kind. For example, by explaining that walk the plank has a maritime origin and a canary in a coal mine comes from the time when canaries were kept in cages to warn miners if gas was leaking out at which point the canaries succumbed immediately, learners’ comprehension and retention have been shown to increase. The present study aims to investigate whether contextualization of an audiovisual kind could help increase comprehension and retention of L2 idioms. 40 Swedish first-term university students studying English as part of their education to become middle-school teachers participated in the investigation, which tested 24 idioms, all of which were ascertained to be previously unknown to the informants. While half of the learners were subjected to a test in which they were asked to watch scenes from various TV programmes, each scene including one idiomatic expression in a supportive context, the remaining 20 students, as a point of reference, were only offered written contexts, though equally supportive. Immediately after these sessions, both groups were given the same idioms in a decontextualized form and asked to give their meaning. After five weeks, finally, the students were subjected to yet another decontextualized comprehension test. Furthermore, since mastery of idioms in one’s L1 appears to correlate to a great extent with a person’s ability to comprehend idioms in an L2, all the informants were also asked to take a test focusing on idioms in their L1. The result on this test is thus seen to indicate each student’s potential for understanding and memorizing various idiomatic expressions from a more general perspective. Preliminary results clearly show that audiovisual contextualization indeed has a positive effect on learners’ retention. In addition, preliminary results also show that those learners’ who were able to recall most meanings were those who had a propensity for idiom comprehension in their L1.

Keywords: English, L2, idioms, audiovisual context

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
24 Maternal Death Review and Contextualization of Maternal Death in West Bengal

Authors: M. Illias Kanchan

Abstract:

The death of a woman during pregnancy and childbirth is not only a health issue, but also a matter of social injustice. This study makes an attempt to explore the association between maternal death and associated factors in West Bengal using the approaches of facility-based and community-based maternal death review. Bivariate and binary logistic regression analysis have been performed to understand the causes and circumstances of maternal deaths in West Bengal. Delay in seeking care was the major contributor in maternal deaths, near about one-third women died due to this factor. The most common cause of maternal death is found to be hypertensive disorders of pregnancy or eclampsia. We believe that these deaths can be averted by reducing hypertensive disorders of pregnancy or eclampsia.

Keywords: maternal death, facility-based, community-based, review, west Bengal, eclampsia

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
23 The Participation of Experts in the Criminal Policy on Drugs: The Proposal of a Cannabis Regulation Model in Spain by the Cannabis Policy Studies Group

Authors: Antonio Martín-Pardo

Abstract:

With regard to the context in which this paper is inserted, it is noteworthy that the current criminal policy model in which we find immersed, denominated by some doctrine sector as the citizen security model, is characterized by a marked tendency towards the discredit of expert knowledge. This type of technic knowledge has been displaced by the common sense and by the daily experience of the people at the time of legislative drafting, as well as by excessive attention to the short-term political effects of the law. Despite this criminal-political adverse scene, we still find valuable efforts in the side of experts to bring some rationality to the legislative development. This is the case of the proposal for a new cannabis regulation model in Spain carried out by the Cannabis Policy Studies Group (hereinafter referred as ‘GEPCA’). The GEPCA is a multidisciplinary group composed by authors with multiple/different orientations, trajectories and interests, but with a common minimum objective: the conviction that the current situation regarding cannabis is unsustainable and, that a rational legislative solution must be given to the growing social pressure for the regulation of their consumption and production. This paper details the main lines through which this technical proposal is developed with the purpose of its dissemination and discussion in the Congress. The basic methodology of the proposal is inductive-expository. In that way, firstly, we will offer a brief, but solid contextualization of the situation of cannabis in Spain. This contextualization will touch on issues such as the national regulatory situation and its relationship with the international context; the criminal, judicial and penitentiary impact of the offer and consumption of cannabis, or the therapeutic use of the substance, among others. In second place, we will get down to the business properly by detailing the minutia of the three main cannabis access channels that are proposed. Namely: the regulated market, the associations of cannabis users and personal self-cultivation. In each of these options, especially in the first two, special attention will be paid to both, the production and processing of the substance and the necessary administrative control of the activity. Finally, in a third block, some notes will be given on a series of subjects that surround the different access options just mentioned above and that give fullness and coherence to the proposal outlined. Among those related issues we find some such as consumption and tenure of the substance; the issue of advertising and promotion of cannabis; consumption in areas of special risk (work or driving v. g.); the tax regime; the need to articulate evaluation instruments for the entire process; etc. The main conclusion drawn from the analysis of the proposal is the unsustainability of the current repressive system, clearly unsuccessful, and the need to develop new access routes to cannabis that guarantee both public health and the rights of people who have freely chosen to consume it.

Keywords: cannabis regulation proposal, cannabis policies studies group, criminal policy, expertise participation

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
22 Critical Discourse Analysis of President Mamnoon Hussain Speech in the Joint Session of Parliament.

Authors: Saeed Qaisrani

Abstract:

This article briefly reviews the rise of Critical Discourse Analysis about the Pakistani President Mamnoon Hussain speech which delivered in the joint session of Parliament and teases out a detailed analysis of the various critiques that have been levelled at CDA and its practitioners over the last twenty years, both by scholars working within the “critical” paradigm and by other critics. A range of criticisms are discussed which target the underlying premises, the analytical methodology and the disputed areas of reader response and the integration of contextual factors. Controversial issues such as the predominantly negative focus of much CDA scholarship, and the status of CDA as an emergent “intellectual orthodoxy”, are also reviewed. The conclusions offer a summary of the principal criticisms that emerge from this overview, and suggest some ways in which these problems could be attenuated. It also focused on the different views about president speech and how it is presented in the Pakistani print and electronic media.

Keywords: Critical Discourse Analysis, Analytical methodology, Corpus linguistics, Reader response theory, Critical paradigm, Contextualization.

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
21 The Classical Islamic Laws of Apostasy in the Present Context

Authors: Ali Akbar

Abstract:

The main purpose of this essay is to examine whether or not the earthly punishments in regards to apostates that are often found in classical Islamic sources are applicable in the present context. The paper indeed addresses how Muslims should understand the question of apostasy in the contemporary context. To do so, the paper first argues that an accurate understanding of the way the Quranic verses and prophetic hadiths deal with the concept of apostasy could help us rethink and re-examine the classical Islamic laws on apostasy in the present context. In addition, building on Abdolkarim Soroush’s theory of contraction and expansion of religious knowledge, this article argues that approaches to apostasy in the present context can move away from what prescribed by classical Islamic laws. Finally, it argues that instances of persecution of apostates in the early days of Islam during the Medinan period of Muhammad’s prophetic mission should be interpreted in their own socio-historical context. Rereading these reports within our modern context supports the mutability of the traditional corporal punishments of apostasy.

Keywords: apostasy, Islam, Quran, hadith, Abdolkarim Soroush, contextualization

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
20 Comparison Learning Vocabulary Implicitly and Explicitly

Authors: Akram Hashemi

Abstract:

This study provided an empirical evidence for learners of elementary level of language proficiency to investigate the potential role of contextualization in vocabulary learning. Prior to the main study, pilot study was performed to determine the reliability and validity of the researcher-made pretest and posttest. After manifesting the homogeneity of the participants, the participants (n = 90) were randomly assigned into three equal groups, i.e., two experimental groups and a control group. They were pretested by a vocabulary test, in order to test participants' pre-knowledge of vocabulary. Then, vocabulary instruction was provided through three methods of visual instruction, the use of context and the use of conventional techniques. At the end of the study, all participants took the same posttest in order to assess their vocabulary gain. The results of independent sample t-test indicated that there is a significant difference between learning vocabulary visually and learning vocabulary contextually. The results of paired sample t-test showed that different teaching strategies have significantly different impacts on learners’ vocabulary gains. Also, the contextual strategy was significantly more effective than visual strategy in improving students’ performance in vocabulary test.

Keywords: vocabulary instruction, explicit instruction, implicit instruction, strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
19 Drama, a Microcosm of Life Experiences: An Analysis of Symbolic Order and Social Relationships in Olu Obafemi’s Play

Authors: Victor Ademulegun Arijeniwa

Abstract:

This is a sociolinguistic study of Olu Obafemi’s Naira Has No Gender as a microcosm of life experiences. The paper assesses how Olu Obafemi’s use of language in the dramatic world serves as both social relationships and symbolic order of communicative roadmap that are capable of yielding well expressed and richly articulated sociolinguistic implications. Being the interface between language and social institutions, sociolinguistics and its application is highly utilitarian in linguistics analysis, especially where the language of a text appears to be deeply tensed, such as found in dramatic texts. The aim of this paper has been (i) to assess the symbolic orderly presentation of form in Olu Obafemi’Naira Has No Gender; (ii) to find out the linguistic elements and textual organization that represent social relationships in Olu Obafemi’s Naira Has No Gender. Using qualitative research design in data generation with insights from John Gumperz Interactional Sociolinguistics Theory with particular reference to contextualization cues and miscommunication, the paper identifies the implication of the dramatic discourse on society.

Keywords: sociolinguistics, Microcosm, contextualisation, miscommunication variable, identity, symbolic order

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
18 Music of the Openings’ Japanese Animes as a Tool for People with Reduced Visibility: The Case of Shingeki No Kyojin (Attack on Titan)

Authors: María Del Carmen Baena Lupiáñez

Abstract:

Music has been considered for decades as a tool to express emotions. In the case of people with some physical disabilities, they are able to develop what is known as echolocation. It means that the development of some of the senses to compensate the lack of one of them. For instance, it has been proved that people with reduced visibility have a more developed hearing capacity. In series or films, music is fundamental to contextualize the viewer in the story. Music becomes an indispensable element to make people with reduced visibility to understand the plot and to avoid ambiguities, in the absence of an audio description. Since the songs of Japanese animes have not been as studied as other soundtracks from this point of view to our knowledge, the three openings of the anime Shingeki no Kyojin have been chosen to carry out the experiment from which this study will start. It will test the perceptions of people with reduced visibility by reproducing the three opening songs of Shingeki no Kyojin and asking the users questions related to their thoughts about the anime, their feelings when listening to these songs and the possible story that this anime could be about. In fact, users could identify in general the plot of the story and their perceptions corresponded to what the songs should transmit, taking into account its chords and harmonies.

Keywords: anime, argumental contextualization, echolocations, emotions

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
17 The Implications in the Use of English as the Medium of Instruction in Business Management Courses at Vavuniya Campus

Authors: Jeyaseelan Gnanaseelan, Subajana Jeyaseelan

Abstract:

The paper avails, in a systemic form, some of the results of the investigation into nature, functions, problems, and implications in the use of English as the medium of Instruction (EMI) in the Business Management courses at Vavuniya Campus of the University of Jaffna, located in the conflict-affected northern part of Sri Lanka. It is a case study of the responses of the students and the teachers from Tamil and Sinhala language communities of the Faculty of Business Studies. This paper analyzes the perceptions on the use of the medium, the EMI background, resources available and accessible, language abilities of the teachers and learners, learning style and pedagogy, the EMI methodology, the socio-economic and socio-political contexts typical of a non-native English learning context. The analysis is quantitative and qualitative. It finds out the functional perspective of the EMI in Sri Lanka and suggests practical strategies of contextualization and acculturation in the EMI organization and positions. The paper assesses the learner and teacher capacity in the use of English. The ethnic conflict and linguistic politics in Sri Lanka have contributed multiple factors to the current use of English as the medium. It has conflicted with its domestic realities and the globalization trends of the world at large which determines efficiency and effectiveness.

Keywords: medium of instruction, English, business management, teaching and learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
16 Centering Critical Sociology for Social Justice and Inclusive Education

Authors: Al Karim Datoo

Abstract:

Abstract— The presentation argues for an urgent case to center and integrate critical sociology in enriching potency of educational thought and practice to counteract inequalities and social injustices. COVID phenomenon has starkly exposed burgeoning of social-economic inequalities and widening marginalities which have been historically and politically constructed through deep-seated social and power imbalances and injustices in the world. What potent role could education possibly play to combat these issues? A point of departure for this paper highlights increasing reductionist and exclusionary ‘mind-set’ of education that has been developed through trends in education such as: the commodification of knowledge, standardisation, homogenization, and reification which are products of the positivist ideology of knowledge coopted to serve capitalist interests. To redress these issues of de-contextualization and de-humanization of education, it is emphasized that there is an urgent need to center the role of interpretive and critical epistemologies and pedagogies of social sciences. In this regard, notions of problem-posing versus problem-solving, generative themes, instrumental versus emancipatory reasoning will be discussed. The presentation will conclude by illustrating the pedagogic utility of these critically oriented notions to counteract the social reproduction of exclusionary and inequality in and through education.

Keywords: Critical pedagogy, social justice, inclusion , education

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
15 A Socio-Pragmatic Investigation of Gender Enactment in New Month Text Messages

Authors: Esther Robert, Romanus Aboh

Abstract:

This paper undertakes a socio-pragmatic investigation of gender enactment in new month text messages. This study employs Gumperz’s Interactional Sociolinguistics as its theoretical point of reference to investigate how people create meaning through social interaction. This theory attempts to analyse any social interaction based on contextualization cues and presuppositions. This study explores the appropriateness of language used in texting. The text messages are collected from different mobile phones from different genders, which form the data for this paper. The study observes remarkable differences between genders in the use of informal language. The study reveals that men and women differ remarkably in conversational interaction as well as in writing. While it is observed that women are emotional, orderly, and meticulous, detailed and observed certain grammatical rules, men are casual, brief and appear to show evidence that less attention is paid to grammatical rules. Also, the study shows women as relaxing, showing love, care, concern with their emotive, spirit-raising and touching language, while mean are direct, short, and straight to the point. It is discovered through the study that women behave this way because of their brain-wiring. That is why language and communication matter more to women than to men and this reflects in their new month text messages.

Keywords: difference, emotionalised expressions, gender, texting

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
14 Design of a Professional Development Framework in Teaching and Learning for Engineering Educators

Authors: Orla McConnell, Cormac MacMahon, Jen Harvey

Abstract:

Ireland’s national professional development framework for those who teach in higher education, aims to provide guidance and leadership in the planning, developing and engaging in professional development practices. A series of pilot projects have been initiated to help explore the framework’s likely utility and acceptance by educators and their institutions. These projects require engagement with staff in the interpretation and adaption of the framework within their working contexts. The purpose of this paper is to outline the development of one such project with engineering educators at three Institutes of Technology seeking designation as a technological university. The initiative aims to gain traction in the acceptance of the framework with the engineering education community by linking core and discipline-specific teaching and learning competencies with professional development activities most valued by engineering educators. Informed by three strands of literature: professional development in higher education; engineering education; and teaching and learning training provisions, the project begins with a survey of all those involved in teaching and learning in engineering across the three institutes. Based on engagement with key stakeholders, subsequent qualitative research informs the contextualization of the national framework for discipline-specific and institutional piloting. The paper concludes by exploring engineering educator perceptions of the national framework’s utility based on their engagement with the pilot process. Feedback from the pilot indicates that there is a significant gap between the professional development needs of engineering educators and the current professional development provision in teaching and learning.

Keywords: engineering education, pilot, professional development, teaching and learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
13 Islamization of Knowledge with Special Reference to Mohd Kamal Hassan's Perspective

Authors: Abdul Latheef O. Mavukkandy

Abstract:

Islamization of knowledge (IOK) is an intellectual movement emerged in the middle of 1970s to address the threats by modern western civilizational onslaughts. This paper analyzes the discourse of Islamization of knowledge with special reference to the views of Kamal Hassan who prefers an alternative term called 'Islamicization'. First of all the theoretical and practical outlines of IOK movement were presented by Ismail Raji al-Faruqi in his book 'Islamization of Knowledge; General Principles and Work Plan' in 1982. He identified that the educational system in the Muslim world accounted for the decline of Muslim Ummah through de-Islamization and demoralization. So, the need for IOK was an academic challenge to reconstruct the Ummah. Kamal Hassan kept just different view from Ismail Raji al-Faruqi and Muhammed Naquib al-Attas that he coined the terms 'Relevantization and Contextualization'. So, he wanted the 'Islamization of Islamic Revealed Knowledge'. So, he used Islamization of Human Knowledge (IOHK) instead of IOK. As part of this movement, the IOK identified that the textbooks used in Muslim educational institutions systematically keep the students estranged from Islam and its heritage. Furthermore, the modern secular knowledge develops secular attitude devoid of Islamic moral philosophy and the sense of mission in life. Based upon the content analysis of some of the sources, this study found that Islamization of Knowledge is an important movement in Islamic world, but the IOK project is not practicable completely because of the lack of trained teachers and resources. Although, the project resulted in the foundation of some universities and publishing more works, journals and doctoral thesis on different dimensions of Islamization of Knowledge.

Keywords: Islamization, Islamicization, releventization, human knowledge

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
12 The Development of Integrated Real-Life Video and Animation with Addie Based on Constructive for Improving Students’ Mastery Concept in Rotational Dynamics

Authors: Silka Abyadati, Dadi Rusdiana, Enjang Akhmad Juanda

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the students’ mastery concepts enhancement between students who are studying by using Integrated Real-Life Video and Animation (IRVA) and students who are studying without using IRVA. The development of IRVA is conducted by five stages: Analyze, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation (ADDIE) based on constructivist for Rotational Dynamics material in Physics learning. A constructivist model-based learning used is Interpretation Construction (ICON), which has the following phases: 1) Observation, 2) Construction interpretation, 3) Contextualization prior knowledge, 4) Conflict cognitive, 5) Learning cognitive, 6) Collaboration, 7) Multiple interpretation, 8) Multiple manifestation. The IRVA is developed for the stages of observation, cognitive conflict and cognitive learning. The sample of this study consisted of 32 students experimental group and a control group of 32 students in class XI of the school year 2015/2016 in one of Senior High Schools Bandung. The study was conducted by giving the pretest and posttest in the form of 20 items of multiple choice questions to determine the enhancement of mastery concept of Rotational Dynamics. Hypothesis testing is done by using T-test on the value of N-gain average of mastery concepts. The results showed that there is a significant difference in an enhancement of students’ mastery concepts between students who are studying by using IRVA and students who are studying without IRVA. Students in the experimental group increased by 0.468 while students in the control group increased by 0.207.

Keywords: ADDIE, constructivist learning, Integrated Real-Life Video and Animation, mastery concepts, rotational dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
11 Remote Observation of Environmental Parameters on the Surface of the Maricunga Salt Flat, Atacama Region, Chile

Authors: Lican Guzmán, José Manuel Lattus, Mariana Cervetto, Mauricio Calderón

Abstract:

Today the estimation of effects produced by climate change in high Andean wetland environments is confronted by big challenges. This study provides a way to an analysis by remote sensing how some Ambiental aspects have evolved on the Maricunga salt flat in the last 30 years, divided into the summer and winter seasons, and if global warming is conditioning these changes. The first step to achieve this goal was the recompilation of geological, hydrological, and morphometric antecedents to ensure an adequate contextualization of its environmental parameters. After this, software processing and analysis of Landsat 5,7 and 8 satellite imagery was required to get the vegetation, water, surface temperature, and soil moisture indexes (NDVI, NDWI, LST, and SMI) in order to see how their spatial-temporal conditions have evolved in the area of study during recent decades. Results show a tendency of regular increase in surface temperature and disponibility of water during both seasons but with slight drought periods during summer. Soil moisture factor behaves as a constant during the dry season and with a tendency to increase during wintertime. Vegetation analysis shows an areal and quality increase of its surface sustained through time that is consistent with the increase of water supply and temperature in the basin mentioned before. Roughly, the effects of climate change can be described as positive for the Maricunga salt flat; however, the lack of exact correlation in dates of the imagery available to remote sensing analysis could be a factor for misleading in the interpretation of results.

Keywords: global warming, geology, SIG, Atacama Desert, Salar de Maricunga, environmental geology, NDVI, SMI, LST, NDWI, Landsat

Procedia PDF Downloads 10
10 Anti-Intellectualism in Populist Discourse and Its Role in Identity Construction: A Comparative Study between the United States of America and France

Authors: Iuliana-Erika Köpeczi

Abstract:

‘Language is no longer regarded as peripheral to our grasp of the world we live in, but as central to it. Words are not mere vocal labels or communicational adjuncts superimposed upon an already given order of things. They are collective products of social interaction, essential instruments through which human beings constitute and articulate their world’, said Roy Harris. If we were to accept the above-mentioned premise, then we surely must accept that discourse, generally, - and political discourse, specifically -, bears a crucial importance to one’s perception of reality. The way in which political rhetoric constructs reality changes the relationship between the voter and his/her view of the world, which, in turn, influences greatly the future trends of political participation. In this context, our inquiry focuses on the role of populist discourses in the post 9/11 political rhetoric, and how this led to the formation, construction and reconstruction of identity within the ‘us’ vs. ‘them’ dichotomy. It is our hypothesis that anti-intellectualistic elements played a significant role in the manner in which identity construction had been carried out on a discursive level. By adopting a comparative approach, we intend to identify the similarities and differences between the use of such anti-intellectualist elements in the United States of America on one hand – within the discourse of Rick Santorum, – and France on the other – with Marine le Pen’s discourse. Our methodological approach uses close textual analysis of primary source material (discourse analysis); historical contextualization of both primary documents and broader socio-political and cultural framework through archival research and secondary sources; as well as interpretation of primary texts through theoretical frameworks (qualitative research). We hope that the output of our endeavor will be useful in better understanding the different correlations that exist between anti-intellectualism and populism and how the interactions between these two elements aids in political identity construction through discourse.

Keywords: anti-intellectualism, discourse theory, France, identity construction, populism, United States of America

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
9 From CBGB to F21: The Ramone's Band T-Shirt and Its Representations in the Mainstream Culture

Authors: Cláudia Pereira, Lívia Boeschenstein

Abstract:

This article aims to present an analysis of rock band t-shirts as an element that claims a certain identity in modern-contemporary culture. This work focuses on the study of t-shirts that display the name, related elements and the logo of punk band The Ramones, because of its strong presence in the collective mind along the last decades. As we shall see, it is possible to observe a phenomenon of symbolic transition from the original cultural place of that object. At first, it was a piece of cloth that had been part of a specific subculture and then it became just a generic item diluted by the mainstream. This symbolic transitional phenomenon is significant in many ways and will be discussed furthermore. For the analysis, we begin with a brief introduction to the history of the band, followed by the study about the vintage rock band T-shirts and their meanings. From there, we will turn to a historical contextualization of band T-shirts as a subcultural item and to its redefinition after the appropriation made by the mainstream. To guide this reasoning, it will be used theories about the styles, subcultures and youth culture and about material culture from an anthropological perspective. In addition, we shall see the theories and concepts of social representations in order to understand the ways of using the Ramones’s T-shirt as a representative element of a fashionable style. This T-shirt, after being resignified by the standardization and the massive consumption, no longer symbolizes the punk movement, its behavioral motivations and original policies. Also has little to do with the rage the working class suburbs of London or New York. It seems to be a mute and vague sign of a restricted rebellion, foreseen and framed establishing a stylistic contrast to the designer clothes and good behavior predicted by establishment. It's an item that composes a specific style available on the market, but at the same time is accepted by the mainstream and provides a subcultural association that has some prestige in society. Another perspective is that of resignification loop. As the same way that punk resignified the conventional goods for their own social standards, fashion resignifies what was said to be an object of a subculture and absorbs in their own mass culture standards. Therefore, outsiders to the punk phenomenon wearing Ramones’s T-shirts can be perceived negatively by subcultural members, but at the same time are well received by those who are partially unaware or completely out of subcultural context. For the general public, the stamp of the Ramones’s logo happens to be appreciated as a diffuse allusion to a punk style, since its original meaning has being entirely neutralized.

Keywords: social representations, subcultures, material culture, punk

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
8 Agroecology: Rethink the Local in the Global to Promote the Creation of Novelties

Authors: Pauline Cuenin, Marcelo Leles Romarco Oliveira

Abstract:

Based on their localities and following their ecological rationality, family-based farmers have experimented, adapted and innovated to improve their production systems continuously for millennia. With the technological package transfer processes of the so-called Green Revolution for agricultural holdings, farmers have become increasingly dependent on ready-made "recipes" built from so-called "universal" and global knowledge to face the problems that emerge in the management of local agroecosystems, thus reducing their creative and experiential capacities. However, the production of novelties within farms is fundamental to the transition to more sustainable agro food systems. In fact, as the fruits of local knowledge and / or the contextualization of exogenous knowledge, novelties are seen as seeds of transition. By presenting new techniques, new organizational forms and epistemological approaches, agroecology was pointed out as a way to encourage and promote the creative capacity of farmers. From this perspective, this theoretical work aims to analyze how agroecology encourages the innovative capacity of farmers, and in general, the production of novelties. For this, an analysis was made of the theoretical and methodological bases of agroecology through a literature review, specifically looking for the way in which it articulates the local with the global, complemented by an analysis of agro ecological Brazilian experiences. It was emphasized that, based on the peasant way of doing agriculture, that is, on ecological / social co-evolution or still called co-production (interaction between human beings and living nature), agroecology recognizes and revalues peasant involves the deep interactions of the farmer with his site (bio-physical and social). As a "place science," practice and movement, it specifically takes into consideration the local and empirical knowledge of farmers, which allows questioning and modifying the paradigms that underpin the current agriculture that have disintegrated farmers' creative processes. In addition to upgrade the local, agroecology allows the dialogue of local knowledge with global knowledge, essential in the process of changes to get out of the dominant logic of thought and give shape to new experiences. In order to reach this articulation, agroecology involves new methodological focuses seeking participatory methods of study and intervention that express themselves in the form of horizontal spaces of socialization and collective learning that involve several actors with different knowledge. These processes promoted by agroecology favor the production of novelties at local levels for expansion at other levels, such as the global, through trans local agro ecological networks.

Keywords: agroecology, creativity, global, local, novelty

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
7 Advertising Disability Index: A Content Analysis of Disability in Television Commercial Advertising from 2018

Authors: Joshua Loebner

Abstract:

Tectonic shifts within the advertising industry regularly and repeatedly present a deluge of data to be intuited across a spectrum of key performance indicators with innumerable interpretations where live campaigns are vivisected to pivot towards coalescence amongst a digital diaspora. But within this amalgam of analytics, validation, and creative campaign manipulation, where do diversity and disability inclusion fit in? In 2018 several major brands were able to answer this question definitely and directly by incorporating people with disabilities into advertisements. Disability inclusion, representation, and portrayals are documented annually across a number of different media, from film to primetime television, but ongoing studies centering on advertising have not been conducted. Symbols and semiotics in advertising often focus on a brand’s features and benefits, but this analysis on advertising and disability shows, how in 2018, creative campaigns and the disability community came together with the goal to continue the momentum and spark conversations. More brands are welcoming inclusion and sharing positive portrayals of intersectional diversity and disability. Within the analysis and surrounding scholarship, a multipoint analysis of each advertisement and meta-interpretation of the research has been conducted to provide data, clarity, and contextualization of insights. This research presents an advertising disability index that can be monitored for trends and shifts in future studies and to provide further comparisons and contrasts of advertisements. An overview of the increasing buying power within the disability community and population changes among this group anchors the significance and size of the minority in the US. When possible, viewpoints from creative teams and advertisers that developed the ads are brought into the research to further establish understanding, meaning, and individuals’ purposeful approaches towards disability inclusion. Finally, the conclusion and discussion present key takeaways to learn from the research, build advocacy and action both within advertising scholarship and the profession. This study, developed into an advertising disability index, will answer questions of how people with disabilities are represented in each ad. In advertising that includes disability, there is a creative pendulum. At one extreme, among many other negative interpretations, people with disables are portrayed in a way that conveys pity, fosters ableism and discrimination, and shows that people with disabilities are less than normal from a societal and cultural perspective. At the other extreme, people with disabilities are portrayed with a type of undue inspiration, considered inspiration porn, or superhuman, otherwise known as supercrip, and in ways that most people with disabilities could never achieve, or don’t want to be seen for. While some ads reflect both extremes, others stood out for non-polarizing inclusion of people with disabilities. This content analysis explores television commercial advertisements to determine the presence of people with disabilities and any other associated disability themes and/or concepts. Content analysis will allow for measuring the presence and interpretation of disability portrayals in each ad.

Keywords: advertising, brand, disability, marketing

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
6 The Orchestral Composition The Dream of Jacob in the Context of Krzysztof Penderecki’s Musical Oeuvre: Comparing Textural Taxonomies Using the Acousmographe Software

Authors: Luís Raimundo

Abstract:

The renowned polish music composer Krzysztof Penderecki (1933-2020), author of a vast musical work, largely surpassing two hundred compositions, is undoubtedly one of the most prolific and radical artists in the recent music history. However, throughout his musical production, it becomes noticeable a gradual departure from the vigorous avant-garde attitude that characterizes his first creative period towards a later and more refined aesthetic perspective. The composition that definitively marks this stylistic change in Penderecki's music is "Als Jakob erwachte aus dem Schlaf, sah er, daß Gott dagewesen war. Er hat es aber nicht gemerkt" ("When Jacob awoke from his sleep, he saw that God had been there." But he didn't notice"), also known as The Dream of Jacob, or The Awakening of Jacob, written in 1974, to celebrate the Princedom's Silver Jubilee of Prince Rainier III, from Monaco, and dedicated to this Monarch. The title of this orchestral piece refers to the biblical versicle concerning the Dream of Jacob (Genesis 28:16). In spite of the vast number of bibliographical items on Penderecki - and specifically in the context of biblically inspired music, which constitutes a substantial lot of Penderecki's music - and despite the relevance of the aforementioned components in his musical oeuvre and the History of Music in general, this remains one of his less studied compositions, whether from the outlook of its religious theme, its internal structure or, even most, regarding the aesthetic locus in the general context of its artistic production. Although the majority of authors are unanimous in considering The Dream of Jacob as marking the beginning of Penderecki's neo-romantic phase, there is no critical study that approaches the internal elements of this composition within the scope of the aforementioned aesthetic and stylistic change. Thus, this paper intends to shed some light on the technical processes that Penderecki used in this work, stressing some of the musical aspects that unveil the aesthetic distance between this piece and some of the previous ones. This lecture will essentially consist of a brief comparative study between works from the so-called "sonoristic" phase of Penderecki, and The Dream of Jacob, supported by musical and visual examples and preceded by a succinct historical contextualization of this composition. This research is mostly focused on the textural features and sound masses that are a trademark of Penderecki's musical style. Most of this paper will be displayed through the Acousmographe software – developed by GRM (Groupe de Recherches Musicales) – which allows the visualization of graphics associated with sound elements in the music. Also, some comparison tables will be shown to further support the addressed issues. The main objective of this communication is to present a renewed vision of The Dream of Jacob, revealing in which aspects it relates to the works of Penderecki previously written, demonstrating how this musical composition has started a new aesthetic phase in his musical oeuvre.

Keywords: Krzysztof Penderecki, the dream of Jacob, texture, sonorism, cluster, acousmographe

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
5 Evaluation of Sustained Improvement in Trauma Education Approaches for the College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Trauma Nursing Program

Authors: Pauline Calleja, Brooke Alexander

Abstract:

In 2010 the College of Emergency Nursing Australasia (CENA) undertook sole administration of the Trauma Nursing Program (TNP) across Australia. The original TNP was developed from recommendations by the Review of Trauma and Emergency Services-Victoria. While participant and faculty feedback about the program was positive, issues were identified that were common for industry training programs in Australia. These issues included didactic approaches, with many lectures and little interaction/activity for participants. Participants were not necessarily encouraged to undertake deep learning due to the teaching and learning principles underpinning the course, and thus participants described having to learn by rote, and only gain a surface understanding of principles that were not always applied to their working context. In Australia, a trauma or emergency nurse may work in variable contexts that impact on practice, especially where resources influence scope and capacity of hospitals to provide trauma care. In 2011, a program review was undertaken resulting in major changes to the curriculum, teaching, learning and assessment approaches. The aim was to improve learning including a greater emphasis on pre-program preparation for participants, the learning environment and clinically applicable contextualized outcomes participants experienced. Previously if participants wished to undertake assessment, they were given a take home examination. The assessment had poor uptake and return, and provided no rigor since assessment was not invigilated. A new assessment structure was enacted with an invigilated examination during course hours. These changes were implemented in early 2012 with great improvement in both faculty and participant satisfaction. This presentation reports on a comparison of participant evaluations collected from courses post implementation in 2012 and in 2015 to evaluate if positive changes were sustained. Methods: Descriptive statistics were applied in analyzing evaluations. Since all questions had more than 20% of cells with a count of <5, Fisher’s Exact Test was used to identify significance (p = <0.05) between groups. Results: A total of fourteen group evaluations were included in this analysis, seven CENA TNP groups from 2012 and seven from 2015 (randomly chosen). A total of 173 participant evaluations were collated (n = 81 from 2012 and 92 from 2015). All course evaluations were anonymous, and nine of the original 14 questions were applicable for this evaluation. All questions were rated by participants on a five-point Likert scale. While all items showed improvement from 2012 to 2015, significant improvement was noted in two items. These were in regard to the content being delivered in a way that met participant learning needs and satisfaction with the length and pace of the program. Evaluation of written comments supports these results. Discussion: The aim of redeveloping the CENA TNP was to improve learning and satisfaction for participants. These results demonstrate that initial improvements in 2012 were able to be maintained and in two essential areas significantly improved. Changes that increased participant engagement, support and contextualization of course materials were essential for CENA TNP evolution.

Keywords: emergency nursing education, industry training programs, teaching and learning, trauma education

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
4 The Real Ambassador: How Hip Hop Culture Connects and Educates across Borders

Authors: Frederick Gooding

Abstract:

This paper explores how many Hip Hop artists have intentionally and strategically invoked sustainability principles of people, planet and profits as a means to create community, compensate for and cope with structural inequalities in society. These themes not only create community within one's country, but the powerful display and demonstration of these narratives create community on a global plane. Listeners of Hip Hop are therefore able to learn about the political events occurring in another country free of censure, and establish solidarity worldwide. Hip Hop therefore can be an ingenious tool to create self-worth, recycle positive imagery, and serve as a defense mechanism from institutional and structural forces that conspire to make an upward economic and social trajectory difficult, if not impossible for many people of color, all across the world. Although the birthplace of Hip Hop, the United States of America, is still predominately White, it has undoubtedly grown more diverse at a breath-­taking pace in recent decades. Yet, whether American mainstream media will fully reflect America’s newfound diversity remains to be seen. As it stands, American mainstream media is seen and enjoyed by diverse audiences not just in America, but all over the world. Thus, it is imperative that further inquiry is conducted about one of the fastest growing genres within one of the world’s largest and most influential media industries generating upwards of $10 billion annually. More importantly, hip hop, its music and associated culture collectively represent a shared social experience of significant value. They are important tools used both to inform and influence economic, social and political identity. Conversely, principles of American exceptionalism often prioritize American political issues over those of others, thereby rendering a myopic political view within the mainstream. This paper will therefore engage in an international contextualization of the global phenomena entitled Hip Hop by exploring the creative genius and marketing appeal of Hip Hop within the global context of information technology, political expression and social change in addition to taking a critical look at historically racialized imagery within mainstream media. Many artists the world over have been able to freely express themselves and connect with broader communities outside of their own borders, all through the sound practice of the craft of Hip Hop. An empirical understanding of political, social and economic forces within the United States will serve as a bridge for identifying and analyzing transnational themes of commonality for typically marginalized or disaffected communities facing similar struggles for survival and respect. The sharing of commonalities of marginalized cultures not only serves as a source of education outside of typically myopic, mainstream sources, but it also creates transnational bonds globally to the extent that practicing artists resonate with many of the original themes of (now mostly underground) Hip Hop as with many of the African American artists responsible for creating and fostering Hip Hop's powerful outlet of expression. Hip Hop's power of connectivity and culture-sharing transnationally across borders provides a key source of education to be taken seriously by academics.

Keywords: culture, education, global, hip hop, mainstream music, transnational

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
3 Exploring Digital Media’s Impact on Sports Sponsorship: A Global Perspective

Authors: Sylvia Chan-Olmsted, Lisa-Charlotte Wolter

Abstract:

With the continuous proliferation of media platforms, there have been tremendous changes in media consumption behaviors. From the perspective of sports sponsorship, while there is now a multitude of platforms to create brand associations, the changing media landscape and shift of message control also mean that sports sponsors will have to take into account the nature of and consumer responses toward these emerging digital media to devise effective marketing strategies. Utilizing the personal interview methodology, this study is qualitative and exploratory in nature. A total of 18 experts from European and American academics, sports marketing industry, and sports leagues/teams were interviewed to address three main research questions: 1) What are the major changes in digital technologies that are relevant to sports sponsorship; 2) How have digital media influenced the channels and platforms of sports sponsorship; and 3) How have these technologies affected the goals, strategies, and measurement of sports sponsorship. The study found that sports sponsorship has moved from consumer engagement, engagement measurement, and consequences of engagement on brand behaviors to micro-targeting one on one, engagement by context, time, and space, and activation and leveraging based on tracking and databases. From the perspective of platforms and channels, the use of mobile devices is prominent during sports content consumption. Increasing multiscreen media consumption means that sports sponsors need to optimize their investment decisions in leagues, teams, or game-related content sources, as they need to go where the fans are most engaged in. The study observed an imbalanced strategic leveraging of technology and digital infrastructure. While sports leagues have had less emphasis on brand value management via technology, sports sponsors have been much more active in utilizing technologies like mobile/LBS tools, big data/user info, real-time marketing and programmatic, and social media activation. Regardless of the new media/platforms, the study found that integration and contextualization are the two essential means of improving sports sponsorship effectiveness through technology. That is, how sponsors effectively integrate social media/mobile/second screen into their existing legacy media sponsorship plan so technology works for the experience/message instead of distracting fans. Additionally, technological advancement and attention economy amplify the importance of consumer data gathering, but sports consumer data does not mean loyalty or engagement. This study also affirms the benefit of digital media as they offer viral and pre-event activations through storytelling way before the actual event, which is critical for leveraging brand association before and after. That is, sponsors now have multiple opportunities and platforms to tell stories about their brands for longer time period. In summary, digital media facilitate fan experience, access to the brand message, multiplatform/channel presentations, storytelling, and content sharing. Nevertheless, rather than focusing on technology and media, today’s sponsors need to define what they want to focus on in terms of content themes that connect with their brands and then identify the channels/platforms. The big challenge for sponsors is to play to the venues/media’s specificity and its fit with the target audience and not uniformly deliver the same message in the same format on different platforms/channels.

Keywords: digital media, mobile media, social media, technology, sports sponsorship

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
2 Overview of Research Contexts about XR Technologies in Architectural Practice

Authors: Adeline Stals

Abstract:

The transformation of architectural design practices has been underway for almost forty years due to the development and democratization of computer technology. New and more efficient tools are constantly being proposed to architects, amplifying a technological wave that sometimes stimulates them, sometimes overwhelms them, depending essentially on their digital culture and the context (socio-economic, structural, organizational) in which they work on a daily basis. Our focus is on VR, AR, and MR technologies dedicated to architecture. The commercialization of affordable headsets like the Oculus Rift, the HTC Vive or more low-tech like the Google CardBoard, makes it more accessible to benefit from these technologies. In that regard, researchers report the growing interest of these tools for architects, given the new perspectives they open up in terms of workflow, representation, collaboration, and client’s involvement. However, studies rarely mention the consequences of the sample studied on results. Our research provides an overview of VR, AR, and MR researches among a corpus of papers selected from conferences and journals. A closer look at the sample of these research projects highlights the necessity to take into consideration the context of studies in order to develop tools truly dedicated to the real practices of specific architect profiles. This literature review formalizes milestones for future challenges to address. The methodology applied is based on a systematic review of two sources of publications. The first one is the Cumincad database, which regroups publications from conferences exclusively about digital in architecture. Additionally, the second part of the corpus is based on journal publications. Journals have been selected considering their ranking on Scimago. Among the journals in the predefined category ‘architecture’ and in Quartile 1 for 2018 (last update when consulted), we have retained the ones related to the architectural design process: Design Studies, CoDesign, Architectural Science Review, Frontiers of Architectural Research and Archnet-IJAR. Beside those journals, IJAC, not classified in the ‘architecture’ category, is selected by the author for its adequacy with architecture and computing. For all requests, the search terms were ‘virtual reality’, ‘augmented reality’, and ‘mixed reality’ in title and/or keywords for papers published between 2015 and 2019 (included). This frame time is defined considering the fast evolution of these technologies in the past few years. Accordingly, the systematic review covers 202 publications. The literature review on studies about XR technologies establishes the state of the art of the current situation. It highlights that studies are mostly based on experimental contexts with controlled conditions (pedagogical, e.g.) or on practices established in large architectural offices of international renown. However, few studies focus on the strategies and practices developed by offices of smaller size, which represent the largest part of the market. Indeed, a European survey studying the architectural profession in Europe in 2018 reveals that 99% of offices are composed of less than ten people, and 71% of only one person. The study also showed that the number of medium-sized offices is continuously decreasing in favour of smaller structures. In doing so, a frontier seems to remain between the worlds of research and practice, especially for the majority of small architectural practices having a modest use of technology. This paper constitutes a reference for the next step of the research and for further worldwide researches by facilitating their contextualization.

Keywords: architectural design, literature review, SME, XR technologies

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
1 Neoliberal Settler City: Socio-Spatial Segregation, Livelihood of Artists/Craftsmen in Delhi

Authors: Sophy Joseph

Abstract:

The study uses the concept of ‘Settler city’ to understand the nature of peripheralization that a neoliberal city initiates. The settler city designs powerless communities without inherent rights, title and sovereignty. Kathputli Colony, home to generations of artists/craftsmen, who have kept heritage of arts/crafts alive, has undergone eviction of its population from urban space. The proposed study, ‘Neoliberal Settler City: Socio-spatial segregation and livelihood of artists/craftsmen in Delhi’ would problematize the settler city as a colonial technology. The colonial regime has ‘erased’ the ‘unwanted’ as primitive and swept them to peripheries in the city. This study would also highlight how structural change in political economy has undermined their crafts/arts by depriving them from practicing/performing it with dignity in urban space. The interconnections between citizenship and In-Situ Private Public Partnership in Kathputli rehabilitation has become part of academic exercise. However, a comprehensive study connecting inherent characteristics of neoliberal settler city, trajectory of political economy of unorganized workers - artists/craftsmen and legal containment and exclusion leading to dispossession and marginalization of communities from the city site, is relevant to contextualize the trauma of spatial segregation. This study would deal with political, cultural, social and economic dominant behavior of the structure in the state formation, accumulation of property and design of urban space, fueled by segregation of marginalized/unorganized communities and disowning the ‘footloose proletariat’, the migrant workforce. The methodology of study involves qualitative research amongst communities and the field work-oral testimonies and personal accounts- becomes the primary material to theorize the realities. The secondary materials in the forms of archival materials about historical evolution of Delhi as a planned city from various archives, would be used. As the study also adopt ‘narrative approach’ in qualitative study, the life experiences of craftsmen/artists as performers and emotional trauma of losing their livelihood and space forms an important record to understand the instability and insecurity that marginalization and development attributes on urban poor. The study attempts to prove that though there was a change in political tradition from colonialism to constitutional democracy, new state still follows the policy of segregation and dispossession of the communities. It is this dispossession from the space, deprivation of livelihood and non-consultative process in rehabilitation that reflects the neoliberal approach of the state and also critical findings in the study. This study would entail critical spatial lens analyzing ethnographic and sociological data, representational practices and development debates to understand ‘urban otherization’ against craftsmen/artists. This seeks to develop a conceptual framework for understanding the resistance of communities against primitivity attached with them and to decolonize the city. This would help to contextualize the demand for declaring Kathputli Colony as ‘heritage artists village’. The conceptualization and contextualization would help to argue for right to city of the communities, collective rights to property, services and self-determination. The aspirations of the communities also help to draw normative orientation towards decolonization. It is important to study this site as part of the framework, ‘inclusive cities’ because cities are rarely noted as important sites of ‘community struggles’.

Keywords: neoliberal settler city, socio-spatial segregation, the livelihood of artists/craftsmen, dispossession of indigenous communities, urban planning and cultural uprooting

Procedia PDF Downloads 62