Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 95

Search results for: NDVI

95 Quantification of NDVI Variation within the Major Plant Formations in Nunavik

Authors: Anna Gaspard, Stéphane Boudreau, Martin Simard


Altered temperature and precipitation regimes associated with climate change generally result in improved conditions for plant growth. For Arctic and sub-Arctic ecosystems, this new climatic context favours an increase in primary productivity, a phenomenon often referred to as "greening". The development of an erect shrub cover has been identified as the main driver of Arctic greening. Although this phenomenon has been widely documented at the circumpolar scale, little information is available at the scale of plant communities, the basic unit of the Arctic, and sub-Arctic landscape mosaic. The objective of this study is to quantify the variation of NDVI within the different plant communities of Nunavik, which will allow us to identify the plant formations that contribute the most to the increase in productivity observed in this territory. To do so, the variation of NDVI extracted from Landsat images for the period 1984 to 2020 was quantified. From the Landsat scenes, annual summer NDVI mosaics with a resolution of 30 m were generated. The ecological mapping of Northern Quebec vegetation was then overlaid on the time series of NDVI maps to calculate the average NDVI per vegetation polygon for each year. Our results show that NDVI increases are more important for the bioclimatic domains of forest tundra and erect shrub tundra, and shrubby formations. Surface deposits, variations in mean annual temperature, and variations in winter precipitation are involved in NDVI variations. This study has thus allowed us to quantify changes in Nunavik's vegetation communities, using fine spatial resolution satellite imagery data.

Keywords: climate change, latitudinal gradient, plant communities, productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
94 Impacts of Aquaculture Farms on the Mangroves Forests of Sundarbans, India (2010-2018): Temporal Changes of NDVI

Authors: Sandeep Thakur, Ismail Mondal, Phani Bhusan Ghosh, Papita Das, Tarun Kumar De


Sundarbans Reserve forest of India has been undergoing major transformations in the recent past owing to population pressure and related changes. This has brought about major changes in the spatial landscape of the region especially in the western parts. This study attempts to assess the impacts of the Landcover changes on the mangrove habitats. Time series imageries of Landsat were used to analyze the Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI) patterns over the western parts of Indian Sundarbans forest in order to assess the heath of the mangroves in the region. The images were subjected to Land use Land cover (LULC) classification using sub-pixel classification techniques in ERDAS Imagine software and the changes were mapped. The spatial proliferation of aquaculture farms during the study period was also mapped. A multivariate regression analysis was carried out between the obtained NDVI values and the LULC classes. Similarly, the observed meteorological data sets (time series rainfall and minimum and maximum temperature) were also statistically correlated for regression. The study demonstrated the application of NDVI in assessing the environmental status of mangroves as the relationship between the changes in the environmental variables and the remote sensing based indices felicitate an efficient evaluation of environmental variables, which can be used in the coastal zone monitoring and development processes.

Keywords: aquaculture farms, LULC, Mangrove, NDVI

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
93 Analyzing the Impact of Spatio-Temporal Climate Variations on the Rice Crop Calendar in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Imran, Iqra Basit, Mobushir Riaz Khan, Sajid Rasheed Ahmad


The present study investigates the space-time impact of climate change on the rice crop calendar in tropical Gujranwala, Pakistan. The climate change impact was quantified through the climatic variables, whereas the existing calendar of the rice crop was compared with the phonological stages of the crop, depicted through the time series of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from Landsat data for the decade 2005-2015. Local maxima were applied on the time series of NDVI to compute the rice phonological stages. Panel models with fixed and cross-section fixed effects were used to establish the relation between the climatic parameters and the time-series of NDVI across villages and across rice growing periods. Results show that the climatic parameters have significant impact on the rice crop calendar. Moreover, the fixed effect model is a significant improvement over cross-sectional fixed effect models (R-squared equal to 0.673 vs. 0.0338). We conclude that high inter-annual variability of climatic variables cause high variability of NDVI, and thus, a shift in the rice crop calendar. Moreover, inter-annual (temporal) variability of the rice crop calendar is high compared to the inter-village (spatial) variability. We suggest the local rice farmers to adapt this change in the rice crop calendar.

Keywords: Landsat NDVI, panel models, temperature, rainfall

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
92 Using Time Series NDVI to Model Land Cover Change: A Case Study in the Berg River Catchment Area, Western Cape, South Africa

Authors: Adesuyi Ayodeji Steve, Zahn Munch


This study investigates the use of MODIS NDVI to identify agricultural land cover change areas on an annual time step (2007 - 2012) and characterize the trend in the study area. An ISODATA classification was performed on the MODIS imagery to select only the agricultural class producing 3 class groups namely: agriculture, agriculture/semi-natural, and semi-natural. NDVI signatures were created for the time series to identify areas dominated by cereals and vineyards with the aid of ancillary, pictometry and field sample data. The NDVI signature curve and training samples aided in creating a decision tree model in WEKA 3.6.9. From the training samples two classification models were built in WEKA using decision tree classifier (J48) algorithm; Model 1 included ISODATA classification and Model 2 without, both having accuracies of 90.7% and 88.3% respectively. The two models were used to classify the whole study area, thus producing two land cover maps with Model 1 and 2 having classification accuracies of 77% and 80% respectively. Model 2 was used to create change detection maps for all the other years. Subtle changes and areas of consistency (unchanged) were observed in the agricultural classes and crop practices over the years as predicted by the land cover classification. 41% of the catchment comprises of cereals with 35% possibly following a crop rotation system. Vineyard largely remained constant over the years, with some conversion to vineyard (1%) from other land cover classes. Some of the changes might be as a result of misclassification and crop rotation system.

Keywords: change detection, land cover, modis, NDVI

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
91 Urban Heat Island Intensity Assessment through Comparative Study on Land Surface Temperature and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index: A Case Study of Chittagong, Bangladesh

Authors: Tausif A. Ishtiaque, Zarrin T. Tasin, Kazi S. Akter


Current trend of urban expansion, especially in the developing countries has caused significant changes in land cover, which is generating great concern due to its widespread environmental degradation. Energy consumption of the cities is also increasing with the aggravated heat island effect. Distribution of land surface temperature (LST) is one of the most significant climatic parameters affected by urban land cover change. Recent increasing trend of LST is causing elevated temperature profile of the built up area with less vegetative cover. Gradual change in land cover, especially decrease in vegetative cover is enhancing the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect in the developing cities around the world. Increase in the amount of urban vegetation cover can be a useful solution for the reduction of UHI intensity. LST and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) have widely been accepted as reliable indicators of UHI and vegetation abundance respectively. Chittagong, the second largest city of Bangladesh, has been a growth center due to rapid urbanization over the last several decades. This study assesses the intensity of UHI in Chittagong city by analyzing the relationship between LST and NDVI based on the type of land use/land cover (LULC) in the study area applying an integrated approach of Geographic Information System (GIS), remote sensing (RS), and regression analysis. Land cover map is prepared through an interactive supervised classification using remotely sensed data from Landsat ETM+ image along with NDVI differencing using ArcGIS. LST and NDVI values are extracted from the same image. The regression analysis between LST and NDVI indicates that within the study area, UHI is directly correlated with LST while negatively correlated with NDVI. It interprets that surface temperature reduces with increase in vegetation cover along with reduction in UHI intensity. Moreover, there are noticeable differences in the relationship between LST and NDVI based on the type of LULC. In other words, depending on the type of land usage, increase in vegetation cover has a varying impact on the UHI intensity. This analysis will contribute to the formulation of sustainable urban land use planning decisions as well as suggesting suitable actions for mitigation of UHI intensity within the study area.

Keywords: land cover change, land surface temperature, normalized difference vegetation index, urban heat island

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
90 NDVI as a Measure of Change in Forest Biomass

Authors: Amritansh Agarwal, Tejaswi Agarwal


Forest ecosystem plays very important role in the global carbon cycle. It stores about 80% of all above ground and 40% of all below ground terrestrial organic carbon. There is much interest in the extent of tropical forests and their rates of deforestation for two reasons: greenhouse gas contributions and the impact of profoundly negative biodiversity. Deforestation has many ecological, social and economic consequences, one of which is the loss of biological diversity. The rapid deployment of remote sensing (RS) satellites and development of RS analysis techniques in the past three decades have provided a reliable, effective, and practical way to characterize terrestrial ecosystem properties. Global estimates of tropical deforestation vary widely and range from 50,000 to 170,000 km2 /yr Recent FAO tropical deforestation estimates for 1990–1995 cite 116,756km2 / yr globally. Remote Sensing can prove to be a very useful tool in monitoring of forests and associated deforestation to a sufficient level of accuracy without the need of physically surveying the forest areas as many of them are physically inaccessible. The methodology for the assessment of forest cover using digital image processing (ERDAS) has been followed. The satellite data for the study was procured from USGS website in the digital format. While procuring the satellite data, care was taken to ensure that the data was cloud and aerosol free by making using of FLAASH atmospheric correction technique. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been used as a numerical indicator of the reduction in ground biomass. NDVI = (near I.R - Red)/ (near I.R + Red). After calculating the NDVI variations and associated mean we have analysed the change in ground biomass. Through this paper we have tried to indicate the rate of deforestation over a given period of time by comparing the forest cover at different time intervals. With the help of remote sensing and GIS techniques it is clearly shows that the total forest cover is continuously degrading and transforming into various land use/land cover category.

Keywords: remote sensing, deforestation, supervised classification, NDVI change detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
89 A Method to Estimate Wheat Yield Using Landsat Data

Authors: Zama Mahmood


The increasing demand of food management, monitoring of the crop growth and forecasting its yield well before harvest is very important. These days, yield assessment together with monitoring of crop development and its growth are being identified with the help of satellite and remote sensing images. Studies using remote sensing data along with field survey validation reported high correlation between vegetation indices and yield. With the development of remote sensing technique, the detection of crop and its mechanism using remote sensing data on regional or global scales have become popular topics in remote sensing applications. Punjab, specially the southern Punjab region is extremely favourable for wheat production. But measuring the exact amount of wheat production is a tedious job for the farmers and workers using traditional ground based measurements. However, remote sensing can provide the most real time information. In this study, using the Normalized Differentiate Vegetation Index (NDVI) indicator developed from Landsat satellite images, the yield of wheat has been estimated during the season of 2013-2014 for the agricultural area around Bahawalpur. The average yield of the wheat was found 35 kg/acre by analysing field survey data. The field survey data is in fair agreement with the NDVI values extracted from Landsat images. A correlation between wheat production (ton) and number of wheat pixels has also been calculated which is in proportional pattern with each other. Also a strong correlation between the NDVI and wheat area was found (R2=0.71) which represents the effectiveness of the remote sensing tools for crop monitoring and production estimation.

Keywords: landsat, NDVI, remote sensing, satellite images, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
88 Application of Remote Sensing for Monitoring the Impact of Lapindo Mud Sedimentation for Mangrove Ecosystem, Case Study in Sidoarjo, East Java

Authors: Akbar Cahyadhi Pratama Putra, Tantri Utami Widhaningtyas, M. Randy Aswin


Indonesia as an archipelagic nation have very long coastline which have large potential marine resources, one of that is the mangrove ecosystems. Lapindo mudflow disaster in Sidoarjo, East Java requires mudflow flowed into the sea through the river Brantas and Porong. Mud material that transported by river flow is feared dangerous because they contain harmful substances such as heavy metals. This study aims to map the mangrove ecosystem seen from its density and knowing how big the impact of a disaster on the Lapindo mud to mangrove ecosystem and accompanied by efforts to address the mangrove ecosystem that maintained continuity. Mapping coastal mangrove conditions of Sidoarjo was done using remote sensing products that Landsat 7 ETM + images with dry months of recording time in 2002, 2006, 2009, and 2014. The density of mangrove detected using NDVI that uses the band 3 that is the red channel and band 4 that is near IR channel. Image processing was used to produce NDVI using ENVI 5.1 software. NDVI results were used for the detection of mangrove density is 0-1. The development of mangrove ecosystems of both area and density from year to year experienced has a significant increase. Mangrove ecosystems growths are affected by material deposition area of Lapindo mud on Porong and Brantas river estuary, where the silt is growing medium suitable mangrove ecosystem and increasingly growing. Increasing the density caused support by public awareness to prevent heavy metals in the material so that the Lapindo mud mangrove breeding done around the farm.

Keywords: archipelagic nation, mangrove, Lapindo mudflow disaster, NDVI

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
87 Change Detection of Vegetative Areas Using Land Use Land Cover Derived from NDVI of Desert Encroached Areas

Authors: T. Garba, T. O. Quddus, Y. Y. Babanyara, M. A. Modibbo


Desertification is define as the changing of productive land into a desert as the result of ruination of land by man-induced soil erosion, which forces famers in the affected areas to move migrate or encourage into reserved areas in search of a fertile land for their farming activities. This study therefore used remote sensing imageries to determine the level of changes in the vegetative areas. To achieve that Normalized Difference of the Vegetative Index (NDVI), classified imageries and image slicing derived from landsat TM 1986, land sat ETM 1999 and Nigeria sat 1 2007 were used to determine changes in vegetations. From the Classified imageries it was discovered that there a more natural vegetation in classified images of 1986 than that of 1999 and 2007. This finding is also future in the three NDVI imageries, it was discovered that there is increased in high positive pixel value from 0.04 in 1986 to 0.22 in 1999 and to 0.32 in 2007. The figures in the three histogram also indicted that there is increased in vegetative areas from 29.15 Km2 in 1986, to 60.58 Km2 in 1999 and then to 109 Km2 in 2007. The study recommends among other things that there is need to restore natural vegetation through discouraging of farming activities in and around the natural vegetation in the study area.

Keywords: vegetative index, classified imageries, change detection, landsat, vegetation

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
86 Greenland Monitoring Using Vegetation Index: A Case Study of Lal Suhanra National Park

Authors: Rabia Munsaf Khan, Eshrat Fatima


The analysis of the spatial extent and temporal change of vegetation cover using remotely sensed data is of critical importance to agricultural sciences. Pakistan, being an agricultural country depends on this resource as it makes 70% of the GDP. The case study is of Lal Suhanra National Park, which is not only the biggest forest reserve of Pakistan but also of Asia. The study is performed using different temporal images of Landsat. Also, the results of Landsat are cross-checked by using Sentinel-2 imagery as it has both higher spectral and spatial resolution. Vegetation can easily be detected using NDVI which is a common and widely used index. It is an important vegetation index, widely applied in research on global environmental and climatic change. The images are then classified to observe the change occurred over 15 years. Vegetation cover maps of 2000 and 2016 are used to generate the map of vegetation change detection for the respective years and to find out the changing pattern of vegetation cover. Also, the NDVI values aided in the detection of percentage decrease in vegetation cover. The study reveals that vegetation cover of the area has decreased significantly during the year 2000 and 2016.

Keywords: Landsat, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), sentinel 2, Greenland monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
85 Multi-Temporal Analysis of Vegetation Change within High Contaminated Watersheds by Superfund Sites in Wisconsin

Authors: Punwath Prum


Superfund site is recognized publicly to be a severe environmental problem to surrounding communities and biodiversity due to its hazardous chemical waste from industrial activities. It contaminates the soil and water but also is a leading potential point-source pollution affecting ecosystem in watershed areas from chemical substances. The risks of Superfund site on watershed can be effectively measured by utilizing publicly available data and geospatial analysis by free and open source application. This study analyzed the vegetation change within high risked contaminated watersheds in Wisconsin. The high risk watersheds were measured by which watershed contained high number Superfund sites. The study identified two potential risk watersheds in Lafayette and analyzed the temporal changes of vegetation within the areas based on Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) analysis. The raster statistic was used to compare the change of NDVI value over the period. The analysis results showed that the NDVI value within the Superfund sites’ boundary has a significant lower value than nearby surrounding and provides an analogy for environmental hazard affect by the chemical contamination in Superfund site.

Keywords: soil contamination, spatial analysis, watershed

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
84 Molecular Diagnosis of a Virus Associated with Red Tip Disease and Its Detection by Non Destructive Sensor in Pineapple (Ananas comosus)

Authors: A. K. Faizah, G. Vadamalai, S. K. Balasundram, W. L. Lim


Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a common crop in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Malaysia once ranked as one of the top 3 pineapple producers in the world in the 60's and early 70's, after Hawaii and Brazil. Moreover, government’s recognition of the pineapple crop as one of priority commodities to be developed for the domestics and international markets in the National Agriculture Policy. However, pineapple industry in Malaysia still faces numerous challenges, one of which is the management of disease and pest. Red tip disease on pineapple was first recognized about 20 years ago in a commercial pineapple stand located in Simpang Renggam, Johor, Peninsular Malaysia. Since its discovery, there has been no confirmation on its causal agent of this disease. The epidemiology of red tip disease is still not fully understood. Nevertheless, the disease symptoms and the spread within the field seem to point toward viral infection. Bioassay test on nucleic acid extracted from the red tip-affected pineapple was done on Nicotiana tabacum cv. Coker by rubbing the extracted sap. Localised lesions were observed 3 weeks after inoculation. Negative staining of the fresh inoculated Nicotiana tabacum cv. Coker showed the presence of membrane-bound spherical particles with an average diameter of 94.25nm under transmission electron microscope. The shape and size of the particles were similar to tospovirus. SDS-PAGE analysis of partial purified virions from inoculated N. tabacum produced a strong and a faint protein bands with molecular mass of approximately 29 kDa and 55 kDa. Partial purified virions of symptomatic pineapple leaves from field showed bands with molecular mass of approximately 29 kDa, 39 kDa and 55kDa. These bands may indicate the nucleocapsid protein identity of tospovirus. Furthermore, a handheld sensor, Greenseeker, was used to detect red tip symptoms on pineapple non-destructively based on spectral reflectance, measured as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Red tip severity was estimated and correlated with NDVI. Linear regression models were calibrated and tested developed in order to estimate red tip disease severity based on NDVI. Results showed a strong positive relationship between red tip disease severity and NDVI (r= 0.84).

Keywords: pineapple, diagnosis, virus, NDVI

Procedia PDF Downloads 723
83 Monitoring of Forest Cover Dynamics in the High Atlas of Morocco (Zaouit Ahansal) Using Remote Sensing Techniques and GIS

Authors: Abdelaziz Moujane, Abedelali Boulli, Abdellah Ouigmane


The present work focuses on the assessment of forestlandscape changes in the region of ZaouitAhansal, usingmultitemporal satellite images at high spatial resolution.Severalremotesensingmethodswereappliednamely: The supervised classification algorithm and NDVI whichwerecombined in a GIS environment to quantify the extent and change in density of forest stands (holmoak, juniper, thya, Aleppo pine, crops, and others).The resultsobtainedshowedthat the forest of ZaouitAhansal has undergonesignificantdegradationresulting in a decrease in the area of juniper, cedar, and zeenoak, as well as an increase in the area of baresoil and agricultural land. The remotesensing data providedsatisfactoryresults for identifying and quantifying changes in forestcover. In addition, thisstudycould serve as a reference for the development of management strategies and restoration programs.

Keywords: remote sensing, GIS, satellite image, NDVI, deforestation, zaouit ahansal

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
82 Monitoring Deforestation Using Remote Sensing And GIS

Authors: Tejaswi Agarwal, Amritansh Agarwal


Forest ecosystem plays very important role in the global carbon cycle. It stores about 80% of all above ground and 40% of all below ground terrestrial organic carbon. There is much interest in the extent of tropical forests and their rates of deforestation for two reasons: greenhouse gas contributions and the impact of profoundly negative biodiversity. Deforestation has many ecological, social and economic consequences, one of which is the loss of biological diversity. The rapid deployment of remote sensing (RS) satellites and development of RS analysis techniques in the past three decades have provided a reliable, effective, and practical way to characterize terrestrial ecosystem properties. Global estimates of tropical deforestation vary widely and range from 50,000 to 170,000km2 /yr Recent FAO tropical deforestation estimates for 1990–1995 cite 116,756km2 / yr globally. Remote Sensing can prove to be a very useful tool in monitoring of forests and associated deforestation to a sufficient level of accuracy without the need of physically surveying the forest areas as many of them are physically inaccessible. The methodology for the assessment of forest cover using digital image processing (ERDAS) has been followed. The satellite data for the study was procured from Indian institute of remote Sensing (IIRS), Dehradoon in the digital format. While procuring the satellite data, care was taken to ensure that the data was cloud free and did not belong to dry and leafless season. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been used as a numerical indicator of the reduction in ground biomass. NDVI = (near I.R - Red)/ (near I.R + Red). After calculating the NDVI variations and associated mean, we have analysed the change in ground biomass. Through this paper, we have tried to indicate the rate of deforestation over a given period of time by comparing the forest cover at different time intervals. With the help of remote sensing and GIS techniques, it is clearly shown that the total forest cover is continuously degrading and transforming into various land use/land cover category.

Keywords: remote sensing, deforestation, supervised classification, NDVI, change detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
81 Green Thumb Engineering - Explainable Artificial Intelligence for Managing IoT Enabled Houseplants

Authors: Antti Nurminen, Avleen Malhi


Significant progress in intelligent systems in combination with exceedingly wide application domains having machine learning as the core technology are usually opaque, non-intuitive, and commonly complex for human users. We use innovative IoT technology which monitors and analyzes moisture, humidity, luminosity and temperature levels to assist end users for optimization of environmental conditions for their houseplants. For plant health monitoring, we construct a system yielding the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), supported by visual validation by users. We run the system for a selected plant, basil, in varying environmental conditions to cater for typical home conditions, and bootstrap our AI with the acquired data. For end users, we implement a web based user interface which provides both instructions and explanations.

Keywords: explainable artificial intelligence, intelligent agent, IoT, NDVI

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
80 The Use of Drones in Measuring Environmental Impacts of the Forest Garden Approach

Authors: Andrew J. Zacharias


The forest garden approach (FGA) was established by Trees for the Future (TREES) over the organization’s 30 years of agroforestry projects in Sub-Saharan Africa. This method transforms traditional agricultural systems into highly managed gardens that produce food and marketable products year-round. The effects of the FGA on food security, dietary diversity, and economic resilience have been measured closely, and TREES has begun to closely monitor the environmental impacts through the use of sensors mounted on unmanned aerial vehicles, commonly known as 'drones'. These drones collect thousands of pictures to create 3-D models in both the visible and the near-infrared wavelengths. Analysis of these models provides TREES with quantitative and qualitative evidence of improvements to the annual above-ground biomass and leaf area indices, as measured in-situ using NDVI calculations.

Keywords: agroforestry, biomass, drones, NDVI

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
79 Data Integration in a GIS Geographic Information System Mapping of Agriculture in Semi-Arid Region of Setif, Algeria

Authors: W. Riahi, M. L. Mansour


Using tools of data processing such as geographic information system (GIS) for the contribution of the space management becomes more and more frequent. It allows collecting and analyzing diverse natural information relative to the same territory. Space technologies play crucial role in agricultural phenomenon analysis. For this, satellite images treatment were used to classify vegetation density and particularly agricultural areas in Setif province by making recourse to the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). This step was completed by mapping agricultural activities of the province by using ArcGIS.10 software in order to display an overall view and to realize spatial analysis of various themes combined between them which are chosen according to their strategic importance in different thematic maps. The synthesis map elaborately showed that geographic information system can contribute significantly to agricultural management by describing potentialities and development opportunities of production systems and agricultural sectors.

Keywords: GIS, satellite image, agriculture, NDVI, thematic map

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
78 Assessing the Effect of Urban Growth on Land Surface Temperature: A Case Study of Conakry Guinea

Authors: Arafan Traore, Teiji Watanabe


Conakry, the capital city of the Republic of Guinea, has experienced a rapid urban expansion and population increased in the last two decades, which has resulted in remarkable local weather and climate change, raise energy demand and pollution and treating social, economic and environmental development. In this study, the spatiotemporal variation of the land surface temperature (LST) is retrieved to characterize the effect of urban growth on the thermal environment and quantify its relationship with biophysical indices, a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and a normalized difference built up Index (NDBI). Landsat data TM and OLI/TIRS acquired respectively in 1986, 2000 and 2016 were used for LST retrieval and Land use/cover change analysis. A quantitative analysis based on the integration of a remote sensing and a geography information system (GIS) has revealed an important increased in the LST pattern in the average from 25.21°C in 1986 to 27.06°C in 2000 and 29.34°C in 2016, which was quite eminent with an average gain in surface temperature of 4.13°C over 30 years study period. Additionally, an analysis using a Pearson correlation (r) between (LST) and the biophysical indices, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and a normalized difference built-up Index (NDBI) has revealed a negative relationship between LST and NDVI and a strong positive relationship between LST and NDBI. Which implies that an increase in the NDVI value can reduce the LST intensity; conversely increase in NDBI value may strengthen LST intensity in the study area. Although Landsat data were found efficient in assessing the thermal environment in Conakry, however, the method needs to be refined with in situ measurements of LST in the future studies. The results of this study may assist urban planners, scientists and policies makers concerned about climate variability to make decisions that will enhance sustainable environmental practices in Conakry.

Keywords: Conakry, land surface temperature, urban heat island, geography information system, remote sensing, land use/cover change

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
77 Land Cover Change Analysis Using Remote Sensing

Authors: Tahir Ali Akbar, Hirra Jabbar


Land cover change analysis plays a significant role in understanding the trends of urban sprawl and land use transformation due to anthropogenic activities. In this study, the spatio-temporal dynamics of major land covers were analyzed in the last twenty years (1988-2016) for District Lahore located in the Punjab Province of Pakistan. The Landsat satellite imageries were downloaded from USGS Global Visualization Viewer of Earth Resources Observation and Science Center located in Sioux Falls, South Dakota USA. The imageries included: (i) Landsat TM-5 for 1988 and 2001; and (ii) Landsat-8 OLI for 2016. The raw digital numbers of Landsat-5 images were converted into spectral radiance and then planetary reflectance. The digital numbers of Landsat-8 image were directly converted into planetary reflectance. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was used to classify the processed images into six major classes of water, buit-up, barren land, shrub and grassland, sparse vegetation and dense vegetation. The NDVI output results were improved by visual interpretation using high-resolution satellite imageries. The results indicated that the built-up areas were increased to 21% in 2016 from 10% in 1988. The decrease in % areas was found in case of water, barren land and shrub & grassland. There were improvements in percentage of areas for the vegetation. The increasing trend of urban sprawl for Lahore requires implementation of GIS based spatial planning, monitoring and management system for its sustainable development.

Keywords: land cover changes, NDVI, remote sensing, urban sprawl

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
76 Impact Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Hudhud on Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh

Authors: Vivek Ganesh


Tropical cyclones are some of the most damaging events. They occur in yearly cycles and affect the coastal population with three dangerous effects: heavy rain, strong wind and storm surge. In order to estimate the area and the population affected by a cyclone, all the three types of physical impacts must be taken into account. Storm surge is an abnormal rise of water above the astronomical tides, generated by strong winds and drop in the atmospheric pressure. The main aim of the study is to identify the impact by comparing three different months data. The technique used here is NDVI classification technique for change detection and other techniques like storm surge modelling for finding the tide height. Current study emphasize on recent very severe cyclonic storm Hud Hud of category 3 hurricane which had developed on 8 October 2014 and hit the coast on 12 October 2014 which caused significant changes on land and coast of Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh. In the present study, we have used Remote Sensing and GIS tools for investigating and quantifying the changes in vegetation and settlement.

Keywords: inundation map, NDVI map, storm tide map, track map

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
75 Modeling Floodplain Vegetation Response to Groundwater Variability Using ArcSWAT Hydrological Model, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer - Normalised Difference Vegetation Index Data, and Machine Learning

Authors: Newton Muhury, Armando A. Apan, Tek Maraseni


This study modelled the relationships between vegetation response and available water below the soil surface using the Terra’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) generated Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and soil water content (SWC) data. The Soil & Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) interface known as ArcSWAT was used in ArcGIS for the groundwater analysis. The SWAT model was calibrated and validated in SWAT-CUP software using 10 years (2001-2010) of monthly streamflow data. The average Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency during the calibration and validation was 0.54 and 0.51, respectively, indicating that the model performances were good. Twenty years (2001-2020) of monthly MODIS NDVI data for three different types of vegetation (forest, shrub, and grass) and soil water content for 43 sub-basins were analysed using the WEKA, machine learning tool with a selection of two supervised machine learning algorithms, i.e., support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF). The modelling results show that different types of vegetation response and soil water content vary in the dry and wet season. For example, the model generated high positive relationships (r=0.76, 0.73, and 0.81) between the measured and predicted NDVI values of all vegetation in the study area against the groundwater flow (GW), soil water content (SWC), and the combination of these two variables, respectively, during the dry season. However, these relationships were reduced by 36.8% (r=0.48) and 13.6% (r=0.63) against GW and SWC, respectively, in the wet season. On the other hand, the model predicted a moderate positive relationship (r=0.63) between shrub vegetation type and soil water content during the dry season, which was reduced by 31.7% (r=0.43) during the wet season. Our models also predicted that vegetation in the top location (upper part) of the sub-basin is highly responsive to GW and SWC (r=0.78, and 0.70) during the dry season. The results of this study indicate the study region is suitable for seasonal crop production in dry season. Moreover, the results predicted that the growth of vegetation in the top-point location is highly dependent on groundwater flow in both dry and wet seasons, and any instability or long-term drought can negatively affect these floodplain vegetation communities. This study has enriched our knowledge of vegetation responses to groundwater in each season, which will facilitate better floodplain vegetation management.

Keywords: ArcSWAT, machine learning, floodplain vegetation, MODIS NDVI, groundwater

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74 Analyzing the Changing Pattern of Nigerian Vegetation Zones and Its Ecological and Socio-Economic Implications Using Spot-Vegetation Sensor

Authors: B. L. Gadiga


This study assesses the major ecological zones in Nigeria with the view to understanding the spatial pattern of vegetation zones and the implications on conservation within the period of sixteen (16) years. Satellite images used for this study were acquired from the SPOT-VEGETATION between 1998 and 2013. The annual NDVI images selected for this study were derived from SPOT-4 sensor and were acquired within the same season (November) in order to reduce differences in spectral reflectance due to seasonal variations. The images were sliced into five classes based on literatures and knowledge of the area (i.e. <0.16 Non-Vegetated areas; 0.16-0.22 Sahel Savannah; 0.22-0.40 Sudan Savannah, 0.40-0.47 Guinea Savannah and >0.47 Forest Zone). Classification of the 1998 and 2013 images into forested and non forested areas showed that forested area decrease from 511,691 km2 in 1998 to 478,360 km2 in 2013. Differencing change detection method was performed on 1998 and 2013 NDVI images to identify areas of ecological concern. The result shows that areas undergoing vegetation degradation covers an area of 73,062 km2 while areas witnessing some form restoration cover an area of 86,315 km2. The result also shows that there is a weak correlation between rainfall and the vegetation zones. The non-vegetated areas have a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.0088, Sahel Savannah belt 0.1988, Sudan Savannah belt -0.3343, Guinea Savannah belt 0.0328 and Forest belt 0.2635. The low correlation can be associated with the encroachment of the Sudan Savannah belt into the forest belt of South-eastern part of the country as revealed by the image analysis. The degradation of the forest vegetation is therefore responsible for the serious erosion problems witnessed in the South-east. The study recommends constant monitoring of vegetation and strict enforcement of environmental laws in the country.

Keywords: vegetation, NDVI, SPOT-vegetation, ecology, degradation

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73 The Use of Remote Sensing in the Study of Vegetation Jebel Boutaleb, Setif, Algeria

Authors: Khaled Missaoui, Amina Beldjazia, Rachid Gharzouli, Yamna Djellouli


Optical remote sensing makes use of visible, near infrared and short-wave infrared sensors to form images of the earth's surface by detecting the solar radiation reflected from targets on the ground. Different materials reflect and absorb differently at different wavelengths. Thus, the targets can be differentiated by their spectral reflectance signatures in the remotely sensed images. In this work, we are interested to study the distribution of vegetation in the massif forest of Boutaleb (North East of Algeria) which suffered between 1998 and 1999 very large fires. In this case, we use remote sensing with Landsat images from two dates (1984 and 2000) to see the results of these fires. Vegetation has a unique spectral signature which enables it to be distinguished readily from other types of land cover in an optical/near-infrared image. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is calculated with ENVI 4.7 from Band 3 and 4. The results showed a very important floristic diversity in this forest. The comparison of NDVI from the two dates confirms that there is a decrease of the density of vegetation in this area due to repeated fires.

Keywords: remote sensing, boutaleb, diversity, forest

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72 Estimation of Reservoir Capacity and Sediment Deposition Using Remote Sensing Data

Authors: Odai Ibrahim Mohammed Al Balasmeh, Tapas Karmaker, Richa Babbar


In this study, the reservoir capacity and sediment deposition were estimated using remote sensing data. The satellite images were synchronized with water level and storage capacity to find out the change in sediment deposition due to soil erosion and transport by streamflow. The water bodies spread area was estimated using vegetation indices, e.g., normalize differences vegetation index (NDVI) and normalize differences water index (NDWI). The 3D reservoir bathymetry was modeled by integrated water level, storage capacity, and area. From the models of different time span, the change in reservoir storage capacity was estimated. Another reservoir with known water level, storage capacity, area, and sediment deposition was used to validate the estimation technique. The t-test was used to assess the results between observed and estimated reservoir capacity and sediment deposition.

Keywords: satellite data, normalize differences vegetation index, NDVI, normalize differences water index, NDWI, reservoir capacity, sedimentation, t-test hypothesis

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71 Evaluation of Environmental Impact Assessment of Dam Using GIS/Remote Sensing-Review

Authors: Ntungamili Kenosi, Moatlhodi W. Letshwenyo


Negative environmental impacts due to construction of large projects such as dams have become an important aspect of land degradation. This paper will review the previous literature on the previous researches or study in the same area of study in the other parts of the world. After dam has been constructed, the actual environmental impacts are investigated and compared to the predicted results of the carried out Environmental Impact Assessment. GIS and Remote Sensing, play an important role in generating automated spatial data sets and in establishing spatial relationships. Results from other sources shows that the normalized vegetation index (NDVI) analysis was used to detect the spatial and temporal change of vegetation biomass in the study area. The result indicated that the natural vegetation biomass is declining. This is mainly due to the expansion of agricultural land and escalating human made structures in the area. Urgent environmental conservation is necessary when adjoining projects site. Less study on the evaluation of EIA on dam has been conducted in Botswana hence there is a need for the same study to be conducted and then it will be easy to be compared to other studies around the world.

Keywords: Botswana, dam, environmental impact assessment, GIS, normalized vegetation index (NDVI), remote sensing

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70 Rice Area Determination Using Landsat-Based Indices and Land Surface Temperature Values

Authors: Burçin Saltık, Levent Genç


In this study, it was aimed to determine a route for identification of rice cultivation areas within Thrace and Marmara regions of Turkey using remote sensing and GIS. Landsat 8 (OLI-TIRS) imageries acquired in production season of 2013 with 181/32 Path/Row number were used. Four different seasonal images were generated utilizing original bands and different transformation techniques. All images were classified individually using supervised classification techniques and Land Use Land Cover Maps (LULC) were generated with 8 classes. Areas (ha, %) of each classes were calculated. In addition, district-based rice distribution maps were developed and results of these maps were compared with Turkish Statistical Institute (TurkSTAT; TSI)’s actual rice cultivation area records. Accuracy assessments were conducted, and most accurate map was selected depending on accuracy assessment and coherency with TSI results. Additionally, rice areas on over 4° slope values were considered as mis-classified pixels and they eliminated using slope map and GIS tools. Finally, randomized rice zones were selected to obtain maximum-minimum value ranges of each date (May, June, July, August, September images separately) NDVI, LSWI, and LST images to test whether they may be used for rice area determination via raster calculator tool of ArcGIS. The most accurate classification for rice determination was obtained from seasonal LSWI LULC map, and considering TSI data and accuracy assessment results and mis-classified pixels were eliminated from this map. According to results, 83151.5 ha of rice areas exist within study area. However, this result is higher than TSI records with an area of 12702.3 ha. Use of maximum-minimum range of rice area NDVI, LSWI, and LST was tested in Meric district. It was seen that using the value ranges obtained from July imagery, gave the closest results to TSI records, and the difference was only 206.4 ha. This difference is normal due to relatively low resolution of images. Thus, employment of images with higher spectral, spatial, temporal and radiometric resolutions may provide more reliable results.

Keywords: landsat 8 (OLI-TIRS), LST, LSWI, LULC, NDVI, rice

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69 Application of Rapid Eye Imagery in Crop Type Classification Using Vegetation Indices

Authors: Sunita Singh, Rajani Srivastava


For natural resource management and in other applications about earth observation revolutionary remote sensing technology plays a significant role. One of such application in monitoring and classification of crop types at spatial and temporal scale, as it provides latest, most precise and cost-effective information. Present study emphasizes the use of three different vegetation indices of Rapid Eye imagery on crop type classification. It also analyzed the effect of each indices on classification accuracy. Rapid Eye imagery is highly demanded and preferred for agricultural and forestry sectors as it has red-edge and NIR bands. The three indices used in this study were: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GNDVI), and the Normalized Difference Red Edge Index (NDRE) and all of these incorporated the Red Edge band. The study area is Varanasi district of Uttar Pradesh, India and Radial Basis Function (RBF) kernel was used here for the Support Vector Machines (SVMs) classification. Classification was performed with these three vegetation indices. The contribution of each indices on image classification accuracy was also tested with single band classification. Highest classification accuracy of 85% was obtained using three vegetation indices. The study concluded that NDRE has the highest contribution on classification accuracy compared to the other vegetation indices and the Rapid Eye imagery can get satisfactory results of classification accuracy without original bands.

Keywords: GNDVI, NDRE, NDVI, rapid eye, vegetation indices

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68 Assessment of Land Surface Temperature Using Satellite Remote Sensing

Authors: R. Vidhya, M. Navamuniyammal M. Sivakumar, S. Reeta


The unplanned urbanization affects the environment due to pollution, conditions of the atmosphere, decreased vegetation and the pervious and impervious soil surface. Considered to be a cumulative effect of all these impacts is the Urban Heat Island. In this paper, the urban heat island effect is studied for the Chennai city, TamilNadu, South India using satellite remote sensing data. LANDSAT 8 OLI and TIRS DATA acquired on 9th September 2014 were used to Land Surface Temperature (LST) map, vegetation fraction map, Impervious surface fraction, Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Normalized Difference Building Index (NDBI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) map. The relationship among LST, Vegetation fraction, NDBI, NDWI, and NDVI was calculated. The Chennai city’s Urban Heat Island effect is significant, and the results indicate LST has strong negative correlation with the vegetation present and positive correlation with NDBI. The vegetation is the main factor to control urban heat island effect issues in urban area like Chennai City. This study will help in developing measures to land use planning to reduce the heat effects in urban area based on remote sensing derivatives.

Keywords: land surface temperature, brightness temperature, emissivity, vegetation index

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67 Urban Energy Demand Modelling: Spatial Analysis Approach

Authors: Hung-Chu Chen, Han Qi, Bauke de Vries


Energy consumption in the urban environment has attracted numerous researches in recent decades. However, it is comparatively rare to find literary works which investigated 3D spatial analysis of urban energy demand modelling. In order to analyze the spatial correlation between urban morphology and energy demand comprehensively, this paper investigates their relation by using the spatial regression tool. In addition, the spatial regression tool which is applied in this paper is ordinary least squares regression (OLS) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) model. Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and building volume are explainers of urban morphology, which act as independent variables of Energy-land use (E-L) model. NDBI and NDVI are used as the index to describe five types of land use: urban area (U), open space (O), artificial green area (G), natural green area (V), and water body (W). Accordingly, annual electricity, gas demand and energy demand are dependent variables of the E-L model. Based on the analytical result of E-L model relation, it revealed that energy demand and urban morphology are closely connected and the possible causes and practical use are discussed. Besides, the spatial analysis methods of OLS and GWR are compared.

Keywords: energy demand model, geographically weighted regression, normalized difference built-up index, normalized difference vegetation index, spatial statistics

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66 Contribution of Remote Sensing and GIS to the Study of the Impact of the Salinity of Sebkhas on the Quality of Groundwater: Case of Sebkhet Halk El Menjel (Sousse)

Authors: Gannouni Sonia, Hammami Asma, Saidi Salwa, Rebai Noamen


Water resources in Tunisia have experienced quantitative and qualitative degradation, especially when talking about wetlands and Sbekhas. Indeed, the objective of this work is to study the spatio-temporal evolution of salinity for 29 years (from 1987 to 2016). A study of the connection between surface water and groundwater is necessary to know the degree of influence of the Sebkha brines on the water table. The evolution of surface salinity is determined by remote sensing based on Landsat TM and OLI/TIRS satellite images of the years 1987, 2007, 2010, and 2016. The processing of these images allowed us to determine the NDVI(Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), the salinity index, and the surface temperature around Sebkha. In addition, through a geographic information system(GIS), we could establish a map of the distribution of salinity in the subsurface of the water table of Chott Mariem and Hergla/SidiBouAli/Kondar. The results of image processing and the calculation of the index and surface temperature show an increase in salinity downstream of in addition to the sebkha and the development of vegetation cover upstream and the western part of the sebkha. This richness may be due both to contamination by seawater infiltration from the barrier beach of Hergla as well as the passage of groundwater to the sebkha.

Keywords: spatio-temporal monitoring, salinity, satellite images, NDVI, sebkha

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