Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3724

Search results for: digital media

3724 Iraqi Media Entrepreneurs across Social Media: Factors and Challenges

Authors: Ahmed Omar Bali, Sherko Jabar, Hazhar Jalal, Mahdi Sofi-Karim

Abstract:

For a long while in Iraq, media organizations were owned by political parties, particularly the ruling parties, because media traditional organizations required big capital and human resources. This paper has examined the dynamics of Iraqi media market transformation with emphasizing on factors that help to merge media entrepreneurs and digital media firms which target audience on social media. A qualitative method was adopted in this study using open, in-depth interviews with 19 media entrepreneurs and three managers of media firms. The study revealed that relative freedom and advanced communication technologies have encouraged media entrepreneurs to drive the new media on producing short videos and broadcast them on social media which has become popular among media consumers.

Keywords: media entrepreneur, Iraq, journalists, media technicians, digital media firms, media market

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3723 Hedonistic Utilitarianism: The Strategic Use of Digital Media along the Online-Offline Continuum of Sexualised Violence

Authors: Katharina Kargel, Frederic Vobbe

Abstract:

The present study examines how offenders targeting children and adolescents strategically use digital media when committing acts of sexualised violence along the online-offline continuum. Even offenders who are previously known to their victims use digital media extensively. The choice to instrumentalise digital media in order to initiate, threaten, exploit and humiliate victims demonstrates the rationale of offenders when committing acts of digitally supported violence. Through digital media, offenders can assume the power of interpretation over their victims’ situations. The ways in which digital media is used to commit violence along the online-offline continuum are a direct manifestation of the hedonistic utilitarianism demonstrated by offenders: a disposition characterised by the weighing of pleasures (“mental states”) and intrinsic value expected from using digital media against the risk of an outcome subjectively experienced as uncomfortable. Thus, sexualised violence using digital media goes beyond the traditional understanding of sexual online grooming.

Keywords: sexualized violence, offender strategy, grooming, children and adolescents, qualitative research, methodology

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3722 Gold, Power, Protest, Examining How Digital Media and PGIS are Used to Protest the Mining Industry in Colombia

Authors: Doug Specht

Abstract:

This research project sought to explore the links between digital media, PGIS and social movement organisations in Tolima, Colombia. The primary aim of the research was to examine how knowledge is created and disseminated through digital media and GIS in the region, and whether there exists the infrastructure to allow for this. The second strand was to ascertain if this has had a significant impact on the way grassroots movements work and produce collective actions. The third element is a hypothesis about how digital media and PGIS could play a larger role in activist activities, particularly in reference to the extractive industries. Three theoretical strands have been brought together to provide a basis for this research, namely (a) the politics of knowledge, (b) spatial management and inclusion, and (c) digital media and political engagement. Quantitative data relating to digital media and mobile internet use was collated alongside qualitative data relating to the likelihood of using digital media in activist campaigns, with particular attention being given to grassroots movements working against extractive industries in the Tolima region of Colombia. Through interviews, surveys and GIS analysis it has been possible to build a picture of online activism and the role of PPGIS within protest movement in the region of Tolima, Colombia. Results show a gap between the desires of social movements to use digital media and the skills and finances required to implement programs that utilise it. Maps and GIS are generally reserved for legal cases rather than for informing the lay person. However, it became apparent that the combination of digital/social media and PPGIS could play a significant role in supporting the work of grassroots movements.

Keywords: PGIS, GIS, social media, digital media, mining, colombia, social movements, protest

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3721 The Diversity of Contexts within Which Adolescents Engage with Digital Media: Contributing to More Challenging Tasks for Parents and a Need for Third Party Mediation

Authors: Ifeanyi Adigwe, Thomas Van der Walt

Abstract:

Digital media has been integrated into the social and entertainment life of young children, and as such, the impact of digital media appears to affect young people of all ages and it is believed that this will continue to shape the world of young children. Since, technological advancement of digital media presents adolescents with diverse contexts, platforms and avenues to engage with digital media outside the home environment and from parents' supervision, a wide range of new challenges has further complicated the already difficult tasks for parents and altered the landscape of parenting. Despite the fact that adolescents now have access to a wide range of digital media technologies both at home and in the learning environment, parenting practices such as active, restrictive, co-use, participatory and technical mediations are important in mitigating of online risks adolescents may encounter as a result of digital media use. However, these mediation practices only focus on the home environment including digital media present in the home and may not necessarily transcend outside the home and other learning environments where adolescents use digital media for school work and other activities. This poses the question of who mediates adolescent's digital media use outside the home environment. The learning environment could be a ''loose platform'' where an adolescent can maximise digital media use considering the fact that there is no restriction in terms of content and time allotted to using digital media during school hours. That is to say that an adolescent can play the ''bad boy'' online in school because there is little or no restriction of digital media use and be exposed to online risks and play the ''good boy'' at home because of ''heavy'' parental mediation. This is the reason why parent mediation practices have been ineffective because a parent may not be able to track adolescents digital media use considering the diversity of contexts, platforms and avenues adolescents use digital media. This study argues that due to the diverse nature of digital media technology, parents may not be able to monitor the 'whereabouts' of their children in the digital space. This is because adolescent digital media usage may not only be confined to the home environment but other learning environments like schools. This calls for urgent attention on the part of teachers to understand the intricacies of how digital media continue to shape the world in which young children are developing and learning. It is, therefore, imperative for parents to liaise with the schools of their children to mediate digital media use during school hours. The implication of parents- teachers mediation practices are discussed. The article concludes by suggesting that third party mediation by teachers in schools and other learning environments should be encouraged and future research needs to consider the emergent strategy of teacher-children mediation approach and the implication for policy for both the home and learning environments.

Keywords: digital media, digital age, parent mediation, third party mediation

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3720 Case Studies on the Impact of COVID-19 on Films and Digital Media

Authors: Hitender Sehrawat

Abstract:

COVID-19 has been a game-changer for many industries and businesses across the globe. In this article, the impact of COVID-19 is discussed, specifically on films, television, and digital media industry. Based on the review of the newspaper articles, three case studies are presented. One case study is on the impact of COVID-19 on Bollywood, the second case study is on the impact of COVID-19 on Hollywood, and third case study is on the impact of COVID-19 on television and digital media industry. It is argued that COVID-19 has had a negative impact on Bollywood and Hollywood, whereas it has impacted the television and digital media industry in a positive way. COVID-19 has brought about disruption in the lives and businesses of people, and the film and television industry is not an exception. Although there are negative impacts of COVID-19 on Bollywood and Hollywood, it has positive impacts on television and the digital media industry. Maybe the disruption of the traditional film industry by the digital media industry will be the normal for a long time to come. However, measures need to be thought about a revival of the Bollywood and Hollywood for the many livelihoods they cater to. Bollywood and Hollywood are not just film industries, but the core identities of India and the United States. What shape film industry will take in the future would be interesting to see. This article opens up avenues for more in-depth empirical research in this area in the future.

Keywords: films, COVID-19, television, media industry

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3719 Social Change and Cultural Sustainability in the Wake of Digital Media Revolution in South Asia

Authors: Binod C. Agrawal

Abstract:

In modern history, industrial and media merchandising in South Asia from East Asia, Europe, United States and other countries of the West is over 200 years old. Hence, continued external technology and media exposure is not a new experience in multi-lingual and multi religious South Asia which evolved cultural means to withstand structural change. In the post-World War II phase, media exposure especially of telecommunication, film, Internet, radio, print media and television have increased manifold. South Asia did not lose any time in acquiring and adopting digital media accelerated by chip revolution, computer and satellite communication. The penetration of digital media and utilization are exceptionally high though the spread has an unequal intensity, use and effects. The author argues that industrial and media products are “cultural products” apart from being “technological products”; hence their influences are most felt in the cultural domain which may lead to blunting of unique cultural specifics in the multi-cultural, multi-lingual and multi religious South Asia. Social scientists, political leaders and parents have voiced concern of “Cultural domination”, “Digital media colonization” and “Westernization”. Increased digital media access has also opened up doors of pornography and other harmful information that have sparked fresh debates and discussions about serious negative, harmful, and undesirable social effects especially among youth. Within ‘techno-social’ perspective, based on recent research studies, the paper aims to describe and analyse possible socio-economic change due to digital media penetration. Further, analysis supports the view that the ancient multi-lingual and multi-religious cultures of South Asia due to inner cultural strength may sustain without setting in a process of irreversible structural changes in South Asia.

Keywords: cultural sustainability, digital media effects, digital media impact in South Asia, social change in South Asia

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3718 Digital Media Use and Access among Rural Youth in South Africa: The Prospects for Female Empowerment

Authors: Fulufhelo Oscar Makananise

Abstract:

Digital technologies have played a significant role in bridging the information gap between the haves and the have nots in society. In developing countries such as South Africa, historically marginalised groups such as women in rural communities have an opportunity to use digital technologies to network among themselves as well as interact with their government, thereby enhancing prospects for poverty eradication, political participation, community development and democracy. However, the extent to which these goals can be achieved in a developing context through harnessing digital technologies is not quite clear, particularly given the fact that access to these technologies is not evenly distributed and the fact that women’s access to digital technologies is hampered by factors that go beyond the question of infrastructure. Informed by the technological dependency theory, this paper is about how female youth in rural South Africa are deploying digital media tools for socio-economic empowerment. In particular, the study investigated the extent to which female youth in Limpopo province, South Africa access and use digital media platforms and gadgets and the extent to which those technologies are breaking down barriers that stand in the way of female youth empowerment. Data were gathered using a self-administered questionnaire disseminated to selected 100 female youth in Limpopo Province, South Africa. The data were analysed using SPSS version 9, and the results were analysed using descriptive statistics. The paper argues that wider and constant access to digital media by female youth in rural areas is indicative of the great potential for empowering female youth in rural areas through harnessing digital media. The study established that the majority of female youth had access to digital media technologies and used them to share valuable information among themselves. The study further established that female youth are active users of digital media in South Africa, which is the significant driver for socio-economic empowerment.

Keywords: digital technologies, empowerment, female youth, South Africa, survey, technological dependency

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3717 Media Regulation and Public Sphere in the Digital Age: An Analysis in the Light of Constructive Democracy

Authors: Carlos Marden Cabral Coutinho, Jose Luis Bolzan de Morais

Abstract:

The article proposed intends to analyze the possibility (and conditions) of a media regulation law in a democratic rule of law in the twenty-first century. To do so, will be presented initially the idea of the public sphere (by Jürgen Habermas), showing how it is presented as an interface between the citizen and the state (or the private and public) and how important is it in a deliberative democracy. Based on this paradigm, the traditional perception of the role of public information (such as system functional element) and on the possibility of media regulation will be exposed, due to the public nature of their activity. A critical argument will then be displayed from two different perspectives: a) the formal function of the current media information, considering that the digital age has fragmented the information access; b) the concept of a constructive democracy, which reduces the need for representation, changing the strategic importance of the public sphere. The question to be addressed (based on the comparative law) is if the regulation is justified in a polycentric democracy, especially when it operates under the digital age (with immediate and virtual communication). The proposal is to be presented in the sense that even in a twenty-first century the media in a democratic rule of law still has an extremely important role and may be subject to regulation, but this should be on terms very different (and narrower) from those usually defended.

Keywords: constructive democracy, media, digital age, public sphere

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3716 Towards an Analysis of Rhetoric of Digital Arabic Discourse

Authors: Gameel Abdelmageed

Abstract:

Arabs have a rhetorical heritage which has greatly contributed to the monitoring and analyzing of the rhetoric of the Holy Quran, Hadith, and Arabic texts on poetry and oratory. But Arab scholars - as far as the researcher knows – have not contributed to monitoring and analyzing the rhetoric of digital Arabic discourse although it has prominence, particularly in social media and has strong effectiveness in the political and social life of Arab society. This discourse has made its impact by using very new rhetorical techniques in language, voice, image, painting and video clips which are known as “Multimedia” and belong to “Digital Rhetoric”. This study suggests that it is time to draw the attention of Arab scholars and invite them to monitor and analyze the rhetoric of digital Arabic discourse.

Keywords: digital discourse, digital rhetoric, Facebook, social media

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3715 Digital and Social Media as Tools for Legitimising Conflict: A Study of the Niger Delta Avengers

Authors: Shola Abidemi Olabode

Abstract:

Nigeria as a country has been plagued by numerous conflicts since the British colonialists gave in to the advocacy of Nigerian dissents for independence and relinquished power in 1960. These conflicts are often motivated by different issues, from socio-political and economic issues to struggles of ethnic and religious orientation. The Niger Delta region which accounts for the country’s economic mainstay has been at the epicentre of such conflicts. Over the years, peaceful protests, and radical insurgency and resistance movements too numerous to mention have emerged in the region. The Niger Delta Avengers is an example of a recent conflict movement in the region. Using a case study approach, and looking through a cyberconflict perspective, this paper offers a discussion on the intersection between digital and social media and framing in the Niger Delta Avengers conflict. It advocates that the Niger Delta Avengers use digital and social media to legitimise and give credence to their struggle.

Keywords: digital and social media, framing, Niger delta avengers, cyberconflict, conflict

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3714 Electronic Resources and Information Literacy in Higher Education Library

Authors: Nirmal Singh, Rajesh Kumar

Abstract:

Abstract- Information literacy aims to develop both critical understanding and active participation in scholars. It enables scholars to interpret and make informed judgments as users of information sources, and it also enables them to become producers of information in their own right, and thereby to become more powerful participants in society. Information literacy is about developing people‘s critical and creative abilities. Digital media – and particularly the Internet – significantly increase the potential for such active participation of the individual, provided scholars have the means and training to effectively access and use them. This paper provides definition, standards and importance of information literacy (IL). Keywords: Information literacy, Digital Media, Training, Communications Technologies.

Keywords: Information literacy, Digital Media, Training, , Communications Technologies

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3713 Growth of New Media Advertising

Authors: Palwinder Bhatia

Abstract:

As all know new media is a broad term in media studies that emerged in the latter part of the 20th century which refers to on-demand access to content any time, anywhere, on any digital device, as well as interactive user feedback, creative participation and community formation around the media content. The role of new media in advertisement is impeccable these days. It becomes the cheap and best way of advertising. Another important promise of new media is the democratization of the creation, publishing, distribution and consumption of media content. New media brings a revolution in about every field. It makes bridge between customer and companies. World make a global village with the only help of new media. Advertising helps in shaping the consumer behavior and effect on consumer psychology, sociology, social anthropology and economics. People do comments and like the particular brands on the networking sites which create mesmerism impact on the behavior of customer. Recent study did by Times of India shows that 64% of Facebook users have liked a brand on Facebook.

Keywords: film, visual, culture, media, advertisement

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3712 A Development of Creative Instruction Model through Digital Media

Authors: Kathaleeya Chanda, Panupong Chanplin, Suppara Charoenpoom

Abstract:

This purposes of the development of creative instruction model through digital media are to: 1) enable learners to learn from instruction media application; 2) help learners implementing instruction media correctly and appropriately; and 3) facilitate learners to apply technology for searching information and practicing skills to implement technology creatively. The sample group consists of 130 cases of secondary students studying in Bo Kluea School, Bo Kluea Nuea Sub-district, Bo Kluea District, Nan Province. The probability sampling was selected through the simple random sampling and the statistics used in this research are percentage, mean, standard deviation and one group pretest – posttest design. The findings are summarized as follows: The congruence index of instruction media for occupation and technology subjects is appropriate. By comparing between learning achievements before implementing the instruction media and learning achievements after implementing the instruction media, it is found that the posttest achievements are higher than the pretest achievements with statistical significance at the level of .05. For the learning achievements from instruction media implementation, pretest mean is 16.24 while posttest mean is 26.28. Besides, pretest and posttest results are compared and differences of mean are tested, the test results show that the posttest achievements are higher than the pretest achievements with statistical significance at the level of .05. This can be interpreted that the learners achieve better learning progress.

Keywords: teaching learning model, digital media, creative instruction model, Bo Kluea school

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3711 Homogenization of Culture and Its Effect on Preferred Reading of Media Communications Aimed at Members of Generation Z

Authors: Philip Katz

Abstract:

The research examines preferred reading of contemporary ads aimed at Generation Z through digital media. A qualitative analysis of focus groups consisting of members of Generation Z from 13 countries in Europe, the Middle East, South America and Asia has shown that, among this cohort, the influence of national culture does not create a strong impediment to understanding media communications targeting Generation Z. The familiarity of members of Generation Z with other countries’ popular culture through the spread of digital media has allowed a homogenizing effect and allowed a greater understanding of those cultures among this generation that lessens the impact of geographic separation.

Keywords: audience, Generation Z, marketing communication, preferred reading

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3710 Digital Activism and the Individual: A Utilitarian Perspective

Authors: Tania Mitra

Abstract:

Digital Activism or Cyber Activism uses digital media as a means to disseminate information and mobilize masses towards a specific goal. When digital activism was first born in the early 1990s, it was primarily used by groups of organized political activists. However, with the advent of social media, online activism has filtered down to the individual- one who does not necessarily belong to or identify with an agenda, group, or political party. A large part of digital activism today stems from the individual’s notion of what is right and wrong. This gives rise to a discourse around descriptive ethics and the implications of the independent digital activist. Although digital activism has paved the way for and bolstered support for causes like the MeToo Movement and Black Lives Matter, the lack of a unified, organized body has led to counterintuitive progressions and suspicions regarding the movements. The paper introduces the ideas of 'clout' culture, click baits, and clicktivism (the phenomenon where activism is reduced to a blind following of the online trends), to discuss the impacts of exclusive digital activism. By using Jeremy Bentham's utilitarian approach to ethics, that places emphasis on the best possible outcome for a society, the paper will show how individual online activism reaching for a larger, more common end can sometimes lead to an undermining of that end, not only in the online space but also how it manifests in the real world.

Keywords: digital activism, ethics, independent digital activist, utilitarianism

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3709 Rhetoric and Renarrative Structure of Digital Images in Trans-Media

Authors: Yang Geng, Anqi Zhao

Abstract:

The misreading theory of Harold Bloom provides a new diachronic perspective as an approach to the consistency between rhetoric of digital technology, dynamic movement of digital images and uncertain meaning of text. Reinterpreting the diachroneity of 'intertextuality' in the context of misreading theory extended the range of the 'intermediality' of transmedia to the intense tension between digital images and symbolic images throughout history of images. With the analogy between six categories of revisionary ratios and six steps of digital transformation, digital rhetoric might be illustrated as a linear process reflecting dynamic, intensive relations between digital moving images and original static images. Finally, it was concluded that two-way framework of the rhetoric of transformation of digital images and reversed served as a renarrative structure to revive static images by reconnecting them with digital moving images.

Keywords: rhetoric, digital art, intermediality, misreading theory

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3708 New Media and Social Media Laws and Ethics in United Arab Emirates

Authors: Ahmed Farouk Radwan, Sheren Mousa

Abstract:

There are many laws and regulations governing the use of new and social media in the United Arab Emirates. During the past few years, the importance of using these platforms in the fields of media and government communication has increased, as well as at the level of individual use. In 2016, the National Media Council Law was issued to regulate traditional and new media field, and gave the council the power to oversee and undertake the media affairs in the state. NMC is mandated to: Develop the UAE’s media policy, Draft media legislation and ensure its execution and Prohibited media content ,Co-ordinate the media policy between the emirates in line with the UAE’s domestic and foreign policy, Ensure support for the federation and project national unity. All media organizations in the UAE must comply with the regulations and rules issued by council. Social media influencers have to be licensed by NMC if they accept paid ads to be published on their accounts. The study explores other laws concerning of new media and social media regulations and ethics including Combatting Cybercrimes law, Combating Discrimination and Hatred law, The Government Guidelines for social media users in the UAE, The Guidelines for the practices of electronic participation and social networking, Copyright Law, and Child Rights Law. The study clarifies the legal articles, items and standards in all these laws which related with the new media and social platforms and also determines the prohibited digital practices and the cultural norms governing it.

Keywords: media laws, media ethics, new media , UAE

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3707 Understanding the Impact of Ephemerality and Mobility on Social Media News: A Content Analysis of News on Snapchat

Authors: Chelsea Peterson-Salahuddin

Abstract:

Over the past decade, news outlets have increasingly used social media as a means to create and distribute news content to audiences. Ephemerality, the transitory nature of media, and mobility, media viewing on mobile technologies, are two increasingly salient attributes of social media content; yet little is known about how these features influence news selection practices of news outlets when distributing news via social media. To account for this gap, this study examines the influences of ephemerality and mobility on social media news content on the social media application Snapchat, in order to understand how these qualities of digital media influence and shape news content. Findings from this study suggest that understandings of ephemerality and mobility play a key role in influencing social media news. This paper suggests that as these factors become increasingly salient in our dominant news viewing environments, being able to understand how they manifest themselves in online news reporting practices is critical for both scholars and practitioners of news as they aim to understand what 'newsworthiness' means in the current, digital age. Findings from this study also enhance our current understandings of how the technological affordances of online and digital media platforms play a key role in shaping the kinds being produced and what information is being prioritized and highlighted in our contemporary news media environment. This is especially important in our current era where new mediums and technologies for news dissemination are continuously arising, and reorienting our understandings of what is considered ‘news'. As a key site of mass communication, discourse, and stories highlighted in the news do critical work in defining culture and ideology. Thus, better understanding the contours of news in our contemporary moment is critical in understanding cultural norms and meaning-making.

Keywords: content analysis, ephemerality, mobile communication, social media news

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3706 Students’ Perceptions of Communication Design in Media: Case Study of Portuguese and Spanish Communication Students

Authors: Fátima Gonçalves, Joaquim Brigas, Jorge Gonçalves

Abstract:

The proliferation of mobile devices in society enables the media to disseminate information and knowledge more rapidly. Higher education students access these contents and share them with each other, in the most diverse platforms, allowing the ubiquity in access to information. This article presents the results and respective quantitative analysis of a survey applied to communication students of two higher education institutions: one in Portugal and another in Spain. The results show that, in this sample, higher education students regularly access news content believing traditional news sources to be more credible. Regarding online sources, it was verified that the access was mostly to free news contents. This study intends to promote the knowledge about the changes that occur in the relationship of higher education students with the media, characterizing how news consumption is processed by these students, considering the resulting effects of the digital media evolution. It is intended to present not only the news sources they use, but also to know some of their habits and relationship with the news media.

Keywords: students' perceptions, communication design, mass media, higher education, digital media

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3705 Investigating the Use of Social Media Channels When Capitalising on Ireland’s Appearance in US TV and Movies: A Digital Marketing Campaign

Authors: Colm Barcoe, Garvan Whelan

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The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact that US TV and movies have had on Irish tourism. This study examines how a destination marketing organisation (DMO) can use social media channels to capitalise upon the opportunities created by film tourism as it pertains to North American TV and movie productions. The findings are based on a combination of two qualitative methods, in-depth interviews with 20 industry professionals and a Netnographic analysis of social media activity between Tourism Ireland and the North American audience on Facebook and Twitter. The qualitative data were analysed in order to provide insights into the effectiveness of using North American pop culture as part of a digital marketing strategy when creating awareness of Ireland as a brand in the US and Canada. This study addresses a gap in the literature in relation to the use of social media when attracting the North American holidaymaker to Ireland. The findings from this investigation will extend an under-researched body of literature pertaining to Ireland as a destination and the successful digital marketing campaigns that have achieved exponential growth in this sector over the past five years. The empirical evidence presented also illustrates how the innovative use of social media has assisted the DMO to engage with the North American holidaymaker as part of an effective digital marketing strategy. This paper will be of value to academics and industry practitioners interested in film-induced tourism and indeed tourism in general, as well as students.

Keywords: digital marketing, tourism, strategies, movies, US TV

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3704 Economics Analysis of Chinese Social Media Platform Sina Weibo and E-Commerce Platform Taobao

Authors: Xingyue Yang

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This study focused on Chinese social media stars and the relationship between their level of fame on the social media platform Sina Weibo and their sales revenue on the E-commerce platform Taobao/Tmall.com. This was viewed from the perspective of Adler’s superstardom theory and Rosen and MacDonald’s theories examining the economics of celebrities who build their audience using digital, rather than traditional platforms. Theory and empirical research support the assertion that stars of traditional media achieve popular success due to a combination of talent and market concentration, as well as a range of other factors. These factors are also generally considered relevant to the popularisation of social media stars. However, success across digital media platforms also involves other variables - for example, upload strategies, cross-platform promotions, which often have no direct corollary in traditional media. These factors were the focus of our study, which investigated the relationship between popularity, promotional strategy and sales revenue for 15 social media stars who specialised in culinary topics on the Chinese social media platform Sina Weibo. In 2019, these food bloggers made a total of 2076 Sina Weibo posts, and these were compiled alongside calculations made to determine each food blogger’s sales revenue on the eCommerce platforms Taobao/Tmall. Quantitative analysis was then performed on this data, which determined that certain upload strategies on Weibo - such as upload time, posting format and length of video - have an important impact on the success of sales revenue on Taobao/Tmall.com.

Keywords: attention economics, digital media, network effect, social media stars

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3703 Reproduction of New Media Art Village around NTUT: Heterotopia of Visual Culture Art Education

Authors: Yu Cheng-Yu

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‘Heterotopia’, ‘Visual Cultural Art Education’ and ‘New Media’ of these three subjects seemingly are irrelevant. In fact, there are synchronicity and intertextuality inside. In addition to visual culture, art education inspires students the ability to reflect on popular culture image through visual culture teaching strategies in school. We should get involved in the community to construct the learning environment that conveys visual culture art. This thesis attempts to probe the heterogeneity of space and value from Michel Foucault and to research sustainable development strategy in ‘New Media Art Village’ heterogeneity from Jean Baudrillard, Marshall McLuhan's media culture theory and social construction ideology. It is possible to find a new media group that can convey ‘Visual Culture Art Education’ around the National Taipei University of Technology in this commercial district that combines intelligent technology, fashion, media, entertainment, art education, and marketing network. Let the imagination and innovation of ‘New Media Art Village’ become ‘implementable’ and new media Heterotopia of inter-subjectivity with the engagement of big data and digital media. Visual culture art education will also bring aesthetics into the community by New Media Art Village.

Keywords: social construction, heterogeneity, new media, big data, visual culture art education

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3702 An Assessment of the Digital Transformation of Radio

Authors: Fatih Sogut

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Developments in information technologies have caused significant changes in terms of radio and television broadcasting. With these changes in terms of production format, transmission techniques and service delivery, the distinction between traditional media and New Media has emerged. The viewer/listener, who was in a passive position before, is now in an active position and has a say in many matters, including content production. Visual and auditory data transfer has diversified and become easier thanks to the convergence phenomenon. These transformations and developments also affected one of the oldest electronic communication tools, radio. In this study, in order to adapt to the new era that emerged with the digital age, the change in radio broadcasting and the factors that led to this change were tried to be explained.

Keywords: Internet, radio broadcasting, digital transformation, Internet broadcasting

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3701 A Deluge of Disaster, Destruction, Death and Deception: Negative News and Empathy Fatigue in the Digital Age

Authors: Bernard Nnamdi Emenyeonu

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Initially identified as sensationalism in the eras of yellow journalism and tabloidization, the inclusion of news which shock or provoke strong emotional responses among readers and viewers has not only remained a persistent feature of journalism but has also seemingly escalated in the current climate of digital media. Whether in relentless revelation of scandals in high places, or profiles on people displaced by sporadic wars or natural disasters; or gruesome accounts of trucks plowing into pedestrians in a city centre; or the coverage of mourners paying tributes to victims of a mass shooting, mainstream and digital media are often awash with tragedy, tears and trauma. While it may aim at inspiring sympathy, outrage or even remedial reactions, it would appear that the deluge of grief and misery in the news merely generates in the audience a feeling that borders on hearing or seeing too much to care or act. This feeling also appears to be accentuated by the dizzying diffusion of social media news and views, most of whose authenticity is not easily verifiable. Through a survey of regular consumers of news and an in-depth interview of news managers in Oman, this study, therefore, investigates public attitude to the profusion of bad news in mainstream and digital media. Among other targets, it examines whether the profusion of bad news generates empathy fatigue among the audience, and if so, whether there is any association between biographic variables (profession, age, and gender) and an inclination to empathy fatigue. It also seeks to identify which categories of bad news and media are most likely to drag the audience into indifference. In conclusion, the study discusses the implications of the findings for mass mediated advocacies such as campaigns against corruption, nuclear threats, terrorism, gun violence, sexual crimes and human trafficking among other threats to humanity.

Keywords: digital media, empathy fatigue, media campaigns, news selection

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3700 DURAFILE: A Collaborative Tool for Preserving Digital Media Files

Authors: Santiago Macho, Miquel Montaner, Raivo Ruusalepp, Ferran Candela, Xavier Tarres, Rando Rostok

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During our lives, we generate a lot of personal information such as photos, music, text documents and videos that link us with our past. This data that used to be tangible is now digital information stored in our computers, which implies a software dependence to make them accessible in the future. Technology, however, constantly evolves and goes through regular shifts, quickly rendering various file formats obsolete. The need for accessing data in the future affects not only personal users but also organizations. In a digital environment, a reliable preservation plan and the ability to adapt to fast changing technology are essential for maintaining data collections in the long term. We present in this paper the European FP7 project called DURAFILE that provides the technology to preserve media files for personal users and organizations while maintaining their quality.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, digital preservation, social search, digital preservation plans

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3699 Teaching Techno-Criticism to Digital Natives: Participatory Journalism as Pedagogical Practice

Authors: Stephen D. Caldes

Abstract:

Teaching media and digital literacy to “digital natives” presents a unique set of pedagogical obstacles, especially when critique is involved, as these early-adopters tend to deify most technological and/or digital advancements and inventions. Knowing no other way of being, these natives are often reluctant to hear criticisms of the way they receive information, educate themselves, communicate with others, and even become enculturated because critique often connotes generational gaps and/or clandestine efforts to produce neo-Luddites. To digital natives, techno-criticism is more the result of an antiquated, out-of-touch agenda rather than a constructive, progressive praxis. However, the need to cultivate a techno-critical perspective among technology’s premier users has, perhaps, never been more pressing. In an effort to sidestep reluctance and encourage critical thought about where we are in terms of digital technology and where exactly it may be taking us, this essay outlines a new model for teaching techno-criticism to digital natives. Specifically, it recasts the techniques of participatory journalism—helping writers and readers understand subjects outside of their specific historical context—as progressive, interdisciplinary pedagogy. The model arises out of a review of relevant literature and data gathered via literary analysis and participant observation. Given the tenuous relationships between novel digital advancements, individual identity, collective engagement, and, indeed, Truth/fact, shepherding digital natives toward routine practice of “techno-realism” seems of utter importance.

Keywords: digital natives, journalism education, media literacy, techno-criticism

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3698 Transform to Succeed: An Empirical Analysis of Digital Transformation in Firms

Authors: Sarah E. Stief, Anne Theresa Eidhoff, Markus Voeth

Abstract:

Despite all progress firms are facing the increasing need to adapt and assimilate digital technologies to transform their business activities in order to pursue business development. By using new digital technologies, firms can implement major business improvements in order to stay competitive and foster new growth potentials. The corresponding phenomenon of digital transformation has received some attention in previous literature in respect to industries such as media and publishing. Nevertheless, there is a lack of understanding of the concept and its organization within firms. With the help of twenty-three in-depth field interviews with German experts responsible for their company’s digital transformation, we examined what digital transformation encompasses, how it is organized and which opportunities and challenges arise within firms. Our results indicate that digital transformation is an inevitable task for all firms, as it bears the potential to comprehensively optimize and reshape established business activities and can thus be seen as a strategy of business development.

Keywords: business development, digitalization, digital strategies, digital transformation

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3697 A Discussion on the Design Practice of College Students for Virtual Avatars in Social Media Ecology

Authors: Mei-Chun Chang

Abstract:

Due to digital transformation and social media development in recent years, various real-time interactive digital tools have been developed to meet the design demands for virtual reality avatars, which also promote digital content learners' active participation in the creation process. As a result, new social media design tools have the characteristics of intuitive operation with a simplified interface for fast production, from which works can be simply created. This study carried out observations, records, questionnaire surveys, and interviews on the creation and learning of visual avatars made by students of the National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (NTUST) with the VRoid Studio 3D modeling tool so as to explore their learning effectiveness on the design of visual avatars. According to the results of this study, the VRoid Studio 3D character modeling tool has a positive impact on the learners and helps to improve their learning effectiveness. Students with low academic achievements said that they could complete the conceived modeling with their own thinking by using the design tool, which increased their sense of accomplishment. Conclusions are drawn according to the results, and relevant future suggestions are put forward.

Keywords: virtual avatar, character design, social media, vroid studio, creation, digital learning

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3696 Commericializing Fashion Goods in the Digital Age

Authors: Jianli Hu

Abstract:

The internet has fundamentally revolutionized access to data and ushered new ways of creating and accessing information for commercializing products. Digital media such as computer programs, software, apps, websites, and social media have allowed the proliferation of information and ideas to grow exponentially. In recent years, a new wave of innovative e-commerce formats has begun to emerge in the fashion marketplace, responding to the ever-greater need for transparency and connectivity. For example, many fashion wholesalers and retailers have modified their operations using software systems that enable brands to cost, track, and analyze products and client orders, sales tools that connect buyers and brands to create a more dynamic market-place, as well as retailer-end apps designed to drive traffic back to brick-and-mortar stores. In this paper, we review the recently developed tools and applications of commercializing fashion, and present results of several field studies and interviews with fashion producers and buyers.

Keywords: fashion, digital media, commercializing products, internet

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3695 The Instrumentalization of Digital Media in the Context of Sexualized Violence

Authors: Katharina Kargel, Frederic Vobbe

Abstract:

Sexual online grooming is generally defined as digital interactions for the purpose of sexual exploitation of children or minors, i.e. as a process for preparing and framing sexual child abuse. Due to its conceptual history, sexual online grooming is often associated with perpetrators who are previously unknown to those affected. While the strategies of perpetrators and the perception of those affected are increasingly being investigated, the instrumentalisation of digital media has not yet been researched much. Therefore, the present paper aims at contributing to this research gap by examining in what kind of ways perpetrators instrumentalise digital media. Our analyses draw on 46 case documentations and 18 interviews with those affected. The cases and the partly narrative interviews were collected by ten cooperating specialist centers working on sexualized violence in childhood and youth. For this purpose, we designed a documentation grid allowing for a detailed case reconstruction i.e. including information on the violence, digital media use and those affected. By using Reflexive Grounded Theory, our analyses emphasize a) the subjective benchmark of professional practitioners as well as those affected and b) the interpretative implications resulting from our researchers’ subjective and emotional interaction with the data material. It should first be noted that sexualized online grooming can result in both online and offline sexualized violence as well as hybrid forms. Furthermore, the perpetrators either come from the immediate social environment of those affected or are unknown to them. The perpetrator-victim relationship plays a more important role with regard to the question of the instrumentalisation of digital media than the question of the space (on vs. off) in which the primary violence is committed. Perpetrators unknown to those affected instrumentalise digital media primarily to establish a sexualized system of norms, which is usually embedded in a supposed love relationship. In some cases, after an initial exchange of sexualized images or video recordings, a latent play on the position of power takes place. In the course of the grooming process, perpetrators from the immediate social environment increasingly instrumentalise digital media to establish an explicit relationship of power and dependence, which is directly determined by coercion, threats and blackmail. The knowledge of possible vulnerabilities is strategically used in the course of maintaining contact. The above explanations lead to the conclusion that the motive for the crime plays an essential role in the question of the instrumentalisation of digital media. It is therefore not surprising that it is mostly the near-field perpetrators without commercial motives who initiate a spiral of violence and stress by digitally distributing sexualized (violent) images and video recordings within the reference system of those affected.

Keywords: sexualized violence, children and youth, grooming, offender strategies, digital media

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