Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: eclampsia

24 MMP-2 Gene Polymorphism and Its Influence on Serum MMP-2 Levels in Pre-Eclampsia in Indian Population

Authors: Ankush Kalra, Mirza Masroor, Usha Manaktala, B. C. Koner, T. K. Mishra


Introduction: Pre-eclampsia affects 3-5% of pregnancies worldwide and increases maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality. Reduced placental perfusion induces the release of biomolecules by the placenta into maternal circulation causing endothelial dysfunction. Zinc dependent matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) may be up-regulated and interact with circulating factors of oxidative stress and inflammation to produce endothelial dysfunction in pre-eclampsia. Aim: To study the functional genetic polymorphism of MMP-2 gene (g-1306 C>T) in pre-eclampsia and its effect on serum MMP-2 levels in these patients. Method: Hundred pre-eclampsia patients and hundred age and gestation period matched healthy pregnant women with their consent were recruited in the study. Serum MMP-2 levels in all subjects were estimated using standard ELISA kits. MMP-2 gene (g.- 1306 C>T) SNPs were genotyped using whole blood by ASO-PCR. Result: The pre-eclampsia patients had higher serum levels of MMP-2 compared to the healthy pregnant (p < 0.05). Also the MMP-2 genotype was associated with significant alteration in the serum MMP-2 concentration in these patients (p < 0.05). Conclusion: This study results suggest an association of MMP-2 genetic polymorphism and serum levels of MMP-2 to the path physiology of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy.

Keywords: allele specific oligonucleotide polymerase chain reaction (ASO-PCR), enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), pre-eclampsia

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23 Maternal Death Review and Contextualization of Maternal Death in West Bengal

Authors: M. Illias Kanchan


The death of a woman during pregnancy and childbirth is not only a health issue, but also a matter of social injustice. This study makes an attempt to explore the association between maternal death and associated factors in West Bengal using the approaches of facility-based and community-based maternal death review. Bivariate and binary logistic regression analysis have been performed to understand the causes and circumstances of maternal deaths in West Bengal. Delay in seeking care was the major contributor in maternal deaths, near about one-third women died due to this factor. The most common cause of maternal death is found to be hypertensive disorders of pregnancy or eclampsia. We believe that these deaths can be averted by reducing hypertensive disorders of pregnancy or eclampsia.

Keywords: maternal death, facility-based, community-based, review, west Bengal, eclampsia

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22 Challenges and Implications for Choice of Caesarian Section and Natural Birth in Pregnant Women with Pre-Eclampsia in Western Nigeria

Authors: F. O. Adeosun, I. O. Orubuloye, O. O. Babalola


Although caesarean section has greatly improved obstetric care throughout the world, in developing countries there is a great aversion to caesarean section. This study was carried out to examine the rate at which pregnant women with pre-eclampsia choose caesarean section over natural birth. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 500 pre-eclampsia antenatal clients seen at the States University Teaching Hospitals in the last one year. The sample selection was purposive. Information on their educational background, beliefs and attitudes were collected. Data analysis was presented using simple percentages. Out of 500 women studied, 38% favored caesarean section while 62% were against it. About 89% of them understood what caesarean section is, 57.3% of those who understood what caesarean section is will still not choose it as an option. Over 85% of the women believed caesarean section is done for medical reasons. If caesarean section is given as an option for childbirth, 38% would go for it, 29% would try religious intervention, 5.5% would not choose it because of fear, while 27.5% would reject it because they believe it is culturally wrong. Majority of respondents (85%) who favored caesarean delivery are aware of the risk attached to choosing virginal birth but go an extra mile in sourcing funds for a caesarean session while over 64% cannot afford the cost of caesarean delivery. It is therefore pertinent to encourage research in prediction methods and prevention of occurrence, since this would assist patients to plan on how to finance treatment.

Keywords: caesarean section, choice, cost, pre eclampsia, prediction methods

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21 Antenatal Monitoring of Pre-Eclampsia in a Low Resource Setting

Authors: Alina Rahim, Joanne Moffatt, Jessica Taylor, Joseph Hartland, Tamer Abdelrazik


Background: In 2011, 15% of maternal deaths in Uganda were due to hypertensive disorders (pre-eclampsia and eclampsia). The majority of these deaths are avoidable with optimum antenatal care. The aim of the study was to evaluate how antenatal monitoring of pre-eclampsia was carried out in a low resource setting and to identify barriers to best practice as recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as part of a 4th year medical student External Student Selected component field trip. Method: Women admitted to hospital with pre-eclampsia in rural Uganda (Villa Maria and Kitovu Hospitals) over a year-long period were identified using the maternity register and antenatal record book. It was not possible to obtain notes for all cases identified on the maternity register. Therefore a total of thirty sets of notes were reviewed. The management was recorded and compared to Ugandan National Guidelines and WHO recommendations. Additional qualitative information on routine practice was established by interviewing staff members from the obstetric and midwifery teams. Results: From the records available, all patients in this sample were managed according to WHO recommendations during labour. The rate of Caesarean section as a mode of delivery was noted to be high in this group of patients; 56% at Villa Maria and 46% at Kitovu. Antenatally two WHO recommendations were not routinely met: aspirin prophylaxis and calcium supplementation. This was due to lack of resources, and lack of attendance at antenatal clinic leading to poor detection of high-risk patients. Medical management of pre-eclampsia varied between individual patients, overall 93.3% complied with Ugandan national guidelines. Two patients were treated with diuretics, which is against WHO guidance. Discussion: Antenatal monitoring of pre-eclampsia is important in reducing severe morbidity, long-term disability and mortality amongst mothers and their babies 2 . Poor attendance at antenatal clinic is a barrier to healthcare in low-income countries. Increasing awareness of the importance of these visits for women should be encouraged. The majority of cases reviewed in this sample of women were treated according to Ugandan National Guidelines. It is recommended to commence the use of aspirin prophylaxis for women at high-risk of developing pre-eclampsia and the creation of detailed guidelines for Uganda which would allow for standardisation of care county-wide.

Keywords: antenatal monitoring, low resource setting, pre-eclampsia, Uganda

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20 Factors Contributing to Adverse Maternal and Fetal Outcome in Patients with Eclampsia

Authors: T. Pradhan, P. Rijal, M. C. Regmi


Background: Eclampsia is a multisystem disorder that involves vital organs and failure of these may lead to deterioration of maternal condition and hypoxia and acidosis of fetus resulting in high maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Thus, evaluation of the contributing factors for this condition and its complications leading to maternal deaths should be the priority. Formulating the plan and protocol to decrease these losses should be our goal. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the risk factors associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcome in patients with eclampsia and to correlate the risk factors associated with maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Methods: All patients with eclampsia admitted in Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences were enrolled after informed consent from February 2013 to February 2014. Questions as per per-forma were asked to patients, and attendants like Antenatal clinic visits, parity, number of episodes of seizures, duration from onset of seizure to magnesium sulfate and the patients were followed as per the hospital protocol, the mode of delivery, outcome of baby, post partum maternal condition like maternal Intensive Care Unit admission, neurological impairment and mortality were noted before discharge. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 11). Mean and percentage were calculated for demographic variables. Pearson’s correlation test and chi-square test were applied to find the relation between the risk factors and the outcomes. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: There were 10,000 antenatal deliveries during the study period. Fifty-two patients with eclampsia were admitted. All of the patients were unbooked for our institute. Thirty-nine patients were antepartum eclampsia. Thirty-one patients required mechanical ventilator support. Twenty-four patients were delivered by emergency c-section and 21 babies were Low Birth Weight and there were 9 stillbirths. There was one maternal mortality and 45 patients were discharged with improvement but 3 patients had neurological impairment. Mortality was significantly related with number of seizure episodes and time interval between seizure onset and administration of magnesium sulphate. Conclusion: Early detection and management of hypertensive complicating pregnancy during antenatal clinic check up. Early hospitalization and management with magnesium sulphate for eclampsia can help to minimize the maternal and fetal adverse outcomes.

Keywords: eclampsia, maternal mortality, perinatal mortality, risk factors

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19 Quality of Care for the Maternal Complications at Selected Primary and Secondary Health Facilities of Bangladesh: Lessons Learned from a Formative Research

Authors: Mohiuddin Ahsanul Kabir Chowdhury, Nafisa Lira Huq, Afroza Khanom, Rafiqul Islam, Abdullah Nurus Salam Khan, Farhana Karim, Nabila Zaka, Shams El Arifeen, Sk. Masum Billah


After having astounding achievements in reducing maternal mortality and achieving the target for Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5, the Government of Bangladesh has set new target to reduce Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) to 70 per 100,000 live births aligning with targets of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Aversion of deaths from maternal complication by ensuring quality health care could be an important path to accelerate the rate of reduction of MMR. This formative research was aimed at exploring the provision of quality maternal health services at different level of health facilities. The study was conducted in 1 district hospital (DH) and 4 Upazila health complexes (UHC) of Kurigram district of Bangladesh, utilizing both quantitative and qualitative research methods. We conducted 14 key informant interviews with facility managers and 20 in-depth interviews with health care providers and support staff. Besides, we observed 387 normal deliveries from which we found 17 cases of post partum haemorrhage (PPH) and 2 cases of eclampsia during the data collection period extended from July-September 2016. The quantitative data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, and the qualitative component underwent thematic analysis with the broad themes of facility readiness for maternal complication management, and management of complications. Inadequacy in human resources has been identified as the most important bottleneck to provide quality care to manage maternal complications. The DH had a particular paucity of human resources in medical officer cadre where about 61% posts were unfilled. On the other hand, in the UHCs the positions mostly empty were obstetricians (75%, paediatricians (75%), staff nurses (65%), and anaesthetists (100%). The workload on the existing staff is increased because of the persistence of vacant posts. Unavailability of anesthetists and consultants does not permit the health care providers (HCP) of lower cadres to perform emergency operative procedures and forces them to refer the patients although referral system is not well organized in rural Bangladesh. Insufficient bed capacity, inadequate training, shortage of emergency medicines etc. are other hindrance factors for facility readiness. Among the 387 observed delivery case, 17 (4.4%) were identified as PPH cases, and only 2 cases were found as eclampsia/pre-eclampsia. The majority of the patients were treated with uterine message (16 out of 17, 94.1%) and injectable Oxytocin (14 out of 17, 82.4%). The providers of DH mentioned that they can manage the PPH because of having provision for diagnostic and blood transfusion services, although not as 24/7 services. Regarding management of eclampsia/pre-eclampsia, HCPs provided Diazepam, MgSO4, and other anti-hypertensives. The UHCs did not have MgSO4 at stock even, and one facility manager admitted that they treat eclampsia with Diazepam only. The nurses of the UHCs were found to be afraid to handle eclampsia cases. The upcoming interventions must ensure refresher training of service providers, continuous availability of essential medicine and equipment needed for complication management, availability of skilled health workforce, availability of functioning blood transfusion unit and pairing of consultants and anaesthetists to reach the newly set targets altogether.

Keywords: Bangladesh, health facilities, maternal complications, quality of care

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18 UEMG-FHR Coupling Analysis in Pregnancies Complicated by Pre-Eclampsia and Small for Gestational Age

Authors: Kun Chen, Yan Wang, Yangyu Zhao, Shufang Li, Lian Chen, Xiaoyue Guo, Jue Zhang, Jing Fang


The coupling strength between uterine electromyography (UEMG) and Fetal heart rate (FHR) signals during peripartum reflects the fetal biophysical activities. Therefore, UEMG-FHR coupling characterization is instructive in assessing placenta function. This study introduced a physiological marker named elevated frequency of UEMG-FHR coupling (E-UFC) and explored its predictive value for pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia and small for gestational age (SGA). Placental insufficiency patients (n=12) and healthy volunteers (n=24) were recruited and participated. UEMG and FHR were recorded non-invasively by a trans-abdominal device in women at term with singleton pregnancy (32-37 weeks) from 10:00 pm to 8:00 am. The product of the wavelet coherence and the wavelet cross-spectral power between UEMG and FHR was used to weight these two effects in order to quantify the degree of the UEMG-FHR coupling. E-UFC was exacted from the resultant spectrogram by calculating the mean value of the high-coherence (r > 0.5) frequency band. Results showed the high-coherence between UEMG and FHR was observed in the frequency band (1/512-1/16Hz). In addition, E-UFC in placental insufficiency patients was weaker compared to healthy controls (p < 0.001) at group level. These findings suggested the proposed approach could be used to quantitatively characterize the fetal biophysical activities, which is beneficial for early detection of placental insufficiency and reduces the occurrence of adverse pregnancy.

Keywords: uterine electromyography, fetal heart rate, coupling analysis, wavelet analysis

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17 Evaluation of Associated Risk Factors and Determinants of near Miss Obstetric Cases at B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan

Authors: Madan Khadka, Dhruba Uprety, Rubina Rai


Background and objective: In 2011, around 273,465 women died worldwide during pregnancy, childbirth or within 42 days after childbirth. Near-miss is recognized as the predictor of the level of care and maternal death. The objective of the study was to evaluate the associated risk factors of near-miss obstetric cases and maternal death. Material and Methods A Prospective Observational Study was done from August 1, 2014, to June 30, 2015, in Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at BPKIHS hospital, tertiary care hospital in Eastern Nepal, Dharan. Case eligible by the 5-factor scoring system and WHO near miss criteria were evaluated. Risk factors included severe hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, and a complication of abortion, ruptured uterus, medical/surgical condition and sepsis. Results: A total of 9,727 delivery were attended during the study period from August 2014 to June 2014. There were 6307 (71.5%) vaginal delivery and 2777(28.5%) caesarean section and 181 perinatal death with a total of 9,546 live birth. A total of 162 near miss was identified, and 16 maternal death occurred during the study. Maternal near miss rate of 16.6 per 1000 live birth, Women with life-threatening conditions (WLTC) of 172, Severe maternal outcome ratio of 18.64 per 1000 live birth, Maternal near-miss mortality ratio (MNM: 1 MD) 10.1:1, Mortality index (MI) of 8.98%. Risk factors were obstetric hemorrhage 27.8%, abortion/ectopic 27.2%, eclampsia 16%, medical/surgical condition 14.8%, sepsis 13.6%, severe preeclamsia 11.1%, ruptured uterus 3.1%, and molar pregnancy 1.9%. 19.75% were prim gravidae, with mean age 25.66 yrs, and cardiovascular and coagulation dysfunction as a major life threatening condition and sepsis (25%) was the major cause of mortality. Conclusion: Hemorrhage and hypertensive disorders are the leading causes of near miss event and sepsis as a leading cause of mortality. As near miss analysis indicates the quality of health care, it is worth presenting in national indices.

Keywords: abortion, eclampsia, hemorrhage, maternal mortility, near miss

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16 Pres Syndrome in Pregnancy: A Case Series of Five Cases

Authors: Vaibhavi Birle


Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a rare clinic-radiological syndrome associated with acute changes in blood pressure during pregnancy. It is characterized symptomatically by headache, seizures, altered mental status, and visual blurring with radiological changes of white matter (vasogenic oedema) affecting the posterior occipital and parietal lobes of the brain. It is being increasingly recognized due to increased institutional deliveries and advances in imaging particularly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In spite of the increasing diagnosis the prediction of PRES and patient factors affecting susceptibility is still not clear. Hence, we conducted the retrospective study to analyse the factors associated with PRES at our tertiary centre.

Keywords: pres syndrome, eclampsia, maternal outcome, fetal outcome

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15 Pregnancy Outcome in Pregnancy with Low Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein A in First Trimester

Authors: Sumi Manjipparambil Surendran, Subrata Majumdar


Aim: The aim of the study is to find out if low PAPP-A (Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein A) levels in the first trimester are associated with adverse obstetric outcome. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out on 114 singleton pregnancies having undergone combined test screening. Results: There is statistically significant increased incidence of low birth weight infants in the low PAPP-A group. However, significant association was not found in the incidence of pre-eclampsia, miscarriage, and placental abruption. Conclusion: Low PAPP-A in the first trimester is associated with fetal growth restriction. Recommendation: Women with low PAPP-A levels in first trimester pregnancy screening require consultant-led care and serial growth scans.

Keywords: pregnancy, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, PAPP-A, fetal growth restriction, trimester

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14 Screening for Women with Chorioamnionitis: An Integrative Literature Review

Authors: Allison Herlene Du Plessis, Dalena (R.M.) Van Rooyen, Wilma Ten Ham-Baloyi, Sihaam Jardien-Baboo


Introduction: Women die in pregnancy and childbirth for five main reasons—severe bleeding, infections, unsafe abortions, hypertensive disorders (pre-eclampsia and eclampsia), and medical complications including cardiac disease, diabetes, or HIV/AIDS complicated by pregnancy. In 2015, WHO classified sepsis as the third highest cause for maternal mortalities in the world. Chorioamnionitis is a clinical syndrome of intrauterine infection during any stage of the pregnancy and it refers to ascending bacteria from the vaginal canal up into the uterus, causing infection. While the incidence rates for chorioamnionitis are not well documented, complications related to chorioamnionitis are well documented and midwives still struggle to identify this condition in time due to its complex nature. Few diagnostic methods are available in public health services, due to escalated laboratory costs. Often the affordable biomarkers, such as C-reactive protein CRP, full blood count (FBC) and WBC, have low significance in diagnosing chorioamnionitis. A lack of screening impacts on effective and timeous management of chorioamnionitis, and early identification and management of risks could help to prevent neonatal complications and reduce the subsequent series of morbidities and healthcare costs of infants who are health foci of perinatal infections. Objective: This integrative literature review provides an overview of current best research evidence on the screening of women at risk for chorioamnionitis. Design: An integrative literature review was conducted using a systematic electronic literature search through EBSCOhost, Cochrane Online, Wiley Online, PubMed, Scopus and Google. Guidelines, research studies, and reports in English related to chorioamnionitis from 2008 up until 2020 were included in the study. Findings: After critical appraisal, 31 articles were included. More than one third (67%) of the literature included ranked on the three highest levels of evidence (Level I, II and III). Data extracted regarding screening for chorioamnionitis was synthesized into four themes, namely: screening by clinical signs and symptoms, screening by causative factors of chorioamnionitis, screening of obstetric history, and essential biomarkers to diagnose chorioamnionitis. Key conclusions: There are factors that can be used by midwives to identify women at risk for chorioamnionitis. However, there are a paucity of established sociological, epidemiological and behavioral factors to screen this population. Several biomarkers are available to diagnose chorioamnionitis. Increased Interleukin-6 in amniotic fluid is the better indicator and strongest predictor of histological chorioamnionitis, whereas the available rapid matrix-metalloproteinase-8 test requires further testing. Maternal white blood cells count (WBC) has shown poor selectivity and sensitivity, and C-reactive protein (CRP) thresholds varied among studies and are not ideal for conclusive diagnosis of subclinical chorioamnionitis. Implications for practice: Screening of women at risk for chorioamnionitis by health care providers providing care for pregnant women, including midwives, is important for diagnosis and management before complications arise, particularly in resource-constraint settings.

Keywords: chorioamnionitis, guidelines, best evidence, screening, diagnosis, pregnant women

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13 Spectrum of Acute Kidney Injury in Obstetrics

Authors: Seema Chopra, Amandeep Kaur, Vanita Suri, Shalini Gainder, Minakshi Rohilla


Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) associated with pregnancy is a serious medical complication which can lead to significant maternal as well as perinatal morbidity and mortality. Material and methods: This prospective observational study was carried out in the Obstetrics and Gynaecology department and dialysis unit of Nephrology department of PGIMER, Chandigarh from July 2013 to June 2014. Forty antenatal/postnatal/postabortal patients who fulfilled the AKIN criteria were enrolled in the study. All patients were followed up till 3 months postpartum. Results: Majority of the patients 23/40 (57.5%) with AKI presented in postpartum period, 14/40 (35%) developed AKI in antenatal period, and 3/40 (7.5%) were postabortal. AKI was attributable mostly to sepsis in 11/40 (27.5%) and PPH in 5/40 (12.5%). Hypertension and its complications causing AKI included eclampsia in 5/40 (12.5%) followed by 3/40 (7.5%) as HELLP syndrome and abruption placentae in 2/40(5%) patients. Three patients each (7.5%) had AFLP, TMA, and HEV as the cause of AKI. Renal replacement therapy in the form of hemodialysis was the treatment in majority of them (28 (70%)). After the acute event, 25 (62.5%) had complete recovery of their renal functions at 3 months follow up. Maternal mortality was seen in 25% (n=10) of the study patients. Conclusion: Timely initiation of RRT in patients with AKI associated with pregnancy has a good maternal outcome in the form of complete recovery of renal functions in 62.5% (25/40) of patients.

Keywords: AKI, dialysis, hypertension, sepsis, renal parameters

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12 Reproductive Health of Women After Taking Chemotherapy for Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

Authors: Ezeh Chukwunonso Peter Excel, Akruti Vg


Aim/Background: To show that even after undergoing 1-5 courses of chemotherapy for Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD) reproductive health of women is intact and they conceive successfully after it. Method: Retrospective cohort analysis using data from the Lugansk regional maternity hospital database of years 1993-2013, which shows n=18 females had GTD and underwent 1-5 courses of chemotherapy. Results and Discussion: Frequency of GTD was rare. All 18 patients (pts) belong to age group of 17-39 years, covering wide range of reproductive age. Out of 18 pts, 15 had hydatidiform mole (HM) while other 3 had choriocarcinoma (CC). In anamnesis, among CC pts, 1 had early pre-eclampsia at 24 weeks and 1 had 4th week of late postpartum (PP) bleeding, while all HM pts had genital inflammatory diseases, 1 pt of HM during follow-up had High hCG and 3 times curettage in 5 months. 18 women became pregnant for 25 times after chemotherapy. Chemotherapy was given under indication of either high level of HCG, luteal cyst >6cm or path-morphological results of curettage. CC 3 pts had (2 spontaneous abortions (SA), 2 term cesarean section (CS), 1 preterm CS). HM 15 pts had (3 artificial abortion, 2 SA, 7CS (5 term and 2 preterm), 8 vaginal deliveries (7 term and 1 preterm)). Conclusion: During our research we got 22.2% preterm deliveries and 55.6% CS which is higher than the normal cases, but still all the 18 women were able to have kids successfully after chemotherapy. So we can conclude that chemotherapy for GTD was successful in keeping the reproductive health of women intact.

Keywords: reproductive health, chemotherapy, gestational trophoblastic disease, women

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11 Unexpected Acute Respiratory Failure following Administration of Rocuronium Bromide during Cesarean Delivery in a Severely Preeclamptic Parturient Treated with Magnesium Sulfate

Authors: Joseph Carl Macalintal, Erlinda Armovit


Magnesium sulfate has been a mainstay in the management of preeclampsia and is associated with a decreased incidence of morbidity and mortality. The syndrome has an unpredictable course, sometimes rapidly evolving to full-blown disease. In patients with deteriorating status, it is indicated to terminate the pregnancy via cesarean section. The anesthesiologists would prefer to have the procedure done under regional anesthesia; however, there may be cases when neuraxial anesthesia is contraindicated, or a general anesthesia would permit prompt delivery of the fetus. A patient with severe preeclampsia was given magnesium sulfate intrapartum, wherein a primary cesarean section was indicated for arrest in cervical dilatation, and was performed under general anesthesia. The patient developed acute respiratory failure and the causes of this occurrence were investigated in this report. It was later found out that neither the hypermagnesemia nor the muscle relaxant alone caused the patient’s condition but the interaction between the two. The patient was managed expectantly at the intensive care unit (ICU) and was eventually extubated during the 1st post-operative day. Knowledge of this drug interaction would allow obstetricians to advise their patients and their family about the possibility of prolonged intubation and ICU admission. This would also bring to the anesthesiologists’ attention the need to decrease the dose of muscle relaxant and to prepare drugs for immediate decurarisation.

Keywords: eclampsia, magnesium sulfate, preeclampsia, rocuronium bromide

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10 Association between Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy and the Development of Offspring Mental and Behavioural Problems: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Berihun Dachew, Abdullah Mamun, Joemer Maravilla, Rosa Alati


Background: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are a major cause of maternal and childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, its effect on offspring mental and behavioural disorders is unclear. Aims:The aim of this study was to provide the best scientific evidence regarding the association between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and offspring mental and behavioural problems. Methods: We systematically searched Scopus, PubMed, Cochrane, EMBASE, CINAH and PsycINFO databases. A total of 23 studies (11 included in meta-analysis) were identified. A qualitative analysis was conducted by summarizing, comparing, and contrasting the abstracted data for all included studies. For quantitative analysis, relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was used as pooled effect size. Heterogeneity was assessed by measuring Cochran’s Q and I2 test statistics. Results: Of the 23 studies included in this review, 15 studies found that hypertensive disorders of pregnancy had a negative impact for at least one mental or behavioural problem. The pooled effect of 11 studies included in the meta-analysis showed that preeclampsia was associated with increased risk of offspring schizophrenia (RR=1.37; 95% CI, 1.08-1.72). Conclusions: Intrauterine exposure to pre-eclampsia increased the risk of schizophrenia among offspring. However, we found inconclusive finding on the effect of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and other mental and behavioural problems. Further high quality, large sample, mother child cohort studies are needed to further progress this area of research.

Keywords: behavioural disorders, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, mental disorders, offspring

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9 Clinical and Epidemiological Profile in Patients with Preeclampsia in a Private Institution in Medellin, Colombia 2015

Authors: Camilo Andrés Agudelo Vélez, Lina María Martínez Sánchez, Isabel Cristina Ortiz Trujillo, Evert Armando Jiménez Cotes, Natalia Perilla Hernández, María de los Ángeles Rodríguez Gázquez, Daniel Duque Restrepo, Felipe Hernández Restrepo, Dayana Andrea Quintero Moreno, Juan José Builes Gómez, Camilo Ruiz Mejía, Ana Lucia Arango Gómez


Preeclampsia is a clinical complication during pregnancy with high incidence in Colombia; therefore, it is important to evaluate the influence of external conditions and medical interventions, in order to promote measures that encourage improvements in the quality of life. Objective: Determine clinical and sociodemographic variables in women with preeclampsia. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 50 patients with the diagnosis of preeclampsia, from a private institution in Medellin, during 2015. We used the software SPSS ver.20 for statistical analysis. For the qualitative variables, we calculated the mean and standard deviation, while, for ordinal and nominal levels of quantitative variables, ratios were estimated. Results: The average age was 26.8±5.9 years. The predominant characteristics were socioeconomic stratum 2 (48%), students (55%), mixed race (46%) and middle school as level of education (38%). As for clinical features, 72% of the cases were mild preeclampsia, and 22% were severe forms. The most common clinical manifestations were edema (46%), headache (62%), and proteinuria (55%). As for the Gyneco-obstetric history, 8% reported previous episodes of this disease and it was the first pregnancy for 60% of the patients. Conclusions: Preeclampsia is a frequent condition in young women; on the other hand, headache and edema were the most common reasons for consultation, therefore, doctors need to be aware of these symptoms in pregnant women.

Keywords: pre-eclampsia, hypertension, pregnancy complications, pregnancy, abdominal, edema

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8 Changes in Blood Pressure in a Longitudinal Cohort of Vietnamese Women

Authors: Anh Vo Van Ha, Yun Zhao, Luat Cong Nguyen, Tan Khac Chu, Phung Hoang Nguyen, Minh Ngoc Pham, Colin W. Binns, Andy H. Lee


This study aims to study longitudinal changes in blood pressure (BP) during the 1-year postpartum period and to evaluate the influence of parity, maternal age at delivery, prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, gestational age at delivery and postpartum maternal weight. A prospective longitudinal cohort study of 883 singleton Vietnamese women was conducted in Hanoi, Haiphong, and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam during 2015-2017. Women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus at 24-28 weeks of gestation, pre-eclampsia, and hypoglycemia was excluded from analysis. BP was repeatedly measured at discharge, 6 and 12 months postpartum using automatic blood pressure monitors. Linear mixed model with repeated measures was used to describe changes occurring during pregnancy to 1-year postpartum. Parity, self-reported prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, maternal age and gestational age at delivery will be treated as time-invariant variables and measured maternal weight will be treated as a time-varying variable in models. Women with higher measured postpartum weight had higher mean systolic blood pressure (SBP), 0.20 mmHg, 95% CI [0.12, 0.28]. Similarly, women with higher measured postpartum weight had higher mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP), 0.15 mmHg, 95% CI [0.08, 0.23]. These differences were both statistically significant, P < 0.001. There were no differences in SBP and DBP depending on parity, maternal age at delivery, prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain and gestational age at delivery. Compared with discharge measurement, SBP was significantly higher in 6 months postpartum, 6.91 mmHg, 95% CI [6.22, 7.59], and 12 months postpartum, 6.39 mmHg, 95% CI [5.64, 7.15]. Similarly, DBP was also significantly higher in 6 and months postpartum than at discharge, 10.46 mmHg 95% CI [9.75, 11.17], and 11.33 mmHg 95% CI [10.54, 12.12]. In conclusion, BP measured repeatedly during the postpartum period (6 and 12 months postpartum) showed a statistically significant increase, compared with after discharge from the hospital. Maternal weight was a significant predictor of postpartum blood pressure over the 1-year postpartum period.

Keywords: blood pressure, maternal weight, postpartum, Vietnam

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7 Clinical Comparative Study Comparing Efficacy of Intrathecal Fentanyl and Magnesium as an Adjuvant to Hyperbaric Bupivacaine in Mild Pre-Eclamptic Patients Undergoing Caesarean Section

Authors: Sanchita B. Sarma, M. P. Nath


Adequate analgesia following caesarean section decreases morbidity, hastens ambulation, improves patient outcome and facilitates care of the newborn. Intrathecal magnesium, an NMDA antagonist, has been shown to prolong analgesia without significant side effects in healthy parturients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the onset and duration of sensory and motor block, hemodynamic effect, postoperative analgesia, and adverse effects of magnesium or fentanyl given intrathecally with hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine in patients with mild preeclampsia undergoing caesarean section. Sixty women with mild preeclampsia undergoing elective caesarean section were included in a prospective, double blind, controlled trial. Patients were randomly assigned to receive spinal anesthesia with 2 mL 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine with 12.5 µg fentanyl (group F) or 0.1 ml of 50% magnesium sulphate (50 mg) (group M) with 0.15ml preservative free distilled water. Onset, duration and recovery of sensory and motor block, time to maximum sensory block, duration of spinal anaesthesia and postoperative analgesic requirements were studied. Statistical comparison was carried out using the Chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests and Independent Student’s t-test where appropriate. The onset of both sensory and motor block was slower in the magnesium group. The duration of spinal anaesthesia (246 vs. 284) and motor block (186.3 vs. 210) were significantly longer in the magnesium group. Total analgesic top up requirement was less in group M. Hemodynamic parameters were similar in both the groups. Intrathecal magnesium caused minimal side effects. Since Fentanyl and other opioid congeners are not available throughout the country easily, magnesium with its easy availability and less side effect profile can be a cost effective alternative to fentanyl in managing pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) patients given along with Bupivacaine intrathecally in caesarean section.

Keywords: analgesia, magnesium, pre eclampsia, spinal anaesthesia

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6 Association of Severe Preeclampsia with Offspring Neurodevelopmental and Psychiatric Disorders: A Finnish Population-Based Cohort Study

Authors: Linghua Kong, Xinxia Chen, Mika Gissler, Catharina Lavebratt


Background: Prenatal exposure to preeclampsia has been associated with an increased risk of offspring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and intellectual disability. However, little is known about the association between prenatal exposure to severe preeclampsia and neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in offspring. Objective: This study aimed to assess the risk of maternal preeclampsia combined with perinatal problems, specifically low birth weight and prematurity, on offspring neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods: All singleton live births in Finland between 1996 and 2014 (n=1 012 723) were followed up in nation-wide registries until 2018. Main exposures included pre-eclampsia, small for gestational age, and delivery before 34 gestational weeks. Offspring neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders (ICD-10 codes) were examined as outcomes variables. Offspring birth year, sex, maternal age at delivery, parity, marital status at birth, mother's country of birth, maternal smoking, maternal gestational diabetes, maternal use of psychotropic medication during pregnancy, and maternal systemic inflammatory diseases were used as covariates. Risks for neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders were estimated using Cox proportional hazards modeling. Results: Of the 1 012 723 offspring, 25 901 (2.6%) were exposed to preeclampsia, and 93 281 (9.2%) were diagnosed with a neuropsychiatric disorder. Compared to births unexposed to preeclampsia, small for gestational age or delivery before 34 gestational weeks, those exposed to preeclampsia only had a 21% increase in the likelihood of any neuropsychiatric disorders after adjusting for potential confounding (adjusted HR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.15-1.26), while exposure to preeclampsia combined with small for gestational age or delivery before 34 gestational weeks had a more than twofold increased risk of having a child with neuropsychiatric disorders (adjusted HR=2.16, 95% CI: 2.02-2.32). The adjusted HR for neuropsychiatric disorders in offspring with small for gestational age or delivery before 34 gestational weeks only was 1.79 (95% CI: 1.73-1.83). In addition, the risk estimate in offspring exposed to both preeclampsia and perinatal problems was greater than those only exposed to preeclampsia for having personality disorders (adjusted HR=1.66; 95% CI: 1.07-2.57), intellectual disabilities (adjusted HR=3.47; 95% CI: 2.86-4.22), specific developmental disorders (adjusted HR=2.91; 95% CI: 2.69-3.15), ASD (adjusted HR=1.75; 95% CI: 1.42-2.17), ADHD and conduct disorders (adjusted HR=2.00; 95%CI: 1.76-2.27), and other behavioral and emotional disorders (adjusted HR=2.09; 95% CI: 1.84-2.37). Conclusion: In utero exposure to severe preeclampsia increased the risk of several neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in offspring. Our findings are relevant to women with hypertensive disorders with regard to pregnancy consultation and management and may yield effective clues for the prevention of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in childhood.

Keywords: low birth weight, neurodevelopmental disorders, preeclampsia, prematurity, psychiatric disorders

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5 The Development of an Anaesthetic Crisis Manual for Acute Critical Events: A Pilot Study

Authors: Jacklyn Yek, Clara Tong, Shin Yuet Chong, Yee Yian Ong


Background: While emergency manuals and cognitive aids (CA) have been used in high-hazard industries for decades, this has been a nascent field in healthcare. CAs can potentially offset the large cognitive load involved in crisis resource management and possibly facilitate the efficient performance of key steps in treatment. A crisis manual was developed based on local guidelines and the latest evidence-based information and introduced to a tertiary hospital setting in Singapore. Hence, the objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the crisis manual in guiding response and management of critical events. Methods: 7 surgical teams were recruited to participate in a series of simulated emergencies in high-fidelity operating room simulator over the period of April to June 2018. All teams consisted of a surgical consultant and medical officer/registrar, anesthesia consultant and medical officer/registrar; as well as a circulating, scrub and anesthetic nurse. Each team performed a simulated operation in which 1 or more of the crisis events occurred. The teams were randomly assigned to a scenario of the crisis manual and all teams were deemed to be equal in experience and knowledge. Before the simulation, teams were instructed on proper checklist use but the use of the checklist was optional. Results: 7 simulation sessions were performed, consisting of the following scenarios: Airway fire, Massive Transfusion Protocol, Malignant Hyperthermia, Eclampsia, and Difficult Airway. Out of the 7 surgical teams, 2 teams made use of the crisis manual – of which both teams had encountered a ‘Malignant Hyperthermia’ scenario. These team members reflected that the crisis manual assisted allowed them to work in a team, especially being able to involve the surgical doctors who were unfamiliar with the condition and management. A run chart plotted showed a possible upward trend, suggesting that with increasing awareness and training, staff would become more likely to initiate the use of the crisis manual. Conclusion: Despite the high volume load in this tertiary hospital, certain crises remain rare and clinicians are often caught unprepared. A crisis manual is an effective tool and easy-to-use repository that can improve patient outcome and encourage teamwork. With training, familiarity would allow clinicians to be increasingly comfortable with reaching out for the crisis manual. More simulation training would need to be conducted to determine its effectiveness.

Keywords: crisis resource management, high fidelity simulation training, medical errors, visual aids

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4 The Physiological Effects of Thyriod Disorders During the Gestatory Period on Fetal Neurological Development: A Descriptive Review

Authors: Vanessa Bennemann, Gabriela Laste, Márcia Inês Goettert


The gestational period is a phase in which the pregnant woman undergoes constant physiological and hormonal changes, which are part of the woman’s biological cycle, the development of the fetus, childbirth, and lactation. These are factors of response to the immunological adaptation of the human reproductive process that is directly related to the pregnancy’s well-being and development. Although most pregnancies occur without complications, about 15% of pregnant women will develop potentially fatal complications, implying maternal and fetal risk. Therefore, requiring specialized care for high-risk pregnant women (HRPW) with obstetric interventions for the survival of the mother and/or fetus. Among the risk factors that characterize HRPW are the women's age, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases such as syphilis and HIV, hypertension (SAH), preeclampsia, eclampsia, HELLP syndrome, uterine contraction abnormalities, and premature placental detachment (PPD), thyroid disorders, among others. Thus, pregnancy has an impact on the thyroid gland causing changes in the functioning of the mother's thyroid gland, altering the thyroid hormone (TH) profiles and production as pregnancy progresses. Considering, throughout the gestational period, the interpretation of the results of the tests to evaluate the thyroid functioning depends on the stage in which the pregnancy is. Thyroid disorders are directly related to adverse obstetric outcomes and in child development. Therefore, the adequate release of TH is important for a pregnancy without complications and optimal fetal growth and development. Objective: Investigate the physiological effects caused by thyroid disorders in the gestational period. Methods: A search for articles indexed in PubMed, Scielo, and MDPI databases, was performed using the term “AND”, with the descriptors: Pregnancy, Thyroid. With several combinations that included: Melatonin, Thyroidopathy, Inflammatory processes, Cytokines, Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, High-risk pregnancy. Subsequently, the screening was performed through the analysis of titles and/or abstracts. The criteria were: including clinical studies in general, randomized or not, in the period of 10 years prior to the research, in the English literature; excluded: experimental studies, case reports, research in the development phase. Results: In the preliminary results, a total of studies (n=183) were found, (n=57) excluded, such as studies of cancer, diabetes, obesity, and skin diseases. Conclusion: To date, it has been identified that thyroid diseases can impair the fetus’s brain development. Further research is suggested on this matter to identify new substances that may have a potential therapeutic effect to aid the gestational period with thyroid diseases.

Keywords: pregnancy, thyroid, melatonin, high-risk pregnancy

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3 Sickle Cell Disease: Review of Managements in Pregnancy and the Outcome in Ampang Hospital, Selangor

Authors: Z. Nurzaireena, K. Azalea, T. Azirawaty, S. Jameela, G. Muralitharan


The aim of this study is the review of the management practices of sickle cell disease patients during pregnancy, as well as the maternal and neonatal outcome at Ampang Hospital, Selangor. The study consisted of a review of pregnant patients with sickle cell disease under follow up at the Hematology Clinic, Ampang Hospital over the last seven years to assess their management and maternal-fetal outcome. The results of the review show that Ampang Hospital is considered the public hematology centre for sickle cell disease and had successfully managed three pregnancies throughout the last seven years. Patients’ presentations, managements and maternal-fetal outcome were compared and reviewed for academic improvements. All three patients were seen very early in their pregnancy and had been given a regime of folic acid, antibiotics and thrombo-prophylactic drugs. Close monitoring of maternal and fetal well being was done by the hematologists and obstetricians. Among the patients, there were multiple admissions during the pregnancy for either a painful sickle cell bone crisis, haemolysis following an infection and anemia requiring phenotype- matched blood and exchange transfusions. Broad spectrum antibiotics coverage during and infection, hydration, pain management and venous-thrombolism prophylaxis were mandatory. The pregnancies managed to reach near term in the third trimester but all required emergency caesarean section for obstetric indications. All pregnancies resulted in live births with good fetal outcome. During post partum all were nursed closely in the high dependency units for further complications and were discharged well. Post partum follow up and contraception counseling was comprehensively given for future pregnancies. Sickle cell disease is uncommonly seen in the East, especially in the South East Asian region, yet more cases are seen in the current decade due to improved medical expertise and advance medical laboratory technologies. Pregnancy itself is a risk factor for sickle cell patients as increased thrombosis event and risk of infections can lead to multiple crisis, haemolysis, anemia and vaso-occlusive complications including eclampsia, cerebrovasular accidents and acute bone pain. Patients mostly require multiple blood product transfusions thus phenotype-matched blood is required to reduce the risk of alloimmunozation. Emphasizing the risks and complications in preconception counseling and establishing an ultimate pregnancy plan would probably reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality to the mother and unborn child. Early management for risk of infection, thromboembolic events and adequate hydration is mandatory. A holistic approach involving multidisciplinary team care between the hematologist, obstetricians, anesthetist, neonatologist and close nursing care for both mother and baby would ensure the best outcome. In conclusion, sickle cell disease by itself is a high risk medical condition and pregnancy would further amplify the risk. Thus, close monitoring with combine multidisciplinary care, counseling and educating the patients are crucial in achieving the safe outcome.

Keywords: anaemia, haemoglobinopathies, pregnancy, sickle cell disease

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2 Competence of the Health Workers in Diagnosing and Managing Complicated Pregnancies: A Clinical Vignette Based Assessment in District and Sub-District Hospitals in Bangladesh

Authors: Abdullah Nurus Salam Khan, Farhana Karim, Mohiuddin Ahsanul Kabir Chowdhury, S. Masum Billah, Nabila Zaka, Alexander Manu, Shams El Arifeen


Globally, pre-eclampsia (PE) and ante-partum haemorrhage (APH) are two major causes of maternal mortality. Prompt identification and management of these conditions depend on competency of the birth attendants. Since these conditions are infrequent to be observed, clinical vignette based assessment could identify the extent of health worker’s competence in managing emergency obstetric care (EmOC). During June-August 2016, competence of 39 medical officers (MO) and 95 nurses working in obstetric ward of 15 government health facilities (3 district hospital, 12 sub-district hospital) was measured using clinical vignettes on PE and APH. The vignettes resulted in three outcome measures: total vignette scores, scores for diagnosis component, and scores for management component. T-test was conducted to compare mean vignette scores and linear regression was conducted to measure the strength and association of vignette scores with different cadres of health workers, facility’s readiness for EmOC and average annual utilization of normal deliveries after adjusting for type of health facility, health workers’ work experience, training status on managing maternal complication. For each of the seven component of EmOC items (administration of injectable antibiotics, oxytocic and anticonvulsant; manual removal of retained placenta, retained products of conception; blood transfusion and caesarean delivery), if any was practised in the facility within last 6 months, a point was added and cumulative EmOC readiness score (range: 0-7) was generated for each facility. The yearly utilization of delivery cases were identified by taking the average of all normal deliveries conducted during three years (2013-2015) preceding the survey. About 31% of MO and all nurses were female. Mean ( ± sd) age of the nurses were higher than the MO (40.0 ± 6.9 vs. 32.2 ± 6.1 years) and also longer mean( ± sd) working experience (8.9 ± 7.9 vs. 1.9 ± 3.9 years). About 80% health workers received any training on managing maternal complication, however, only 7% received any refresher’s training within last 12 months. The overall vignette score was 8.8 (range: 0-19), which was significantly higher among MO than nurses (10.7 vs. 8.1, p < 0.001) and the score was not associated with health facility types, training status and years of experience of the providers. Vignette score for management component (range: 0-9) increased with higher annual average number of deliveries in their respective working facility (adjusted β-coefficient 0.16, CI 0.03-0.28, p=0.01) and increased with each unit increase in EmOC readiness score (adjusted β-coefficient 0.44, CI 0.04-0.8, p=0.03). The diagnosis component of vignette score was not associated with any of the factors except it was higher among the MO than the nurses (adjusted β-coefficient 1.2, CI 0.13-2.18, p=0.03). Lack of competence in diagnosing and managing obstetric complication by the nurses than the MO is of concern especially when majority of normal deliveries are conducted by the nurses. Better EmOC preparedness of the facility and higher utilization of normal deliveries resulted in higher vignette score for the management component; implying the impact of experiential learning through higher case management. Focus should be given on improving the facility readiness for EmOC and providing the health workers periodic refresher’s training to make them more competent in managing obstetric cases.

Keywords: Bangladesh, emergency obstetric care, clinical vignette, competence of health workers

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1 Vertebral Artery Dissection Complicating Pregnancy and Puerperium: Case Report and Review of the Literature

Authors: N. Reza Pour, S. Chuah, T. Vo


Background: Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) is a rare complication of pregnancy. It can occur spontaneously or following a traumatic event. The pathogenesis is unclear. Predisposing factors include chronic hypertension, Marfan’s syndrome, fibromuscular dysplasia, vasculitis and cystic medial necrosis. Physiological changes of pregnancy have also been proposed as potential mechanisms of injury to the vessel wall. The clinical presentation varies and it can present as a headache, neck pain, diplopia, transient ischaemic attack, or an ischemic stroke. Isolated cases of VAD in pregnancy and puerperium have been reported in the literature. One case was found to have posterior circulation stroke as a result of bilateral VAD and labour was induced at 37 weeks gestation for preeclampsia. Another patient at 38 weeks with severe neck pain that persisted after induction for elevated blood pressure and arteriography showed right VAD postpartum. A single case of lethal VAD in pregnancy with subsequent massive subarachnoid haemorrhage has been reported which was confirmed by the autopsy. Case Presentation: We report two cases of vertebral artery dissection in pregnancy. The first patient was a 32-year-old primigravida presented at the 38th week of pregnancy with the onset of early labour and blood pressure (BP) of 130/70 on arrival. After 2 hours, the patient developed a severe headache with blurry vision and BP was 238/120. Despite treatment with an intravenous antihypertensive, she had eclamptic fit. Magnesium solfate was started and Emergency Caesarean Section was performed under the general anaesthesia. On the second day after the operation, she developed left-sided neck pain. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) angiography confirmed a short segment left vertebral artery dissection at the level of C3. The patient was treated with aspirin and remained stable without any neurological deficit. The second patient was a 33-year-old primigavida who was admitted to the hospital at 36 weeks gestation with BP of 155/105, constant headache and visual disturbances. She was medicated with an oral antihypertensive agent. On day 4, she complained of right-sided neck pain. MRI angiogram revealed a short segment dissection of the right vertebral artery at the C2-3 level. Pregnancy was terminated on the same day with emergency Caesarean Section and anticoagulation was started subsequently. Post-operative recovery was complicated by rectus sheath haematoma requiring evacuation. She was discharged home on Aspirin without any neurological sequelae. Conclusion: Because of collateral circulation, unilateral vertebral artery dissections may go unrecognized and may be more common than suspected. The outcome for most patients is benign, reflecting the adequacy of the collateral circulation in young patients. Spontaneous VAD is usually treated with anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy for a minimum of 3-6 months to prevent future ischaemic events, allowing the dissection to heal on its own. We had two cases of VAD in the context of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy with an acceptable outcome. A high level of vigilance is required particularly with preeclamptic patients presenting with head/neck pain to allow an early diagnosis. This is as we hypothesize, early and aggressive management of vertebral artery dissection may potentially prevent further complications.

Keywords: eclampsia, preeclampsia, pregnancy, Vertebral Artery Dissection

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