Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: Sylvia Chan-Olmsted

23 Consequences of Inadequate Funding in Nigerian Educational System

Authors: Sylvia Nkiru Ogbuoji

Abstract:

This paper discussed the consequences of inadequate funding in Nigerian education system. It briefly explained the meaning of education in relation to the context and identified various ways education in Nigeria can be funded. It highlighted some of the consequences of inadequate funding education system to include: Inadequate facilitates for teaching and learning, western brain drain, unemployment, crises of poverty, low staff morale it. Finally, some recommendations were put forward, the government should improve the annual budget allocation to education, in order to achieve educational objective, also government should monitor the utilization of allocated funds to minimize embezzlement.

Keywords: consequences, corruption, education, funding

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22 Industrial Ecology Perspectives of Food Supply Chains: A Framework of Analysis

Authors: Luciano Batista, Sylvia Saes, Nuno Fouto, Liam Fassam

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This paper introduces the theoretical and methodological basis of an analytical framework conceived with the purpose of bringing industrial ecology perspectives into the core of the underlying disciplines supporting analyses in studies concerned with environmental sustainability aspects beyond the product cycle in a supply chain. Given the pressing challenges faced by the food sector, the framework focuses upon waste minimization through industrial linkages in food supply chains. The combination of industrial ecology practice with basic LCA elements, the waste hierarchy model, and the spatial scale of industrial symbiosis allows the standardization of qualitative analyses and associated outcomes. Such standardization enables comparative analysis not only between different stages of a supply chain, but also between different supply chains. The analytical approach proposed contributes more coherently to the wider circular economy aspiration of optimizing the flow of goods to get the most out of raw materials and cuts wastes to a minimum.

Keywords: by-product synergy, food supply chain, industrial ecology, industrial symbiosis

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21 Cultural Traditions Petik Laut and Onjem in Gili Island, Indonesia That Potential as Ecotourism to Bring Indonesia's Culture to the World

Authors: Dwi Yulian Fahruddin Shah, Mochammad Luthfy Rizaldy Dwi Putra, Tommy Adi Rachmawan, Mona Annisa Matondang, Nadya Sylvia, Hilmy Ramzy Rinaldy

Abstract:

Gili island is one of the island in Indonesia which is located in Probolinggo city, East Java. Gili Island has some potential culture as local wisdom that can be used as tourism commodity because it can be used as attractive ecotourism. With the ecotourism that utilize local wisdom of Indonesian’s culture that located in Gili can introduce the richness of Indonesian culture in the world that will increase foreign exchange. One of the cultural potential as local wisdom in Gili island are Petik Laut and Onjem. It are a culture in Gili island that can’t be found in other island in Indonesia. Not just that but also it are a cultural identity that is owned by Gili island which has fill the criteria to be used as local wisdom that can be used as ecotourism that can bring Indonesian culture to the world so that the tourists of the world will visit to Indonesia, especially to Gili island to see Petik Laut and Onjem culture directly.

Keywords: Gili island, petik laut and onjem culture, ecotourism, indonesia’s culture

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20 Food Security Indicators in Deltaic and Coastal Research: A Scoping Review

Authors: Sylvia Szabo, Indrajit Pal, Seree Park

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Deltaic and coastal regions are often strategically important both from global and regional perspectives. While river deltas are known to be breadbaskets of the world, delta inhabitants often face the risk of food and nutritional insecurity. These risks are highly exacerbated by the impacts of climate and environmental change. While numerous regional studies examined the prevalence and the determinants of food security in specific delta and coastal regions, there is still a lack of a systematic analysis on the most widely used by scientist food security indicators. In order to fill this gap, a systematic review was carried out using Covidence; a Cochrane adopted systematic review processing software. Papers included in the review were selected from the SCOPUS, Thomson Reuters Web of Science, Science Direct, ProQuest, and Google Scholar databases. Both scientific papers and grey literature (e.g., reports by international organizations) were considered. The results were analyzed by food security components (access, availability, quality, and strategy) and by world regions. Suggestions for further food security, nutrition, and health research as well as policy-related implication are also discussed.

Keywords: delta regions, coastal, food security, indicators, systematic review

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19 Lycopene and β-Carotene Variation among Genetically Diverse Momordica cochinchinensis

Authors: Dilani Wimalasiri, Robert Brkljaca, Sylvia Urban, Terrence Piva, Tien Huynh

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Momordica cochinchinensis (Cucurbitaceae) is used as food and traditional medicine in South East Asia and is commonly known as Red Gac. The fruit aril consists 70 times higher lycopene and 10 times higher β-carotene than all known fruits and vegetables. Despite its nutritional value there is little information available on its genetic variation and its influence on nutritional value. In this study; genetic and nutritional variation (lycopene and β-carotene) was investigated among 47 M. cochinchinensis samples collected from Australia, Thailand and Vietnam using molecular markers (RAPD and ISSR) and HPLC, respectively. UPGMA based cluster analysis of genetic data grouped Northern and Central Vietnam samples together but were separated from Australia, Thailand and Southern Vietnam samples. The concentration of lycopene was significantly higher among the samples collected from Central Vietnam (p<0.05) and the concentration of β-carotene was significantly higher among the samples collected from Northern Vietnam (p<0.05) indicating the existence of best varieties. This study provides vital information in genetic diversity and facilitates the selection and breeding for nutritious M. cochinchinensis varieties.

Keywords: momordica cochinchinensis, lycopene, beta carotene, genetic diversity

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18 An Ethnographic Study: Ineffective Management of a Social Enterprise

Authors: Sylvia Acquah

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The assumption that social enterprises are empowering has strong theoretical support, but empirical verification is anecdotal at best. Social enterprises blend social goal with an enterprising idea and therefore in theory these enterprises should provide meaningful jobs that are empowering. Whether jobs created are meaningful, or whether these organizations are practicing social entrepreneurship remains unexplored key questions. This paper addresses these key questions through a comprehensive literature review and an ethnographical study of a Domiciliary Home Care Social Enterprise in the UK. The social entrepreneurs, management and 9 staff members were observed, interviewed and achieves were reviewed and analyzed. In this study, the social entrepreneur’s vision was lost in transition during management change and the organization was only identified as a social enterprise by name. The organization that was set up to tackle lack of continuity in care and create a family of independent carers, was eventually closed down overnight and subjected to investigation by social services and the local council. Also, the ineffectiveness of the organization led to staff being stressed and without the support of the management to help rectify the issues; staff started displaying symptoms of burnout. Social enterprise managers should not only focus on profit maximization or generation, but should equally live up to the core tenets of the enterprise and effectively communicate and gain buy-in of all employees for any changes. Further, there ought to be an independent organization that regulates social enterprises to ensure that they are adhering to their social goals.

Keywords: ethnography, carer, social, enterprise

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17 Creating Knowledge Networks: Comparative Analysis of Reference Cases

Authors: Sylvia Villarreal, Edna Bravo

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Knowledge management focuses on coordinating technologies, people, processes, and structures to generate a competitive advantage and considering that networks are perceived as mechanisms for knowledge creation and transfer, this research presents the stages and practices related to the creation of knowledge networks. The methodology started with a literature review adapted from the systematic literature review (SLR). The descriptive analysis includes variables such as approach (conceptual or practical), industry, knowledge management processes and mythologies (qualitative or quantitative), etc. The content analysis includes identification of reference cases. These cases were characterized based on variables as scope, creation goal, years, network approach, actors and creation methodology. It was possible to do a comparative analysis to determinate similarities and differences in these cases documented in knowledge network scientific literature. Consequently, it was shown that even the need and impact of knowledge networks in organizations, the initial guidelines for their creation are not documented, so there is not a guide of good practices and lessons learned. The reference cases are from industries as energy, education, creative, automotive and textile. Their common points are the human approach; it is oriented to interactions to facilitate the appropriation of knowledge, explicit and tacit. The stages of every case are analyzed to propose the main successful elements.

Keywords: creation, knowledge management, network, stages

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16 Careers-Outreach Programmes for Children: Lessons for Perceptions of Engineering and Manufacturing

Authors: Niall J. English, Sylvia Leatham, Maria Isabel Meza Silva, Denis P. Dowling

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The training and education of under- and post-graduate students can be promoted by more active learning especially in engineering, overcoming more passive and vicarious experiences and approaches in their documented effectiveness. However, the possibility of outreach to young pupils and school-children in primary and secondary schools is a lesser explored area in terms of Education and Public Engagement (EPE) efforts – as relates to feedback and influence on shaping 3rd-level engineering training and education. Therefore, the outreach and school-visit agenda constitutes an interesting avenue to observe how active learning, careers stimulus and EPE efforts for young children and teenagers can teach the university sector, to improve future engineering-teaching standards and enhance both quality and capabilities of practice. This intervention involved careers-outreach efforts to lead to statistical determinations of motivations towards engineering, manufacturing and training. The aim was to gauge to what extent this intervention would lead to an increased careers awareness in engineering, using the method of the schools-visits programme as the means for so doing. It was found that this led to an increase in engagement by school pupils with engineering as a career option and a greater awareness of the importance of manufacturing.

Keywords: outreach, education and public engagement, careers, peer interactions

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15 Rabies Surveillance Data Analysis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia during 2012/13: Retrospective Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Fantu Lombamo Untiso, Sylvia Murphy, Emily Pieracci

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Background: Rabies is a highly fatal viral disease of all warm-blooded animals including human globally. However, effective rabies control program still remains to be a reality and needs to be strengthened. Objective: Reviewing of recorded data and analyzing it to generate information on the status of rabies in Addis Ababa in the year 2012/13. Methods: A retrospective data were used from the Ethiopian Public Health Institute rabies case record book registered in the year 2012/13. Results: Among 1357 suspected rabid animals clinically examined; only 8.84% were positive for rabies. Out of 216 animal brains investigated in the laboratory with Fluorescent Antibody Technique, 55.5% were confirmed rabies positive. Among the laboratory confirmed positive rabies cases, high percentage of the animals came from Yeka (20%) and lower number from Kirkos subcity (3.3%). Out of 1149 humans who came to the institute seeking anti-rabies post-exposure prophylaxis, 85.65% and 7.87% of them were exposed to suspected dogs and cats respectively. 3 human deaths due to rabies were reported in the year after exposure to dog bite of unknown vaccination status. Conclusion: The principal vector of rabies in Addis Ababa is dog. Effective rabies management and control based on confirmed cases and mass-immunization and control of stray dog populations is recommended.

Keywords: Addis Ababa, exposure, rabies, surveillance

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14 Waste Prevention and Economic Policy: Policy Tools for Increasing Resource Efficiency and Savings

Authors: Sylvia Graczka

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Waste related environmental problems are not only exploding but are also spotlighted for capacity shortages in recycling, as China announced its ban on waste imports. According to the waste hierarchy, prevention is the primary solution for waste, and also the cheapest. Waste related environmental pollution as externality puts an ever-growing burden on communities bearing the social costs. Economic policies often claim to be pro-environment, this often appears only theoretically, or at the level of principles. There are few concrete occurrences of tools in economic policies, such as green taxes, that are truly effective in stimulating the shift towards waste reduction. The paper presents theoretical economic policy tools based on literature review, and case studies on applied economic policy tools by analyzing policy papers, strategies in force, in line with ‘polluter pays’ and ‘extended producer responsibility’ principles. The study also emphasizes the differences between the broader notion of waste reduction and that of waste minimization, parallel to the difference between resource efficiency and resource savings. It also puts the issue in the context of neoclassical environmental economics and ecological economics, to present alternatives in approach. The research concludes in identifying effective economic policy tools that support the reduction of material use, and the prevention of waste. Consumer and producer awareness of waste problems and consciousness related to their choices are inevitable to make economic policy tools work effectively.

Keywords: economic policy, producer responsibility, resource efficiency, waste prevention

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13 Divergences in Interpreters’ Oral Interpretation among Pentecostal Churches: Sermonic Reflections

Authors: Rufus Olufemi Adebayo, Sylvia Phiwani Zulu

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Interpreting in the setting of diverse language and multicultural congregants, is often understood as integrating the content of the message. Preaching, similar to any communication, takes seriously people’s multiple contexts. The one who provides the best insight into understanding “the other”, traditionally speaking could be an interpreter in a multilingual context. Nonetheless, there are reflections in the loss of spiritual communication, translation and interpretive dialogue. No matter how eloquent the preacher is, an interpreter can make or mere the sermon (speech). The sermon that the preacher preaches is not always the one the congregation hears from the interpreter. In other occurrences, however, interpreting can lead not only to distort messages but also to dissatisfied audiences and preacher being overshadowed by the pranks of the interpreter. Using qualitative methodology, this paper explores the challenges and the conventional assumptions about preachers’ interpreter as influenced by spirituality, culture, and language in empirical and theoretical perspectives. An emphasis on the bias translation and the basis of reality that suppresses or devalues the spiritual communication is examined. The result indicates that interpretation of the declaration of guilt, history of congregation, spirituality, attitudes, morals, customs, specific practices of a preacher, education, and the environment form an entangled and misinterpretation. The article concludes by re-examining these qualities and rearticulating them into a preliminary theory for practice, as distinguished from theory, which could possibly enhance the development of more sustainable multilingual interpretation in the South African Pentecostal churches.

Keywords: congregants, divergences, interpreting/translation, language & communication, sermon/preaching

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12 Identifying E-Learning Components at North-West University, Mafikeng Campus

Authors: Sylvia Tumelo Nthutang, Nehemiah Mavetera

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Educational institutions are under pressure from their competitors. Regulators and community groups need educational institutions to adopt appropriate business and organizational practices. Globally, educational institutions are now using e-learning as the best teaching and learning approach. E-learning is becoming the center of attention to the learning institutions, educational systems and software inventors. North-West University (NWU) is currently using eFundi, a Learning Management System (LMS). LMS are all information systems and procedures that adds value to students learning and support the learning material in text or any multimedia files. With various e-learning tools, students would be able to access all the materials related to the course in electronic copies. The study was tasked with identifying the e-learning components at the NWU, Mafikeng campus. Quantitative research methodology was considered in data collection and descriptive statistics for data analysis. The Activity Theory (AT) was used as a theory to guide the study. AT outlines the limitations amongst e-learning at the macro-organizational level (plan, guiding principle, campus-wide solutions) and micro-organization (daily functioning practice, collaborative transformation, specific adaptation). On a technological environment, AT gives people an opportunity to change from concentrating on computers as an area of concern but also understand that technology is part of human activities. The findings have identified the university’s current IT tools and knowledge on e-learning elements. It was recommended that university should consider buying computer resources that consumes less power and practice e-learning effectively.

Keywords: e-learning, information and communication technology (ICT), teaching, virtual learning environment

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11 Learning Disability or Learning Differences: Understanding Differences Between Cultural and Linguistic Diversity, Learning Differences, and Learning Disabilities

Authors: Jolanta Jonak, Sylvia Tolczyk

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Students demonstrate various learning preferences and learning styles that range from visual, auditory to kinesthetic preferences. These learning preferences are further impacted by individual cognitive make up that characterizes itself in linguistic strengths, logical- special, inter-or intra- personal, just to name a few. Students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds (CLD) have an increased risk of being misunderstood by many school systems and even medical personnel. CLD students are influenced by many factors (like acculturation and experience) that may impact their achievements and functioning levels. CLD students who develop initial or basic interpersonal communication proficiency skills in the target language are even at a higher risk for being suspected of learning disability when they are underachieving academically. Research indicates that large numbers of students arenot provided the type of education and types of supports they need in order to be successful in an academicenvironment. Multiple research findings indicate that significant numbers of school staff self-reports that they do not feel adequately prepared to work with CLD students. It is extremely important for the school staff, especially school psychologists, who often are the first experts that are consulted, to be educated about overlapping symptoms and settle differences between learning difference and disability. It is equally important for medical personnel, mainly pediatricians, psychologists, and psychiatrists, to understand the subtle differences to avoid inaccurate opinions. Having the knowledge, school staff can avoid unnecessary referrals for special education evaluations and avoid inaccurate decisions about the presence of a disability. This presentation will illustrate distinctions based on research between learning differences and disabilities, how to recognize them, and how to assess for them.

Keywords: special education, learning disability, differentiation, differences

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10 Through the Lens of Forced Displacement: Refugee Women's Rights as Human Rights

Authors: Pearl K. Atuhaire, Sylvia Kaye

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While the need for equal access to civil, political as well as economic, social and cultural rights is clear under the international law, the adoption of the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against women in 1979 made this even clearer. Despite this positive progress, the abuse of refugee women's rights is one of the basic underlying root causes of their marginalisation and violence in their countries of asylum. This paper presents a critical review on the development of refugee women's rights at the international levels and national levels. It provides an array of scholarly literature on this issue and examines the measures taken by the international community to curb the problem of violence against women in their various provisions through the instruments set. It is cognizant of the fact that even if conflict affects both refugee women and men, the effects on women refugees are deep-reaching, due to the cultural strongholds they face. An important aspect of this paper is that it is conceptualised against the fact that refugee women face the problem of sexual and gender based first as refugees and second as women, yet, their rights are stumbled upon. Often times they have been rendered "worthless victims" who are only in need of humanitarian assistance than active participants committed to change their plight through their participation in political, economic and social participation in their societies. Scholars have taken notice of the fact that women's rights in refugee settings have been marginalized and call for a need to incorporate their perspectives in the planning and management of refugee settings in which they live. Underpinning this discussion is feminism theory which gives a clear understanding of the root cause of refugee women's problems. Finally, this paper suggests that these policies should be translated into action at local, national international and regional levels to ensure sustainable peace.

Keywords: feminism theory, human rights, refugee women, sexual and gender based violence

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9 The Soundscape of Contemporary Buddhist Music in Taiwan: Tzu Chi Vesak Ceremony

Authors: Sylvia Huang

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Contemporary Buddhist music has been emerged at the new forms of large-scale public Buddhist ritual ceremonies that may involve up to 10,000 participants at a time. Since 2007, the Buddha’s Birthday ceremony (Sanskrit, Vesak) by the Buddhist Tzu Chi Foundation has being held at major cities in Taiwan and many affiliated Tzu Chi offices around the world. Analysis of this modern and technologically-dependent ceremony sheds new light on the significance of music in contemporary Buddhist ritual, and also on recently enhanced and increasingly intimate connections between music and Buddhism. Through extensive ethnographic research of ten years (2007-2017), the research explores how the form of contemporary Buddhist music relates to the role of music in participants’ experience of the ritual and the way in which they construct meaning. The theoretical approach draws on both ethnomusicology and Buddhist teachings, Dharma. As soundscape is defined as the entire sonic energy produced by a landscape, the concept of soundscape is utilised to examine the contemporary ritual music in the Tzu Chi Vesak ceremony. The analysis opens new territory in exploring how analysis of Buddhist music can benefit from incorporating Buddhist philosophy within the methodological approach. Main findings are: 1) music becomes a method for Buddhist understanding through a focus in particular on how the ceremonial program is followed by music, and 2) participants engage with each other and entrain with music in the Vesak ceremony. As Buddhist sounding, such as scripture reading, liturgical chanting, and ceremonial music singing, is a sonic epistemological knowing of the conditions in which Buddhism is practiced, experienced, and transmigrated, the research concludes by showing that studies of Buddhist music have the potential to reveal distinctively Buddhist concepts, meaning, and values. Certain principles of Buddhist philosophy are adopted within ethnomusicological analysis to further enhance understandings of the crucial function of music within such a ritual context. Finally, the contemporary Buddhist music performance in the ceremony is possessed as a means of direct access to the spiritual experience in Buddhism.

Keywords: buddhist music, Taiwan, soundscape, Vesak ceremony

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8 The Difference of Menstrual Cycle Profile and Urinary Luteinizing Hormone Changes In Polycystic Ovary Syndrome And Healthy Women

Authors: Ning Li, Jiacheng Zhang, Zheng Yang, Sylvia Kang

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Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common physiological symptom in women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS may have infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods and excess male hormone (androgen) levels. Mira analyzes the cycle profiles and the luteinizing hormone (LH) changes in urine, closely related to the fertility level of healthy women and PCOS women. From the difference between the two groups, Mira helps to understand the physiological state of PCOS women and their hormonal changes in the menstrual cycle. Methods: In this study, data from 1496 cycles and information from 342 women belonging to two groups (181 PCOS and 161 Healthy) were collected and analyzed. Women test their luteinizing hormone (LH) in urine daily with Mira fertility test wand and Mira analyzer, from the day after the menstruation to the starting day of the next menstruation. All the collected data meets Mira’s user agreement and users’ identification was removed. The cycle length, LH peak, and other cycle information of the PCOS group were compared with the Healthy group. Results: The average cycle length of PCOS women is 41 days and of the Healthy women is 33 days. 91.4% of cycle length is within 40 days for the Healthy group, while it decreases to 71.9% for the PCOS group. This means PCOS women have a longer menstrual cycle and more variation during the cycle. With more variation, the ovulation prediction becomes more difficult for the PCOS group. The deviation between the LH surge day and the predicted ovulation day, calculated by the starting day of the next menstruation minus 14 days, is greater in the PCOS group compared with the Healthy group. Also, 46.96% of PCOS women have an irregular cycle, and only 19.25% of healthy women show an irregular cycle. Conclusion: PCOS women have longer menstrual cycles and more variation during the menstrual cycles. The traditional ovulation prediction is not suitable for PCOS women.

Keywords: menstrual cycle, PCOS, urinary luteinizing hormone, Mira

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7 Insulin-Producing Cells from Adult Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Control Chemically-Induced Diabetes in Dogs

Authors: Maha Azzam, Mahmoud Gabr, Mahmoud Zakaria, Ayman Refaie, Amani Ismail, Sherry Khater, Sylvia Ashamallah, Mohamed Ghoniem

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Evidence was provided that human bone marrow-derived mesenhymal stem cells (HBM-MSCs) could be differentiated to form insulin-producing cells (IPCs). Transplantation of these cells was able to cure chemically-induced diabetes in nude mice. The efficacy of these cells to control diabetes in large animals was carried out to evaluate the sufficient number of cells needed/Kg body weight and to determine the functional longevity in vivo. Materials/Methods: Ten male mongrel dogs weighing 15-20 Kg were used in this study. Diabetes was chemically-induced in 7 dogs by a mixture of alloxan and streptozotocin. Three non-diabetic served as normal controls. Differentiated HBM-MSCs (5 million/Kg) were encapsulated in theracyte capsules and transplanted beneath the rectus sheath. Each dog received 2 capsules. One dog died 4 days postoperative from inhalation pneumonia. The remaining 6 dogs were followed up for 6-18 months. Results: Four dogs became normoglycemic within 6-8 weeks with normal glucose tolerance curves providing evidence that the transplanted cells were glucose-sensitive and insulin-responsive. In the remaining 2 dogs, fasting blood glucose was reduced but did not reach euglycemic levels. The sera of all transplanted dogs contained human insulin and c-peptide but negligible levels of canine insulin. When the HBM-MSCs loaded capsules were removed, rapid return of diabetic state was noted. The harvested capsules were examined by immunofluorescence. IPCs were seen and co-expression of with c-peptide was confirmed. Furthermore, all the pancreatic endocrine genes were expressed by the transplanted cells. Conclusions: This study provided evidence that theracyte capsules could protect the xenogenic HBM-MSCs from the host immune response. This is an important issue when clinical stem cell therapy is considered for definitive treatment for T1DM.

Keywords: diabetes, mesenchymal stem cells, dogs, Insulin-producing cells

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6 Disaster Capitalism, Charter Schools, and the Reproduction of Inequality in Poor, Disabled Students: An Ethnographic Case Study

Authors: Sylvia Mac

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This ethnographic case study examines disaster capitalism, neoliberal market-based school reforms, and disability through the lens of Disability Studies in Education. More specifically, it explores neoliberalism and special education at a small, urban charter school in a large city in California and the (re)production of social inequality. The study uses Sociology of Special Education to examine the ways in which special education is used to sort and stratify disabled students. At a time when rhetoric surrounding public schools is framed in catastrophic and dismal language in order to justify the privatization of public education, small urban charter schools must be examined to learn if they are living up to their promise or acting as another way to maintain economic and racial segregation. The study concludes that neoliberal contexts threaten successful inclusive education and normalize poor, disabled students’ continued low achievement and poor post-secondary outcomes. This ethnographic case study took place at a small urban charter school in a large city in California. Participants included three special education students, the special education teacher, the special education assistant, a regular education teacher, and the two founders and charter writers. The school claimed to have a push-in model of special education where all special education students were fully included in the general education classroom. Although presented as fully inclusive, some special education students also attended a pull-out class called Study Skills. The study found that inclusion and neoliberalism are differing ideologies that cannot co-exist. Successful inclusive environments cannot thrive while under the influences of neoliberal education policies such as efficiency and cost-cutting. Additionally, the push for students to join the global knowledge economy means that more and more low attainers are further marginalized and kept in poverty. At this school, neoliberal ideology eclipsed the promise of inclusive education for special education students. This case study has shown the need for inclusive education to be interrogated through lenses that consider macro factors, such as neoliberal ideology in public education, as well as the emerging global knowledge economy and increasing income inequality. Barriers to inclusion inside the school, such as teachers’ attitudes, teacher preparedness, and school infrastructure paint only part of the picture. Inclusive education is also threatened by neoliberal ideology that shifts the responsibility from the state to the individual. This ideology is dangerous because it reifies the stereotypes of disabled students as lazy, needs drains on already dwindling budgets. If these stereotypes persist, inclusive education will have a difficult time succeeding. In order to more fully examine the ways in which inclusive education can become truly emancipatory, we need more analysis on the relationship between neoliberalism, disability, and special education.

Keywords: case study, disaster capitalism, inclusive education, neoliberalism

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5 Metabolomics Fingerprinting Analysis of Melastoma malabathricum L. Leaf of Geographical Variation Using HPLC-DAD Combined with Chemometric Tools

Authors: Dian Mayasari, Yosi Bayu Murti, Sylvia Utami Tunjung Pratiwi, Sudarsono

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Melastoma malabathricum L. is an Indo-Pacific herb that has been traditionally used to treat several ailments such as wounds, dysentery, diarrhea, toothache, and diabetes. This plant is common across tropical Indo-Pacific archipelagos and is tolerant of a range of soils, from low-lying areas subject to saltwater inundation to the salt-free conditions of mountain slopes. How the soil and environmental variation influences secondary metabolite production in the herb, and an understanding of the plant’s utility as traditional medicine, remain largely unknown and unexplored. The objective of this study is to evaluate the variability of the metabolic profiles of M. malabathricum L. across its geographic distribution. By employing high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD), a highly established, simple, sensitive, and reliable method was employed for establishing the chemical fingerprints of 72 samples of M. malabathricum L. leaves from various geographical locations in Indonesia. Specimens collected from six terrestrial and archipelago regions of Indonesia were analyzed by HPLC to generate chromatogram peak profiles that could be compared across each region. Data corresponding to the common peak areas of HPLC chromatographic fingerprint were analyzed by hierarchical component analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) to extract information on the most significant variables contributing to characterization and classification of analyzed samples data. Principal component values were identified as PC1 and PC2 with 41.14% and 19.32%, respectively. Based on variety and origin, the high-performance liquid chromatography method validated the chemical fingerprint results used to screen the in vitro antioxidant activity of M. malabathricum L. The result shows that the developed method has potential values for the quality of similar M. malabathrium L. samples. These findings provide a pathway for the development and utilization of references for the identification of M. malabathricum L. Our results indicate the importance of considering geographic distribution during field-collection efforts as they demonstrate regional metabolic variation in secondary metabolites of M. malabathricum L., as illustrated by HPLC chromatogram peaks and their antioxidant activities. The results also confirm the utility of this simple approach to a rapid evaluation of metabolic variation between plants and their potential ethnobotanical properties, potentially due to the environments from whence they were collected. This information will facilitate the optimization of growth conditions to suit particular medicinal qualities.

Keywords: fingerprint, high performance liquid chromatography, Melastoma malabathricum l., metabolic profiles, principal component analysis

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4 Using Differentiated Instruction Applying Cognitive Approaches and Strategies for Teaching Diverse Learners

Authors: Jolanta Jonak, Sylvia Tolczyk

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Educational systems are tasked with preparing students for future success in academic or work environments. Schools strive to achieve this goal, but often it is challenging as conventional teaching approaches are often ineffective in increasingly diverse educational systems. In today’s ever-increasing global society, educational systems become increasingly diverse in terms of cultural and linguistic differences, learning preferences and styles, ability and disability. Through increased understanding of disabilities and improved identification processes, students having some form of disabilities tend to be identified earlier than in the past, meaning that more students with identified disabilities are being supported in our classrooms. Also, a large majority of students with disabilities are educated in general education environments. Due to cognitive makeup and life experiences, students have varying learning styles and preferences impacting how they receive and express what they are learning. Many students come from bi or multilingual households and with varying proficiencies in the English language, further impacting their learning. All these factors need to be seriously considered when developing learning opportunities for student's. Educators try to adjust their teaching practices as they discover that conventional methods are often ineffective in reaching each student’s potential. Many teachers do not have the necessary educational background or training to know how to teach students whose learning needs are more unique and may vary from the norm. This is further complicated by the fact that many classrooms lack consistent access to interventionists/coaches that are adequately trained in evidence-based approaches to meet the needs of all students, regardless of what their academic needs may be. One evidence-based way for providing successful education for all students is by incorporating cognitive approaches and strategies that tap into affective, recognition, and strategic networks in the student's brain. This can be done through Differentiated Instruction (DI). Differentiated Instruction is increasingly recognized model that is established on the basic principles of Universal Design for Learning. This form of support ensures that regardless of the students’ learning preferences and cognitive learning profiles, they have opportunities to learn through approaches that are suitable to their needs. This approach improves the educational outcomes of students with special needs and it benefits other students as it accommodates learning styles as well as the scope of unique learning needs that are evident in the typical classroom setting. Differentiated Instruction also is recognized as an evidence-based best practice in education and is highly effective when it is implemented within the tiered system of the Response to Intervention (RTI) model. Recognition of DI becomes more common; however, there is still limited understanding of the effective implementation and use of strategies that can create unique learning environments for each student within the same setting. Through employing knowledge of a variety of instructional strategies, general and special education teachers can facilitate optimal learning for all students, with and without a disability. A desired byproduct of DI is that it can eliminate inaccurate perceptions about the students’ learning abilities, unnecessary referrals for special education evaluations, and inaccurate decisions about the presence of a disability.

Keywords: differentiated instruction, universal design for learning, special education, diversity

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3 Culturally Relevant Education Challenges and Threats in the US Secondary Classroom

Authors: Owen Cegielski, Kristi Maida, Danny Morales, Sylvia L. Mendez

Abstract:

This study explores the challenges and threats US secondary educators experience in incorporating culturally relevant education (CRE) practices in their classrooms. CRE is a social justice pedagogical practice used to connect student’s cultural references to academic skills and content, to promote critical reflection, to facilitate cultural competence, and to critique discourses of power and oppression. Empirical evidence on CRE demonstrates positive student educational outcomes in terms of achievement, engagement, and motivation. Additionally, due to the direct focus on uplifting diverse cultures through the curriculum, students experience greater feelings of belonging, increased interest in the subject matter, and stronger racial/ethnic identities. When these teaching practices are in place, educators develop deeper relationships with their students and appreciate the multitude of gifts they (and their families) bring to the classroom environment. Yet, educators regularly report being unprepared to incorporate CRE in their daily teaching practice and identify substantive gaps in their knowledge and skills in this area. Often, they were not exposed to CRE in their educator preparation program, nor do they receive adequate support through school- or district-wide professional development programming. Through a descriptive phenomenological research design, 20 interviews were conducted with a diverse set of secondary school educators to explore the challenges and threats they experience in incorporating CRE practices in their classrooms. The guiding research question for this study is: What are the challenges and threats US secondary educators face when seeking to incorporate CRE practices in their classrooms? Interviews were grounded by the theory of challenge and threat states, which highlights the ways in which challenges and threats are appraised and how resources factor into emotional valence and perception, as well as the potential to meet the task at hand. Descriptive phenomenological data analysis strategies were utilized to develop an essential structure of the educators’ views of challenges and threats in regard to incorporating CRE practices in their secondary classrooms. The attitude of the phenomenological reduction method was adopted, and the data were analyzed through five steps: sense of the whole, meaning units, transformation, structure, and essential structure. The essential structure that emerged was while secondary educators display genuine interest in learning how to successfully incorporate CRE practices, they perceive it to be a challenge (and not a threat) due to lack of exposure which diminishes educator capacity, comfort, and confidence in employing CRE practices. These findings reveal the value of attending to emotional valence and perception of CRE in promoting this social justice pedagogical practice. Findings also reveal the importance of appropriately resourcing educators with CRE support to ensure they develop and utilize this practice.

Keywords: culturally relevant education, descriptive phenomenology, social justice practice, US secondary education

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2 Exploring Digital Media’s Impact on Sports Sponsorship: A Global Perspective

Authors: Sylvia Chan-Olmsted, Lisa-Charlotte Wolter

Abstract:

With the continuous proliferation of media platforms, there have been tremendous changes in media consumption behaviors. From the perspective of sports sponsorship, while there is now a multitude of platforms to create brand associations, the changing media landscape and shift of message control also mean that sports sponsors will have to take into account the nature of and consumer responses toward these emerging digital media to devise effective marketing strategies. Utilizing the personal interview methodology, this study is qualitative and exploratory in nature. A total of 18 experts from European and American academics, sports marketing industry, and sports leagues/teams were interviewed to address three main research questions: 1) What are the major changes in digital technologies that are relevant to sports sponsorship; 2) How have digital media influenced the channels and platforms of sports sponsorship; and 3) How have these technologies affected the goals, strategies, and measurement of sports sponsorship. The study found that sports sponsorship has moved from consumer engagement, engagement measurement, and consequences of engagement on brand behaviors to micro-targeting one on one, engagement by context, time, and space, and activation and leveraging based on tracking and databases. From the perspective of platforms and channels, the use of mobile devices is prominent during sports content consumption. Increasing multiscreen media consumption means that sports sponsors need to optimize their investment decisions in leagues, teams, or game-related content sources, as they need to go where the fans are most engaged in. The study observed an imbalanced strategic leveraging of technology and digital infrastructure. While sports leagues have had less emphasis on brand value management via technology, sports sponsors have been much more active in utilizing technologies like mobile/LBS tools, big data/user info, real-time marketing and programmatic, and social media activation. Regardless of the new media/platforms, the study found that integration and contextualization are the two essential means of improving sports sponsorship effectiveness through technology. That is, how sponsors effectively integrate social media/mobile/second screen into their existing legacy media sponsorship plan so technology works for the experience/message instead of distracting fans. Additionally, technological advancement and attention economy amplify the importance of consumer data gathering, but sports consumer data does not mean loyalty or engagement. This study also affirms the benefit of digital media as they offer viral and pre-event activations through storytelling way before the actual event, which is critical for leveraging brand association before and after. That is, sponsors now have multiple opportunities and platforms to tell stories about their brands for longer time period. In summary, digital media facilitate fan experience, access to the brand message, multiplatform/channel presentations, storytelling, and content sharing. Nevertheless, rather than focusing on technology and media, today’s sponsors need to define what they want to focus on in terms of content themes that connect with their brands and then identify the channels/platforms. The big challenge for sponsors is to play to the venues/media’s specificity and its fit with the target audience and not uniformly deliver the same message in the same format on different platforms/channels.

Keywords: digital media, mobile media, social media, technology, sports sponsorship

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1 Community Engagement: Experience from the SIREN Study in Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: Arti Singh, Carolyn Jenkins, Oyedunni S. Arulogun, Mayowa O. Owolabi, Fred S. Sarfo, Bruce Ovbiagele, Enzinne Sylvia

Abstract:

Background: Stroke, the leading cause of adult-onset disability and the second leading cause of death, is a major public health concern particularly pertinent in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where nearly 80% of all global stroke mortalities occur. The Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network (SIREN) seeks to comprehensively characterize the genomic, sociocultural, economic, and behavioral risk factors for stroke and to build effective teams for research to address and decrease the burden of stroke and other non communicable diseases in SSA. One of the first steps to address this goal was to effectively engage the communities that suffer the high burden of disease in SSA. This study describes how the SIREN project engaged six sites in Ghana and Nigeria over the past three years, describing the community engagement activities that have arisen since inception. Aim: The aim of community engagement (CE) within SIREN is to elucidate information about knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices (KABP) about stroke and its risk factors from individuals of African ancestry in SSA, and to educate the community about stroke and ways to decrease disabilities and deaths from stroke using socioculturally appropriate messaging and messengers. Methods: Community Advisory Board (CABs), Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and community outreach programs. Results: 27 FGDs with 168 participants including community heads, religious leaders, health professionals and individuals with stroke among others, were conducted, and over 60 CE outreaches have been conducted within the SIREN performance sites. Over 5,900 individuals have received education on cardiovascular risk factors and about 5,000 have been screened for cardiovascular risk factors during the outreaches. FGDs and outreach programs indicate that knowledge of stroke, as well as risk factors and follow-up evidence-based care is limited and often late. Other findings include: 1) Most recognize hypertension as a major risk factor for stroke. 2) About 50% report that stroke is hereditary and about 20% do not know organs affected by stroke. 3) More than 95% willing to participate in genetic testing research and about 85% willing to pay for testing and recommend the test to others. 4) Almost all indicated that genetic testing could help health providers better treat stroke and help scientists better understand the causes of stroke. The CABs provided stakeholder input into SIREN activities and facilitated collaborations among investigators, community members and stakeholders. Conclusion: The CE core within SIREN is a first-of-its kind public outreach engagement initiative to evaluate and address perceptions about stroke and genomics by patients, caregivers, and local leaders in SSA and has implications as a model for assessment in other high-stroke risk populations. SIREN’s CE program uses best practices to build capacity for community-engaged research, accelerate integration of research findings into practice and strengthen dynamic community-academic partnerships within our communities. CE has had several major successes over the past three years including our multi-site collaboration examining the KABP about stroke (symptoms, risk factors, burden) and genetic testing across SSA.

Keywords: community advisory board, community engagement, focus groups, outreach, SSA, stroke

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