Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 698

Search results for: pilot

698 Low Power Consuming Electromagnetic Actuators for Pulsed Pilot Stages

Authors: M. Honarpardaz, Z. Zhang, J. Derkx, A. Trangärd, J. Larsson

Abstract:

Pilot stages are one of the most common positioners and regulators in industry. In this paper, we present two novel concepts for pilot stages with low power consumption to regulate a pneumatic device. Pilot 1, first concept, is designed based on a conventional frame core electro-magnetic actuator and a leaf spring to control the air flow and pilot 2 has an axisymmetric actuator and spring made of non-oriented electrical steel. Concepts are simulated in a system modeling tool to study their dynamic behavior. Both concepts are prototyped and tested. Experimental results are comprehensively analyzed and compared. The most promising concept that consumes less than 8 mW is highlighted and presented.

Keywords: electro-magnetic actuator, multidisciplinary system, low power consumption, pilot stage

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
697 Overhead Reduction by Channel Estimation Using Linear Interpolation for Single Carrier Frequency Domain Equalization Transmission

Authors: Min-Su Song, Haeng-Bok Kil, Eui-Rim Jeong

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new method to reduce the overhead by pilots for single carrier frequency domain equalization (SC-FDE) transmission. In the conventional SC-FDE transmission structure, the overhead by transmitting pilot is heavy because the pilot are transmitted at every SC-FDE block. The proposed SC-FDE structure has fewer pilots and many SC-FCE blocks are transmitted between pilots. The channel estimation and equalization is performed at the pilot period and the channels between pilots are estimated through linear interpolation. This reduces the pilot overhead by reducing the pilot transmission compared with the conventional structure, and enables reliable channel estimation and equalization.

Keywords: channel estimation, linear interpolation, pilot overhead, SC-FDE

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
696 Pilot Scale Production and Compatibility Criteria of New Self-Cleaning Materials

Authors: Jonjaua Ranogajec, Ognjen Rudic, Snezana Pasalic, Snezana Vucetic, Damir Cjepa

Abstract:

The paper involves a chain of activities from synthesis, establishment of the methodology for characterization and testing of novel protective materials through the pilot production and application on model supports. It summarizes the results regarding the development of the pilot production protocol for newly developed self-cleaning materials. The optimization of the production parameters was completed in order to improve the most important functional properties (mineralogy characteristics, particle size, self-cleaning properties and photocatalytic activity) of the newly designed nanocomposite material.

Keywords: pilot production, self-cleaning materials, compatibility, cultural heritage

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695 Understanding Student Pilot Mental Workload in Recreational Aircraft Training

Authors: Ron Bishop, Jim Mitchell, Talitha Best

Abstract:

The increase in air travel worldwide has resulted in a pilot shortage. To increase student pilot capacity and lower costs, flight schools have increased the use of recreational aircraft (RA) with technological advanced cockpits in flight schools. The impact of RA based training compared to general aviation (GA) aircraft training on student mental workload is not well understood. This research investigated student pilot (N = 17) awareness of mental workload between technologically advanced cockpit equipped RA training with analogue gauge equipped GA training. The results showed a significantly higher rating of mental workload across subscales of mental and physical demand on the NASA-TLX in recreational aviation aircraft training compared to GA aircraft. Similarly, thematic content analysis of follow-up questions identified that mental workload of the student pilots flying the RA was perceived to be more than the GA aircraft.

Keywords: mental workload, recreational aircraft, student pilot, training

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694 On the Application and Comparison of Two Geostatistics Methods in the Parameterisation Step to Calibrate Groundwater Model: Grid-Based Pilot Point and Head-Zonation Based Pilot Point Methods

Authors: Dua K. S. Y. Klaas, Monzur A. Imteaz, Ika Sudiayem, Elkan M. E. Klaas, Eldav C. M. Klaas

Abstract:

Properly selecting the most suitable and effective geostatistics method in the parameterization step of groundwater modeling is critical to attain a satisfactory model. In this paper, two geostatistics methods, i.e., Grid-Based Pilot Point (GB-PP) and Head-Zonation Based Pilot Point (HZB-PP) methods, were applied in an eogenetic karst catchment and compared using as model performances and computation time the criteria. Overall, the results show that appropriate selection of method is substantial in the parameterization of physically-based groundwater models, as it influences both the accuracy and simulation times. It was found that GB-PP method performed comparably superior to HZB-PP method. However, reflecting its model performances, HZB-PP method is promising for further application in groundwater modeling.

Keywords: groundwater model, geostatistics, pilot point, parameterization step

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693 A New IFO Estimation Scheme for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Systems

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

We address a new integer frequency offset (IFO) estimation scheme with an aid of a pilot for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing systems. After correlating each continual pilot with a predetermined scattered pilot, the correlation value is again correlated to alleviate the influence of the timing offset. From numerical results, it is demonstrated that the influence of the timing offset on the IFO estimation is significantly decreased.

Keywords: estimation, integer frequency offset, OFDM, timing offset

Procedia PDF Downloads 455
692 Analysis of the Benefits of Motion Simulators in 5th Generation Fighter Pilots' Training

Authors: Ali Mithad Emre

Abstract:

In military aviation, the use of flight simulators has proliferated recently in order to train fifth generation fighter pilots. With these simulators, pilots can carry out real-time flights resulting in seeing their faults and can perform emergency drills prior to real flights. Since we cannot risk losing the aircraft and the pilot himself/herself in the flight training process, flight simulators are of great importance to adapt the fighter pilots competently to real flights aboard the fifth generation aircraft. The real flights are impossible to simulate thoroughly on the ground. To some extent, the fixed-based simulators may assist the pilot to steer aircraft technically and visually but flight simulators can’t trick the pilot’s vestibular, sensory, and perceptual systems without motion platforms. This paper discusses the benefits of motion simulators for fifth generation fighter pilots’ training in preference to the fixed-based counterparts by analyzing their pros and cons.

Keywords: military, pilot, sickness, simulator

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
691 Adjustment and Scale-Up Strategy of Pilot Liquid Fermentation Process of Azotobacter sp.

Authors: G. Quiroga-Cubides, A. Díaz, M. Gómez

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The genus Azotobacter has been widely used as bio-fertilizer due to its significant effects on the stimulation and promotion of plant growth in various agricultural species of commercial interest. In order to obtain significantly viable cellular concentration, a scale-up strategy for a liquid fermentation process (SmF) with two strains of A. chroococcum (named Ac1 and Ac10) was validated and adjusted at laboratory and pilot scale. A batch fermentation process under previously defined conditions was carried out on a biorreactor Infors®, model Minifors of 3.5 L, which served as a baseline for this research. For the purpose of increasing process efficiency, the effect of the reduction of stirring speed was evaluated in combination with a fed-batch-type fermentation laboratory scale. To reproduce the efficiency parameters obtained, a scale-up strategy with geometric and fluid dynamic behavior similarities was evaluated. According to the analysis of variance, this scale-up strategy did not have significant effect on cellular concentration and in laboratory and pilot fermentations (Tukey, p > 0.05). Regarding air consumption, fermentation process at pilot scale showed a reduction of 23% versus the baseline. The percentage of reduction related to energy consumption reduction under laboratory and pilot scale conditions was 96.9% compared with baseline.

Keywords: Azotobacter chroococcum, scale-up, liquid fermentation, fed-batch process

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690 Optimization of the Co-Precipitation of Industrial Waste Metals in a Continuous Reactor System

Authors: Thomas S. Abia II, Citlali Garcia-Saucedo

Abstract:

A continuous copper precipitation treatment (CCPT) system was conceived at Intel Chandler Site to serve as a first-of-kind (FOK) facility-scale waste copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and manganese (Mn) co-precipitation facility. The process was designed to treat highly variable wastewater discharged from a substrate packaging research factory. The paper discusses metals co-precipitation induced by internal changes for manufacturing facilities that lack the capacity for hardware expansion due to real estate restrictions, aggressive schedules, or budgetary constraints. Herein, operating parameters such as pH and oxidation reduction potential (ORP) were examined to analyze the ability of the CCPT System to immobilize various waste metals. Additionally, influential factors such as influent concentrations and retention times were investigated to quantify the environmental variability against system performance. A total of 2,027 samples were analyzed and statistically evaluated to measure the performance of CCPT that was internally retrofitted for Mn abatement to meet environmental regulations. In order to enhance the consistency of the influent, a separate holding tank was cannibalized from another system to collect and slow-feed the segregated Mn wastewater from the factory into CCPT. As a result, the baseline influent Mn decreased from 17.2+18.7 mg1L-1 at pre-pilot to 5.15+8.11 mg1L-1 post-pilot (70.1% reduction). Likewise, the pre-trial and post-trial average influent Cu values to CCPT were 52.0+54.6 mg1L-1 and 33.9+12.7 mg1L-1, respectively (34.8% reduction). However, the raw Ni content of 0.97+0.39 mg1L-1 at pre-pilot increased to 1.06+0.17 mg1L-1 at post-pilot. The average Mn output declined from 10.9+11.7 mg1L-1 at pre-pilot to 0.44+1.33 mg1L-1 at post-pilot (96.0% reduction) as a result of the pH and ORP operating setpoint changes. In similar fashion, the output Cu quality improved from 1.60+5.38 mg1L-1 to 0.55+1.02 mg1L-1 (65.6% reduction) while the Ni output sustained a 50% enhancement during the pilot study (0.22+0.19 mg1L-1 reduced to 0.11+0.06 mg1L-1). pH and ORP were shown to be significantly instrumental to the precipitative versatility of the CCPT System.

Keywords: copper, co-precipitation, industrial wastewater treatment, manganese, optimization, pilot study

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
689 Electronic Patient Record (EPR) System in South Africa: Results of a Pilot Study

Authors: Temitope O. Tokosi, Visvanathan Naicker

Abstract:

Patient health records contain sensitive information for which an electronic patient record (EPR) system can safely secure and transmit amongst clinicians for use in improving health delivery. Clinician’s use of the behaviour of these systems is under scrutiny to assess their attributes towards health technology. South Africa (SA) clinicians responded to a pilot study survey to assess their understanding of EPR, what attributes are important towards technology use and more importantly streamlining the survey for a larger study. Descriptive statistics using mean scores was used because of the small sample size of 11 clinicians who completed the survey. Nine (9) constructs comprising 62 items were used and a Cronbach alpha score of 0.883 was obtained. Limitations and discussions conclude the study.

Keywords: EPR, clinicians, pilot study, South Africa

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
688 Deproteinization of Moroccan Sardine (Sardina pilchardus) Scales: A Pilot-Scale Study

Authors: F. Bellali, M. Kharroubi, Y. Rady, N. Bourhim

Abstract:

In Morocco, fish processing industry is an important source income for a large amount of by-products including skins, bones, heads, guts, and scales. Those underutilized resources particularly scales contain a large amount of proteins and calcium. Sardina plichardus scales from resulting from the transformation operation have the potential to be used as raw material for the collagen production. Taking into account this strong expectation of the regional fish industry, scales sardine upgrading is well justified. In addition, political and societal demands for sustainability and environment-friendly industrial production systems, coupled with the depletion of fish resources, drive this trend forward. Therefore, fish scale used as a potential source to isolate collagen has a wide large of applications in food, cosmetic, and biomedical industry. The main aim of this study is to isolate and characterize the acid solubilize collagen from sardine fish scale, Sardina pilchardus. Experimental design methodology was adopted in collagen processing for extracting optimization. The first stage of this work is to investigate the optimization conditions of the sardine scale deproteinization on using response surface methodology (RSM). The second part focus on the demineralization with HCl solution or EDTA. And the last one is to establish the optimum condition for the isolation of collagen from fish scale by solvent extraction. The advancement from lab scale to pilot scale is a critical stage in the technological development. In this study, the optimal condition for the deproteinization which was validated at laboratory scale was employed in the pilot scale procedure. The deproteinization of fish scale was then demonstrated on a pilot scale (2Kg scales, 20l NaOH), resulting in protein content (0,2mg/ml) and hydroxyproline content (2,11mg/l). These results indicated that the pilot-scale showed similar performances to those of lab-scale one.

Keywords: deproteinization, pilot scale, scale, sardine pilchardus

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687 Review of the Anatomy of the Middle Cerebral Artery and Its Anomalies

Authors: Karen Cilliers, Benedict John Page

Abstract:

The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is the most complex cerebral artery although few anomalies are found compared to the other cerebral arteries. The branches of the MCA cover a large part of each hemisphere, therefore it is exposed in various operations. Although the segments of the MCA are similarly described by most authors, there is some disagreement on the branching pattern of the MCA. The aim of this study was to review the available literature on the anatomy and variations of the MCA, and to compare this to a pilot study. For the pilot study, 20 hemispheres were perfused with coloured silicone and the MCA was dissected. According to the literature, the two most common branching configurations are the bifurcating and trifurcating patterns. In the pilot study, bifurcation was observed in 19 hemispheres, and in one hemisphere there was no branching (monofurcation). No trifurcation was observed. The most commonly duplicated branch was the anterior parietal artery in 30%, and most commonly absent was the common temporal artery in 65% and the temporal polar artery in 40%. Very few studies describe the origins of the branches of the MCA, therefore a detailed description is given. Middle cerebral artery variations that are occasionally reported in the literature include fenestration, and a duplicated or accessory MCA, although no variations were observed in the pilot study. Aneurysms can frequently be observed at the branching of cerebral vessels, therefore a thorough knowledge of the vascular anatomy is vital. Furthermore, knowledge of possible variations is important since variations can have serious clinical implications.

Keywords: anatomy, anomaly, description, middle cerebral artery, origin, variation

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
686 A Model for a Continuous Professional Development Program for Early Childhood Teachers in Villages: Insights from the Coaching Pilot in Indonesia

Authors: Ellen Patricia, Marilou Hyson

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Coaching has been showing great potential to strengthen the impact of brief group trainings and help early childhood teachers solve specific problems at work with the goal of raising the quality of early childhood services. However, there have been some doubts about the benefits that village teachers can receive from coaching. It is perceived that village teachers may struggle with the thinking skills needed to make coaching beneficial. Furthermore, there are reservations about whether principals and supervisors in villages are open to coaching’s facilitative approach, as opposed to the directive approach they have been using. As such, the use of coaching to develop the professionalism of early childhood teachers in the villages needs to be examined. The Coaching Pilot for early childhood teachers in Indonesia villages provides insights for the above issues. The Coaching Pilot is part of the ECED Frontline Pilot, which is a collaboration project between the Government of Indonesia and the World Bank with the support from the Australian Government (DFAT). The Pilot started with coordinated efforts with the local government in two districts to select principals and supervisors who have been equipped with basic knowledge about early childhood education to take part in 2-days coaching training. Afterwards, the participants were asked to collect 25 hours of coaching early childhood teachers who have participated in the Enhanced Basic Training for village teachers. The participants who completed this requirement were then invited to come for an assessment of their coaching skills. Following that, a qualitative evaluation was conducted using in-depth interviews and Focus Group Discussion techniques. The evaluation focuses on the impact of the coaching pilot in helping the village teachers to develop in their professionalism, as well as on the sustainability of the intervention. Results from the evaluation indicated that although their low education may limit their thinking skills, village teachers benefited from the coaching that they received. Moreover, the evaluation results also suggested that with enough training and support, principals and supervisors in the villages were able to provide an adequate coaching service for the teachers. On top of that, beyond this small start, interest is growing, both within the pilot districts and even beyond, due to word of mouth of the benefits that the Coaching Pilot has created. The districts where coaching was piloted have planned to continue the coaching program, since a number of early childhood teachers have requested to be coached, and a number of principals and supervisors have also requested to be trained as a coach. Furthermore, the Association for Early Childhood Educators in Indonesia has started to adopt coaching into their program. Although further research is needed, the Coaching Pilot suggests that coaching can positively impact early childhood teachers in villages, and village principals and supervisors can become a promising source of future coaches. As such, coaching has a significant potential to become a sustainable model for a continuous professional development program for early childhood teachers in villages.

Keywords: coaching, coaching pilot, early childhood teachers, principals and supervisors, village teachers

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
685 Effect of Self-Compassion Techniques for Individuals with Depression: A Pilot Study

Authors: Piyanud Chompookard

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This research aims to study the effect of self-compassion techniques for individuals with depression (A pilot study). A quasi-experimental research with pretest-posttest is used to design this work. The research includes 30 participants, divided into the experimental group (ten samples) and the control group (twenty samples). The experimental group received a self-compassion techniques with an appropriate treatment for a total six times. The control group received an appropriate treatment. The measurement of this study using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Thai version). There are significant differences in levels of depression after received a self-compassion techniques with an appropriate treatment (p<.01). And there are significant differences in levels of depression between the experimental group and the control group (p<.01).

Keywords: depression, self compassion techniques, psychotherapy, pilot study

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684 Pilot Induced Oscillations Adaptive Suppression in Fly-By-Wire Systems

Authors: Herlandson C. Moura, Jorge H. Bidinotto, Eduardo M. Belo

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The present work proposes the development of an adaptive control system which enables the suppression of Pilot Induced Oscillations (PIO) in Digital Fly-By-Wire (DFBW) aircrafts. The proposed system consists of a Modified Model Reference Adaptive Control (M-MRAC) integrated with the Gain Scheduling technique. The PIO oscillations are detected using a Real Time Oscillation Verifier (ROVER) algorithm, which then enables the system to switch between two reference models; one in PIO condition, with low proneness to the phenomenon and another one in normal condition, with high (or medium) proneness. The reference models are defined in a closed loop condition using the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) control methodology for Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems. The implemented algorithms are simulated in software implementations with state space models and commercial flight simulators as the controlled elements and with pilot dynamics models. A sequence of pitch angles is considered as the reference signal, named as Synthetic Task (Syntask), which must be tracked by the pilot models. The initial outcomes show that the proposed system can detect and suppress (or mitigate) the PIO oscillations in real time before it reaches high amplitudes.

Keywords: adaptive control, digital Fly-By-Wire, oscillations suppression, PIO

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683 To Investigate a Discharge Planning Connect with Long Term Care 2.0 Program in a Medical Center in Taiwan

Authors: Chan Hui-Ya, Ding Shin-Tan

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Background and Aim: The discharge planning is considered helpful to reduce the hospital length of stay and readmission rate, and then increased satisfaction with healthcare for patients and professionals. In order to decrease the waiting time of long-term care and boost the care quality of patients after discharge from the hospital, the Ministry of Health and Welfare department in Taiwan initiates a program “discharge planning connects with long-term care 2.0 services” in 2017. The purpose of this study is to investigate the outcome of the pilot of this program in a medical center. Methods: By purpose sampling, the study chose five wards in a medical center as pilot units. The researchers compared the beds of service, the numbers of cases which were transferred to the long-term care center and transferred rates per month between the pilot units and the other units, and analyze the basic data, the long-term care service needs and the approval service items of cases transfer to the long-term care center in pilot units. Results: From June to September 2017, a total of 92 referrals were made, and 51 patients were enrolled into the pilot program. There is a significant difference of transferring rate between the pilot units and the other units (χ = 702.6683, p < 0.001). Only 20 cases (39.2% success rate) were approved to accept the parts of service items of long-term care in the pilot units. The most approval item was respite care service (n = 13; 65%), while it was third at needs ranking of service lists during linking services process. Among the reasons of patients who cancelled the request, 38.71% reasons were related to the services which could not match the patients’ needs and expectation. Conclusion: The results indicate there is a requirement to modify the long-term care services to fit the needs of cases. The researchers suggest estimating the potential cases by screening data from hospital informatics systems and to hire more case manager according the service time of potential cases. Meanwhile, the strategies shortened the assessment scale and authorized hospital case managers to approve some items of long-term care should be considered.

Keywords: discharge planning, long-term care, case manager, patient care

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
682 The Effect of Chisel Edge on Drilling-Induced Delamination

Authors: Parnian Kianfar, Navid Zarif Karimi, Giangiacomo Minak

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Drilling is one of the most important machining operations as numerous holes must be drilled in order to install mechanical fasteners for assembly in composite structures. Delamination is a major problem associated with the drilling of fiber reinforced composite materials, which degrades the mechanical properties of these materials. In drilling, delamination is initiated when the drilling force exceeds a threshold value, particularly at the critical entry and exit locations of the drill bit. The chisel edge of twist drill is a major contributor to the thrust force which is the primary cause of delamination. The main objective of this paper is to study the effect of chisel edge and pilot hole on thrust force and delamination during drilling of glass fiber reinforced composites. For this purpose, two sets of experiments, with and without pilot hole, were conducted with different drilling conditions. The results show a great reduction in the thrust force when a pilot hole is present which removes the chisel edge contribution.

Keywords: composites, chisel edge, drilling, delamination

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681 Numerical Analysis of a Pilot Solar Chimney Power Plant

Authors: Ehsan Gholamalizadeh, Jae Dong Chung

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Solar chimney power plant is a feasible solar thermal system which produces electricity from the Sun. The objective of this study is to investigate buoyancy-driven flow and heat transfer through a built pilot solar chimney system called 'Kerman Project'. The system has a chimney with the height and diameter of 60 m and 3 m, respectively, and the average radius of its solar collector is about 20 m, and also its average collector height is about 2 m. A three-dimensional simulation was conducted to analyze the system, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this model, radiative transfer equation was solved using the discrete ordinates (DO) radiation model taking into account a non-gray radiation behavior. In order to modelling solar irradiation from the sun’s rays, the solar ray tracing algorithm was coupled to the computation via a source term in the energy equation. The model was validated with comparing to the experimental data of the Manzanares prototype and also the performance of the built pilot system. Then, based on the numerical simulations, velocity and temperature distributions through the system, the temperature profile of the ground surface and the system performance were presented. The analysis accurately shows the flow and heat transfer characteristics through the pilot system and predicts its performance.

Keywords: buoyancy-driven flow, computational fluid dynamics, heat transfer, renewable energy, solar chimney power plant

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680 Online or Offline: A Pilot Study of Blended Ear-Training Course

Authors: Monika Benedek

Abstract:

This paper intends to present a pilot study of blended ear-training course at a Finnish university. The course ran for ten weeks and included both traditional (offline) group lessons for 90 minutes each week and an online learning platform. Twelve students majored in musicology and music education participated in the course. The aims of pilot research were to develop a new blended ear-training course at university level, to determine the ideal amount of workload in each part of the blended instruction (offline and online) and to develop the course material. The course material was selected from the Classical period in order to develop students’ aural skills together with their stylistic knowledge. Students were asked to provide written feedback of the course content and learning approaches of face-to-face group lessons and online learning platform each week during the course. Therefore, the teaching material is continuously planned for each week. This qualitative data collection and weekly analysis of data are on progress. However, based on the teacher-researcher’s experiences and the students’ feedback already collected, it could be seen that the blended instruction would be an ideal teaching strategy for ear-trainging at the music programmes of universities to develop students’ aural skills and stylistic knowledge. It is also presumed that such blended instruction with less workload would already improve university students’ aural skills and related musicianship skills. The preliminary findings of research also indicated that students generally found those ear-training tasks the most useful to learn online that combined listening, singing, singing and playing an instrument. This paper intends to summarise the final results of the pilot study.

Keywords: blended-learning, ear-training, higher music education, online-learning, pilot study

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679 Relation of Optimal Pilot Offsets in the Shifted Constellation-Based Method for the Detection of Pilot Contamination Attacks

Authors: Dimitriya A. Mihaylova, Zlatka V. Valkova-Jarvis, Georgi L. Iliev

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One possible approach for maintaining the security of communication systems relies on Physical Layer Security mechanisms. However, in wireless time division duplex systems, where uplink and downlink channels are reciprocal, the channel estimate procedure is exposed to attacks known as pilot contamination, with the aim of having an enhanced data signal sent to the malicious user. The Shifted 2-N-PSK method involves two random legitimate pilots in the training phase, each of which belongs to a constellation, shifted from the original N-PSK symbols by certain degrees. In this paper, legitimate pilots’ offset values and their influence on the detection capabilities of the Shifted 2-N-PSK method are investigated. As the implementation of the technique depends on the relation between the shift angles rather than their specific values, the optimal interconnection between the two legitimate constellations is investigated. The results show that no regularity exists in the relation between the pilot contamination attacks (PCA) detection probability and the choice of offset values. Therefore, an adversary who aims to obtain the exact offset values can only employ a brute-force attack but the large number of possible combinations for the shifted constellations makes such a type of attack difficult to successfully mount. For this reason, the number of optimal shift value pairs is also studied for both 100% and 98% probabilities of detecting pilot contamination attacks. Although the Shifted 2-N-PSK method has been broadly studied in different signal-to-noise ratio scenarios, in multi-cell systems the interference from the signals in other cells should be also taken into account. Therefore, the inter-cell interference impact on the performance of the method is investigated by means of a large number of simulations. The results show that the detection probability of the Shifted 2-N-PSK decreases inversely to the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio.

Keywords: channel estimation, inter-cell interference, pilot contamination attacks, wireless communications

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678 Design of a Professional Development Framework in Teaching and Learning for Engineering Educators

Authors: Orla McConnell, Cormac MacMahon, Jen Harvey

Abstract:

Ireland’s national professional development framework for those who teach in higher education, aims to provide guidance and leadership in the planning, developing and engaging in professional development practices. A series of pilot projects have been initiated to help explore the framework’s likely utility and acceptance by educators and their institutions. These projects require engagement with staff in the interpretation and adaption of the framework within their working contexts. The purpose of this paper is to outline the development of one such project with engineering educators at three Institutes of Technology seeking designation as a technological university. The initiative aims to gain traction in the acceptance of the framework with the engineering education community by linking core and discipline-specific teaching and learning competencies with professional development activities most valued by engineering educators. Informed by three strands of literature: professional development in higher education; engineering education; and teaching and learning training provisions, the project begins with a survey of all those involved in teaching and learning in engineering across the three institutes. Based on engagement with key stakeholders, subsequent qualitative research informs the contextualization of the national framework for discipline-specific and institutional piloting. The paper concludes by exploring engineering educator perceptions of the national framework’s utility based on their engagement with the pilot process. Feedback from the pilot indicates that there is a significant gap between the professional development needs of engineering educators and the current professional development provision in teaching and learning.

Keywords: engineering education, pilot, professional development, teaching and learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
677 Pilot-Assisted Direct-Current Biased Optical Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Visible Light Communication System

Authors: Ayad A. Abdulkafi, Shahir F. Nawaf, Mohammed K. Hussein, Ibrahim K. Sileh, Fouad A. Abdulkafi

Abstract:

Visible light communication (VLC) is a new approach of optical wireless communication proposed to support the congested radio frequency (RF) spectrum. VLC systems are combined with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) to achieve high rate transmission and high spectral efficiency. In this paper, we investigate the Pilot-Assisted Channel Estimation for DC biased Optical OFDM (PACE-DCO-OFDM) systems to reduce the effects of the distortion on the transmitted signal. Least-square (LS) and linear minimum mean-squared error (LMMSE) estimators are implemented in MATLAB/Simulink to enhance the bit-error-rate (BER) of PACE-DCO-OFDM. Results show that DCO-OFDM system based on PACE scheme has achieved better BER performance compared to conventional system without pilot assisted channel estimation. Simulation results show that the proposed PACE-DCO-OFDM based on LMMSE algorithm can more accurately estimate the channel and achieves better BER performance when compared to the LS based PACE-DCO-OFDM and the traditional system without PACE. For the same signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 25 dB, the achieved BER is about 5×10-4 for LMMSE-PACE and 4.2×10-3 with LS-PACE while it is about 2×10-1 for system without PACE scheme.

Keywords: channel estimation, OFDM, pilot-assist, VLC

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676 A Novel Approach for Energy Utilisation in a Pyrolysis Plant

Authors: S. Murugan, Bohumil Horak

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Pyrolysis is one of the possible technologies to derive energy from waste organic substances. In recent years, pilot level and demonstrated plants have been installed in few countries. The heat energy lost during the process is not effectively utilized resulting in less savings of energy and money. This paper proposes a novel approach to integrate a combined heat and power unit(CHP) and reduce the primary energy consumption in a tyre pyrolysis pilot plant. The proposal primarily uses the micro combined heat and power concept that will help to produce both heat and power in the process.

Keywords: pyrolysis, waste tyres, waste plastics, biomass, waste heat

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675 Simultaneous Nitrification and Denitrification in Suspended Activated Sludge Process Augmented with Immobilized Biomass: A Pilot Study

Authors: Haon-Yao Chen, Cheng-Fang Lin, Pui-Kwan Andy Hong, Ping-Yi Yang, Kok Kwang Ng, Sheng-Fu Yang

Abstract:

Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) are a natural phenomenon in the soil environment that can be applied in wastewater treatment. At a domestic wastewater treatment plant, we performed a pilot test of installing bioplates with entrapped biomass into a conventional aeration basin for SND, and investigated the effects of bioplate packing ratio, hydraulic retention time, dissolved oxygen level, on/off aeration mode, and supplemental carbon and alkalinity on nitrogen removal. With the pilot aeration basin of 1.3 m3 loaded with mixed liquor suspended solids of 1500-2500 mg/L and bioplates at PR of 3.2% (3.2% basin volume) operated at HRT of 6 h and DO of 4-6 mg/L without supplemental carbon or alkalinity, nitrogen in the wastewater was removed to an effluent total nitrogen (TN) of 7.3 mg/L from an influent TN of 28 mg/L. The bioplate robust cellulose triacetate structure carrying the biomass shows promise in retrofitting conventional aeration basins for enhanced nutrient removal.

Keywords: immobilization, nitrification/denitrification, nutrient removal, total nitrogen

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674 A South African Perspective on Self-Leadership Development for Women Engineering Students – A Pilot Study

Authors: A. S. Lourens, B. Du Plooy

Abstract:

Across the world, initiatives have been introduced to encourage women to enter into and remain in engineering fields. However, research has shown that many women leave engineering or suffer a loss of self-esteem and self-confidence compared to their male counterparts. To address this problem, a South African comprehensive university developed a self-leadership intervention pilot study in 2013, aimed at improving the self-efficacy of its female engineering students and increasing retention rates. This paper is a qualitative, descriptive, and interpretive study of the rationale and operational aspects of the Women in Engineering Leadership Association’s (WELA) self-leadership workshop. The objectives of this paper are to provide a framework for the design of a self-leadership workshop and to provide insight into the process of developing such a workshop specifically for women engineering students at a South African university. Finally, the paper proposes an evaluation process for the pilot workshop, which also provides a framework to improve future workshops. It is anticipated that the self-leadership development framework will be applicable to other higher education institutions wishing to improve women engineering student’s feelings of self-efficacy and therefore retention rates of women in engineering.

Keywords: co-curricular interventions, self-efficacy, self-leadership, women in engineering

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673 Automated, Objective Assessment of Pilot Performance in Simulated Environment

Authors: Maciej Zasuwa, Grzegorz Ptasinski, Antoni Kopyt

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Nowadays flight simulators offer tremendous possibilities for safe and cost-effective pilot training, by utilization of powerful, computational tools. Due to technology outpacing methodology, vast majority of training related work is done by human instructors. It makes assessment not efficient, and vulnerable to instructors’ subjectivity. The research presents an Objective Assessment Tool (gOAT) developed at the Warsaw University of Technology, and tested on SW-4 helicopter flight simulator. The tool uses database of the predefined manoeuvres, defined and integrated to the virtual environment. These were implemented, basing on Aeronautical Design Standard Performance Specification Handling Qualities Requirements for Military Rotorcraft (ADS-33), with predefined Mission-Task-Elements (MTEs). The core element of the gOAT enhanced algorithm that provides instructor a new set of information. In details, a set of objective flight parameters fused with report about psychophysical state of the pilot. While the pilot performs the task, the gOAT system automatically calculates performance using the embedded algorithms, data registered by the simulator software (position, orientation, velocity, etc.), as well as measurements of physiological changes of pilot’s psychophysiological state (temperature, sweating, heart rate). Complete set of measurements is presented on-line to instructor’s station and shown in dedicated graphical interface. The presented tool is based on open source solutions, and flexible for editing. Additional manoeuvres can be easily added using guide developed by authors, and MTEs can be changed by instructor even during an exercise. Algorithm and measurements used allow not only to implement basic stress level measurements, but also to reduce instructor’s workload significantly. Tool developed can be used for training purpose, as well as periodical checks of the aircrew. Flexibility and ease of modifications allow the further development to be wide ranged, and the tool to be customized. Depending on simulation purpose, gOAT can be adjusted to support simulator of aircraft, helicopter, or unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV).

Keywords: automated assessment, flight simulator, human factors, pilot training

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672 Oily Sludge Bioremediation Pilot Plant Project, Nigeria

Authors: Ime R. Udotong, Justina I. R. Udotong, Ofonime U. M. John

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Brass terminal, one of the several crude oil and petroleum products storage/handling facilities in the Niger Delta was built in the 1980s. Activities at this site, over the years, released crude oil into this 3 m-deep, 1500 m-long canal lying adjacent to the terminal with oil floating on it and its sediment heavily polluted. To ensure effective clean-up, three major activities were planned: Site characterization, bioremediation pilot plant construction and testing and full-scale bioremediation of contaminated sediment/bank soil by land farming. The canal was delineated into 12 lots and each characterized, with reference to the floating oily phase, contaminated sediment and canal bank soil. As a result of site characterization, a pilot plant for on-site bioremediation was designed and a treatment basin constructed for carrying out pilot bioremediation test. Following a designed sampling protocol, samples from this pilot plant were collected for analysis at two laboratories as a quality assurance/quality control check. Results showed that Brass Canal upstream is contaminated with dark, thick and viscous oily film with characteristic hydrocarbon smell while downstream, thin oily film interspersed with water were observed. Sediments were observed to be dark with mixture of brownish sandy soil with TPH ranging from 17,800 mg/kg in Lot 1 to 88,500 mg/kg in Lot 12 samples. Brass Canal bank soil was observed to be sandy from ground surface to 3m, below ground surface (bgs) it was silty-sandy and brownish while subsurface soil (4-10m bgs) was sandy-clayey and whitish/grayish with typical hydrocarbon smell. Preliminary results obtained so far have been very promising but were proprietary. This project is considered, to the best of technical literature knowledge, the first large-scale on-site bioremediation project in the Niger Delta region, Nigeria.

Keywords: bioremediation, contaminated sediment, land farming, oily sludge, oil terminal

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671 The Enhancement of Training of Military Pilots Using Psychophysiological Methods

Authors: G. Kloudova, M. Stehlik

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Optimal human performance is a key goal in the professional setting of military pilots, which is a highly challenging atmosphere. The aviation environment requires substantial cognitive effort and is rich in potential stressors. Therefore, it is important to analyze variables such as mental workload to ensure safe conditions. Pilot mental workload could be measured using several tools, but most of them are very subjective. This paper details research conducted with military pilots using psychophysiological methods such as electroencephalography (EEG) and heart rate (HR) monitoring. The data were measured in a simulator as well as under real flight conditions. All of the pilots were exposed to highly demanding flight tasks and showed big individual response differences. On that basis, the individual pattern for each pilot was created counting different EEG features and heart rate variations. Later on, it was possible to distinguish the most difficult flight tasks for each pilot that should be more extensively trained. For training purposes, an application was developed for the instructors to decide which of the specific tasks to focus on during follow-up training. This complex system can help instructors detect the mentally demanding parts of the flight and enhance the training of military pilots to achieve optimal performance.

Keywords: cognitive effort, human performance, military pilots, psychophysiological methods

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670 Raising Forest Voices: A Cross-Country Comparative Study of Indigenous Peoples’ Engagement with Grassroots Climate Change Mitigation Projects in the Initial Pilot Phase of Community-Based Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation

Authors: Karl D. Humm

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The United Nations’ Community-based REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) (CBR+) is a programme that directly finances grassroots climate change mitigation strategies that uplift Indigenous Peoples (IPs) and other marginalised groups. A pilot for it in six countries was developed in response to criticism of the REDD+ programme for excluding IPs from dialogues about climate change mitigation strategies affecting their lands and livelihoods. Despite the pilot’s conclusion in 2017, no complete report has yet been produced on the results of CBR+. To fill this gap, this study investigated the experiences with involving IPs in the CBR+ programmes and local projects across all six pilot countries. A literature review of official UN reports and academic articles identified challenges and successes with IP participation in REDD+ which became the basis for a framework guiding data collection. A mixed methods approach was used to collect and analyse qualitative and quantitative data from CBR+ documents and written interviews with CBR+ National Coordinators in each country for a cross-country comparative analysis. The study found that the most frequent challenges were lack of organisational capacity, illegal forest activities, and historically-based contentious relationships in IP and forest-dependent communities. Successful programmes included IPs and incorporated respect and recognition of IPs as major stakeholders in managing sustainable forests. Findings are summarized and shared with a set of recommendations for improvement of future projects.

Keywords: climate change, forests, indigenous peoples, REDD+

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669 Research on Coordinated Development Mechanism of Semi-urbanized Areas under the Background of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area: A Case Study of 'Baiyun-Nanhai' Pilot Area

Authors: Cheng Fang Wang, Fu Li Gao, Jian Ying Zhou

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The '1+4' integration pilot area in the border area of Guangzhou-Foshan is an important platform for Guangzhou-Foshan strategic cooperation, as well as a typical semi-urbanized area with mixed urban and rural landscapes, of which the Baiyun-Nanhai pilot area is one of them. Baiyun district and Nanhai district are only separated by the Pearl River. In this paper, the three dimensions, which include production, living, and ecology, have been put forward, as well as cross-regional multi-agency negotiation mechanism has been discussed. Taking 'Baiyun-Nanhai' pilot area as a case study, POI (Point of Interest) data to analyze the distribution characteristics of 'production-living-ecological space' from the spatial dimension has been introduced in this paper, as well as the land-use change of 'production-living-ecological space' in western region of Baiyun district in 2007 and 2017 from the temporal dimension has been analyzed. Based on the above analysis, the integration development strategy and rethinking of cross-administrative region based on 'production-living-ecological integration' mechanism have been discussed later. It will explore the mechanism of industrial collaborative innovation, infrastructure co-construction, and ecological co-protection in semi-urban areas across borders. And it is expected to provide a reference for the integrated construction of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area.

Keywords: semi-urbanization, production-living-ecological integration, multi-agency negotiation, Guangzhou-Foshan integration, synergetic development

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