Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2733

Search results for: medium of instruction

2733 Impact of Instructional Mode and Medium of Instruction on the Learning Outcomes of Secondary Level School Children

Authors: Dipti Parida, Atasi Mohanty

Abstract:

The focus of this research is to examine the interaction effect of flipped teaching and traditional teaching mode across two different medium (English and Odia) of instructional groups. Both Science and History subjects were taken to be taught in the Class- VIII in two different instructional mode/s. In total, 180 students of Class-VIII of both Odia and English medium schools were taken as the samples of this study; 90 participants (each group) were from both English and Odia medium schools ; 45 participants of each of these two groups were again assigned either to flip or traditional teaching method. We have two independent variables and each independent variable with two levels. Medium and mode of instruction are the two independent variables. Medium of instruction has two levels of Odia medium and English medium groups. The mode of instruction has also two levels of flip and traditional teaching method. Here we get 4 different groups, such as Odia medium students with traditional mode of teaching (O.M.T), Odia medium students with flipped mode of teaching (O.M.F), English medium students with traditional mode of teaching (E.M.T) and English medium students with flipped mode of teaching (E.M.F). Before the instructional administration, these four groups were given a test on the concerned topic to be taught. Based on this result, a one-way ANOVA was computed and the obtained result showed that these four groups don’t differ significantly from each other at the beginning. Then they were taught the concerned topic either in traditional or flip mode of teaching method. After that a 2×2×2 repeated measures ANOVA was done to analyze the group differences as well as the learning outcome before and after the teaching. The result table also shows that in post-test the learning outcome is highest in case of English medium students with flip mode of instruction. From the statistical analysis it is clear that the flipped mode of teaching is as effective for Odia medium students as it is for English medium students.

Keywords: medium of instruction, mode of instruction, test mode, vernacular medium

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2732 The Attitude of Parents and Teachers towards Multilingual Medium of Instruction in Lower Primary School Classrooms: The Case of Kapiri District Schools of Zambia

Authors: E. Machinyise

Abstract:

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of parents and teachers towards multilingual medium of instruction in lower primary schools of Zambia. In 2013, the Government of Zambia formulated a language policy which stipulates that regional familiar languages should be used as the medium of instruction (MOI) from grade one to four in all public primary schools, while English is introduced as a subject in the second grade. This study investigated the views of parents and teachers on the use of multilingual medium of instruction in lower primary schools in order to accommodate learners who are not native speakers of regional familiar languages as well as the second languages which are official languages used in class. The study revealed that most parents suggested that teachers who teach lower primary school classes should be conversant with at least the four major local languages of Zambia (Bemba, Nyanja, Tonga and Lozi). In the same vain other parents felt that teachers teaching lower grades should not only be familiar with the regional official language but should be able to speak other dialects found in the region. Teachers teaching in lower primary grade felt that although it is difficult to speak all languages of learners in class, it is important for a teacher of lower grade class to try to accommodate children who are not speakers of the familiar languages by addressing them in the language they understand. Both teachers and parents highlighted a number of advantages of teaching children in their mother tongues. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used for the collection of data for this study. 30 teachers from selected public primary schools and 20 parents of Kapiri district and five lecturers of teacher training colleges in Central province were selected for this study. The researcher also observed class lessons in lower primary schools of Kapiri district. This study revealed that both parents and teachers are of the views that teachers teaching lower primary classes should use multilingual medium of instruction in lower primary classes so as to accommodated children of different linguistic backgrounds.

Keywords: familiar languages, medium of instruction, multilingual medium of instruction, native speakers

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2731 The Implications in the Use of English as the Medium of Instruction in Business Management Courses at Vavuniya Campus

Authors: Jeyaseelan Gnanaseelan, Subajana Jeyaseelan

Abstract:

The paper avails, in a systemic form, some of the results of the investigation into nature, functions, problems, and implications in the use of English as the medium of Instruction (EMI) in the Business Management courses at Vavuniya Campus of the University of Jaffna, located in the conflict-affected northern part of Sri Lanka. It is a case study of the responses of the students and the teachers from Tamil and Sinhala language communities of the Faculty of Business Studies. This paper analyzes the perceptions on the use of the medium, the EMI background, resources available and accessible, language abilities of the teachers and learners, learning style and pedagogy, the EMI methodology, the socio-economic and socio-political contexts typical of a non-native English learning context. The analysis is quantitative and qualitative. It finds out the functional perspective of the EMI in Sri Lanka and suggests practical strategies of contextualization and acculturation in the EMI organization and positions. The paper assesses the learner and teacher capacity in the use of English. The ethnic conflict and linguistic politics in Sri Lanka have contributed multiple factors to the current use of English as the medium. It has conflicted with its domestic realities and the globalization trends of the world at large which determines efficiency and effectiveness.

Keywords: medium of instruction, English, business management, teaching and learning

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2730 Effects of Bilingual Education in the Teaching and Learning Practices in the Continuous Improvement and Development of k12 Program

Authors: Miriam Sebastian

Abstract:

This research focused on the effects of bilingual education as medium of instruction to the academic performance of selected intermediate students of Miriam’s Academy of Valenzuela Inc. . An experimental design was used, with language of instruction as the independent variable and the different literacy skills as dependent variables. The sample consisted of experimental students comprises of 30 students were exposed to bilingual education (Filipino and English) . They were given pretests and were divided into three groups: Monolingual Filipino, Monolingual English, and Bilingual. They were taught different literacy skills for eight weeks and were then administered the posttests. Data was analyzed and evaluated in the light of the central processing and script-dependent hypotheses. Based on the data, it can be inferred that monolingual instruction in either Filipino or English had a stronger effect on the students’ literacy skills compared to bilingual instruction. Moreover, mother tongue-based instruction, as compared to second-language instruction, had stronger effect on the preschoolers’ literacy skills. Such results have implications not only for mother tongue-based (MTB) but also for English as a second language (ESL) instruction in the country

Keywords: bilingualism, effects, monolingual, function, multilingual, mother tongue

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2729 Effectiveness of Language Learning Strategy Instruction Based on CALLA on Iranian EFL Language Strategy Use

Authors: Reza Khani, Ziba Hosseini

Abstract:

Ever since the importance of language learning strategy instruction (LLS) has been distinguished, there has been growing interest on how to teach LLS in language learning classrooms. So thus this study attempted to implement language strategy instruction based on CALLA approach for Iranian EFL learners in a real classroom setting. The study was testing the hypothesis that strategy instruction result in improved linguistic strategy of students. The participant of the study were 240 EFL learners who received language learning instruction for four months. The data collected using Oxford strategy inventory for language learning. The results indicated the instruction had statistically significant effect on language strategy use of intervention group who received instruction.

Keywords: CALLA, language learning strategy, language learning strategy instruction, Iranian EFL language strategy

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2728 A Multidimensional Analysis of English as a Medium of Instruction in Algerian Higher Education: Policy, Practices and Attitudes

Authors: Imene Medfouni

Abstract:

In the context of postcolonial Algeria, language policy, language planning as well as language attitudes have recently stirred up contested debates in higher education system. This linguistic and politically-oriented conflict have constantly created a complex environment for learning. In the light of this observation, English language situates itself at the core of this debate with respects to its international status and potential influences. This presentation is based on ongoing research that aims to gain a better understanding of the introduction of English as a medium of instruction (EMI) in a postcolonial context, marked by multilingualism and language conflict. This research offers interesting insights to critically explore EMI from different perspectives: policy, practices, and attitudes. By means of methodological triangulation, this research integrates a mixed approach, whereby the sources of data triangulation will be elicited from the following methods: classroom observations, document analysis, focus groups, questionnaires and interviews. Preliminary findings suggest that English language might not replace French status in Algerian universities because of the latter strong presence and diffusion within Algerian linguistic landscape.

Keywords: English as a lingua franca, English as a medium of instruction, language policy and planning, multilingualism, postcolonial contexts, World Englishes

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2727 An Analysis of the Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Student Achievement in Differing Science Content Areas

Authors: Edwin Christmann, John Hicks

Abstract:

This meta-analysis compared the mathematics achievement of students who received either traditional instruction or traditional instruction supplemented with computer-assisted instruction (CAI). From the 27 conclusions, an overall mean effect size of 0.236 was calculated, indicating that, on average, students receiving traditional instruction supplemented with CAI attained higher mathematics achievement than did 59.48 percent of those receiving traditional instruction per se.

Keywords: CAI, science, meta-analysis, traditional

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2726 From Theory to Practice: An Iterative Design Process in Implementing English Medium Instruction in Higher Education

Authors: Linda Weinberg, Miriam Symon

Abstract:

While few institutions of higher education in Israel offer international programs taught entirely in English, many Israeli students today can study at least one content course taught in English during their degree program. In particular, with the growth of international partnerships and opportunities for student mobility, English medium instruction is a growing phenomenon. There are however no official guidelines in Israel for how to develop and implement content courses in English and no training to help lecturers prepare for teaching their materials in a foreign language. Furthermore, the implications for the students and the nature of the courses themselves have not been sufficiently considered. In addition, the institution must have lecturers who are able to teach these courses effectively in English. An international project funded by the European Union addresses these issues and a set of guidelines which provide guidance for lecturers in adapting their courses for delivery in English have been developed. A train-the-trainer approach is adopted in order to cascade knowledge and experience in English medium instruction from experts to language teachers and on to content teachers thus maximizing the scope of professional development. To accompany training, a model English medium course has been created which serves the dual purpose of highlighting alternatives to the frontal lecture while integrating language learning objectives with content goals. This course can also be used as a standalone content course. The development of the guidelines and of the course utilized backwards, forwards and central design in an iterative process. The goals for combined language and content outcomes were identified first after which a suitable framework for achieving these goals was constructed. The assessment procedures evolved through collaboration between content and language specialists and subsequently were put into action during a piloting phase. Feedback from the piloting teachers and from the students highlight the need for clear channels of communication to encourage frank and honest discussion of expectations versus reality. While much of what goes on in the English medium classroom requires no better teaching skills than are required in any classroom, the understanding of students' abilities in achieving reasonable learning outcomes in a foreign language must be rationalized and accommodated within the course design. Concomitantly, preparatory language classes for students must be able to adapt to prepare students for specific language and cognitive skills and activities that courses conducted in English require. This paper presents findings from the implementation of a purpose-designed English medium instruction course arrived at through an iterative backwards, forwards and central design process utilizing feedback from students and lecturers alike leading to suggested guidelines for English medium instruction in higher education.

Keywords: English medium instruction, higher education, iterative design process, train-the-trainer

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2725 Interlanguage Pragmatics Instruction: Evidence from EFL Teachers

Authors: Asma Ben Abdallah

Abstract:

Interlanguage Pragmatics (ILP) Instruction has brought a lot of enlightenment for Foreign Language Teaching and has secured itself a deserved position in SLA research. In the Tunisian context, ILP instruction remains less explored for academics and educational practitioners. In our experience as teachers, both at secondary school and at university levels, the instruction and assessment of pragmatics seem to be contentious. This paper firstly introduces the theoretical models of Interlanguage pragmatics Instruction and focuses on their implications for foreign language teaching. This study builds on the work of Ben Abdallah (2015) that investigated the effects of pragmatic Instruction on Tunisian EFL Learners where pragmatic Instruction has been approached from the perspective of students and their learning strategies. The data for the present study, however, come from Tunisian EFL teachers by investigating their pragmatics practices and their perceptions of pragmatic instruction. The findings indicated that EFL teachers have pragmatic awareness; yet, their reflections revealed that their awareness was mostly on theoretical pragmatic knowledge, and not explicitly brought into practical pragmatic applications. The paper concludes by promoting pragmatics instruction with the suggestion that EFL teachers should teach pragmatics in class.

Keywords: interlanguage pragmatics theory, pragmatics, pragmatic instruction, SLA

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2724 Satisfaction of Distance Education University Students with the Use of Audio Media as a Medium of Instruction: The Case of Mountains of the Moon University in Uganda

Authors: Mark Kaahwa, Chang Zhu, Moses Muhumuza

Abstract:

This study investigates the satisfaction of distance education university students (DEUS) with the use of audio media as a medium of instruction. Studying students’ satisfaction is vital because it shows whether learners are comfortable with a certain instructional strategy or not. Although previous studies have investigated the use of audio media, the satisfaction of students with an instructional strategy that combines radio teaching and podcasts as an independent teaching strategy has not been fully investigated. In this study, all lectures were delivered through the radio and students had no direct contact with their instructors. No modules or any other material in form of text were given to the students. They instead, revised the taught content by listening to podcasts saved on their mobile electronic gadgets. Prior to data collection, DEUS received orientation through workshops on how to use audio media in distance education. To achieve objectives of the study, a survey, naturalistic observations and face-to-face interviews were used to collect data from a sample of 211 undergraduate and graduate students. Findings indicate that there was no statistically significant difference in the levels of satisfaction between male and female students. The results from post hoc analysis show that there is a statistically significant difference in the levels of satisfaction regarding the use of audio media between diploma and graduate students. Diploma students are more satisfied compared to their graduate counterparts. T-test results reveal that there was no statistically significant difference in the general satisfaction with audio media between rural and urban-based students. And ANOVA results indicate that there is no statistically significant difference in the levels of satisfaction with the use of audio media across age groups. Furthermore, results from observations and interviews reveal that DEUS found learning using audio media a pleasurable medium of instruction. This is an indication that audio media can be considered as an instructional strategy on its own merit.

Keywords: audio media, distance education, distance education university students, medium of instruction, satisfaction

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2723 Investigating Secondary Students’ Attitude towards Learning English

Authors: Pinkey Yaqub

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate secondary (grades IX and X) students’ attitudes towards learning the English language based on the medium of instruction of the school, the gender of the students and the grade level in which they studied. A further aim was to determine students’ proficiency in the English language according to their gender, the grade level and the medium of instruction of the school. A survey was used to investigate the attitudes of secondary students towards English language learning. Simple random sampling was employed to obtain a representative sample of the target population for the research study as a comprehensive list of established English medium schools, and newly established English medium schools were available. A questionnaire ‘Attitude towards English Language Learning’ (AtELL) was adapted from a research study on Libyan secondary school students’ attitudes towards learning English language. AtELL was reviewed by experts (n=6) and later piloted on a representative sample of secondary students (n= 160). Subsequently, the questionnaire was modified - based on the reviewers’ feedback and lessons learnt during the piloting phase - and directly administered to students of grades 9 and 10 to gather information regarding their attitudes towards learning the English language. Data collection spanned a month and a half. As the data were not normally distributed, the researcher used Mann-Whitney tests to test the hypotheses formulated to investigate students’ attitudes towards learning English as well as proficiency in the language across the medium of instruction of the school, the gender of the students and the grade level of the respondents. Statistical analyses of the data showed that the students of established English medium schools exhibited a positive outlook towards English language learning in terms of the behavioural, cognitive and emotional aspects of attitude. A significant difference was observed in the attitudes of male and female students towards learning English where females showed a more positive attitude in terms of behavioural, cognitive and emotional aspects as compared to their male counterparts. Moreover, grade 10 students had a more positive attitude towards learning English language in terms of behavioural, cognitive and emotional aspects as compared to grade 9 students. Nonetheless, students of newly established English medium schools were more proficient in English as gauged by their examination scores in this subject as compared to their counterparts studying in established English medium schools. Moreover, female students were more proficient in English while students studying in grade 9 were less proficient in English than their seniors studying in grade 10. The findings of this research provide empirical evidence to future researchers wishing to explore the relationship between attitudes towards learning language and variables such as the medium of instruction of the school, gender and the grade level of the students. Furthermore, policymakers might revisit the English curriculum to formulate specific guidelines that promote a positive and gender-balanced outlook towards learning English for male and female students.

Keywords: attitude, behavioral aspect of attitude, cognitive aspect of attitude, emotional aspect of attitude

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2722 Using Problem-Based Learning on Teaching Early Intervention for College Students

Authors: Chen-Ya Juan

Abstract:

In recent years, the increasing number of children with special needs has brought a lot of attention by many scholars and experts in education, which enforced the preschool teachers face the harsh challenge in the classroom. To protect the right of equal education for all children, enhance the quality of children learning, and take care of the needs of children with special needs, the special education paraprofessional becomes one of the future employment trends for students of the department of the early childhood care and education. Problem-based learning is a problem-oriented instruction, which is different from traditional instruction. The instructor first designed an ambiguous problem direction, following the basic knowledge of early intervention, students had to find clues to solve the problem defined by themselves. In the class, the total instruction included 20 hours, two hours per week. The primary purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship of student academic scores, self-awareness, learning motivation, learning attitudes, and early intervention knowledge. A total of 105 college students participated in this study and 97 questionnaires were effective. The effective response rate was 90%. The student participants included 95 females and two males. The average age of the participants was 19 years old. The questionnaires included 125 questions divided into four major dimensions: (1) Self-awareness, (2) learning motivation, (3) learning attitudes, and (4) early intervention knowledge. The results indicated (1) the scores of self-awareness were 58%; the scores of the learning motivations was 64.9%; the scores of the learning attitudes was 55.3%. (2) After the instruction, the early intervention knowledge has been increased to 64.2% from 38.4%. (3) Student’s academic performance has positive relationship with self-awareness (p < 0.05; R = 0.506), learning motivation (p < 0.05; R = 0.487), learning attitudes (p < 0.05; R = 0.527). The results implied that although students had gained early intervention knowledge by using PBL instruction, students had medium scores on self-awareness and learning attitudes, medium high in learning motivations.

Keywords: college students, children with special needs, problem-based learning, learning motivation

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2721 'I Mean' in Teacher Questioning Sequences in Post-Task Discussions: A Conversation Analytic Study

Authors: Derya Duran, Christine Jacknick

Abstract:

Despite a growing body of research on classroom, especially language classroom interactions, much more is yet to be discovered on how interaction is organized in higher education settings. This study investigates how the discourse marker 'I mean' in teacher questioning turns functions as a resource to promote student participation as well as to enhance collective understanding in whole-class discussions. This paper takes a conversation analytic perspective, drawing on 30-hour video recordings of classroom interaction in an English as a medium of instruction university in Turkey. Two content classrooms (i.e., Guidance) were observed during an academic term. The course was offered to 4th year students (n=78) in the Faculty of Education; students were majoring in different subjects (i.e., Early Childhood Education, Foreign Language Education, Mathematics Education). Results of the study demonstrate the multi-functionality of discourse marker 'I mean' in teacher questioning turns. In the context of English as a medium of instruction classrooms where possible sources of confusion may occur, we found that 'I mean' is primarily used to indicate upcoming adjustments. More specifically, it is employed for a variety of interactional purposes such as elaboration, clarification, specification, reformulation, and reference to the instructional activity. The study sheds light on the multiplicity of functions of the discourse marker in academic interactions and it uncovers how certain linguistic resources serve functions to the organization of repair such as the maintenance of understanding in classroom interaction. In doing so, it also shows the ways in which participation is routinely enacted in shared interactional events through linguistic resources.

Keywords: conversation analysis, discourse marker, English as a medium of instruction, repair

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2720 Using Metacognitive Strategies in Reading Comprehension by EFL Students

Authors: Simin Sadeghi-Saeb

Abstract:

Metacognitive strategies consistently play important roles in reading comprehension. The metacognitive strategies involve the active monitoring and consequent regulation and orchestration of the cognitive processes in relation to the cognitive objects or data on which they bear. In this paper, the effect of instruction in using metacognitive strategies on reading academic materials, type of metacognitive strategies were mostly used by college university students before and after the instruction and the level they use those strategies before and after the instruction were studied. For these aims, 50 female college students were chosen. Then, they were divided randomly into two groups, experimental and control groups. At first session, students in both groups took the standard TOFEL exam. After the pre-test had been administered, the instruction began. After treatment, a post-test was taken. It is useful to state that after pre-test and post-test the same questionnaire was handed to the students of experimental group. The results of this research show that the instruction of metacognitive strategies has positive effect on the students' scores in reading comprehension tests. Furthermore, it showed that before and after the instruction, the students' usage of metacognitive strategies changed. Also, it demonstrated that the instruction affected the students' level of metacognitive strategies' usage.

Keywords: EFL students, English reading comprehension, instruction, metacognitive strategies

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2719 The Development of Web Based Instruction on Puppet Show

Authors: Piyanut Sujit

Abstract:

The purposes of this study were to: 1) create knowledge and develop web based instruction on the puppet show, 2) evaluate the effectiveness of the web based instruction on the puppet show by using the criteria of 80/80, and 3) compare and analyze the achievement of the students before and after learning with web based instruction on the puppet show. The population of this study included 53 students in the Program of Library and Information Sciences who registered in the subject of Reading and Reading Promotion in semester 1/2011, Suansunandha Rajabhat University. The research instruments consisted of web based instruction on the puppet show, specialist evaluation form, achievement test, and tests during the lesson. The research statistics included arithmetic mean, variable means, standard deviation, and t-test in SPSS for Windows. The results revealed that the effectiveness of the developed web based instruction was 84.67/80.47 which was higher than the set criteria at 80/80. The student achievement before and after learning showed statistically significant difference at 0.05 as in the hypothesis.

Keywords: puppet, puppet show, web based instruction, library and information sciences

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2718 A Study on the Implementation of Differentiating Instruction Based on Universal Design for Learning

Authors: Yong Wook Kim

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The diversity of students in regular classrooms is increasing due to expand inclusive education and increase multicultural students in South Korea. In this diverse classroom environment, the universal design for learning (UDL) has been proposed as a way to meet both the educational need and social expectation of student achievement. UDL offers a variety of practical teaching methods, one of which is a differentiating instruction. The differentiating instruction has been pointed out resource limitation, organizational resistance, and lacks easy-to-implement framework. However, through the framework provided by the UDL, differentiating instruction is able to be flexible in their implementation. In practice, the UDL and differentiating instruction are complementary, but there is still a lack of research that suggests specific implementation methods that apply both concepts at the same time. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of differentiating instruction strategies according to learner characteristics (readiness, interest, learning profile), components of differentiating instruction (content, process, performance, learning environment), especially UDL principles (representation, behavior and expression, participation) existed in differentiating instruction, and implementation of UDL-based differentiating instruction through the Planning for All Learner (PAL) and UDL Lesson Plan Cycle. It is meaningful that such a series of studies can enhance the possibility of more concrete and realistic UDL-based teaching and learning strategies in the classroom, especially in inclusive settings.

Keywords: universal design for learning, differentiating instruction, UDL lesson plan, PAL

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2717 Improving Teaching in English-Medium Instruction Classes at Japanese Universities through Needs-Based Professional Development Workshops

Authors: Todd Enslen

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In order to attract more international students to study for undergraduate degrees in Japan, many universities have been developing English-Medium Instruction degree programs. This means that many faculty members must now teach their courses in English, which raises a number of concerns. A common misconception of English-Medium Instruction (EMI) is that teaching in English is simply a matter of translating materials. Since much of the teaching in Japan still relies on a more traditional, teachercentered, approach, continuing with this style in an EMI environment that targets international students can cause a clash between what is happening and what students expect in the classroom, not to mention what the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) has shown is effective teaching. A variety of considerations need to be taken into account in EMI classrooms such as varying English abilities of the students, modifying input material, and assuring comprehension through interactional checks. This paper analyzes the effectiveness of the English-Medium Instruction (EMI) undergraduate degree programs in engineering, agriculture, and science at a large research university in Japan by presenting the results from student surveys regarding the areas where perceived improvements need to be made. The students were the most dissatisfied with communication with their teachers in English, communication with Japanese students in English, adherence to only English being used in the classes, and the quality of the education they received. In addition, the results of a needs analysis survey of Japanese teachers having to teach in English showed that they believed they were most in need of English vocabulary and expressions to use in the classroom and teaching methods for teaching in English. The result from the student survey and the faculty survey show similar concerns between the two groups. By helping the teachers to understand student-centered teaching and the benefits for learning that it provides, teachers may begin to incorporate more student-centered approaches that in turn help to alleviate the dissatisfaction students are currently experiencing. Through analyzing the current environment in Japanese higher education against established best practices in teaching and EMI, three areas that need to be addressed in professional development workshops were identified. These were “culture” as it relates to the English language, “classroom management techniques” and ways to incorporate them into classes, and “language” issues. Materials used to help faculty better understand best practices as they relate to these specific areas will be provided to help practitioners begin the process of helping EMI faculty build awareness of better teaching practices. Finally, the results from faculty development workshops participants’ surveys will show the impact that these workshops can have. Almost all of the participants indicated that they learned something new and would like to incorporate the ideas from the workshop into their teaching. In addition, the vast majority of the participants felt the workshop provided them with new information, and they would like more workshops like these.

Keywords: English-medium instruction, materials development, professional development, teaching effectiveness

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2716 The Student's Satisfaction toward Web Based Instruction on Puppet Show

Authors: Piyanut Suchit

Abstract:

The purposes of this study was to investigate students’ satisfaction learning with the web based instruction on the puppet show. The population of this study includes 53 students in the Program of Library and Information Sciences who registered in the subject of Puppet for Assisting Learning Development in semester 2/2011, Suansunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand. The research instruments consist of web based instruction on the puppet show, and questionnaires for students’ satisfaction. The research statistics includes arithmetic mean, and standard deviation. The results revealed that the students reported very high satisfaction with mean = 4.63, SD = 0.52, on the web based instruction.

Keywords: puppet show, web based instruction, satisfaction, Suansunandha Rajabhat University

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2715 Strategies and Problems of Teachers in Using Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education

Authors: Ezayra Dubria, Leonora Yambao

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Mother Tongue–Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) is a salient part of the recent reform in the country’s Education system which is the implementation of the K to 12 Basic Education Program. Its importance is highlighted by the passing of Republic Act 10523, otherwise known as the ‘Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013’. However, teachers, especially new teachers encounter problems in using mother tongue as medium of instruction. Fortunately, teachers are able to create strategies which address these problems. Specifically, this paper gathered the viewpoints of teachers in using mother tongue and analyzed the different problems and strategies used. The problems encountered by teachers are lack of instructional materials written in mother tongue, especially books, lack of vocabulary, lack of teacher training, and influences of social media to learners. The strategies which address these problems are translation of literary pieces and other instructional materials, vocabulary enrichment through the use of word-of-the-day and picture-word association, remedial class, storytelling, differentiated instruction, explicit teaching, individual and group activities, and utilization of multilingual teaching.

Keywords: mother tongue-based instruction, multilingualism, problems, strategies

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2714 A Development of Creative Instruction Model through Digital Media

Authors: Kathaleeya Chanda, Panupong Chanplin, Suppara Charoenpoom

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This purposes of the development of creative instruction model through digital media are to: 1) enable learners to learn from instruction media application; 2) help learners implementing instruction media correctly and appropriately; and 3) facilitate learners to apply technology for searching information and practicing skills to implement technology creatively. The sample group consists of 130 cases of secondary students studying in Bo Kluea School, Bo Kluea Nuea Sub-district, Bo Kluea District, Nan Province. The probability sampling was selected through the simple random sampling and the statistics used in this research are percentage, mean, standard deviation and one group pretest – posttest design. The findings are summarized as follows: The congruence index of instruction media for occupation and technology subjects is appropriate. By comparing between learning achievements before implementing the instruction media and learning achievements after implementing the instruction media, it is found that the posttest achievements are higher than the pretest achievements with statistical significance at the level of .05. For the learning achievements from instruction media implementation, pretest mean is 16.24 while posttest mean is 26.28. Besides, pretest and posttest results are compared and differences of mean are tested, the test results show that the posttest achievements are higher than the pretest achievements with statistical significance at the level of .05. This can be interpreted that the learners achieve better learning progress.

Keywords: teaching learning model, digital media, creative instruction model, Bo Kluea school

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2713 Instruction and Learning Design Consideration for the Development of Mobile Learning Application

Authors: M. Sarrab, M. Elbasir

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Most of mobile learning applications currently available are developed for the formal education and learning environment. Those applications are characterized by the improvement of the interaction process between instructors and learners to provide more collaboration and flexibility in the learning process. Despite the long history and large amount of research on Instruction design model and mobile learning there is no complete and well defined set of steps to follow in designing mobile learning applications. Based on this scenario, this paper focuses on identifying instruction design phases considerations and influencing factors in developing mobile learning application. This set of instruction design steps includes analysis, design, development, implementation, evaluation and continuous has been built from a literature study with focus on standards for learning and mobile application software quality and guidelines. The effort is part of an Omani-funded research project investigating the development, adoption and dissemination of mobile learning in Oman.

Keywords: instruction design, mobile learning, mobile application

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2712 An Analysis of Instruction Checklist Based on Universal Design for Learning

Authors: Yong Wook Kim

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The purpose of this study is to develop an instruction analysis checklist applicable to inclusive setting based on the Universal Design for Learning Guideline 2.0. To do this, two self-validation reviews, two expert validity reviews, and two usability evaluations were conducted based on the Universal Design for Learning Guideline 2.0. After validation and usability evaluation, a total of 36 items consisting of 4 items for each instruction was developed. In all questions, examples are presented for the purpose of reinforcing concrete. All the items were judged by the 3-point scale. The observation results were provided through a radial chart allowing SWOT analysis of the universal design for learning of teachers. The developed checklist provides a description of the principles and guidelines in the checklist itself as it requires a thorough understanding by the observer of the universal design for learning through prior education. Based on the results of the study, the instruction criteria, the specificity of the criteria, the number of questions, and the method of arrangement were discussed. As a future research, this study proposed the characteristics of application of universal design for learning for each subject, the comparison with the observation results through the self-report teaching tool, and the continual revision and supplementation of the lecture checklist.

Keywords: inclusion, universal design for learning, instruction analysis, instruction checklist

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2711 Pedagogical Practices of a Teacher in Students' Experience Tellings: A Conversation Analytic Study

Authors: Derya Duran, Christine Jacknick

Abstract:

This study explores post-task reflections in an English as a Medium of Instruction (EMI) setting, and it specifically focuses on how a teacher performs pedagogical practices such as reformulating, extending and evaluating following students’ spontaneous experience tellings in EMI classrooms. The data consist of 30 hours of video recordings from two EMI content classes, which were recorded for an academic term at a university in Turkey. The course, Guidance, is offered to fourth year undergraduate students as a compulsory course in the Department of Educational Sciences. The participants (n=78) study at the Faculty of Education, majoring in different educational departments (i.e., Computer Education and Instructional Technology, Elementary Education, Foreign Language Education). Using conversation analysis, we demonstrate that the teacher employs a variety of interactional resources to elicit (i.e., asking specific questions) and also provides (i.e., giving scientific information) as much content as possible, which also sheds light on the institutional fingerprints of the current research context. The study contributes to the existing research by unpacking articulation of personal experiences and cultivation of collaborativeness in classroom interaction. Moreover, describing the dialogic nature of these specific occasions, the study demonstrates how teacher and students address learning tasks together (collectivity), how they orient to each other turns interactionally (reciprocity), and how they keep the pedagogical focus in mind (purposefulness).

Keywords: conversation analysis, English as a medium of instruction, higher education, post-task reflections

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2710 The Effect of Computer-Mediated vs. Face-to-Face Instruction on L2 Pragmatics: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Marziyeh Yousefi, Hossein Nassaji

Abstract:

This paper reports the results of a meta-analysis of studies on the effects of instruction mode on learning second language pragmatics during the last decade (from 2006 to 2016). After establishing related inclusion/ exclusion criteria, 39 published studies were retrieved and included in the present meta-analysis. Studies were later coded for face-to-face and computer-assisted mode of instruction. Statistical procedures were applied to obtain effect sizes. It was found that Computer-Assisted-Language-Learning studies generated larger effects than Face-to-Face instruction.

Keywords: meta-analysis, effect size, L2 pragmatics, comprehensive meta-analysis, face-to-face, computer-assisted language learning

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2709 Impact of Using Peer Instruction and PhET Simulations on the Motivation and Physics Anxiety

Authors: Jaypee Limueco

Abstract:

This research focused on the impact of Peer Instruction and PhET Simulations on the level of motivation and Physics anxiety of Grade 9 students. Two groups of students were used in the study. The experimental group involved 65 registered students while the control group has 64 registered students. To determine the level of motivation of students in learning physics, the Physics Motivation Questionnaire was administered. On the other hand, to determine the level of Physics anxiety of the students in each group, Physics Anxiety Rating Scale was used. Peer Instruction supplemented with PhET simulations was implemented in the experimental group while the traditional lecture method was used in the control group. Both instruments were again administered after the implementation of the two different teaching approaches. “Wilcoxon Signed Rank test” was used to test the significant difference between pretest and posttest of each group. “Mann Whitney U” was used to test if significant differences exist between each group before and after instruction. Results showed that there is no significant difference between the level of motivation and anxiety of the experimental and control group before the implementation at p<0.05 significance level. It implies that the students have the same level of motivation and physics anxiety before instruction. However, the results of both tests have significant differences between the groups after instruction. It is also found that there is a significant positive change in the responses of the students in the experimental group while no change was evident on the control. The result of the analysis of the Mann Whitney U shows that the change in the attributes of the students is caused by the treatment. Therefore, it is concluded that Peer Instruction and PhET simulation helped in alleviating motivation of students and minimizing their anxiety towards Physics.

Keywords: anxiety, motivation, peer instruction, PhET simulations

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2708 Comparison Learning Vocabulary Implicitly and Explicitly

Authors: Akram Hashemi

Abstract:

This study provided an empirical evidence for learners of elementary level of language proficiency to investigate the potential role of contextualization in vocabulary learning. Prior to the main study, pilot study was performed to determine the reliability and validity of the researcher-made pretest and posttest. After manifesting the homogeneity of the participants, the participants (n = 90) were randomly assigned into three equal groups, i.e., two experimental groups and a control group. They were pretested by a vocabulary test, in order to test participants' pre-knowledge of vocabulary. Then, vocabulary instruction was provided through three methods of visual instruction, the use of context and the use of conventional techniques. At the end of the study, all participants took the same posttest in order to assess their vocabulary gain. The results of independent sample t-test indicated that there is a significant difference between learning vocabulary visually and learning vocabulary contextually. The results of paired sample t-test showed that different teaching strategies have significantly different impacts on learners’ vocabulary gains. Also, the contextual strategy was significantly more effective than visual strategy in improving students’ performance in vocabulary test.

Keywords: vocabulary instruction, explicit instruction, implicit instruction, strategy

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2707 Addressing Differentiation Using Mobile-Assisted Language Learning

Authors: Ajda Osifo, Fatma Elshafie

Abstract:

Mobile-assisted language learning favors social-constructivist and connectivist theories to learning and adaptive approaches to teaching. It offers many opportunities to differentiated instruction in meaningful ways as it enables learners to become more collaborative, engaged and independent through additional dimensions such as web-based media, virtual learning environments, online publishing to an imagined audience and digitally mediated communication. MALL applications can be a tool for the teacher to personalize and adjust instruction according to the learners’ needs and give continuous feedback to improve learning and performance in the process, which support differentiated instruction practices. This paper explores the utilization of Mobile Assisted Language Learning applications as a supporting tool for effective differentiation in the language classroom. It reports overall experience in terms of implementing MALL to shape and apply differentiated instruction and expand learning options. This session is structured in three main parts: first, a review of literature and effective practice of academically responsive instruction will be discussed. Second, samples of differentiated tasks, activities, projects and learner work will be demonstrated with relevant learning outcomes and learners’ survey results. Finally, project findings and conclusions will be given.

Keywords: academically responsive instruction, differentiation, mobile learning, mobile-assisted language learning

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2706 Primary School Teacher's Perception of the Efficacy of Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) in Saint Louis University, Laboratory Elementary School

Authors: Villiam Ambong, Kevin Banawag, Wynne Shane Bugatan, Mark Alvin Jay Carpio, Hwan Hee Choi, Moises Kevin Chungalao

Abstract:

This survey research investigated the perception of primary school teachers on the efficacy of MTB-MLE in SLU-LES, Baguio City. SLU-LES has a total of 21 primary school teachers who served as respondents of this study in an attempt to answer the major questions regarding the efficacy of MTB-MLE among primary school teachers. A questionnaire was used in collecting the data which were analyzed using weighted mean and ANOVA. The questionnaire was validated by a statistician and it was administered to a school which does not differ from the intended respondents for further validation of the items. Findings revealed from the intended respondents that they perceive MTB-MLE as effective; however, they do not prefer the use of Mother Tongue as a medium of instruction. A research on the same topic was conducted in Ibadan, Nigeria by Dr. David O. Fakeye and although his respondents were students; the results came out that the respondents do perceive MTB-MLE to be efficacious. The results of this study also showed that years of teaching experience and the number of languages spoken by the teachers have no bearing on the preference of the respondents between MT medium and English medium gave that the respondents are in melting pot community. Comparative studies between rural and urban schools are encouraged. Future researchers should include questions that elicit reasons of the respondents on the efficacy of mother tongue as well as their preference between mother tongue medium and English.

Keywords: mother tongue, primary teachers, perception, multilingual education

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2705 Primary School Teachers’ Perception on the Efficacy of Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) in Saint Louis University, Laboratory Elementary School

Authors: Villiam C. Ambong, Kevin G. Banawag, Wynne Shane B. Bugatan, Mark Alvin Jay R. Carpio, Hwan Hee Choi, Moses Kevin L. Chungalao

Abstract:

This survey research investigated the perception of primary school teachers on the efficacy of MTB-MLE in SLU-LES, Baguio City. SLU-LES has a total of 21 primary school teachers who served as the respondents of this study in an attempt to answer three major questions regarding the efficacy of MTB-MLE among primary school teachers. A questionnaire was used in collecting the data which were analyzed using weighted mean and ANOVA. The questionnaire was validated by a statistician and it was administered to a school which does not differ from the intended respondents for further validation of the items. Findings revealed from the intended respondents that they perceive MTB-MLE as effective; however, they do not prefer the use of Mother Tongue as medium of instruction. A research of the same topic was conducted in Ibadan, Nigeria by Dr. David O. Fakeye and although his respondents were students; the results came out that the respondents do perceive MTB-MLE to be efficacious. The results of this study also showed that years of teaching experience and number of languages spoken by the teachers have no bearing on the preference of the respondents between MT medium and English medium given that the respondents are in a melting pot community. Comparative studies between rural schools and urban schools are encouraged. Future researches should include questions that elicit reasons of the respondents on the efficacy of mother tongue as well as their preference between mother tongue medium and English.

Keywords: mother tongue, primary teachers, perception, multilingual education

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
2704 Effects of Political, Economic and Educational Considerations on Medium of Instruction (MOI) Policy in Asia: A Hong Kong Example

Authors: Edward Y. W. Chu

Abstract:

This paper exemplifies how the political and educational considerations have shaped the heavy-handed MOI policy in Hong Kong after its handover to China in 1997. Its result, a significant degeneration of English standard among the non-elite students, will be reported based on a detailed analysis of the public exam statistics available and other empirical studies. The remedial action taken by the Education Bureau out of the economic and educational considerations will be reported with reference to the official documents. The political, economic and educational considerations exemplified in different stages of Mother-tongue MOI policy in Hong Kong are found to be influential in the MOI policy in other Asian countries as well. For example, out of rapid internationalization and marketization, there has been increasing adoption of English as the MOI in post-secondary institutions in China, Japan & South Korea. On the other hand, while colonial languages were firmly made as the MOI in former colonies such as Vietnam and India, they were greatly retrieved upon independence for political and educational reasons. Malaysia also followed the same pattern upon independence but re-introduced partial English MOI policy in late 90s hoping to capitalize favourable globalization benefits. The short-lived policy was abandoned in 2009 because of the perceived political threat of national identity as well as the lack of educational effectiveness. Based on the great majority of Asian countries studied, this paper argues that MOI policy in Asia is much more than an educational issue, and that there is a clear pattern of how decisions of MOI matters are made. Studying the history and development of MOI in Hong Kong and other Asian countries provides a unique angle to view of how Asian countries prepare for the political, economic and educational challenges nowadays.

Keywords: economics, Hong Kong, medium of instruction, politics

Procedia PDF Downloads 327