Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 33

Search results for: hadith

33 Issues in Translating Hadith Terminologies into English: A Critical Approach

Authors: Mohammed Riyas Pp

Abstract:

This study aimed at investigating major issues in translating the Arabic Hadith terminologies into English, focusing on choosing the most appropriate translation for each, reviewing major Hadith works in English. This study is confined to twenty terminologies with regard to classification of Hadith based on authority, strength, number of transmitters and connections in Isnad. Almost all available translations are collected and analyzed to find the most proper translation based on linguistic and translational values. To the researcher, many translations lack precise understanding of either Hadith terminologies or English language and varieties of methodologies have influence on varieties of translations. This study provides a classification of translational and conceptual issues. Translational issues are related to translatability of these terminologies and their equivalence. Conceptual issues provide a list of misunderstandings due to wrong translations of terminologies. This study ends with a suggestion for unification in translating terminologies based on convention of Muslim scholars having good understanding of Hadith terminologies and English language.

Keywords: english language, hadith terminologies, equivalence in translation, problems in translation

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32 An Analytical and Inductive Study of the Aspect and Impact of the Prophetic Traditions in Understating Quran and Its Interpretation

Authors: Zabihur Rahman

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In present day we see in our surroundings and in different societies of the world an uprising approach of understanding Quran without the help of Hadith and Sunnah. As they believe that ‘Quran is sufficient for our guidance’. They do not give any preference to Prophetic traditions (Hadith and Sunnah), to understand or realize the actual meaning and purpose of the reveling of Quranic verses. Based on the afore mentioned idea we are going to pin point an analytical and inductive study of tafsir Ahkâm-ul Qu’ran by: Ibn-ul Arabi al-Mâliki. In this study we are trying to show the importance of Hadith and Sunnah in interpretation and understanding of Quran by presenting various examples from tafsir Ahkâm-ul Quran. This book is for being an important source in the relative filed of Ahkam-ul Quran we are going to highlight the method of Ibn-ul Arabi in dealing with Quranic verses in the light of Hadith. Furthermore, the impact of quoting different types of hadith in Tefsir is also taken into account. Besides, while citing these Prophetic traditions it is also inevitable to kept in view the sciences of hadith and its application on the context in order to orientate the proper meaning. The study also includes the scrutiny of these narrations by their chain of narrators and text to ensure the perfection of these prophetic traditions. So that, a person can have accesses to the righteous understanding and interpretation of the Holy Quran.

Keywords: Hadith, interpretation, narrators, verses

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31 Legacy of Islamic Hadith and Biodiversity

Authors: Mohsen Nouraei, M. Amouei

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Islamic studies are considered in both the Quran and Hadith. Hadith is defined as a set of reports that narrated the words, and behaviors, of infallible persons such as the holy Prophet (pbuh) or the Infallible Imams (as). The issue of biodiversity which is the one of the most important environmental aspects is considered in the field of Hadith. The present paper has investigated biodiversity on the basis of descriptive-analytical methods and with the approach of library-documentary. The household of the Prophet (as) have referred biodiversity that were included diversity of animals, plants, climate etc. In addition to, they also have emphasized on the human need to keep diversity and no damage. It should be noted that they have expressed the rights of the animals and plants for correct using of human, so that human can use these rights in conservation of diversity and their generation.

Keywords: biodiversity, conservation of biodiversity, degradation of biodiversity, extinction of biodiversity

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30 Relationship between Legacy of Islamic Hadith and Biodiversity

Authors: Mohsen Nouraei, Maryam Amouei

Abstract:

Islamic studies are considered in both the Quran and Hadith. Hadith is defined as a set of reports that narrated the words and behaviors of infallible persons such as the holy Prophet (pbuh) or the Infallible Imams (as). The issue of biodiversity which is the one of the most important environmental aspects is considered in the field of Hadith. The present paper has investigated biodiversity on the basis of descriptive-analytical methods and with the approach of library-documentary. The household of the Prophet (as) have referred biodiversity that were included diversity of animals, plants, climate etc. In addition, they also have emphasized on the human need to keep diversity and no damage. It should be noted that they have expressed the rights of the animals and plants for correct using of human, so that human can use these rights in conservation of diversity and their generation.

Keywords: biodiversity, conservation of biodiversity, degradation of biodiversity, extinction of biodiversity

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29 The Importance of Political Advice in Islam: Hadith Thematical Study

Authors: Nurzarimah Jamil, Mohd Nazaruddin Jamil

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This paper is a preliminary study about The Importance of Political Advice in Islam: Ḥadīth Thematical Study by showing the concept and proper ways to advice to politician based on hadith Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). The unique of political advice in Islam that Muslim already have the strong and fulfil example that can be apply in nowadays governance that is the way of political and leadership Prophet Muhammad show in his time. As a political leader, the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) established a great state whose capital was Madinah. However, his real political leadership was in the realm of morality and spirituality in which he conducted himself perfectly in situations of weakness as well as strength. His way of dealing in Makkah and Madinah indicates his great political leadership. Based on fact nowadays some of the country not practicing the proper way to advice to rulers or governance that make a lot of madness around them. This paper also aims the concept and the proper way that can be following to all Muslim to advising by the politeness, justice and kindness.

Keywords: Hadith, leadership, political advice, Prophet Muhammad

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28 The Fabric of Culture: Deciphering the Discourse of Permitted and Prohibited Raw Materials for Clothing in Hadith Literature

Authors: Hadas Hirsch

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Clothing is aimed at concealing and revealing the body, protecting it, and manifesting religious, political, and social declarations. The material and symbolic meanings of clothing and its raw materials are evaluated through the context of their social, cultural, and religious systems. The raw materials for clothing that were frequent and familiar in the 7th century Arab Peninsula were wool, leather, cotton, and some kinds of silk. The spread of the Muslim empire and the intersections with other religions and cultures enable the trickling of new raw materials that were unknown to Muslims or unaccepted. The sources for this research are hadith collections that discuss in details various kinds of textiles and their origin, together with a legal explanation that permits or prohibits its use. The paper will describe and analyze this discussion by contextualizing it in social, religious, and cultural reality that creates a structure of socio-religious dependency. The aim is not to identify, catalogue, and technically analyze fabrics but to reveal their role in Muslims’ life as a means of creating dependency for the community and setting borders inside and outside. The analysis is built upon a scale that starts with the most recommended raw materials, then comes the permitted ones and, in the end, the prohibited raw materials. This mapping will provide an insight into the ways textiles, as a cultural medium, help to shape and redefine identities and, at the same time, enable a sphere for creative expression within socio-cultural and religious limits and context. To sum up, hadith literature has the main role is characterizing Muslim clothing, from garments to textiles and colors, including multiple variations and contradicting aspects. The Muslim style of clothing and, in particular, textiles is a manifestation of the socio-religious structure of dependency that creates differentiated Muslim identity together with subdivision of gendered groups. Some other aspects are the tension between authenticity and imitation and the jurists’ pragmatic and practice attitude that enables an individual sphere of expression within the limits of jurisprudence.

Keywords: Hadith, jurisprudence, medieval Islam, material culture

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27 The Evaluation of Islamic Concept in Contemporary Mosque Design with the Case of Study: Jogokariyan Mosque Yogyakarta Indonesia

Authors: Ibrahim Malik, M. Ikramullah al Kambuna

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Today the crisis of understanding in Islamic values has been extended to the architectural design. The majority of Muslim Architects when they designed Islamic Architectural building always stuck in cultural symbols, forms of facade, carvings calligraphy, and all of things which intimately associated with middle eastern culture. As well as the interpretation of symbols form, by designing a dome in every mosque, calligraphy carving in the interior of the mosque, and the other elements in the building which interpreted to the middle east culture. So here there are problems in understanding the meaning of Islam with Kaffah (overall), which appeared a distortion of understanding to distinguish between cultural and theological values in a design. This paper will try to evaluate the design of a contemporary mosque in Indonesia, with case studies in Jogokariyan Mosque Yogyakarta Indonesia. The building evaluation are focused in building function , aesthetic, comfort, and security. And finally from this research should be found the results of the integrated design evaluation of a contemporary mosque which based on the study of the Quran and Hadith.

Keywords: evaluation, islamic concept, mosque, Hadith, Quran

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26 Azan in Funeral: A Local Islamic Tradition in Indonesia

Authors: Muhajirin Gafar

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In Indonesia, Azan not only used as a reminder or call to prayer, its also used at the birth of a child, as the direction of the Prophet Muhammad PBUH, but also become part of a 'tradition’ to echoed in obsequies or the funeral, even there is a tradition in which the Azan echoed in the four corners of the grave. This tradition has become a necessity and has become part of the local Islamic culture preserved from time to time, although it certainly can not be known legal basis underlying the tradition. Based on the phenomenon, this paper proposed three research objective, namely: 1) To described the history about tradition Azan in funeral, 2) To analyze some of the postulates supporting the occurrence of the tradition, 3) To find out the postulates/ hadist which has been arranged in accordance with the instructions of the Prophet Muhammad PBUH about the rules of funeral. To reconstruct the history of the emergence of events azan tradition in the funeral this research used historical method, while the second and third objective used library research. Data and facts systematically processed and analyzed so as to be able to answer the questions of what, who, where, when, how, and why an event occurred. Finally, this research used Takhrij al-hadith a method to look at the validity of the arguments of the hadith. Result found that tradition of Azan in funeral has been around since the presence of Islam in Indonesia. This tradition continued and became a local Islamic culture which spread almost all over Indonesia, even considered part of religious guidance. While there are no decisive postulates which can be accounted for this tradition, except ‘qiyas’ postulates which are not appropriate. Most Indonesian Muslim put Azan as the first priority to do in funeral while oblivious other compulsory things that must be recited when lay down the corpse. They tend to assume that this tradition is a part of Islamic local culture.

Keywords: Azan, tradition, qiyas, Islamic local, hadist

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25 A Study in the Formation of a Term: Sahaba

Authors: Abdul Rahman Chamseddine

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The Companions of the Prophet Muhammad, the Sahaba, are regarded as the first link between him and later believers who did not know him or learn from him directly. This makes the Sahaba a link in the chain between God and the ummah (community). Apart from their role in spreading the Prophet’s teachings, they came to be regarded as role models, representing the Islamic ideal of life as prescribed by the Prophet himself. According to Hadith, the Prophet had promised some Sahaba unqualified admission to paradise. It is commonly agreed that the Sahaba have the following attributes in common: God is well pleased with them; they will surely go to paradise; they are perfectly trustworthy; and they are the authorities from whom Muslims can learn all matters related to their religion. No other generation of Muslims has received the attention received by the Companions of the Prophet. In spite of the importance of the Sahaba in Islam, we still know comparatively little about them. There are at least two reasons for this. First, there is the overall scarcity of information surviving from the early period. At the death of the Prophet, it is said, there were more than 100,000 Companions. As we shall see, this is a complex issue, involving the definition of the term Sahaba. However, only few Companions of the Prophet are known to us. Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani, who wrote in the fifteenth century A.D., was only able to collect facts about 11,000 of them (including those whose status as Sahaba was disputed). Ibn Sa‘d, Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr and Ibn al-Athir, all of whom lived earlier than Ibn Hajar, included in their respective works fewer lives of Sahaba than he did. If we consider Ibn Hajar’s Isaba as the most complete biographical account of the Sahaba that remains available, we have information, presumably, on approximately one tenth of them. The remaining nine tenths are apparently lost from the historical record. Second, discussion of the Sahaba tends to focus on those considered the most important among them such as ‘Uthman, ‘Ali and Mu‘awiya, while others, who together number in the thousands, are less well-known. This paper will try to study the origins of the term Sahaba that became exclusive to the Companions of the Prophet and not a synonym of the word companions in general.

Keywords: companions, Hadith, Islamic history, Muhammad, Sahaba, transmission

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24 Muhammad`s Vision of Interaction with Supernatural Beings According to the Hadith in Comparison to Parallels of Other Cultures

Authors: Vladimir A. Rozov

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Comparative studies of religion and ritual could contribute better understanding of human culture universalities. Belief in supernatural beings seems to be a common feature of the religion. A significant part of the Islamic concepts that concern supernatural beings is based on a tradition based on the Hadiths. They reflect, among other things, his ideas about a proper way to interact with supernatural beings. These ideas to a large extent follow from the pre-Islamic religious experience of the Arabs and had been reflected in a number of ritual actions. Some of those beliefs concern a particular function of clothing. For example, it is known that Muhammad was wrapped in clothes during the revelation of the Quran. The same thing was performed by pre-Islamic soothsayers (kāhin) and by rival opponents of Muhammad during their trances. Muhammad also turned the clothes inside out during religious rituals (prayer for rain). Besides these specific ways of clothing which prove the external similarity of Muhammad with the soothsayers and other people who claimed the connection with supernatural forces, the pre-Islamic soothsayers had another characteristic feature which is physical flaws. In this regard, it is worth to note Muhammad's so-called "Seal the Prophecy" (h̠ ātam an- nubūwwa) -protrusion or outgrowth on his back. Another interesting feature of Muhammad's behavior was his attitude to eating onion and garlic. In particular, the Prophet didn`t eat them and forbade people who had tasted these vegetables to enter mosques, until the smell ceases to be felt. The reason for this ban on eating onion and garlic is caused by a belief that the smell of these products prevents communication with otherworldly forces. The materials of the Hadith also suggest that Muhammad shared faith in the apotropical properties of water. Both of these ideas have parallels in other cultures of the world. Muhammad's actions supposed to provide an interaction with the supernatural beings are not accidental. They have parallels in the culture of pre-Islamic Arabia as well as in many past and present world cultures. The latter fact can be explained by the similarity of the universal human beliefs in supernatural beings and how they should be interacted with. Later a number of similar ideas shared by the Prophet Muhammad was legitimized by the Islamic tradition and formed the basis of popular Islamic rituals. Thus, these parallels emphasize the commonality of human notions of supernatural beings and also demonstrate the significance of the pre-Islamic cultural context in analyzing the genesis of Islamic religious beliefs.

Keywords: hadith, Prophet Muhammad, ritual, supernatural beings

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23 Ontology-Based Representation of Islamic Rules to Perform Salah

Authors: Hamza Zafar, Quratulain Rajput

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Salah (نماز ) is one of five pillars of Islam and obligatory for every Muslims. However, due to the lack of Islamic knowledge it might be very difficult for a layperson to perform it correctly. This paper presents an ontology based representation of Islamic rules to perform Salah. The Salah ontology has been built under the guidance of domain expert in light of Quran and Hadith. The ontology consists of basic concepts as well as relationship among concepts and constraints on them. The basic concepts include cleanness, body cover, Salah timing and steps to perform Salah. The SWRL rule language has been used to represent rule to determine whether the Salah performed correctly or it should be repeated. Finally, we evaluate the use of the Salat ontology through user’s example queries using SPARQL queries.

Keywords: prayer, salah, ontology, SPARQL queries, reasoning

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22 Towards an Analysis of Rhetoric of Digital Arabic Discourse

Authors: Gameel Abdelmageed

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Arabs have a rhetorical heritage which has greatly contributed to the monitoring and analyzing of the rhetoric of the Holy Quran, Hadith, and Arabic texts on poetry and oratory. But Arab scholars - as far as the researcher knows – have not contributed to monitoring and analyzing the rhetoric of digital Arabic discourse although it has prominence, particularly in social media and has strong effectiveness in the political and social life of Arab society. This discourse has made its impact by using very new rhetorical techniques in language, voice, image, painting and video clips which are known as “Multimedia” and belong to “Digital Rhetoric”. This study suggests that it is time to draw the attention of Arab scholars and invite them to monitor and analyze the rhetoric of digital Arabic discourse.

Keywords: digital discourse, digital rhetoric, Facebook, social media

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21 The Effect of Contemporary Islamic Thought Liberalization to the Development of Science

Authors: Ibrahim Malik, Vita Fathimah Silondae, Askoning

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The liberalization of Islamic thought is not only an impact on the views of Muslim community regarding worldview, but has touched the stage reconstruction of contemporary science. It can be seen from the emergence of Western and Eastern intellectual movements that try to reconstruct contemporary science arguing that scientific culture is not currently able to deliver audiences to change the order of the better society. Such Islamic thought liberalization has a huge influence on the multi-dimensional crisis in various sectors such as the economic, culture, politic, ecology, and other sectors. Therefore, this paper examines the effects of the liberalization of contemporary Islamic thought towards on the development of modern science. The method used in this paper is based on textual study of Al-Qur'an, Hadith (prophetic tradition), and the history of contemporary Islamic thought and comparing it with the reality of the development of science today. So, the influence of Islamic thought liberalization has created a crisis and stagnation of the development of scientific disciplines can be found.

Keywords: liberalization, science, Islam, development of science

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20 The Influence of Modern Islamic Thought Liberalization to the Improvement of Science

Authors: Muhammad Ilham Agus Salim

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The liberalization of Islamic thought is not only an impact on the views of Muslim community regarding worldview, but has touched the stage reconstruction of contemporary general science. It can be seen from the emergence of Western and Eastern intellectual movements that try to reconstruct contemporary science arguing that scientific culture is not currently able to deliver audiences to change the order of the better society. Such Islamic thought liberalization has a huge influence on the multidimensional crisis in various sectors such as the economic, culture, politic, ecology, and other sectors. Therefore, this paper examines the effects of the liberalization of contemporary Islamic thought towards on the development of modern science. The method used in this paper is based on textual study of Al -Qur'an, Hadith (prophetic tradition), and the history of contemporary Islamic thought and comparing it with the reality of the development of science today. So the influence of Islamic thought liberalization has created a crisis and stagnation of the development of scientific disciplines can be found.

Keywords: liberalization, science, Islam, al-Qur’an textual studies

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19 The Classical Islamic Laws of Apostasy in the Present Context

Authors: Ali Akbar

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The main purpose of this essay is to examine whether or not the earthly punishments in regards to apostates that are often found in classical Islamic sources are applicable in the present context. The paper indeed addresses how Muslims should understand the question of apostasy in the contemporary context. To do so, the paper first argues that an accurate understanding of the way the Quranic verses and prophetic hadiths deal with the concept of apostasy could help us rethink and re-examine the classical Islamic laws on apostasy in the present context. In addition, building on Abdolkarim Soroush’s theory of contraction and expansion of religious knowledge, this article argues that approaches to apostasy in the present context can move away from what prescribed by classical Islamic laws. Finally, it argues that instances of persecution of apostates in the early days of Islam during the Medinan period of Muhammad’s prophetic mission should be interpreted in their own socio-historical context. Rereading these reports within our modern context supports the mutability of the traditional corporal punishments of apostasy.

Keywords: apostasy, Islam, Quran, hadith, Abdolkarim Soroush, contextualization

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18 Development of Innovative Islamic Web Applications

Authors: Farrukh Shahzad

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The rich Islamic resources related to religious text, Islamic sciences, and history are widely available in print and in electronic format online. However, most of these works are only available in Arabic language. In this research, an attempt is made to utilize these resources to create interactive web applications in Arabic, English and other languages. The system utilizes the Pattern Recognition, Knowledge Management, Data Mining, Information Retrieval and Management, Indexing, storage and data-analysis techniques to parse, store, convert and manage the information from authentic Arabic resources. These interactive web Apps provide smart multi-lingual search, tree based search, on-demand information matching and linking. In this paper, we provide details of application architecture, design, implementation and technologies employed. We also presented the summary of web applications already developed. We have also included some screen shots from the corresponding web sites. These web applications provide an Innovative On-line Learning Systems (eLearning and computer based education).

Keywords: Islamic resources, Muslim scholars, hadith, narrators, history, fiqh

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17 The Economic System (Islam) and Riba's Prohibition on Historical Perspective

Authors: Risanda Alirastra Budiantoro, Riesanda Najmi Sasmita, Sri Herianingrum

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Allah has given the guidance in the form of Islam for Muslim to take and lead all the aspects of life including the economic activity. The Islamic economic system is believed to be the answer to the economic problems that exist at this time. The goal is to achieve falah in kaffah by not doing some economic activities that are in violation as prescribed by Islam. An example for this is riba. Discourse on riba can be said ‘classical’ both in the development of Islamic thought and in Islamic civilization because riba often occurs in all aspects of public life, especially economic transactions (in Islam called muamalah). Riba is an additional retrieval, either in a sale and purchase transaction or lending in a false or contrary to the principle of muamalah in Islam. Prohibition of riba is obtained from various sources by the Qur'an and Hadith Rasulullah SAW, so the scholars firmly and clearly defined the prohibition of riba because there are exploitative elements that can harm the others. So, this study is aimed to identify Islamic economic system and the prohibition of riba in historical perspective. From the results of this study, it is expected to be a good reference for the reader to understand the Islamic economic system and riba in the future.

Keywords: economics system, riba, historical perspective, economy

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16 Business Ethics in Islamic and Economic Perspective

Authors: Mohammad Iqbal Malik

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Economic development of a country depends on its business ethics and values. Islamic teachings provide obvious guidelines in this regard. Mutual understanding, honesty and ethics possess central place in Islamic teachings. These teachings not only prohibit from amalgamation, black-marketing, hoarding and deception but also force to treat a customer amiably. Business ethics are broad spectrum in Islamic society due to these high moral values. One can estimate the importance of business ethics in Islam for economic development in Islamic society is evident by the Hadith of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in which He excluded a trader from Muslim community who did not behave in good manners with his clients. In this study we present impact of business ethics on economic development of a Muslim society. This study is based on basic teachings of Quran and Sunnah, Fiqh, Economics and other books. This study explores the behavior of Muslim traders and reveals useful inferences. Policy makers, traders, academia, scholars, and general public may learn lessons from this study with respect to business ethics in Islamic perspective.

Keywords: ethics, business, Islam, economic perspective

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15 Investigation of Compliance of the Prevailing Import Murabah'a to Sharia

Authors: Aqeel Akhtar

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One of prevailing modes of finance in emerging Islamic banking system is Murabah’a; a financial transaction in which cost and profit both must be recognized by buyer. Otherwise the transaction would become invalid. In this mainstream, import Murabah’a transaction is divergent in such a way that the cost is not recognized and identified due to execution of import transaction in foreign currency i.e. US Dollar and the next transaction of Murabaha’a with the client is executed in local currency. Since this transaction is executed in dual currency i.e. bank pays supplier in foreign currency and executes Murabah’a with its client in local currency and it is not allowed in according to Islamic Injunctions as mentioned in hadith narrated by Hazrat Ibn-e-Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) used to sell his camels with Dirhams and take dinars instead and vice versa. Upon revealing before the Prophet (SAW), he was advised that it must not be contingent in the agreement and the ready rate would be applied and possession of one of the consideration is compulsory. The solution in this regard is that the import Murabah’a transaction should be in single currency, however, other currency can be paid in payment at the time of payment in a very indispensable situation provided that ready rate would be applied. Moreover, some of other solutions have also been given in this regard.

Keywords: shariah compliance, import murabaha, islamic banking, product development

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14 Modern Human and His Needy to the Prophecy (Case Study of AyatuAllah Mottahari Views)

Authors: Mohsen Nouraei, Mohammad Molavi

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Muslim scholars for a long time have tried to prove the necessity of prophecy through the Qur'an verses, Hadith's concepts, and rational arguments. According to them, the human being cannot find his welfare way based on wisdom only. They emphasize that divine teaching of the prophets accompanied by wisdom (reason) helps people to find the best way of life and consequently they achieve perfection. In contrast, some believe that mentioned necessity is helpful for primitive and ancient societies, and, matured man in the modern era has flourished his wisdom and reached the peak of maturity. Hence, the modern human can recognize good and evil rely on the individual and social wisdom and as a result they can reach to the perfection without revelation and prophetic teaching. The essay via descriptive-analytical method has attempted to analyze and critic this thought through the study of Mottahari's works as a modern prominent scholars. Findings show that AyatuAllah Mottahari believes that not only modern human intellectual development is not needless of prophecy, but also they need religion and revelation teaching exactly like primitive and ancient societies. Wisdom inherent limitations common between primitive and modern human are the main reason of AyatuAllah Mottahari.

Keywords: wisdom, modernity, prophecy, AyatuAllah Mottahari

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13 The Characteristics of Islamic Concept In Contemporary Mosque Design With The Case Modulation of Study: Kauman Mosque Yogyakarta Indonesia

Authors: Sulihantoro, Muhamad Irga Fahreza

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Age of onset of the crisis makes more advanced understanding of the values of Islam that has been etched in architectural design. The majority Muslim mosque architecture designing buildings when they designed the architecture of Islam has always stuck in a cultural symbol, the shape of the facade, carving calligraphy, and all things that are closely related to the culture of the Middle East. As well as the interpretation of symbols, by designing a dome in every mosque, calligraphy carvings inside the mosque, and the other elements in the building which is interpreted by middle eastern culture. So here we have a problem understanding the meaning of Islam with kaf fah (overall), which appears distorted understanding to distinguish between cultural values and theological in design. This paper will try to evaluate the design of a contemporary mosque in Indonesia, with a case study in Masjid Kauman Yogyakarta Indonesia. building characteristics focused on the function of the building, history, aesthetics, comfort, and safety. The results of this study should be found on the evaluation of the integrated design of contemporary mosques are based on a study of the Quran and Hadith.

Keywords: characteristics, Islamic concept, culture, Kauman Mosque

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12 The Internal View of the Mu'min: Natural Law Theories in Islam

Authors: Gianni Izzo

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The relation of Islam to its legal precepts, reflected in the various jurisprudential 'schools of thought' (madhahib), is one expressed in a version of 'positivism' (fiqh) providing the primary theory for deducing Qurʾan rulings and those from the narrations (hadith) of the Prophet Muhammad. Scholars of Islam, including Patricia Crone (2004) and others chronicled by Anver Emon (2005), deny the influence of natural law theories as extra-scriptural indices of revelation’s content. This paper seeks to dispute these claims by reference to historical and canonical examples within Shiʿa legal thought that emphasize the salient roles of ‘aql (reason), fitrah (primordial human nature), and lutf (divine grace). These three holistic features, congenital to every human, and theophanically reflected in nature make up a mode of moral intelligibility antecedent to prophetic revelation. The debate between the 'traditionalist' Akhbaris and 'rationalist' Usulis over the nature of deriving legal edicts in Islam is well-covered academic ground. Instead, an attempt is made to define and detail the built-in assumptions of natural law revealed in the jurisprudential summa of Imami Shiʿism, whether of either dominant school, that undergird its legal prescriptions and methods of deduction.

Keywords: Islam, fiqh, natural law, legal positivism, aql

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11 A Comparative-Analytic Study of the Treatises of "I'tiqāDāT" Written by Sheikh Saduq and Sheikh Mufid Concerning the Notions of Monotheism and Divine Justice

Authors: Forough Rahimpour

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Following the beginning of the major occultation of Imam Zaman, the Shiite great thinkers and theologians started to identify and elaborate on the fundamental beliefs, the ones which were subject to more elaboration and criticism later throughout the history. Sheikh Saduq in his Treatise on fundamental beliefs selected the most basic Shiite beliefs and through his special method which was based on traditions and narrations, explained his specific views. Sheikh Mufid, on the other hand, dealing with the same topics, applied a method consisted of intellectual-narrative approach and expressed his own views and also evaluated the ideas expressed by Sheikh Saduq. The present study aims to compare and analyze the theological similarities and differences between the views expressed by Saduq and Mufid about the notions of monotheism and dive justice. The main focus in this study is on the two treatises called "I'tiqādāt” and "Tashih al I'tiqādāt "-written by Saduq and Mufid respectively. Although Sheikh Mufid was Saduq's disciple, he sometimes disagreed with Saduq's ideas and sometimes criticized his methodology. DespiteIn Saduq's high status in the science of Hadith, Sheikh Mufid sometimes discredited the Hadiths narrated by him and considered them Khabar-e Vahid (isolated tradition).

Keywords: Saduq, Mufid, monotheism, divine justice, treatise of "I'tiqādāt"

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10 Sirhindi Family's Islamic Movements in Sindh, Pakistan

Authors: Nasurullah Qureshi

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Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi Mujadid Alif Thani (1564-1624) and his philosophy had influenced sub-continent as the whole; its rulers and nation. In his reign, he convinced the rulers toward Islamic way of life and succeed in his goal. After his death in 1624, his family consecutively produced prominent scholars to present. Some of them moved to Afghanistan and Pakistan's cities i.e., Jalalabad, Qandhar, Peshawar, Queta, Shikarpur, Hyderabad, and Sehwan. They played a vital role in their areas and transmitted spiritual and legal Islamic teachings to people. This research is aimed to elaborate efforts of the family's Sindh settled branch from 1898-present in fields of politics and Islamic education. Their link with Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi will be provided in the introduction. After that, the work will explain their scholarly published work briefly in different fields of Islamic studies such as Quran exegeses and its translation in Sindhi language, Hadith and its sciences, Islamic Jurisprudence, Sufism and etc. In addition, their political role will be briefly discussed in the research throughout the period, especially their noticeable role in the separate homeland for Muslims in the subcontinent. Furthermore, the impact of their scholarly work, political influence and spirituality will be enlightened. Lastly, the research will present the critical viewpoint on their struggle.

Keywords: Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi, Sirhindi scholars, Sindh, Sufism

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9 The Importance of Zakat in Struggle against Circle of Poverty and Income Redistribution

Authors: Hasan Bulent Kantarci

Abstract:

This paper examine how Zakat provide a fair income redistribution and struggle with poverty. To provide a fair income redistribution and struggle with poverty take place among the fundamental tasks of all countries. Each country seeks a solution for this problem according to their political, economical and administrative styles through applying various economic and financial policies. The same situation gets handled via zakat association in the Islam. Nowadays, we observe different versions of zakat in developed countries. The applications such as negative income tax denote merely a difference from the zakat being applied almost the same way under changed names. But the minimum values to donate the zakat (e.g. 85 gr. gold and 40 animals) get altered and various amounts are put into practice. It might be named as negative income tax instead of zakat, nonetheless, these applications are based on the Holy Koran and the hadith released 1400 years ago. Besides, considering the savage and slavery in the world at those times, we might easily recognize the true value of the zakat applied the first time then in Islamic system. Through zakat is enabled an income transfer by the government so that the poor could reach the minimum level of life standard. To whom the zakat would be donated was not left to people’s heart and encouraged to determine according to objective criteria. Since the zakat is obligatory, the transfer do not get forward by hand but via the government and get distributed, which requires a vast government organization. Through applying the zakat as it must be would achieve to reduce the poverty mostly and ensuring the fair income redistribution.

Keywords: Islamic finance, zakat, income redistribution, circle of poverty, negatif income tax

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8 Urgency of Islamic Economic System Implementation in Indonesian Banking

Authors: Muhammad Rifqi Hafizhudin Arif, Mukhamad Zulfal Faradis, Ahmad Hidayatullah

Abstract:

Indonesia is the country that uses conventional financial system adopted from European countries as a form of finance in the national banking system. Many of the derivative products of conventional banks either investment, buy and sell, saving and loan, which is not in accordance with Islamic Ethics. While the majority population in Indonesia are belief in Islam, which Islam has had financial management guide is written in the Quran, the Hadith, as well as the opinions of experts who strongly prohibits the use of interest in each transaction activities. Many different expert opinions on the application of the Islamic financial system in Indonesia. However, as the majority of the population of Indonesia, Islamic community have not been able to get the opportunities to choose the Islamic financial system that has mutual benefit between consumers and banks, particularly fairness in transactions, ethical investment, uphold the values of solidarity and brotherhood in every transaction activities, and avoid speculation. In this paper, we will discuss the reasons for the importance of providing an option for Islamic community as the majority of the population of Indonesia to use the banking system which adopted the Islamic ethical values that have been much discussed by other researchers in various countries. The existence of this research is expected to Government, academia and the general public aware of the urgency of Islamic economic system implementation in Indonesian banking as the solution and justice especially for the Islamic community to use the values which they held.

Keywords: Islamic economic system, conventional system, Islamic value, banking

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7 Green Open Space in Sustainable Housing and Islamic Values Perspectives – Case Study Kampung Kauman Malang

Authors: Nunik Junara, Sugeng Triyadi

Abstract:

Sustainable Housing in Islamic perspective, can be defined as a multi-dimensional process that seeks to achieve a balance between economic and socio-cultural aspects on the side, and environmental aspect on the other. There are many quotes verses in the Quran and Hadith that leads to the belief that Islam as a Rahmatan lil Alamin, where men are encouraged to act wisely in treating nature and all living things in it. One aspect of the natural environment that closed to human is plants. In the settlement, the availability of plants or also called green open space is highly recommended. The availability of green open space in the neighborhood, both the public and private green open spaces is expected to reduce the effects of global warming that has engulfed various parts of the world. Green open space that can be viewed from the angle of eco-aestetic and eco-medical in sustainable architecture, is expected to increase the temperature and provide aesthetic impression to the surrounding environment. This paper attempts to discuss the principles of Islamic values related to the natural environment as a major resource for sustainability. This paper also aims to raise awareness of the importance of the theme of sustainability in settlements, especially in big cities. Analysis of the availability of green open space in kampung Kauman Malang is one example of the effort to apply the principles of sustainable housing.

Keywords: green open space, sustainable housing, Islamic values, Kampung Kauman Malang

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6 Understanding the Caliphate and Jihad to Prevent Radicalization That Lead to Terrorism: The Role of Social Community in Southeast Asia

Authors: Jordan Daud, Satriya Wibawa, Wahyu Wardhana

Abstract:

In the summer of 2014, the leaders of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria proclaimed the founding of religious-political system known as the caliphate which titled Islamic State (IS). As Caliph, Abu Bakr Baghdadi advocated Jihad from the Ummah (the Muslim community) to defend the Islamic state from unbelievers. This call for Jihad by IS had encouraged some radical organization in Southeast Asia pledge allegiance to IS and established bases for IS operation in Southeast Asia. This development had increased security concern for possible terrorism action in Southeast Asia, which currently not very active due to counterterrorism efforts from ASEAN member states and its cooperation with the world. This paper firstly tries to draw understanding from Ulema (Muslim cleric) about the conception of caliphate and Jihad based on Quran and Hadith. Secondly, this paper will elaborate counterterrorism efforts from ASEAN countries to prevent radicalization and terrorism act in addressing the call for jihad to establish IS in Southeast Asia. The third, this paper will recommend the role of the social community, especially Ulema, in Southeast Asia to prevent the misunderstanding of Jihad which usually used by terrorist to justify their action. Hopefully, this social community role will decrease the radicalization of Muslim community in Southeast Asia alongside with the counterterrorism efforts to create secure and stable ASEAN community based on shared norm and values.

Keywords: caliphate, jihad, ASEAN, counterterrorism, social community

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5 Analyzing the Permissibility of Demonstration in Islamic Perspective: Case Study of Former Governor of Jakarta Basuki Tjahaja Purnama

Authors: Ahmad Syauqi

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the permissibility of demonstrations against a leader's decision, policies, as well as statements against Islamic values from an Islamic point of view. Recorded at the end of 2016, a large demonstration in Jakarta involving many people, mostly from Muslim society against the former Governor of Jakarta, Basuki Tjahaja Purnama, was considered a form of harm to the value of harmony and the unity of religious communities in Indonesia. Hence, this paper aims to answer the question that became a tough discussion and a long debate among Indonesian Muslims after an immense demonstration known as the 212 movements, ‘how exactly Islam sees such act of demonstration?’. Is there any particular historical source in Islamic history that mention information related to demonstration? A phenomenological qualitative method was implemented throughout the process of this research to study the perspective of various Muslims scholars by reviewing, and comparing their opinions through the classical source of Islamic history and Hadith literature. One of the main roots of this extensive debate is due to the extremist group, which bans all forms of demonstration, assuming that such acts had come from the West and unknown culture in the Islamic history. In addition, they also claim that all the demonstrators are Bughat. While some other groups, freely declare that demonstration can be done anytime and anywhere, without specific terms and regulations associated. The findings of this research illustrate that the protests which we now know of today, in terms of demonstration had existed since ancient times, even from the time of the prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). This paper reveals that there is a strong evidence that demonstration is justified in Islamic law and has a historical root. This can, therefore, be a proposition of such permissibility. However, there are still a number of things one has to be aware of when it comes to the demonstration, and clearly, not all demonstrations are legal from the Islamic perspective.

Keywords: Basuki Tjahaja Purnama, demonstration, Muslim scholars, protest

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4 An Analytical Study on the Impact of Cultural and Literary Heritage on the Contemporary Arabic Novel

Authors: Sharafat Karimi, Jamil Jafari

Abstract:

The impact of Western Literature on other nations' pieces of literature (including Arabic) has caused critics to ignore the importance of Arabic cultural & literary heritage in the formation of contemporary Arabic fiction; but on the contrary, an important part of literary genres in any society, especially fiction has been formed in the past and depends on ancient literary events. The current paper, utilizing the descriptive-analytical method and by means of library studies, tries to challenge those critics who regard Western Literature as the only effective factor on the appearance of Arabic fiction. Furthermore, this research tries to find out effective Islamic-Arabic elements on the development of Arabic novel by the investigation of some fictional works. The results show that in addition to regarding Western literature as an important factor, Arab novelists have applied their heritage, culture, and ancient history, either written or orally transmitted to the current generation, in their innovations. Among great historical works containing moral stories, allegorical legends, myths, tales of heroes, and folklore, we can refer to Arabian Nights, Kalila & Dimna, romantic stories, historical puzzles, history of Islam, history of ancient Egypt, Maqama, and Quranic stories. Famous novels like 'Hadith Isa ibn-Hisham', 'Layali Alif Layla', 'Abas al-Aqdar', 'Radoubis', 'Ahlam Shahrzad, and 'Alam Bela Kharaet' were compiled on the basis of ancient literary heritage not only in the theme but also in the structure; so one can conclude that the ancient literary-cultural heritage and Islamic-Arabian history have been influential on Arabic novel appearance and development.

Keywords: Arabic fictional literature, culture, heritage, history, language, novel

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