Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Search results for: entanglement

32 Quantum Fisher Information of Bound Entangled W-Like States

Authors: Fatih Ozaydin

Abstract:

Quantum Fisher information (QFI) is a multipartite entanglement witness and recently it has been studied extensively with separability and entanglement in the focus. On the other hand, bound entanglement is a special phenomena observed in mixed entangled states. In this work, we study the QFI of W states under a four-dimensional entanglement binding channel. Starting with initally pure W states of several qubits, we find how the QFI decreases as two qubits of the W state is subject to entanglement binding. We also show that as the size of the W state increases, the effect of entanglement binding is decreased.

Keywords: Quantum Fisher information, W states, bound entanglement, entanglement binding

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31 Path-Spin to Spin-Spin Hybrid Quantum Entanglement: A Conversion Protocol

Authors: Indranil Bayal, Pradipta Panchadhyayee

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Path-spin hybrid entanglement generated and confined in a single spin-1/2 particle is converted to spin-spin hybrid interparticle entanglement, which finds its important applications in quantum information processing. This protocol uses beam splitter, spin flipper, spin measurement, classical channel, unitary transformations, etc., and requires no collective operation on the pair of particles whose spin variables share complete entanglement after the accomplishment of the protocol. The specialty of the protocol lies in the fact that the path-spin entanglement is transferred between spin degrees of freedom of two separate particles initially possessed by a single party.

Keywords: entanglement, path-spin entanglement, spin-spin entanglement, CNOT operation

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30 Quantum Entanglement and Thermalization in Superconducting Two-Qubit Systems

Authors: E. Karami, M. Bohloul, P. Najmadi

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The superconducting system is a suitable system for quantum computers. Quantum entanglement is a fundamental phenomenon that is key to the power of quantum computers. Quantum entanglement has been studied in different superconducting systems. In this paper, we are investigating a superconducting two-qubit system as a macroscopic system. These systems include two coupled Quantronium circuits. We calculate quantum entanglement and thermalization for system evolution and compare them. We observe, thermalization and entanglement have different behavior, and equilibrium thermal state has maximum entanglement.

Keywords: macroscopic system, quantum entanglement, thermalization, superconducting system

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29 Quantifying Parallelism of Vectors Is the Quantification of Distributed N-Party Entanglement

Authors: Shreya Banerjee, Prasanta K. Panigrahi

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The three-way distributive entanglement is shown to be related to the parallelism of vectors. Using a measurement-based approach a set of 2−dimensional vectors is formed, representing the post-measurement states of one of the parties. These vectors originate at the same point and have an angular distance between them. The area spanned by a pair of such vectors is a measure of the entanglement of formation. This leads to a geometrical manifestation of the 3−tangle in 2−dimensions, from inequality in the area which generalizes for n− qubits to reveal that the n− tangle also has a planar structure. Quantifying the genuine n−party entanglement in every 1|(n − 1) bi-partition it is shown that the genuine n−way entanglement does not manifest in n− tangle. A new quantity geometrically similar to 3−tangle is then introduced that represents the genuine n− way entanglement. Extending the formalism to 3− qutrits, the nonlocality without entanglement can be seen to arise from a condition under which the post-measurement state vectors of a separable state show parallelism. A connection to nontrivial sum uncertainty relation analogous to Maccone and Pati uncertainty relation is then presented using decomposition of post-measurement state vectors along parallel and perpendicular direction of the pre-measurement state vectors. This study opens a novel way to understand multiparty entanglement in qubit and qudit systems.

Keywords: Geometry of quantum entanglement, Multipartite and distributive entanglement, Parallelism of vectors , Tangle

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28 Stern-Gerlach Force in Quantum Magnetic Field and Schrodinger's Cat

Authors: Mandip Singh

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Quantum entanglement plays a fundamental role in our understanding of counter-intuitive aspects of quantum reality. If classical physics is an approximation of quantum physics, then quantum entanglement should persist at a macroscopic scale. In this paper, a thought experiment is presented where a free falling spin polarized Bose-Einstein condensate interacts with a quantum superimposed magnetic field of nonzero gradient. In contrast to the semiclassical Stern-Gerlach experiment, the magnetic field and the spin degrees of freedom both are considered to be quantum mechanical in a generalized scenario. As a consequence, a Bose-Einstein condensate can be prepared at distinct locations in space in a sense of quantum superposition. In addition, the generation of Schrodinger-cat like quantum states shall be presented.

Keywords: Schrodinger-cat quantum states, macroscopic entanglement, macroscopic quantum fields, foundations of quantum physics

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27 Behaviour of Non-local Correlations and Quantum Information Theoretic Measures in Frustrated Molecular Wheels

Authors: Amit Tribedi

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Genuine Quantumness present in Quantum Systems is the resource for implementing Quantum Information and Computation Protocols which can outperform the classical counterparts. These Quantumness measures encompass non-local ones known as quantum entanglement (QE) and quantum information theoretic (QIT) ones, e.g. Quantum Discord (QD). In this paper, some well-known measures of QE and QD in some wheel-like frustrated molecular magnetic systems have been studied. One of the systems has already been synthesized using coordination chemistry, and the other is hypothetical, where the dominant interaction is the spin-spin exchange interaction. Exact analytical methods and exact numerical diagonalization methods have been used. Some counter-intuitive non-trivial features, like non-monotonicity of quantum correlations with temperature, persistence of multipartite entanglement over bipartite ones etc. indicated by the behaviour of the correlations and the QIT measures have been found. The measures, being operational ones, can be used to realize the resource of Quantumness in experiments.

Keywords: 0D Magnets, discord, entanglement, frustration

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26 Visual Impairment Through Contextualized Lived Experiences: The Story of James

Authors: Jentel Van Havermaet, Geert Van Hove, Elisabeth De Schauwer

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This study re-conceptualizes visual impairment in the interdependent context of James, his family, and allies. Living with a visual impairment is understood as an entanglement of assemblages, dynamics, disablism, systems… We narrated this diffractively into two meaningful events: decisions and processes on (inclusive) education and hinderances in connecting with others. We entangled and (un)raveled lived experiences in assemblages in which the contextualized meaning of visual impairment became more clearly. The contextualized narrative of James interwove complex intra-actions; showed the complexity and contextualization of entangled relationalities.

Keywords: disability studies, contextualization, visual impairment, assemblage, entanglement, lived experiences

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25 Science behind Quantum Teleportation

Authors: Ananya G., B. Varshitha, Shwetha S., Kavitha S. N., Praveen Kumar Gupta

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Teleportation is the ability to travel by just reappearing at some other spot. Though teleportation has never been achieved, quantum teleportation is possible. Quantum teleportation is a process of transferring the quantum state of a particle onto another particle, under the circumstance that one does not get to know any information about the state in the process of transformation. This paper presents a brief overview of quantum teleportation, discussing the topics like Entanglement, EPR Paradox, Bell's Theorem, Qubits, elements for a successful teleport, some examples of advanced teleportation systems (also covers few ongoing experiments), applications (that includes quantum cryptography), and the current hurdles for future scientists interested in this field. Finally, major advantages and limitations to the existing teleportation theory are discussed.

Keywords: teleportation, quantum teleportation, quantum entanglement, qubits, EPR paradox, bell states, quantum particles, spooky action at a distance

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24 Quantum Entangled States and Image Processing

Authors: Sanjay Singh, Sushil Kumar, Rashmi Jain

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Quantum registering is another pattern in computational hypothesis and a quantum mechanical framework has a few helpful properties like Entanglement. We plan to store data concerning the structure and substance of a basic picture in a quantum framework. Consider a variety of n qubits which we propose to use as our memory stockpiling. In recent years classical processing is switched to quantum image processing. Quantum image processing is an elegant approach to overcome the problems of its classical counter parts. Image storage, retrieval and its processing on quantum machines is an emerging area. Although quantum machines do not exist in physical reality but theoretical algorithms developed based on quantum entangled states gives new insights to process the classical images in quantum domain. Here in the present work, we give the brief overview, such that how entangled states can be useful for quantum image storage and retrieval. We discuss the properties of tripartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W states and their usefulness to store the shapes which may consist three vertices. We also propose the techniques to store shapes having more than three vertices.

Keywords: Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger, image storage and retrieval, quantum entanglement, W states

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23 Isolated Iterating Fractal Independently Corresponds with Light and Foundational Quantum Problems

Authors: Blair D. Macdonald

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After nearly one hundred years of its origin, foundational quantum mechanics remains one of the greatest unexplained mysteries in physicists today. Within this time, chaos theory and its geometry, the fractal, has developed. In this paper, the propagation behaviour with an iteration of a simple fractal, the Koch Snowflake, was described and analysed. From an arbitrary observation point within the fractal set, the fractal propagates forward by oscillation—the focus of this study and retrospectively behind by exponential growth from a point beginning. It propagates a potentially infinite exponential oscillating sinusoidal wave of discrete triangle bits sharing many characteristics of light and quantum entities. The model's wave speed is potentially constant, offering insights into the perception and a direction of time where, to an observer, when travelling at the frontier of propagation, time may slow to a stop. In isolation, the fractal is a superposition of component bits where position and scale present a problem of location. In reality, this problem is experienced within fractal landscapes or fields where 'position' is only 'known' by the addition of information or markers. The quantum' measurement problem', 'uncertainty principle,' 'entanglement,' and the classical-quantum interface are addressed; these are a problem of scale invariance associated with isolated fractality. Dual forward and retrospective perspectives of the fractal model offer the opportunity for unification between quantum mechanics and cosmological mathematics, observations, and conjectures. Quantum and cosmological problems may be different aspects of the one fractal geometry.

Keywords: measurement problem, observer, entanglement, unification

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22 Minimizing Ship’S Breakdown Maintenance Due to Rope Entangled In Propeller With “Si Kuman” On Mooring Boat PSC I in Surabaya

Authors: Jogi Prayogo, Dwi Qaqa Prasetyatama, Rahmad Dwi Afandi, Kunto Arief Prasetyo, Viorel Herniza Leksono

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PT. Pertamina Trans Kontinental managed a fleet of 364 ships in 2018 - 2020. In that period, there were 8 incidents of ship damage, causing breakdown maintenance on 6 ships belonging to PT Pertamina Trans Kontinental throughout Indonesia's operational areas due to ropes entangled in propellers. The company's losses that were caused by the fouled propellers amounted to 306.35 Million Rupiah. Of the 8 incidents, Mooring Boat PSC I was taken as a pilot project for further analysis considering the location of the ship which is in Surabaya and Mooring Boat PSC I has experienced 2 incidents of rope entanglement that caused the company's losses due to the largest Breakdown Maintenance amounted to 200.99 Million Rupiah. After analyzing the rope entanglement in the ship's propeller based on the data of Mooring Boat PSC I related to the location of propellers that are often fouled in the conventional propulsion system, it was found that there is a suitable location for the implementation of SI KUMAN tool that serves to cut ropes to prevent the occurrence of rope entangled in ship propellers. The determination of SI KUMAN tool is based on the strength of the ship's material to be installed and a suitable design to prevent the occurrence of ropes being entangled in propellers. After the installation of the "SI KUMAN" tool and monitoring carried out for 1 year period (August 2020 - August 2021), it was found that SI KUMAN tool can eliminate the risk of fouled propeller incidents which previously occurred twice in one year so that the company's loss amounted to 200.99 Million Rupiah can be eliminated and SI KUMAN tool can still operate optimally.

Keywords: breakdown maintenance, mooring boat, fleet, fouled propeller, rope entangled, cut

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21 Quantum Information Scrambling and Quantum Chaos in Silicon-Based Fermi-Hubbard Quantum Dot Arrays

Authors: Nikolaos Petropoulos, Elena Blokhina, Andrii Sokolov, Andrii Semenov, Panagiotis Giounanlis, Xutong Wu, Dmytro Mishagli, Eugene Koskin, Robert Bogdan Staszewski, Dirk Leipold

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We investigate entanglement and quantum information scrambling (QIS) by the example of a many-body Extended and spinless effective Fermi-Hubbard Model (EFHM and e-FHM, respectively) that describes a special type of quantum dot array provided by Equal1 labs silicon-based quantum computer. The concept of QIS is used in the framework of quantum information processing by quantum circuits and quantum channels. In general, QIS is manifest as the de-localization of quantum information over the entire quantum system; more compactly, information about the input cannot be obtained by local measurements of the output of the quantum system. In our work, we will first make an introduction to the concept of quantum information scrambling and its connection with the 4-point out-of-time-order (OTO) correlators. In order to have a quantitative measure of QIS we use the tripartite mutual information, in similar lines to previous works, that measures the mutual information between 4 different spacetime partitions of the system and study the Transverse Field Ising (TFI) model; this is used to quantify the dynamical spreading of quantum entanglement and information in the system. Then, we investigate scrambling in the quantum many-body Extended Hubbard Model with external magnetic field Bz and spin-spin coupling J for both uniform and thermal quantum channel inputs and show that it scrambles for specific external tuning parameters (e.g., tunneling amplitudes, on-site potentials, magnetic field). In addition, we compare different Hilbert space sizes (different number of qubits) and show the qualitative and quantitative differences in quantum scrambling as we increase the number of quantum degrees of freedom in the system. Moreover, we find a "scrambling phase transition" for a threshold temperature in the thermal case, that is, the temperature of the model that the channel starts to scramble quantum information. Finally, we make comparisons to the TFI model and highlight the key physical differences between the two systems and mention some future directions of research.

Keywords: condensed matter physics, quantum computing, quantum information theory, quantum physics

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20 Decolonial Aesthetics in Ronnie Govender’s at the Edge and Other Cato Manor Stories

Authors: Rajendra Chetty

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Decolonial aesthetics departs and delinks from colonial ideas about ‘the arts’ and the modernist/colonial work of aesthetics. Education is trapped in the western epistemic and hermeneutical vocabulary, hence it is necessary to introduce new concepts and work the entanglement between co-existing concepts. This paper will discuss the contribution of Ronnie Govender, a South African writer, to build decolonial sensibilities and delink from the grand narrative of the colonial and apartheid literary landscape in Govender’s text, At the Edge and other Cato Manor Stories. Govender uses the world of art to make a decolonial statement. Decolonial artists have to work in the entanglement of power and engage with a border epistemology. Govender’s writings depart from an embodied consciousness of the colonial wound and moves toward healing. Border thinking and doing (artistic creativity) is precisely the decolonial methodology posited by Linda T. Smith, where theory comes in the form of storytelling. Govender’s stories engage with the wounds infringed by racism and patriarchy, two pillars of eurocentric knowing, sensing, and believing that sustain a structure of knowledge. This structure is embedded in characters, institutions, languages that regulate and mange the world of the excluded. Healing is the process of delinking, or regaining pride, dignity, and humanity, not through the psychoanalytic cure, but the popular healer. The legacies of the community of Cato Manor that was pushed out of their land are built in his stories. Decoloniality then is a concept that carries the experience of liberation struggles and recognizes the strenuous conditions of marginalized people together with their strength, wisdom, and endurance. Govender’s unique performative prose reconstructs and resurrects the lives of the people of Cato Manor, their vitality and humor, pain and humiliation: a vibrant and racially integrated community destroyed by the regime’s notorious racial laws. The paper notes that Govender’s objective with his plays and stories was to open windows to both the pain and joy of life; a mission that is not didactic but to shine a torch on both mankind’s waywardness as well as its inspiring and often moving achievements against huge odds.

Keywords: Govender, decoloniality, delinking, exclusion, racism, Cato Manor

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19 Guided Energy Theory of a Particle: Answered Questions Arise from Quantum Foundation

Authors: Desmond Agbolade Ademola

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This work aimed to introduce a theory, called Guided Energy Theory of a particle that answered questions that arise from quantum foundation, quantum mechanics theory, and interpretation such as: what is nature of wavefunction? Is mathematical formalism of wavefunction correct? Does wavefunction collapse during measurement? Do quantum physical entanglement and many world interpretations really exist? In addition, is there uncertainty in the physical reality of our nature as being concluded in the Quantum theory? We have been able to show by the fundamental analysis presented in this work that the way quantum mechanics theory, and interpretation describes nature is not correlated with physical reality. Because, we discovered amongst others that, (1) Guided energy theory of a particle fundamentally provides complete physical observable series of quantized measurement of a particle momentum, force, energy e.t.c. in a given distance and time.In contrast, quantum mechanics wavefunction describes that nature has inherited probabilistic and indeterministic physical quantities, resulting in unobservable physical quantities that lead to many worldinterpretation.(2) Guided energy theory of a particle fundamentally predicts that it is mathematically possible to determine precise quantized measurementof position and momentum of a particle simultaneously. Because, there is no uncertainty in nature; nature however naturally guides itself against uncertainty. Contrary to the conclusion in quantum mechanics theory that, it is mathematically impossible to determine the position and the momentum of a particle simultaneously. Furthermore, we have been able to show by this theory that, it is mathematically possible to determine quantized measurement of force acting on a particle simultaneously, which is not possible on the premise of quantum mechanics theory. (3) It is evidently shown by our theory that, guided energy does not collapse, only describes the lopsided nature of a particle behavior in motion. This pretty offers us insight on gradual process of engagement - convergence and disengagement – divergence of guided energy holders which further highlight the picture how wave – like behavior return to particle-like behavior and how particle – like behavior return to wave – like behavior respectively. This further proves that the particles’ behavior in motion is oscillatory in nature. The mathematical formalism of Guided energy theory shows that nature is certainty whereas the mathematical formalism of Quantum mechanics theory shows that nature is absolutely probabilistics. In addition, the nature of wavefunction is the guided energy of the wave. In conclusion, the fundamental mathematical formalism of Quantum mechanics theory is wrong.

Keywords: momentum, physical entanglement, wavefunction, uncertainty

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18 Relaxation Dynamics of Quantum Emitters Resonantly Coupled to a Localized Surface Plasmon

Authors: Khachatur V. Nerkararyan, Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi

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We investigate relaxation dynamics of a quantum dipole emitter (QDE), e.g., a molecule or quantum dot, located near a metal nanoparticle (MNP) exhibiting a dipolar localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonance at the frequency of the QDE radiative transition. It is shown that under the condition of the QDE-MNP characteristic relaxation time being much shorter than that of the QDE in free-space but much longer than the LSP lifetime. It is also shown that energy dissipation in the QDE-MNP system is relatively weak with the probability of the photon emission being about 0.75, a number which, rather surprisingly, does not explicitly depend on the metal absorption characteristics. The degree of entanglement measured by the concurrency takes the maximum value, while the distances between the QDEs and metal ball approximately are equal.

Keywords: metal nanoparticle, localized surface plasmon, quantum dipole emitter, relaxation dynamics

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17 Reinforcement of Calcium Phosphate Cement with E-Glass Fibre

Authors: Kanchan Maji, Debasmita Pani, Sudip Dasgupta

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Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) due to its high bioactivity and optimum bioresorbability shows excellent bone regeneration capability. Despite it has limited applications as bone implant due to its macro-porous microstructure causing its poor mechanical strength. The reinforcement of apatitic CPCs with biocompatible fibre glass phase is an attractive area of research to improve its mechanical strength. Here we study the setting behaviour of Si-doped and un-doped alpha tri-calcium phosphate (α-TCP) based CPC and its reinforcement with the addition of E-glass fibre. Alpha tri-calcium phosphate powders were prepared by solid state sintering of CaCO3, CaHPO4 and tetra ethyl ortho silicate (TEOS) was used as silicon source to synthesise Si doped α-TCP powders. Alpha tri-calcium phosphate based CPC hydrolyzes to form hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals having excellent osteoconductivity and bone-replacement capability thus self-hardens through the entanglement of HA crystals. Setting time, phase composition, hydrolysis conversion rate, microstructure, and diametral tensile strength (DTS) of un-doped CPC and Si-doped CPC were studied and compared. Both initial and final setting time of the developed cement was delayed because of Si addition. Crystalline phases of HA (JCPDS 9-432), α-TCP (JCPDS 29-359) and β-TCP (JCPDS 9-169) were detected in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern after immersion of CPC in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 0 hours to 10 days. The intensities of the α-TCP peaks of (201) and (161) at 2θ of 22.2°and 24.1° decreased when the time of immersion of CPC in SBF increased from 0 hours to 10 days, due to its transformation into HA. As Si incorporation in the crystal lattice stabilised the TCP phase, Si doped CPC showed a little slower rate of conversion into HA phase as compared to un-doped CPC. The SEM image of the microstructure of hardened CPC showed lower grain size of HA in un-doped CPC because of premature setting and faster hydrolysis of un-doped CPC in SBF as compared that in Si-doped CPC. Premature setting caused generation of micro and macro porosity in un-doped CPC structure which resulted in its lower mechanical strength as compared to that in Si-doped CPC. This lower porosity and greater compactness in the microstructure attributes to greater DTS values observed in Si-doped CPC. E-glass fibres of the average diameter of 12 μm were cut into approximately 1 mm in length and immersed in SBF to deposit carbonated apatite on its surface. This was performed to promote HA crystal growth and entanglement along the fibre surface to promote stronger interface between dispersed E-glass fibre and CPC matrix. It was found that addition of 10 wt% of E-glass fibre into Si-doped α-TCP increased the average DTS of CPC from 8 MPa to 15 MPa as the fibres could resist the propagation of crack by deflecting the crack tip. Our study shows that biocompatible E-glass fibre in optimum proportion in CPC matrix can enhance the mechanical strength of CPC without affecting its bioactivity.

Keywords: Calcium phosphate cement, biocompatibility, e-glass fibre, diametral tensile strength

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16 Ecology in Politics: A Multimodal Eco-Critical Analysis of Environmental Discourse

Authors: Amany ElShazly, Lubna A. Sherif

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The entanglement of humans with the environment has always been inevitable and often causes destruction. In this respect, ‘Ecolinguistics’ helps humans to understand the link between languages and the environment. Stibbe (2014a) has indicated that ‘linguistics’, particularly, Critical Discourse Studies (CDS), provides an interpretation of language which shapes world views, while the ‘eco’ side maintains the life-sustaining interactions of humans and the physical environment. This paper considers two key ecological instances, namely: The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) as a focal point of political dispute and THE LINE project as well as Etthadar lel Akhdar (Go Green Initiative) as two examples of combating ecological degradation. ‘Ecosophy’ as explained by Naess (1996) is used to describe the ecolinguistic framework, which assesses discourse where the linguistic lens focuses on the use of metaphor, and ‘Positive Discourse’ framework, which resonates with respect and care for the natural world.

Keywords: ecosophy, critical discourse studies, metaphor, positive discourse, social semiotics, ecolinguistics

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15 The Arabian Financial Framework in the Pre-Islamic Times: Do We Need a New Paradigm

Authors: Fahad Ahmed Qureshi

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There were abundant renowned financial markets in Pre-Islamic Arabs. Most of those were patterned and settled during pre-particularized sunshine. Those markets were classified either as vernacular markets helping the neighboring clans, or habitual markets that people sojourned to from all articulations of the Arabian Peninsula, such as Okaz near Mecca. Some of those markets had leading significance due to their geographical positions, such as Prime market of Eden, because of their entanglement in international trade i.e. with the markets of Sub-Continent, Abyssinia, Persia and China. Other markets such as Market of Yamamah annex its gist from being situated on the caravan crossroads. Islamic worldview and Islamic epistemology base of Financial Market’s realistic theory, pragmatic model and operative approach is moderately constrained in terms of its growth. The existent situation only parasol the form of accommodative-modification and splendid-methodologies, which due to depleted and decorous endeavor in explaining Islamic financial market theoretically. This is the demand of time that particular studies should be conduct to magnify the devours in developing theoretical framework for Islamic Financial Market.

Keywords: Islam, financial market, history, research, product development

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14 Adversarial Disentanglement Using Latent Classifier for Pose-Independent Representation

Authors: Hamed Alqahtani, Manolya Kavakli-Thorne

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The large pose discrepancy is one of the critical challenges in face recognition during video surveillance. Due to the entanglement of pose attributes with identity information, the conventional approaches for pose-independent representation lack in providing quality results in recognizing largely posed faces. In this paper, we propose a practical approach to disentangle the pose attribute from the identity information followed by synthesis of a face using a classifier network in latent space. The proposed approach employs a modified generative adversarial network framework consisting of an encoder-decoder structure embedded with a classifier in manifold space for carrying out factorization on the latent encoding. It can be further generalized to other face and non-face attributes for real-life video frames containing faces with significant attribute variations. Experimental results and comparison with state of the art in the field prove that the learned representation of the proposed approach synthesizes more compelling perceptual images through a combination of adversarial and classification losses.

Keywords: disentanglement, face detection, generative adversarial networks, video surveillance

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13 The Sufi Madad in Arabic Literature and Translation

Authors: Riham Debian

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This paper deals with the translational mystic in Arabic aesthetics and their linguistic and narrative revelation and mediation across textual spaces. The paper particularly engages with the nature of the Egyptian Sufi Madad, its relation to spaces/places, its intergenerational and intertextual manifestations, and its intersection with questions of identity—the historical spaces and geographical places one inhabits and embodies. Opening a repertoire between contextualized stylistics and poetics semiology (Boise-Bier2011; Jackobson 1960), the paper reads in al-Ghitany’s Kitab al-Tagiliat (The Book of Revelation1983), Bassiouny’s Sabil Al-Ghareq (2018) and its translation (Fountain of the Drowning2022). The paper examines the stylistic and poetical encoding and recoding of the Sufi Madads from Ghitany to Bassiouny and their entanglement in the question of Egyptian identity-politics through the embodiment of historical places and geographical spaces. The paper argues for the intergenerational intertextuality of Arabic aesthetics that stylistically and poetically enacts the mysticism of Sufi Madad through historical and geographical semioticization of the Egyptian character continuity across time and space. Both Ghitany and Bassiouny engage with the historical novel as a form of delivery of their Egyptian mystical relation with time and place. Both novelist-historians are involved with the question of place and the life-worlds that spaces generate across time and gender.

Keywords: intertextuality, interdiscusivity, madad, egyptian identity

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12 Proposal of Optimality Evaluation for Quantum Secure Communication Protocols by Taking the Average of the Main Protocol Parameters: Efficiency, Security and Practicality

Authors: Georgi Bebrov, Rozalina Dimova

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In the field of quantum secure communication, there is no evaluation that characterizes quantum secure communication (QSC) protocols in a complete, general manner. The current paper addresses the problem concerning the lack of such an evaluation for QSC protocols by introducing an optimality evaluation, which is expressed as the average over the three main parameters of QSC protocols: efficiency, security, and practicality. For the efficiency evaluation, the common expression of this parameter is used, which incorporates all the classical and quantum resources (bits and qubits) utilized for transferring a certain amount of information (bits) in a secure manner. By using criteria approach whether or not certain criteria are met, an expression for the practicality evaluation is presented, which accounts for the complexity of the QSC practical realization. Based on the error rates that the common quantum attacks (Measurement and resend, Intercept and resend, probe attack, and entanglement swapping attack) induce, the security evaluation for a QSC protocol is proposed as the minimum function taken over the error rates of the mentioned quantum attacks. For the sake of clarity, an example is presented in order to show how the optimality is calculated.

Keywords: quantum cryptography, quantum secure communcation, quantum secure direct communcation security, quantum secure direct communcation efficiency, quantum secure direct communcation practicality

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11 Non−zero θ_13 and δ_CP phase with A_4 Flavor Symmetry and Deviations to Tri−Bi−Maximal mixing via Z_2 × Z_2 invariant perturbations in the Neutrino sector.

Authors: Gayatri Ghosh

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In this work, a flavour theory of a neutrino mass model based on A_4 symmetry is considered to explain the phenomenology of neutrino mixing. The spontaneous symmetry breaking of A_4 symmetry in this model leads to tribimaximal mixing in the neutrino sector at a leading order. We consider the effect of Z_2 × Z_2 invariant perturbations in neutrino sector and find the allowed region of correction terms in the perturbation matrix that is consistent with 3σ ranges of the experimental values of the mixing angles. We study the entanglement of this formalism on the other phenomenological observables, such as δ_CP phase, the neutrino oscillation probability P(νµ → νe), the effective Majorana mass |mee| and |meff νe |. A Z_2 × Z_2 invariant perturbations in this model is introduced in the neutrino sector which leads to testable predictions of θ_13 and CP violation. By changing the magnitudes of perturbations in neutrino sector, one can generate viable values of δ_CP and neutrino oscillation parameters. Next we investigate the feasibility of charged lepton flavour violation in type-I seesaw models with leptonic flavour symmetries at high energy that leads to tribimaximal neutrino mixing. We consider an effective theory with an A_4 × Z_2 × Z_2 symmetry, which after spontaneous symmetry breaking at high scale which is much higher than the electroweak scale leads to charged lepton flavour violation processes once the heavy Majorana neutrino mass degeneracy is lifted either by renormalization group effects or by a soft breaking of the A_4 symmetry. In this context the implications for charged lepton flavour violation processes like µ → eγ, τ → eγ, τ → µγ are discussed.

Keywords: Z2 × Z2 invariant perturbations, CLFV, delta CP phase, tribimaximal neutrino mixing

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10 The Formation of Mutual Understanding in Conversation: An Embodied Approach

Authors: Haruo Okabayashi

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The mutual understanding in conversation is very important for human relations. This study investigates the mental function of the formation of mutual understanding between two people in conversation using the embodied approach. Forty people participated in this study. They are divided into pairs randomly. Four conversation situations between two (make/listen to fun or pleasant talk, make/listen to regrettable talk) are set for four minutes each, and the finger plethysmogram (200 Hz) of each participant is measured. As a result, the attractors of the participants who reported “I did not understand my partner” show the collapsed shape, which means the fluctuation of their rhythm is too small to match their partner’s rhythm, and their cross correlation is low. The autonomic balance of both persons tends to resonate during conversation, and both LLEs tend to resonate, too. In human history, in order for human beings as weak mammals to live, they may have been with others; that is, they have brought about resonating characteristics, which is called self-organization. However, the resonant feature sometimes collapses, depending on the lifestyle that the person was formed by himself after birth. It is difficult for people who do not have a lifestyle of mutual gaze to resonate their biological signal waves with others’. These people have features such as anxiety, fatigue, and confusion tendency. Mutual understanding is thought to be formed as a result of cooperation between the features of self-organization of the persons who are talking and the lifestyle indicated by mutual gaze. Such an entanglement phenomenon is called a nonlinear relation. By this research, it is found that the formation of mutual understanding is expressed by the rhythm of a biological signal showing a nonlinear relationship.

Keywords: embodied approach, finger plethysmogram, mutual understanding, nonlinear phenomenon

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9 Classification on Statistical Distributions of a Complex N-Body System

Authors: David C. Ni

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Contemporary models for N-body systems are based on temporal, two-body, and mass point representation of Newtonian mechanics. Other mainstream models include 2D and 3D Ising models based on local neighborhood the lattice structures. In Quantum mechanics, the theories of collective modes are for superconductivity and for the long-range quantum entanglement. However, these models are still mainly for the specific phenomena with a set of designated parameters. We are therefore motivated to develop a new construction directly from the complex-variable N-body systems based on the extended Blaschke functions (EBF), which represent a non-temporal and nonlinear extension of Lorentz transformation on the complex plane – the normalized momentum spaces. A point on the complex plane represents a normalized state of particle momentums observed from a reference frame in the theory of special relativity. There are only two key parameters, normalized momentum and nonlinearity for modelling. An algorithm similar to Jenkins-Traub method is adopted for solving EBF iteratively. Through iteration, the solution sets show a form of σ + i [-t, t], where σ and t are the real numbers, and the [-t, t] shows various distributions, such as 1-peak, 2-peak, and 3-peak etc. distributions and some of them are analog to the canonical distributions. The results of the numerical analysis demonstrate continuum-to-discreteness transitions, evolutional invariance of distributions, phase transitions with conjugate symmetry, etc., which manifest the construction as a potential candidate for the unification of statistics. We hereby classify the observed distributions on the finite convergent domains. Continuous and discrete distributions both exist and are predictable for given partitions in different regions of parameter-pair. We further compare these distributions with canonical distributions and address the impacts on the existing applications.

Keywords: blaschke, lorentz transformation, complex variables, continuous, discrete, canonical, classification

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8 Microthermometry of Carbonated Rocks of the Hondita-Lomagorda Formations, the Tiger Cave Sector, Municipality of Yaguara, Colombia

Authors: Camila Lozano-Vivas, Camila Quevedo-Villamil, Ingrid Munoz-Quijano, Diego Loaiza

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Colombia's limited oil reserves make the finding of new fields of extraction or the potentiate of the existing ones a more important task to do every day; the exploration projects that allow to have a better knowledge of the oil basins are essential. The upper Magdalena Valley basin - VSM, whose reserves are limited, has been one of the first basins for the exploration and production of hydrocarbons in Colombia. The Hondita and Lomagorda formations were deposited in the Late Cretaceous Middle Albian to the Coniacian and are characterized by being the hydrocarbon-generating rocks in the VSM basin oil system along with the Shale de Bambucá; therefore multiple studies have been made. In the oil industry, geochemical properties are used to understand the origin, migration, accumulation, and alteration of hydrocarbons and, in general, the evolution of the basin containing them. One of the most important parameters to understand this evolution is the formation temperature of the oil system. For this reason, a microthermometric study of fluid inclusions was carried out to recognize formation temperatures and to determine certain basic physicochemical variables, homogenization temperature, pressure, density and salinity of the fluid at the time of entrapment, providing evidence on the history of different events in different geological environments in the evolution of a sedimentary basin. Prior to this study, macroscopic and microscopic petrographic analyses of the samples collected in the field were performed. The results of the mentioned properties of the fluid inclusions in the different samples analyzed have salinities ranging from 20.22% to 26.37% eq. by weight NaCl, similar densities found in the ranges of 1.05 to 1.16 g/cc and an average homogenization temperature at 142.92°C, indicating that, at the time of their entanglement, the rock was in the window of generation of medium hydrocarbons –light with fragile characteristics of the rock that would make it useful to treat them as naturally fractured reservoirs.

Keywords: homogenization temperature, fluid inclusions, microthermometry, salinity

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7 Discontinuous Spacetime with Vacuum Holes as Explanation for Gravitation, Quantum Mechanics and Teleportation

Authors: Constantin Z. Leshan

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Hole Vacuum theory is based on discontinuous spacetime that contains vacuum holes. Vacuum holes can explain gravitation, some laws of quantum mechanics and allow teleportation of matter. All massive bodies emit a flux of holes which curve the spacetime; if we increase the concentration of holes, it leads to length contraction and time dilation because the holes do not have the properties of extension and duration. In the limited case when space consists of holes only, the distance between every two points is equal to zero and time stops - outside of the Universe, the extension and duration properties do not exist. For this reason, the vacuum hole is the only particle in physics capable of describing gravitation using its own properties only. All microscopic particles must 'jump' continually and 'vibrate' due to the appearance of holes (impassable microscopic 'walls' in space), and it is the cause of the quantum behavior. Vacuum holes can explain the entanglement, non-locality, wave properties of matter, tunneling, uncertainty principle and so on. Particles do not have trajectories because spacetime is discontinuous and has impassable microscopic 'walls' due to the simple mechanical motion is impossible at small scale distances; it is impossible to 'trace' a straight line in the discontinuous spacetime because it contains the impassable holes. Spacetime 'boils' continually due to the appearance of the vacuum holes. For teleportation to be possible, we must send a body outside of the Universe by enveloping it with a closed surface consisting of vacuum holes. Since a material body cannot exist outside of the Universe, it reappears instantaneously in a random point of the Universe. Since a body disappears in one volume and reappears in another random volume without traversing the physical space between them, such a transportation method can be called teleportation (or Hole Teleportation). It is shown that Hole Teleportation does not violate causality and special relativity due to its random nature and other properties. Although Hole Teleportation has a random nature, it can be used for colonization of extrasolar planets by the help of the method called 'random jumps': after a large number of random teleportation jumps, there is a probability that the spaceship may appear near a habitable planet. We can create vacuum holes experimentally using the method proposed by Descartes: we must remove a body from the vessel without permitting another body to occupy this volume.

Keywords: border of the Universe, causality violation, perfect isolation, quantum jumps

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6 Quantum Coherence Sets the Quantum Speed Limit for Mixed States

Authors: Debasis Mondal, Chandan Datta, S. K. Sazim

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Quantum coherence is a key resource like entanglement and discord in quantum information theory. Wigner- Yanase skew information, which was shown to be the quantum part of the uncertainty, has recently been projected as an observable measure of quantum coherence. On the other hand, the quantum speed limit has been established as an important notion for developing the ultra-speed quantum computer and communication channel. Here, we show that both of these quantities are related. Thus, cast coherence as a resource to control the speed of quantum communication. In this work, we address three basic and fundamental questions. There have been rigorous attempts to achieve more and tighter evolution time bounds and to generalize them for mixed states. However, we are yet to know (i) what is the ultimate limit of quantum speed? (ii) Can we measure this speed of quantum evolution in the interferometry by measuring a physically realizable quantity? Most of the bounds in the literature are either not measurable in the interference experiments or not tight enough. As a result, cannot be effectively used in the experiments on quantum metrology, quantum thermodynamics, and quantum communication and especially in Unruh effect detection et cetera, where a small fluctuation in a parameter is needed to be detected. Therefore, a search for the tightest yet experimentally realisable bound is a need of the hour. It will be much more interesting if one can relate various properties of the states or operations, such as coherence, asymmetry, dimension, quantum correlations et cetera and QSL. Although, these understandings may help us to control and manipulate the speed of communication, apart from the particular cases like the Josephson junction and multipartite scenario, there has been a little advancement in this direction. Therefore, the third question we ask: (iii) Can we relate such quantities with QSL? In this paper, we address these fundamental questions and show that quantum coherence or asymmetry plays an important role in setting the QSL. An important question in the study of quantum speed limit may be how it behaves under classical mixing and partial elimination of states. This is because this may help us to choose properly a state or evolution operator to control the speed limit. In this paper, we try to address this question and show that the product of the time bound of the evolution and the quantum part of the uncertainty in energy or quantum coherence or asymmetry of the state with respect to the evolution operator decreases under classical mixing and partial elimination of states.

Keywords: completely positive trace preserving maps, quantum coherence, quantum speed limit, Wigner-Yanase Skew information

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5 Exploring Barriers to Quality of Care in South African Midwifery Obstetric Units: The Perspective of Nurses and Midwives

Authors: J. Dutton, L. Knight

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Achieving quality and respectful maternal health care is part of the global agenda to improve reproductive health and achieve universal reproductive rights. Barriers to quality of care in South African maternal health facilities exist at both systemic and individual levels. Addition to this, the normalization of gender violence within South Africa has a large impact on people seeking health care as well as those who provide care within health facilities. The hierarchical environment of South Africa’s public health system penalizes both patients and providers who battle to assume any assessable power. This paper explores how systemic and individual level barriers to quality of care affect the midwifery profession within South African maternal health services and create, at times, an environment of enmity rather than care. This paper analyzes and discusses the data collected from in-depth, semi-structured interviews with nurses and midwives at three maternal health facilities in South Africa. This study has taken a holistic approach to understand the realities of nurses and midwives in order to explore the ways in which experience informs their practice and treatment of pregnant women. Through collecting and analyzing narratives, linkages between nurses and midwives day-to-day and historical experiences and disrespectful care have been made. Findings from this study show that barriers to quality of care take form in complex and interrelated ways. The physical structure of the health facility, human resource shortages, and the current model of maternal health care, which often lacks a person-centered approach, is entangled within personal beliefs and attitudes of what it means to be a midwife to create an environment that is often not conducive to a positive birthing experience. This entanglement sits within a society of high rates of violence, inequality, and poverty. Having teased out the nuances of each of these barriers and the multiple ways they reinforce each other, the findings of this paper demonstrate that birth, and the work of a midwife, are situated in a mode of discipline and punishment within this context. For analytical purposes, this paper has broken down the individual barriers to quality care and discusses the current and historical significance before returning to the interrelated forms in which barriers to quality maternal health care manifest. In conclusion this paper questions the role of agency in the ability to subvert systemic barriers to quality care and ideas around shifting attitudes and beliefs of and about midwives. International and local policies and guidelines have a role to play in realizing such shifts, however, as this paper suggests, when policy does not speak to the local context there is the risk of it contributing to frustrations and impeding the path to quality and respectful maternal health care.

Keywords: disrespect and abuse in childbirth, midwifery, South African maternal health care, quality of care

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4 Engineering Topology of Photonic Systems for Sustainable Molecular Structure: Autopoiesis Systems

Authors: Moustafa Osman Mohammed

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This paper introduces topological order in descried social systems starting with the original concept of autopoiesis by biologists and scientists, including the modification of general systems based on socialized medicine. Topological order is important in describing the physical systems for exploiting optical systems and improving photonic devices. The stats of topological order have some interesting properties of topological degeneracy and fractional statistics that reveal the entanglement origin of topological order, etc. Topological ideas in photonics form exciting developments in solid-state materials, that being; insulating in the bulk, conducting electricity on their surface without dissipation or back-scattering, even in the presence of large impurities. A specific type of autopoiesis system is interrelated to the main categories amongst existing groups of the ecological phenomena interaction social and medical sciences. The hypothesis, nevertheless, has a nonlinear interaction with its natural environment 'interactional cycle' for exchange photon energy with molecules without changes in topology. The engineering topology of a biosensor is based on the excitation boundary of surface electromagnetic waves in photonic band gap multilayer films. The device operation is similar to surface Plasmonic biosensors in which a photonic band gap film replaces metal film as the medium when surface electromagnetic waves are excited. The use of photonic band gap film offers sharper surface wave resonance leading to the potential of greatly enhanced sensitivity. So, the properties of the photonic band gap material are engineered to operate a sensor at any wavelength and conduct a surface wave resonance that ranges up to 470 nm. The wavelength is not generally accessible with surface Plasmon sensing. Lastly, the photonic band gap films have robust mechanical functions that offer new substrates for surface chemistry to understand the molecular design structure and create sensing chips surface with different concentrations of DNA sequences in the solution to observe and track the surface mode resonance under the influences of processes that take place in the spectroscopic environment. These processes led to the development of several advanced analytical technologies: which are; automated, real-time, reliable, reproducible, and cost-effective. This results in faster and more accurate monitoring and detection of biomolecules on refractive index sensing, antibody-antigen reactions with a DNA or protein binding. Ultimately, the controversial aspect of molecular frictional properties is adjusted to each other in order to form unique spatial structure and dynamics of biological molecules for providing the environment mutual contribution in investigation of changes due to the pathogenic archival architecture of cell clusters.

Keywords: autopoiesis, photonics systems, quantum topology, molecular structure, biosensing

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3 Songwriting in the Postdigital Age: Using TikTok and Instagram as Online Informal Learning Technologies

Authors: Matthias Haenisch, Marc Godau, Julia Barreiro, Dominik Maxelon

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In times of ubiquitous digitalization and the increasing entanglement of humans and technologies in musical practices in the 21st century, it is to be asked, how popular musicians learn in the (post)digital Age. Against the backdrop of the increasing interest in transferring informal learning practices into formal settings of music education the interdisciplinary research association »MusCoDA – Musical Communities in the (Post)Digital Age« (University of Erfurt/University of Applied Sciences Clara Hoffbauer Potsdam, funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research, pursues the goal to derive an empirical model of collective songwriting practices from the study of informal lelearningf songwriters and bands that can be translated into pedagogical concepts for music education in schools. Drawing on concepts from Community of Musical Practice and Actor Network Theory, lelearnings considered not only as social practice and as participation in online and offline communities, but also as an effect of heterogeneous networks composed of human and non-human actors. Learning is not seen as an individual, cognitive process, but as the formation and transformation of actor networks, i.e., as a practice of assembling and mediating humans and technologies. Based on video stimulated recall interviews and videography of online and offline activities, songwriting practices are followed from the initial idea to different forms of performance and distribution. The data evaluation combines coding and mapping methods of Grounded Theory Methodology and Situational Analysis. This results in network maps in which both the temporality of creative practices and the material and spatial relations of human and technological actors are reconstructed. In addition, positional analyses document the power relations between the participants that structure the learning process of the field. In the area of online informal lelearninginitial key research findings reveal a transformation of the learning subject through the specific technological affordances of TikTok and Instagram and the accompanying changes in the learning practices of the corresponding online communities. Learning is explicitly shaped by the material agency of online tools and features and the social practices entangled with these technologies. Thus, any human online community member can be invited to directly intervene in creative decisions that contribute to the further compositional and structural development of songs. At the same time, participants can provide each other with intimate insights into songwriting processes in progress and have the opportunity to perform together with strangers and idols. Online Lelearnings characterized by an increase in social proximity, distribution of creative agency and informational exchange between participants. While it seems obvious that traditional notions not only of lelearningut also of the learning subject cannot be maintained, the question arises, how exactly the observed informal learning practices and the subject that emerges from the use of social media as online learning technologies can be transferred into contexts of formal learning

Keywords: informal learning, postdigitality, songwriting, actor-network theory, community of musical practice, social media, TikTok, Instagram, apps

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