Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2288

Search results for: rotational dynamics

2288 The Development of Integrated Real-Life Video and Animation with Addie Based on Constructive for Improving Students’ Mastery Concept in Rotational Dynamics

Authors: Silka Abyadati, Dadi Rusdiana, Enjang Akhmad Juanda


This study aims to investigate the students’ mastery concepts enhancement between students who are studying by using Integrated Real-Life Video and Animation (IRVA) and students who are studying without using IRVA. The development of IRVA is conducted by five stages: Analyze, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation (ADDIE) based on constructivist for Rotational Dynamics material in Physics learning. A constructivist model-based learning used is Interpretation Construction (ICON), which has the following phases: 1) Observation, 2) Construction interpretation, 3) Contextualization prior knowledge, 4) Conflict cognitive, 5) Learning cognitive, 6) Collaboration, 7) Multiple interpretation, 8) Multiple manifestation. The IRVA is developed for the stages of observation, cognitive conflict and cognitive learning. The sample of this study consisted of 32 students experimental group and a control group of 32 students in class XI of the school year 2015/2016 in one of Senior High Schools Bandung. The study was conducted by giving the pretest and posttest in the form of 20 items of multiple choice questions to determine the enhancement of mastery concept of Rotational Dynamics. Hypothesis testing is done by using T-test on the value of N-gain average of mastery concepts. The results showed that there is a significant difference in an enhancement of students’ mastery concepts between students who are studying by using IRVA and students who are studying without IRVA. Students in the experimental group increased by 0.468 while students in the control group increased by 0.207.

Keywords: ADDIE, constructivist learning, Integrated Real-Life Video and Animation, mastery concepts, rotational dynamics

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2287 Abnormal Features of Two Quasiparticle Rotational Bands in Rare Earths

Authors: Kawalpreet Kalra, Alpana Goel


The behaviour of the rotational bands should be smooth but due to large amount of inertia and decreased pairing it is not so. Many experiments have been done in the last few decades, and a large amount of data is available for comprehensive study in this region. Peculiar features like signature dependence, signature inversion, and signature reversal are observed in many two quasiparticle rotational bands of doubly odd and doubly even nuclei. At high rotational frequencies, signature and parity are the only two good quantum numbers available to label a state. Signature quantum number is denoted by α. Even-angular momentum states of a rotational band have α =0, and the odd-angular momentum states have α =1. It has been observed that the odd-spin members lie lower in energy up to a certain spin Ic; the normal signature dependence is restored afterwards. This anomalous feature is termed as signature inversion. The systematic of signature inversion in high-j orbitals for doubly odd rare earth nuclei have been done. Many unusual features like signature dependence, signature inversion and signature reversal are observed in rotational bands of even-even/odd-odd nuclei. Attempts have been made to understand these phenomena using several models. These features have been analyzed within the framework of the Two Quasiparticle Plus Rotor Model (TQPRM).

Keywords: rotational bands, signature dependence, signature quantum number, two quasiparticle

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
2286 Comparison between Torsional Ultrasonic Assisted Drilling and Conventional Drilling of Bone: An in vitro Study

Authors: Nikoo Soleimani


Background: Reducing torque during bone drilling is one of the effective factors in reaching to an optimal drilling process. Methods: 15 bovine femurs were drilled in vitro with a drill bit with a diameter of 4 mm using two methods of torsional ultrasonic assisted drilling (T-UAD) and convent conventional drilling (CD) and the effects of changing the feed rate and rotational speed on the torque were compared in both methods. Results: There was no significant difference in the thrust force measured in both methods due to the direction of vibrations. Results showed that using T-UAD method for bone drilling at feed rates of 0.16, 0.24 and 0.32 mm/rev led for all rotational speeds to a decrease of at least 16.3% in torque compared to the CD method. Further, using T-UAD at rotational speeds of 355~1000 rpm with various feed rates resulted in a torque reduction of 16.3~50.5% compared to CD method. Conclusions: Reducing the feed rate and increasing the rotational speed, except for the rotational speed of 500 rpm and a feed rate of 0.32 mm/rev, resulted generally in torque reduction in both methods. However, T-UAD is a more effective and desirable option for bone drilling considering its significant torque reduction.

Keywords: torsional ultrasonic assisted drilling, torque, bone drilling, rotational speed, feed rate

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2285 Lattice Dynamics of (ND4Br)x(KBr)1-x Mixed Crystals

Authors: Alpana Tiwari, N. K. Gaur


We have incorporated the translational rotational (TR) coupling effects in the framework of three body force shell model (TSM) to develop an extended TSM (ETSM). The dynamical matrix of ETSM has been applied to compute the phonon frequencies of orientationally disordered mixed crystal (ND4Br)x(KBr)1-x in (q00), (qq0) and (qqq) symmetry directions for compositions 0.10≤x≤0.50 at T=300K.These frequencies are plotted as a function of wave vector k. An unusual acoustic mode softening is found along symmetry directions (q00) and (qq0) as a result of translation-rotation coupling.

Keywords: orientational glass, phonons, TR-coupling, lattice dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
2284 Temperature Measurements of Corona Discharge in the SF6-N2 Gas Mixture

Authors: A. Lemzadmi


Rotational and vibrational temperatures of the SF6-N2 gas mixture are spectroscopically measured over a pressure range of 2-14 bars. The spectra obtained of the light emission of the corona discharge were recorded with different values of pressure, voltage and current together with the variation of the position of the tip electrode. The emission of N2 is very dominant for different gas concentration and the second positive system 2S+ is the most important. The convolution method is used for the determination of the temperature. The Rotational temperature measurements of the plasma reveal gas temperatures in the range of 450-650°K and vibrational temperatures in the range of 1800-2200°K.

Keywords: rotational temperatures, corona discharges, SF6-N2 gas mixture, vibrational temperatures

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
2283 Translational and Rotational Effect of Earthquake Ground Motion on a Bridge Substructure

Authors: Tauhidur Rahman, Gitartha Kalita


In this study a four span box girder bridge is considered and effect of the rotational and translational earthquake ground motion have been thoroughly investigated. This study is motivated by the fact that in many countries the translational and rotational components of earthquake ground motion, especially rocking, is not adequately considered in analysing the overall response of the structures subjected to earthquake ground excitations. Much consideration is given to only the horizontal components of the earthquake ground motion during the response analysis of structures. In the present research work, P waves, SV waves and Rayleigh wave excitations are considered for different angle of incidence. In the present paper, the four span bridge is model considering the effects of vertical and rocking components of P, SV and Rayleigh wave excitations. Ground responses namely displacement, velocity and acceleration of the substructures of the bridge have been considered for rotational and translational effects in addition to the horizontal ground motion due to earthquake and wind.

Keywords: ground motion, response, rotational effects, translational effects

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
2282 A Mathematical Model for 3-DOF Rotary Accuracy Measurement Method Based on a Ball Lens

Authors: Hau-Wei Lee, Yu-Chi Liu, Chien-Hung Liu


A mathematical model is presented for a system that measures rotational errors in a shaft using a ball lens. The geometric optical characteristics of the ball lens mounted on the shaft allows the measurement of rotation axis errors in both the radial and axial directions. The equipment used includes two quadrant detectors (QD), two laser diodes and a ball lens that is mounted on the rotating shaft to be evaluated. Rotational errors in the shaft cause changes in the optical geometry of the ball lens. The resulting deflection of the laser beams is detected by the QDs and their output signals are used to determine rotational errors. The radial and the axial rotational errors can be calculated as explained by the mathematical model. Results from system calibration show that the measurement error is within ±1 m and resolution is about 20 nm. Using a direct drive motor (DD motor) as an example, experimental results show a rotational error of less than 20 m. The most important features of this system are that it does not require the use of expensive optical components, it is small, very easy to set up, and measurements are highly accurate.

Keywords: ball lens, quadrant detector, axial error, radial error

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
2281 Comparative Assessment of MRR, TWR, and Surface Integrity in Rotary and Stationary Tool EDM for Machining AISI D3 Tool Steel

Authors: Anand Prakash Dwivedi, Sounak Kumar Choudhury


Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) is a well-established and one of the most primitive unconventional manufacturing processes, that is used world-wide for the machining of geometrically complex or hard and electrically conductive materials which are extremely difficult to cut by any other conventional machining process. One of the major flaws, over all its advantages, is its very slow Material Removal Rate (MRR). In order to eradicate this slow machining rate, various researchers have proposed various methods like; providing rotational motion to the tool or work-piece or to both, mixing of conducting additives (such as SiC, Cr, Al, graphite etc) powders in the dielectric, providing vibrations to the tool or work-piece or to both etc. Present work is a comparative study of Rotational and Stationary Tool EDM, which deals with providing rotational motion to the copper tool for the machining of AISI D3 Tool Steel and the results have been compared with stationary tool EDM. It has been found that the tool rotation substantially increases the MRR up to 28%. The average surface finish increases around 9-10% by using the rotational tool EDM. The average tool wear increment is observed to be around 19% due to the tool rotation. Apart from this, the present work also focusses on the recast layer analysis, which are being re-deposited on the work-piece surface during the operation. The recast layer thickness is less in case of Rotational EDM and more for Stationary Tool EDM. Moreover, the cracking on the re-casted surface is also more for stationary tool EDM as compared with the rotational EDM.

Keywords: EDM, MRR, Ra, TWR

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
2280 On the Efficiency of a Double-Cone Gravitational Motor and Generator

Authors: Barenten Suciu, Akio Miyamura


In this paper, following the study-case of an inclined plane gravitational machine, efficiency of a double-cone gravitational motor and generator is evaluated. Two types of efficiency ratios, called translational efficiency and rotational efficiency, are defined relative to the intended duty of the gravitational machine, which can be either the production of translational kinetic energy, or rotational kinetic energy. One proved that, for pure rolling movement of the double- cone, in the absence of rolling friction, the total mechanical energy is conserved. In such circumstances, as the motion of the double-cone progresses along rails, the translational efficiency decreases and the rotational efficiency increases, in such way that sum of the rotational and translational efficiencies remains unchanged and equal to 1. Results obtained allow a comparison of the gravitational machine with other types of motor-generators, in terms of the achievable efficiency.

Keywords: efficiency, friction, gravitational motor and generator, rolling and sliding, truncated double-cone

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
2279 Study of Wake Dynamics for a Rim-Driven Thruster Based on Numerical Method

Authors: Bao Liu, Maarten Vanierschot, Frank Buysschaert


The present work examines the wake dynamics of a rim-driven thruster (RDT) with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations were solved in the commercial solver ANSYS Fluent in combination with the SST k-ω turbulence model. The application of the moving reference frame (MRF) and sliding mesh (SM) approach to handling the rotational movement of the propeller were compared in the transient simulations. Validation and verification of the numerical model was performed to ensure numerical accuracy. Two representative scenarios were considered, i.e., the bollard condition (J=0) and a very light loading condition(J=0.7), respectively. From the results, it’s confirmed that compared to the SM method, the MRF method is not suitable for resolving the unsteady flow features as it only gives the general mean flow but smooths out lots of characteristic details in the flow field. By evaluating the simulation results with the SM technique, the instantaneous wake flow field under both conditions is presented and analyzed, most notably the helical vortex structure. It’s observed from the results that the tip vortices, blade shed vortices, and hub vortices are present in the wake flow field and convect downstream in a highly non-linear way. The shear layer vortices shedding from the duct displayed a strong interaction with the distorted tip vortices in an irregularmanner.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, rim-driven thruster, sliding mesh, wake dynamics

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2278 Photophysics and Rotational Relaxation Dynamics of 6-Methoxyquinoline Fluorophore in Cationic Alkyltrimethylammonium Bromide Micelles

Authors: Tej Varma Y, Debi D. Pant


Photophysics and rotational dynamics of the fluorescent probe, 6-methoxyquinoline (6MQ) with cationic surfactant, alkyltrimethylammonium bromide (nTAB) micelle solutions have been investigated (n = 12, 14 and 16). Absorption and emission peaks of the dye have been observed to shift at concentrations around critical micellar concentration (cmc) of nTAB compared to that of bulk solutions suggesting probe is in a lower polar environment. The probe senses changes in polarity (ET (30)) brought about by variation of surfactant chain length concentration and is invariably solubilized in the aqueous interface or palisade layer. The order of change in polarity observed was DTAB > CTAB > TTAB. The binding constant study shows that the probe binds strongest with TTAB (is of the order TTAB > CTAB > DTAB) due to deeper penetration into the micelle. The anisotropy decay for the probe in all the nTAB micelles studied have been rationalized based on a two-step model consisting of fast-restricted rotation of the probe and slow lateral diffusion of the probe in the micelle that is coupled to the overall rotation of the micelle. Fluorescence lifetime measurements of probe in the cationic micelles demonstrate the close proximity of the 6MQ to the Br - counterions. The fluorescence lifetimes of TTAB and DTAB are much shorter than in CTAB. These results indicate that 6MQ resides to a substantial degree in the head group region of the micelles. All the changes observed in the steady state fluorescence, microenvironment, fluorescence lifetimes, fluorescence anisotropy, and other calculations are in agreement with each other suggesting binding of the cationic surfactant with the neutral dye molecule.

Keywords: photophysics, chain length, ntaB, micelles

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
2277 Autonomous Rendezvous for Underactuated Spacecraft

Authors: Espen Oland


This paper presents a solution to the problem of autonomous rendezvous for spacecraft equipped with one main thruster for translational control and three reaction wheels for rotational control. With fewer actuators than degrees of freedom, this constitutes an underactuated control problem, requiring a coupling between the translational and rotational dynamics to facilitate control. This paper shows how to obtain this coupling, and applies the results to autonomous rendezvous between a follower spacecraft and a leader spacecraft. Additionally, since the thrust is constrained between zero and an upper bound, no negative forces can be generated to slow down the speed of the spacecraft. A combined speed and attitude control logic is therefore created that can be divided into three main phases: 1) The orbital velocity vector is pointed towards the desired position and the thrust is used to obtain the desired speed, 2) during the coasting phase, the attitude is changed to facilitate deceleration using the main thruster, 3) the speed is decreased as the spacecraft reaches its desired position. The results are validated through simulations, showing the capabilities of the proposed approach.

Keywords: attitude control, spacecraft rendezvous, translational control, underactuated rigid body

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
2276 Dynamics Analyses of Swing Structure Subject to Rotational Forces

Authors: Buntheng Chhorn, WooYoung Jung


Large-scale swing has been used in entertainment and performance, especially in circus, for a very long time. To increase the safety of this type of structure, a thorough analysis for displacement and bearing stress was performed for an extreme condition where a full cycle swing occurs. Different masses, ranging from 40 kg to 220 kg, and velocities were applied on the swing. Then, based on the solution of differential dynamics equation, swing velocity response to harmonic force was obtained. Moreover, the resistance capacity was estimated based on ACI steel structure design guide. Subsequently, numerical analysis was performed in ABAQUS to obtain the stress on each frame of the swing. Finally, the analysis shows that the expansion of swing structure frame section was required for mass bigger than 150kg.

Keywords: swing structure, displacement, bearing stress, dynamic loads response, finite element analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
2275 Robust Stabilization of Rotational Motion of Underwater Robots against Parameter Uncertainties

Authors: Riku Hayashida, Tomoaki Hashimoto


This paper provides a robust stabilization method for rotational motion of underwater robots against parameter uncertainties. Underwater robots are expected to be used for various work assignments. The large variety of applications of underwater robots motivates researchers to develop control systems and technologies for underwater robots. Several control methods have been proposed so far for the stabilization of nominal system model of underwater robots with no parameter uncertainty. Parameter uncertainties are considered to be obstacles in implementation of the such nominal control methods for underwater robots. The objective of this study is to establish a robust stabilization method for rotational motion of underwater robots against parameter uncertainties. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by numerical simulations.

Keywords: robust control, stabilization method, underwater robot, parameter uncertainty

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2274 Three Dimensional Flexible Dynamics of Continuous Cislunar Payloads Transfer System

Authors: Y. Yang, Dian Ming Xing, Qiu Hua Du


Based on the Motorized Momentum Exchange Tether (MMET), with the principle of momentum exchange, the three dimension flexible dynamics of continuous cislunar payloads transferring system (CCPTS) is built by Lagrange method and its numerical solution is solved by Mathematica software. In the derivation precession of potential energy, this paper uses the Tylor expansion method to simplify the Lagrange equation. Furthermore, the tension coming from the centripetal load is considered in the elastic potential energy. The comparison simulation results between the 3D rigid model and 3D flexible model of CCPTS shows that the tether flexibility has important influence on CCPTS’s orbital parameters (such as radius of CCPTS’s COM and the true anomaly) and the tether’s rotational movement, the relative deviation of radius and the true anomaly between the two dynamic models is about 0.00678% and 0.00259%, the relative deviation of the angle of tether-span and local gravity gradient is about 3.55%. Additionally, the external torque has an apparent influence on the tether’s axial vibration.

Keywords: cislunar transfer, dynamics, momentum exchange, tether

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
2273 Assessment of Pier Foundations for Onshore Wind Turbines in Non-cohesive Soil

Authors: Mauricio Terceros, Jann-Eike Saathoff, Martin Achmus


In non-cohesive soil, onshore wind turbines are often found on shallow foundations with a circular or octagonal shape. For the current generation of wind turbines, shallow foundations with very large breadths are required. The foundation support costs thus represent a considerable portion of the total construction costs. Therefore, an economic optimization of the type of foundation is highly desirable. A conceivable alternative foundation type would be a pier foundation, which combines the load transfer over the foundation area at the pier base with the transfer of horizontal loads over the shaft surface of the pier. The present study aims to evaluate the load-bearing behavior of a pier foundation based on comprehensive parametric studies. Thereby, three-dimensional numerical simulations of both pier and shallow foundations are developed. The evaluation of the results focuses on the rotational stiffnesses of the proposed soil-foundation systems. In the design, the initial rotational stiffness is decisive for consideration of natural frequencies, whereas the rotational secant stiffness for a maximum load is decisive for serviceability considerations. A systematic analysis of the results at different load levels shows that the application of the typical pier foundation is presumably limited to relatively small onshore wind turbines.

Keywords: onshore wind foundation, pier foundation, rotational stiffness of soil-foundation system, shallow foundation

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2272 Effect of the Mould Rotational Speed on the Quality of Centrifugal Castings

Authors: M. A. El-Sayed, S. A. Aziz


Centrifugal casting is a standard casting technique for the manufacture of hollow, intricate and sound castings without the use of cores. The molten metal or alloy poured into the rotating mold forms a hollow casting as the centrifugal forces lift the liquid along the mold inner surface. The rotational speed of the die was suggested to greatly affect the manner in which the molten metal flows within the mould and consequently the probability of the formation of a uniform cylinder. In this work the flow of the liquid metal at various speeds and its effect during casting were studied. The results suggested that there was a critical range for the speed, within which the produced castings exhibited best uniformity and maximum mechanical properties. When a mould was rotated at speeds below or beyond the critical range defects were found in the final castings, which affected the uniformity and significantly lowered the mechanical properties.

Keywords: centrifugal casting, rotational speed, critical speed range, mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
2271 Prediction of Temperature Distribution during Drilling Process Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Ali Reza Tahavvor, Saeed Hosseini, Nazli Jowkar, Afshin Karimzadeh Fard


Experimental & numeral study of temperature distribution during milling process, is important in milling quality and tools life aspects. In the present study the milling cross-section temperature is determined by using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) according to the temperature of certain points of the work piece and the points specifications and the milling rotational speed of the blade. In the present work, at first three-dimensional model of the work piece is provided and then by using the Computational Heat Transfer (CHT) simulations, temperature in different nods of the work piece are specified in steady-state conditions. Results obtained from CHT are used for training and testing the ANN approach. Using reverse engineering and setting the desired x, y, z and the milling rotational speed of the blade as input data to the network, the milling surface temperature determined by neural network is presented as output data. The desired points temperature for different milling blade rotational speed are obtained experimentally and by extrapolation method for the milling surface temperature is obtained and a comparison is performed among the soft programming ANN, CHT results and experimental data and it is observed that ANN soft programming code can be used more efficiently to determine the temperature in a milling process.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, milling process, rotational speed, temperature

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2270 The Nonlinear Research on Rotational Stiffness of Cuplock Joint

Authors: Liuyu Zhang, Di Mo, Qiang Yan, Min Liu


As the important equipment in the construction field, cuplock scaffold plays an important role in the construction process. As a scaffold connecting member, cuplock joint is of great importance. In order to explore the rotational stiffness nonlinear characteristics changing features of different structural forms of cuplock joint in different tightening torque condition under different conditions of load, ANSYS is used to establish four kinds of cuplock joint models with different forces to simulate the real force situation. By setting the different load conditions which means the cuplock is loaded at a certain distance from the cuplock joint in a certain direction until the cuplock is damaged and considering the gap between the cross bar joint and the vertical bar, the differences in the influence of the structural form and tightening torque on the rotation stiffness of the cuplock under different load conditions are compared. It is significantly important to improve the accuracy of calculating bearing capacity and stability of the cuplock steel pipe scaffold.

Keywords: cuplock joint, highway tunnel, non-linear characteristics, rotational stiffness, scaffold stability, theoretical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
2269 Segmental Dynamics of Poly(Alkyl Methacrylate) Chain in Ultra-Thin Spin-Cast Films

Authors: Hiroyuki Aoki


Polymeric materials are often used in a form of thin film such as food wrap and surface coating. In such the applications, polymer films thinner than 100 nm have been often used. The thickness of such the ultra-thin film is less than the unperturbed size of a polymer chain; therefore, the polymer chain in an ultra-thin film is strongly constrained. However, the details on the constrained dynamics of polymer molecules in ultra-thin films are still unclear. In the current study, the segmental dynamics of single polymer chain was directly investigated by fluorescence microscopy. The individual chains of poly(alkyl methacrylate) labeled by a perylenediimide dye molecule were observed by a highly sensitive fluorescence microscope in a defocus condition. The translational and rotational diffusion of the center segment in a single polymer chain was directly analyzed. The segmental motion in a thin film with a thickness of 10 nm was found to be suppressed compared to that in a bulk state. The detailed analysis of the molecular motion revealed that the diffusion rate of the in-plane rotation was similar to the thin film and the bulk; on the other hand, the out-of-plane motion was restricted in a thin film. This result indicates that the spatial restriction in an ultra-thin film thinner than the unperturbed chain dimension alters the dynamics of individual molecules in a polymer system.

Keywords: polymer materials, single molecule, molecular motion, fluorescence microscopy, super-resolution techniques

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2268 Spectroscopic Constant Calculation of the BeF Molecule

Authors: Nayla El-Kork, Farah Korjieh, Ahmed Bentiba, Mahmoud Korek


Ab-initio calculations have been performed to investigate the spectroscopic constants for the diatomic compound BeF. Values of the internuclear distance Re, the harmonic frequency ωe, the rotational constants Be, the electronic transition energy with respect to the ground state Te, the eignvalues Ev, the abscissas of the turning points Rmin, Rmax, the rotational constants Bv and the centrifugal distortion constants Dv have been calculated for the molecule’s ground and excited electronic states. Results are in agreement with experimental data.

Keywords: spectroscopic constant, potential energy curve, diatomic molecule, spectral analysis

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2267 Vibration Propagation in Structures Through Structural Intensity Analysis

Authors: Takhchi Jamal, Ouisse Morvan, Sadoulet-Reboul Emeline, Bouhaddi Noureddine, Gagliardini Laurent, Bornet Frederic, Lakrad Faouzi


Structural intensity is a technique that can be used to indicate both the magnitude and direction of power flow through a structure from the excitation source to the dissipation sink. However, current analysis is limited to the low frequency range. At medium and high frequencies, a rotational component appear in the field, masking the energy flow and make its understanding difficult or impossible. The objective of this work is to implement a methodology to filter out the rotational components of the structural intensity field in order to fully understand the energy flow in complex structures. The approach is based on the Helmholtz decomposition. It allows to decompose the structural intensity field into rotational, irrotational, and harmonic components. Only the irrotational component is needed to describe the net power flow from a source to a dissipative zone in the structure. The methodology has been applied on academic structures, and it allows a good analysis of the energy transfer paths.

Keywords: structural intensity, power flow, helmholt decomposition, irrotational intensity

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2266 Simulation of the Reactive Rotational Molding Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

Authors: A. Hamidi, S. Khelladi, L. Illoul, A. Tcharkhtchi


Reactive rotational molding (RRM) is a process to manufacture hollow plastic parts with reactive material has several advantages compared to conventional roto molding of thermoplastic powders: process cycle time is shorter; raw material is less expensive because polymerization occurs during processing and high-performance polymers may be used such as thermosets, thermoplastics or blends. However, several phenomena occur during this process which makes the optimization of the process quite complex. In this study, we have used a mixture of isocyanate and polyol as a reactive system. The chemical transformation of this system to polyurethane has been studied by thermal analysis and rheology tests. Thanks to these results of the curing process and rheological measurements, the kinetic and rheokinetik of polyurethane was identified. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, a Lagrangian meshless method, was chosen to simulate reactive fluid flow in 2 and 3D configurations of the polyurethane during the process taking into account the chemical, and chemiorehological results obtained experimentally in this study.

Keywords: reactive rotational molding, simulation, smoothed particle hydrodynamics, surface tension, rheology, free surface flows, viscoelastic, interpolation

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2265 Stabilization of Rotational Motion of Spacecrafts Using Quantized Two Torque Inputs Based on Random Dither

Authors: Yusuke Kuramitsu, Tomoaki Hashimoto, Hirokazu Tahara


The control problem of underactuated spacecrafts has attracted a considerable amount of interest. The control method for a spacecraft equipped with less than three control torques is useful when one of the three control torques had failed. On the other hand, the quantized control of systems is one of the important research topics in recent years. The random dither quantization method that transforms a given continuous signal to a discrete signal by adding artificial random noise to the continuous signal before quantization has also attracted a considerable amount of interest. The objective of this study is to develop the control method based on random dither quantization method for stabilizing the rotational motion of a rigid spacecraft with two control inputs. In this paper, the effectiveness of random dither quantization control method for the stabilization of rotational motion of spacecrafts with two torque inputs is verified by numerical simulations.

Keywords: spacecraft control, quantized control, nonlinear control, random dither method

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2264 Laser Cooling of Internal Degrees of Freedom of Molecules: Cesium Case

Authors: R. Horchani


Optical pumping technique with laser fields combined with photo-association of ultra-cold atoms leads to control on demand the vibrational and/or the rotational population of molecules. Here, we review the basic concepts and main steps should be followed, including the excitation schemes and detection techniques we use to achieve the ro-vibrational cooling of Cs2 molecules. We also discuss the extension of this technique to other molecules. In addition, we present a theoretical model used to support the experiment. These simulations can be widely used for the preparation of various experiments since they allow the optimization of several important experimental parameters.

Keywords: cold molecule, photo-association, optical pumping, vibrational and rotational cooling

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2263 Theoretical and Numerical Investigation of a Tri-Stable Nonlinear Energy Harvesting System in Rotational Motion for Low Frequency Environment

Authors: Mei Xutao, Nakano Kimihiko


In order to enhance the energy harvesting efficiency, this paper presents a novel tri-stable energy harvesting system (TEHS), which is realized by the effect of magnetic force, in rotational motion to scavenge vibration energy. The device is meant to provide the power supply for wireless autonomous systems in low-frequency environment. The nonlinear TEHS is composed of the cantilever beam which is mounted on a rotating hub and partially covered by piezoelectric patch, a tip mass magnet in the end and two fixed magnets. A theoretical investigation using the Lagrangian formulation is derived to describe the motion of the energy harvesting system and the output voltage. Additionally, several numerical simulations were carried out to characterize the system under different external excitations and to validate its performance. The results demonstrated that TEHS owns a wide range of frequency of snap-through and high output voltage compared with the bi-stable energy harvesting system (BEHS). Moreover, some sets of experimental validations will be performed in the future work because the experimental setup is in the configuration now.

Keywords: piezoelectric beam, rotational motion, snap-through, tri-stable energy harvester

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2262 Bearing Condition Monitoring with Acoustic Emission Techniques

Authors: Faisal AlShammari, Abdulmajid Addali


Monitoring the conditions of rotating machinery as bearing is important in order to improve its stability of works. Acoustic emission (AE) and vibration analysis are some of the most accomplished techniques used for this purpose. Acoustic emission has the ability to detect the initial phase of component degradation. Moreover, it has been observed that the success of vibration analysis does not take place below 100 rpm rotational speed. This because the energy generated below 100 rpm rotational speed is not detectable using conventional vibration. From this pint, this paper has presented a focused review of using acoustic emission techniques for monitoring bearings condition.

Keywords: condition monitoring, stress wave analysis, low-speed bearings, bearing defect diagnosis

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2261 Design of a Satellite Solar Panel Deployment Mechanism Using the Brushed DC Motor as Rotational Speed Damper

Authors: Hossein Ramezani Ali-Akbari


This paper presents an innovative method to control the rotational speed of a satellite solar panel during its deployment phase. A brushed DC motor has been utilized in the passive spring driven deployment mechanism to reduce the deployment speed. In order to use the DC motor as a damper, its connector terminals have been connected with an external resistance in a closed circuit. It means that, in this approach, there is no external power supply in the circuit. The working principle of this method is based on the back electromotive force (or back EMF) of the DC motor when an external torque (here the torque produced by the torsional springs) is coupled to the DC motor’s shaft. In fact, the DC motor converts to an electric generator and the current flows into the circuit and then produces the back EMF. Based on Lenz’s law, the generated current produced a torque which acts opposite to the applied external torque, and as a result, the deployment speed of the solar panel decreases. The main advantage of this method is to set an intended damping coefficient to the system via changing the external resistance. To produce the sufficient current, a gearbox has been assembled to the DC motor which magnifies the number of turns experienced by the DC motor. The coupled electro-mechanical equations of the system have been derived and solved, then, the obtained results have been presented. A full-scale prototype of the deployment mechanism has been built and tested. The potential application of brushed DC motors as a rotational speed damper has been successfully demonstrated.

Keywords: back electromotive force, brushed DC motor, rotational speed damper, satellite solar panel deployment mechanism

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
2260 Design Consideration of a Plastic Shredder in Recycling Processes

Authors: Tolulope A. Olukunle


Plastic waste management has emerged as one of the greatest challenges facing developing countries. This paper describes the design of various components of a plastic shredder. This machine is widely used in industries and recycling plants. The introduction of plastic shredder machine will promote reduction of post-consumer plastic waste accumulation and serves as a system for wealth creation and empowerment through conversion of waste into economically viable products. In this design research, a 10 kW electric motor with a rotational speed of 500 rpm was chosen to drive the shredder. A pulley size of 400 mm is mounted on the electric motor at a distance of 1000 mm away from the shredder pulley. The shredder rotational speed is 300 rpm.

Keywords: design, machine, plastic waste, recycling

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2259 Increasing the Frequency of Laser Impulses with Optical Choppers with Rotational Shafts

Authors: Virgil-Florin Duma, Dorin Demian


Optical choppers are among the most common optomechatronic devices, utilized in numerous applications, from radiometry to telescopes and biomedical imaging. The classical configuration has a rotational disk with windows with linear margins. This research points out the laser signals that can be obtained with these classical choppers, as well as with another, novel, patented configuration, of eclipse choppers (i.e., with rotational disks with windows with non-linear margins, oriented outwards or inwards). Approximately triangular laser signals can be obtained with eclipse choppers, in contrast to the approximately sinusoidal – with classical devices. The main topic of this work refers to another, novel device, of choppers with shafts of different shapes and with slits of various profiles (patent pending). A significant improvement which can be obtained (with regard to disk choppers) refers to the chop frequencies of the laser signals. Thus, while 1 kHz is their typical limit for disk choppers, with choppers with shafts, a more than 20 times increase in the chop frequency can be obtained with choppers with shafts. Their transmission functions are also discussed, for different types of laser beams. Acknowledgments: This research is supported by the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, through the project PN-III-P2-2.1-BG-2016-0297.

Keywords: laser signals, laser systems, optical choppers, optomechatronics, transfer functions, eclipse choppers, choppers with shafts

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