Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 926

Search results for: consumer ethnocentrism

926 Consumer Ethnocentrism: A Dynamic Literature Review from 1987-2015

Authors: Thi Phuong Chi Nguyen

Abstract:

Although consumer ethnocentrism has been widely studied in academic research since 1987, somehow it is still considered as a new and unknown concept in marketing theory and practice. By analyzing the content, three mainstreams of consumer ethnocentrism were found including economic, management and marketing approaches. The present study indicated that the link between consumer ethnocentrism and consumer behaviours varies across countries. Consumers in developing countries might be both patriotic about their home countries and curious about foreign cultures at the same time. The most important finding is identifying three main periods in the chronological development of consumer ethnocentrism research. The first period, spanning from 1987 to 1995, was characterized by the introduction of the consumer ethnocentrism concepts and scales, the unidimensionality and the adaptation of the standard CETSCALE version. The second period 1996-2005 witnessed the replication of CETSCALE in various fields, as well as an increase in the volume of researches in developing and emerging countries; the exploration of determinants and the begin of multidimensionality. In the third period from 2006 to present, all variables related to CET were syntherized within the theory of planne behavior. Consumer ethnocentrism analyses were conducted even in less-developed countries and in groups of countries within longitudinal studies. The results from this study showed many inadequacies relating to consumer ethnocentrism in the context of globalisation for further researches to examine.

Keywords: CETSCALE, consumer behavior, consumer ethnocentrism, business, marketing

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925 The Direct Drivers of Ethnocentric Consumer, Intention and Actual Purchasing Behavior in Malaysia

Authors: Nik Kamariah Nikmat, Noor Hasmini Abdghani

Abstract:

The Malaysian government had consistently revived its campaign for “Buy Malaysian Goods” from time to time. The purpose of the campaign is to remind consumers to be ethnocentric and patriotic when purchasing product and services. This is necessary to ensure high demand for local products and services compared to foreign products. However, the decline of domestic investment in 2012 has triggered concern for the Malaysian economy. Hence, this study attempts to determine the drivers of actual purchasing behavior, intention to purchase domestic products and ethnocentrism. The study employs the cross-sectional primary data, self-administered on household, selected using stratified random sampling in four Malaysian regions. A nine factor driver of actual domestic purchasing behavior (culture openness, conservatism, collectivism, patriotism, control belief, interest in foreign travel, attitude, ethnocentrism and intention) were measured utilizing 60 items, using 7-point Likert-scale. From 1000 questionnaires distributed, a sample of 486 were returned representing 48.6 percent response rate. From the fit generated structural model (SEM analysis), it was found that the drivers of actual purchase behavior are collectivism, cultural openness and patriotism; the drivers of intention to purchase domestic product are attitude, control belief, collectivism and conservativeness; and drivers of ethnocentrism are cultural openness, control belief, foreign travel and patriotism. It also shows that Malaysian consumers scored high in ethnocentrism and patriotism. The findings are discussed in the perspective of its implication to Malaysian National Agenda.

Keywords: actual purchase, ethnocentrism, patriotism, culture openness, conservatism

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924 An Empirical Investigation of Relationships between Consumer Involvement and Advertisement Effectiveness

Authors: Nasim Karami Mal Amiri, Farhad Razm Azma

Abstract:

Parts of consumer involvement in regards to one product are related to advertisement strategies. Different consumer involvement has different answers to the effectiveness of advertisement. This study has divided the market considering the characteristics and relationship between consumer involvement and the effectiveness of advertisement. The results of this study show consumer involvement which does affect parts of marketing. A positive and direct relationship among consumer involvement and the eventual effectiveness of advertisement has been shown. A great amount of consumer involvement is directly related to advertisement effectiveness. Therefore, consumer involvement is a critical factor in advertisement strategies.

Keywords: consumer involvement, advertisement effectiveness, strategy, effective marketing

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923 Mechanisms of Cultural Change Resistance through Cultures

Authors: Horaya Mostafa Ahmed

Abstract:

All cultures are inherently predisposed to change and, at the same time, to resisting change. There are dynamic processes operating that encourage the acceptance of new ideas and things, while there are others that encourage changeless stability. Despite the dramatic changes that have taken place in all human cultures, there are cultures still steadfast and resist change. These cultures resist through some culture mechanisms like, cultural boundaries, ethnocentrism, religion, and cultural relativity. So this paper is an attempt to discover these mechanisms of cultural change resistance and to ask is cultural change always required.

Keywords: cultural change, cultural boundaries, cultural relativity, ethnocentrism, religion, resistance

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922 An Investigation into Nigerian Consumers' Preference for Certain Categories of Foreign Products

Authors: Nnedum Obiajuru Anthony Ugochukwu, Emmanuel Ezechukwu

Abstract:

This study was designed to investigate into Nigerian consumers’ preference for foreign products. Studies have discovered that Nigerian consumers like their counterparts in most developing countries have an insatiable preference for foreign products especially those from more technologically advanced countries (Okechukwu & Onyema, 1999; Agbonifoh & Elimimian, 1999). This attitude of the Nigerian consumers has resulted in many problems which challenge the industrial sector in Nigeria – lack of patronage resulting to, non-performing firms, endemic unemployment, underdeveloped industries and general lack of industrial growth. The major objective of this study is to investigate the reasons behind such attitude, and the factors that drive consumer preference for foreign products among Nigerian consumers. The study investigated specifically the psychological dimensions (personal values, self-concept, lifestyle and prestige), and demographic factors (age, gender, level of education, income and occupation) that impact consumers’ preference for imported products in Nigeria. The study was cross-sectional and used survey method to collect data from one hundred and eighty-six respondents among postgraduate and part-time students of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka and consumers from Awka metropolis. The results of the study indicated that all the psychological variables used to measure consumer preference for foreign products were largely positive and significant determinants of consumer preference for foreign products. Demographic variables of age, gender, and income were not significant determinants of preference for foreign products. The results of the study, however, showed that level of education and occupation has the significant effect on consumer preference for foreign products.

Keywords: country of origin, xenocentrism, Nigeria, ethnocentrism, foreign products, consumer preference

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921 Review of Models of Consumer Behaviour and Influence of Emotions in the Decision Making

Authors: Mikel Alonso López

Abstract:

In order to begin the process of studying the task of making consumer decisions, the main decision models must be analyzed. The objective of this task is to see if there is a presence of emotions in those models, and analyze how authors that have created them consider their impact in consumer choices. In this paper, the most important models of consumer behavior are analysed. This review is useful to consider an unproblematic background knowledge in the literature. The order that has been established for this study is chronological.

Keywords: consumer behaviour, emotions, decision making, consumer psychology

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920 Stuck Down in the Mess of Aisles: Need of a Practical Consumer Welfare Policy Framework in Sri Lanka with Special Reference to Japan

Authors: E. N. R. de Silva

Abstract:

The main purpose of this research is to set a policy framework for establishing a legal, institutional and social infrastructure that enhances the welfare, health, safety and economic interest of the consumers in Sri Lanka. It will help to develop an approach to continuously and successfully advocate for a consumer protection legal reform agenda and also it is significant as it gives directions to create national consumer protection associations in Sri Lanka. The methodology adopted for this research is purely a qualitative approach and it is generally and specifically categorized. Generally, part of this research looked at the existing laws, regulations and how effective they are in order to protect consumers. It will analyze the consumer protection framework and specially, consumer protection enhanced by the public organizations in Japan. This research offers a model with methods and legal instruments to enforce advocacy group to enhance consumer welfare, also brings out reforms to be made in the national legal framework on consumer welfare.

Keywords: consumer protection association, consumer protection law, consumer welfare, legal framework

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919 Discussing Concept Gratitude of Muslim Consumers Based on Islamic Law: A Confirmation on the Theory of Consumer Satisfaction through Imam Al-Ghazali's Thought

Authors: Suprihatin Soewarto

Abstract:

The background of writing this paper is to assess the truth of rejection of some Muslim scholars who develop Islamic economics on the concept of consumer satisfaction and replace it with the concept of maslahah. In the perspective of Islamic law, this rejection attitude needs to be verified in order to know the accuracy of the replacement of this concept of satisfaction with maslahah as part of consumer behavior. This is done so that replacement of rejection of the term satisfaction with maslahah is objective. This objective replacement of the term will surely be more enlightening and more just than the subjective substitution. Therefore the writing of this paper aims to get an answer whether the concept of satisfaction needs to be replaced? is it possible for Islamic law to confirm the theory of consumer satisfaction? The method of writing this paper using the method of literature with a critical analysis approach. The results of this study is an explanation of the similarities and differences of consumer satisfaction theory and consumer theory maslahah according to Islamic law. disclosure of the concept of consumer gratitude according to Islamic law and its implementation in Muslim consumer demand theory.

Keywords: consumer's gratitude, islamic law, confirmation, satisfaction consumer's

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918 Consumer Innovativeness and Shopping Styles: An Empirical Study in Turkey

Authors: Hande Begum Bumin Doyduk, Elif Okan Yolbulan

Abstract:

Innovation is very important for success and competitiveness of countries, as well as business sectors and individuals' firms. In order to have successful and sustainable innovations, the other side of the game, consumers, should be aware of the innovations and appreciate them. In this study, the consumer innovativeness is focused and the relationship between motivated consumer innovativeness and consumer shopping styles is analyzed. Motivated consumer innovativeness scale by (Vandecasteele & Geuens, 2010) and consumer shopping styles scale by (Sproles & Kendall, 1986) is used. Data is analyzed by SPSS 20 program through realibility, factor, and correlation analysis. According to the findings of the study, there are strong positive relationships between hedonic innovativeness and recreational shopping style; social innovativeness and brand consciousness; cognitive innovativeness and price consciousness and functional innovativeness and perfectionistic high-quality conscious shopping styles.

Keywords: consumer innovativeness, consumer decision making, shopping styles, innovativeness

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917 Understanding Consumer Behaviors by Using Neuromarketing Tools and Methods

Authors: Tabrej Khan

Abstract:

Neuromarketing can refer to the commercial application of neuroscience technologies and insights to drive business further. On the other side, consumer neuroscience can be seen as the academic use of neuroscience to better understand marketing effects on consumer behavior. Consumer Neuroscience and Neuromarketing is a multidisciplinary effort between economics, psychology, and neuroscience and information technology. Traditional methods are using survey, interviews, focus group people are overtly and consciously reporting on their experience and thoughts. The unconscious side of customer behavior is largely unmeasured in the traditional methods. Neuroscience has a potential to understand the unconscious part. Through this paper, we are going to present specific results of selected tools and methods that are used to understand consumer behaviors.

Keywords: neuromarketing, neuroscience, consumer behaviors, tools

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916 Calculate Consumer Surplus and Producer Surplus Using Integration

Authors: Bojan Radisic, Katarina Stavlic

Abstract:

The paper describes two economics terms consumer surplus and producer surplus using the definite integrals (the Riemann integral). The consumer surplus is the difference between what consumers are willing to pay and actual price. The producer surplus is the difference between what producers selling at the current price, rather than at the price they would have been are willing to accept. Using the definite integrals describe terms and mathematical formulas of the consumer surplus and the producer surplus and will be applied to the numerical examples.

Keywords: consumer surplus, producer surplus, definite integral, integration

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915 Mobile Health Programs by Government: A Content Analysis of Online Consumer Reviews

Authors: Ge Zhan

Abstract:

Mobile health (mHealth) concerns the use of mobile technologies to deliver health care and improve wellness. In this paper, we ask the question of what are the drivers of positive consumer attitude toward mHealth programs. Answers to this question are important to consumer health, but existing marketing and health care service literature does not provide sufficient empirical conclusions on the use of mobile technologies for consumer health. This study aims to fill the knowledge gap by investigating mHealth use and consumer attitude. A content analysis was conducted with sample mHealth programs and online consumer reviews in Hong Kong, UK, US, and India. The research findings will contribute to marketing and health services literature.

Keywords: mobile health, consumer attitude, content analysis, online marketing

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914 The Consumer's Behavior of Bakery Products in Bangkok

Authors: Jiraporn Weenuttranon

Abstract:

The objectives of the consumer behavior of bakery products in Bangkok are to study consumer behavior of the bakery product, to study the essential factors that could possibly affect the consumer behavior and to study recommendations for the development of the bakery products. This research is a survey research. Populations are buyer’s bakery products in Bangkok. The probability sample size is 400. The research uses a questionnaire for self-learning by using information technology. The researcher created a reliability value at 0.71 levels of significance. The data analysis will be done by using the percentage, mean, and standard deviation and testing the hypotheses by using chi-square.

Keywords: consumer, behavior, bakery, standard deviation

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913 Calculation of Inflation from Salaries Instead of Consumer Products: A Logical Exercise

Authors: E. Dahlen

Abstract:

Inflation can be calculated from either the prices of consumer products or from salaries. This paper presents a logical exercise that shows it is easier to calculate inflation from salaries than from consumer products. While the prices of consumer products may change due to technological advancement, such as automation, which must be corrected for, salaries do not. If technological advancements are not accounted for within calculations based on consumer product prices, inflation can be confused with real wage changes, since both inflation and real wage changes affect the prices of consumer products. The method employed in this paper is a logical exercise. Logical arguments are presented that suggest the existence of many different feasible ways by which inflation can be determined. Then a short mathematical exercise will be presented which shows that one of these methods –using salaries – contains the fewest number of unknown parameters, and hence, is the preferred method, since the risk of mistakes is lower. From the results, it can be concluded that salaries, rather than consumer products, should be used to calculate inflation.

Keywords: inflation, logic, math, real wages

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912 The Influences of Marketplace Knowledge, General Product Class Knowledge, and Knowledge in Meat Product with Traceability on Trust in Meat Traceability

Authors: Kawpong Polyorat

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Since the outbreak of mad cow disease and bird flu, consumers have become more concerned with meat quality and safety. As a result, meat traceability is adopted as one approach to handle consumers’ concern in this issue. Nevertheless, in Thailand, meat traceability is rarely used as a marketing tool to persuade consumers. As a consequence, the present study attempts to understand consumer trust in the meat traceability system by conducting a study in this country to examine the impact of three types of consumer knowledge on this trust. The study results reveal that out of three types of consumer knowledge, marketplace knowledge was the sole predictor of consumer trust in meat traceability and it has a positive influence. General product class knowledge and knowledge in meat products with traceability, however, did not significantly influence consumer trust. The research results provide several implications and directions for future study.

Keywords: consumer knowledge, marketing, product knowledge, traceability

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911 The Consumer Responses toward the Offensive Product Advertising

Authors: Chin Tangtarntana

Abstract:

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of animation in offensive product advertising. Experiment was conducted to collect consumer responses toward animated and static ads of offensive and non-offensive products. The study was conducted by distributing questionnaires to the target respondents. According to statistics from Innovative Internet Research Center, Thailand, majority of internet users are 18 – 44 years old. The results revealed an interaction between ad design and offensive product. Specifically, when used in offensive product advertisements, animated ads were not effective for consumer attention, but yielded positive response in terms of attitude toward product. The findings support that information processing model is accurate in predicting consumer cognitive response toward cartoon ads, whereas U&G, arousal, and distinctive theory is more accurate in predicting consumer affective response. In practical, these findings can also be used to guide ad designers and marketers that are suitable for offensive products.

Keywords: animation, banner ad design, consumer responses, offensive product advertising, stock exchange of Thailand

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910 Consumer Behavior and Marketing Mixed Factor Effect on Consumer Decision Making for Independent Movies Presented in Lido Cinema

Authors: Pongsawee Supanonth

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the consumer behavior and marketing mixed factor affect on consumer decision making for independent movies presented in Lido cinema. The research method will use quantitative research, data was collected by questionnaires distributed to the audience in the Lido cinema for 400 sample by accidental sampling technique. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistic including percentage, mean, standard deviation and inferential statistic including independent t-test for hypothesis testing. The results showed that marketing mixed factors affecting consumer decision-making for Independent movies presented in Lido cinema by gender as different as less than the 0.05 significance level, it was found that the kind of movie ,quality of theater ,price of ticket, facility of watching movies, staff services and promotion of Lido cinema respectively had a vital influence on their attention and response which makes the advertisement more attractive is in harmony with the research hypotheses also.

Keywords: consumer behavior, marketing mixed factor, resonance, consumer decision making, Lido cinema

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909 Aberrant Consumer Behavior in Seller’s and Consumer’s Eyes: Newly Developed Classification

Authors: Amal Abdelhadi

Abstract:

Consumer misbehavior evaluation can be markedly different based on a number of variables and different from one environment to another. Using three aberrant consumer behavior (ACB) scenarios (shoplifting, stealing from hotel rooms and software piracy) this study aimed to explore Libyan seller and consumers of ACB. Materials were collected by using a multi-method approach was employed (qualitative and quantitative approaches) in two fieldwork phases. In the phase stage, a qualitative data were collected from 26 Libyan sellers’ by face-to-face interviews. In the second stage, a consumer survey was used to collect quantitative data from 679 Libyan consumers. This study found that the consumer’s and seller’s evaluation of ACB are not always consistent. Further, ACB evaluations differed based on the form of ACB. Furthermore, the study found that not all consumer behaviors that were considered as bad behavior in other countries have the same evaluation in Libya; for example, software piracy. Therefore this study suggested a newly developed classification of ACB based on marketers’ and consumers’ views. This classification provides 9 ACB types within two dimensions (marketers’ and consumers’ views) and three degrees of behavior evaluation (good, acceptable and misbehavior).

Keywords: aberrant consumer behavior, Libya, multi-method approach, planned behavior theory

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908 Generic Data Warehousing for Consumer Electronics Retail Industry

Authors: S. Habte, K. Ouazzane, P. Patel, S. Patel

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The dynamic and highly competitive nature of the consumer electronics retail industry means that businesses in this industry are experiencing different decision making challenges in relation to pricing, inventory control, consumer satisfaction and product offerings. To overcome the challenges facing retailers and create opportunities, we propose a generic data warehousing solution which can be applied to a wide range of consumer electronics retailers with a minimum configuration. The solution includes a dimensional data model, a template SQL script, a high level architectural descriptions, ETL tool developed using C#, a set of APIs, and data access tools. It has been successfully applied by ASK Outlets Ltd UK resulting in improved productivity and enhanced sales growth.

Keywords: consumer electronics, data warehousing, dimensional data model, generic, retail industry

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907 The Effects of Consumer Inertia and Emotions on New Technology Acceptance

Authors: Chyi Jaw

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Prior literature on innovation diffusion or acceptance has almost exclusively concentrated on consumers’ positive attitudes and behaviors for new products/services. Consumers’ negative attitudes or behaviors to innovations have received relatively little marketing attention, but it happens frequently in practice. This study discusses consumer psychological factors when they try to learn or use new technologies. According to recent research, technological innovation acceptance has been considered as a dynamic or mediated process. This research argues that consumers can experience inertia and emotions in the initial use of new technologies. However, given such consumer psychology, the argument can be made as to whether the inclusion of consumer inertia (routine seeking and cognitive rigidity) and emotions increases the predictive power of new technology acceptance model. As data from the empirical study find, the process is potentially consumer emotion changing (independent of performance benefits) because of technology complexity and consumer inertia, and impact innovative technology use significantly. Finally, the study presents the superior predictability of the hypothesized model, which let managers can better predict and influence the successful diffusion of complex technological innovations.

Keywords: cognitive rigidity, consumer emotions, new technology acceptance, routine seeking, technology complexity

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906 Determination of International Jurisdiction of Courts over Disputes Arising from Electronic Consumer Contracts

Authors: Aslihan Coban

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As a result of the rapid development of information communication technology, especially the internet, consumers have become an active party in commerce and in law. Consequently, the protection of consumers in cross-border contracts has become increasingly important. This paper is confined to the international jurisdiction of courts over disputes arising from electronic consumer contracts according to the ‘5718 Turkish Act on Private International Law and Civil Procedure’ and the ‘1215/2012 Council Regulation On Jurisdiction and The Recognition and Enforcement Of Judgments In Civil and Commercial Matters’ (Hereafter ‘Brussels I Regulation’). The international jurisdiction of courts for consumer contracts is recognized under both acts above-mentioned; however, there exist some differences between the said legal regulations. Firstly, while there is a specific provision for electronic consumer contracts in Brussels I Regulation, there is no specific provision in the Turkish Act. Secondly, under the Turkish Act, habitual residence, domicile, and workplace of the other party who is not a consumer are all accepted as jurisdiction elements; while domicile is the only jurisdiction element in Brussels I Regulation. Thirdly, the ability to make jurisdiction agreements in disputes arising from electronic consumer contracts is a controversial issue under the Turkish Act while it is explicitly regulated under Brussels I Regulation that such jurisdiction agreements can be concluded by complying with certain conditions.

Keywords: Brussels I Regulation, electronic consumer contracts, jurisdiction, jurisdiction agreement

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905 Analyzing the Commercialization of New Technology

Authors: Wen-Hsiang Lai, Mei-Wen Chen

Abstract:

In the face of developing new technologies, identifying potential new technological product and the suitable market is important. Since laser technology is widely applied in many industries, this study explores the technology commercialization of laser technology. According to the literature review and industry analysis, this study discusses the factors influencing the consumer’s purchase intention and tries to find a new market direction to develop the laser technology. This study adopts a new product adoption model as the research framework and uses three variables of ‘Consumer characteristics’, ‘Perception of product attributes’ and ‘External environment’ to discuss the purchase intention of consumers, who are physicians and owners of the medical cosmetics. This study finds that in the major variable of ‘Consumer characteristics’, the sub-variables of ‘Personality’, ‘Knowledge of product’, ‘Perceived risk’ and ‘Motivation’ are significantly related to consumer’s purchase intention. In the major variable of ‘Perception of product attributes’, the sub-variables of ‘Brand’ and ‘Measure of manufacture country’ are the key factors that affect the willingness of consumer’s purchase intention. Finally, in the major variable of ‘External environment’ variable, the sub-variables of ‘Time’ and ‘Price’ have significant impact on consumer’s purchase intention.

Keywords: technology commercialization, new product adoption, consumer’s purchase intention, laser technology

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904 The Role of BPSK (Consumer Dispute Settlement Body) in the Monitoring of Standard Clause Inclusion within Indonesian Customer Protection Law

Authors: Deviana Yuanitasari

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The rapid development of world commerce and trade nowadays has created fast-paced demand in every business activities and transactions. That also includes the need for ready to use and practical form of standard contract. For the company or business owner, the use of standard contract is an alternative way to achieve economic goals faster, effectively and efficiently. In the other hand, for the consumer the practice of using standard contract usually unfavorable, because the contract clauses usually have been defined by the company and cannot be individually negotiated. That means consumer cannot influence the substances of the contract clauses. The purpose of this study is to get deeper understanding and analyze the role of Consumer Dispute Settlement Body in the monitoring of standard clause inclusion by businesses and industries within the context of practicing consumer protection law. Furthermore, this study will focus on the procedure of sanction and the effectiveness of the sanction for the business practitioners which disregard the inclusion of the prohibited standard clause. Therefore, this study will depict the law issues and other phenomenon that related with the role of Consumer Dispute Settlement Body in monitoring the inclusion of standard clause and procedure of sanction for the business practitioners that still use exemption clause within Consumer Protection Law System. This study results that BPSK has been assigned to monitor the inclusion of standard clause and settle consumer dispute. At this stage, BPSK role is passive, which means BPSK only takes an action if there are consumer complaints. The procedure of sanction is not part of BPSK tasks, since should there be a violation of standard clause; BPSK can only ask the business practitioners to remove the prohibited clause and not give a sanction. As a result, the procedure of sanction rule for the Standard Clause violation in this context can be considered as ineffective.

Keywords: standard contract, standard clause, consumer protection law, consumer dispute settlement body

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903 The Consumer Behavior and the Customer Loyalty of CP Fresh Mart Consumers in Bangkok

Authors: Kanmanas Muensak, Somphoom Saweangkun

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The objectives of this research were to study the consumer behavior that affects the customer loyalty of CP Fresh Mart in Bangkok province. The sample of the study comprised 400 consumers over 15 years old who made the purchase through CP Fresh Mart in Bangkok. The questionnaires were used as the data gathering instrument, and the data were analyzed applying Percentage, Mean, Standard Deviation, Independent Sample t-test, Two- Way ANOVA, and Least Significant Difference, and Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient also. The result of hypothesis testing showed that the respondents of different gender, age, level of education, income, marital status and occupation had differences in consumer behavior through customer loyalty of CP Fresh Mart and the factors on customer loyalty in the aspects of re-purchase, word of mouth and price sensitive, promotion, process, and personnel had positive relationship with the consumer behavior through of CP Fresh Mart in Bangkok as well as.

Keywords: consumers in Bangkok, consumer behavior, customer loyalty, CP Fresh Mart, operating budget

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902 The Use of Electronic Shelf Labels in the Retail Food Sector

Authors: Brent McKenzie, Victoria Taylor

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The use of QR (Quick Response Codes) codes for customer scanning with mobile phones is a rapidly growing trend. The QR code can provide the consumer with product information, user guides, product use, competitive pricing, etc. One sector for QR use has been in retail, through the use of Electronic Shelf Labeling (henceforth, ESL). In Europe, the use of ESL for pricing has been in practice for a number of years but continues to lag in acceptance in North America. Stated concerns include costs as a key constraint, but there is also evidence that consumer acceptance represents a limitation as well. The purpose of this study is to present the findings of a consumer based study to gage the impact on their use in the retail food sector.

Keywords: electronic price labels, consumer behaviour, grocery shopping, mixed methods research

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901 Consumer Complicity toward Luxury in Developing Countries

Authors: Marisa Hakim

Abstract:

After all, collectivism moderate is one of the biggest issues that drive complicit behavior toward luxury in Indonesia and Thailand. The nature of collectivism that we find on this research would probably break the problems of the gap about the nature of complicit behavior. Precisely, we could probably drive to the further research about: 'Is there any pattern to describe consumer behavior toward counterfeit luxury goods among market in developing countries? Furthermore, is there any possibility to manipulate that pattern and bring the new concept of local/traditional luxury teste toward consumers in developing countries?'

Keywords: complicity, consumer complicity, counterfeit, consumer behavior, luxury goods, marketing, Indonesia, Thailand

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900 Internet Impulse Buying: A Study Based on Stimulus-Organism-Response Theory

Authors: Pui-Lai To, Yi-Jing Tsai

Abstract:

As the advance of e-commerce technologies, the consumers buying behavior have changed. The focus on consumer buying behavior has already shifted from physical space to the cyberspace, which impulse buying is a major issue of concern. This study examines the stimulus effect of web environment on the consumer's emotional states, and in turn, affecting the urge of impulse buying based on a stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) theory. Website ambiance and website service quality are the two stimulus variables. The study also explores the effects and the moderator effects of contextual variables and individual characteristic variables on the web environment, the emotional states and the urge of impulse buying. A total of 328 valid questionnaires were collected. Structural equation modeling was used to test the research hypothesis. This study found that both website ambiance and website service quality have a positive effect on consumer emotion, which in turn positively affect the urge of impulse buying. Consumer’s trait of impulse buying has a positive effect on the urge of impulse buying. Consumer’s hedonic motivation has a positive effect on both emotion state and the urge of impulse buying. On the other hand, the study found that money available for the consumer would positively affect consumer's emotion state and time available for the consumer would negatively affect the relationship between website service quality and consumer emotion. The result of this study validates Internet impulse buying behavior based on the S-O-R theory. This study also suggests that having a good website atmosphere and service quality is important to influencing consumers’ emotion and increasing the likelihood of consumer purchasing. The study could serve as a basis for the future research regarding online consumer behavior.

Keywords: emotion state, impulse buying, stimulus-organism-response, the urge of impulse buying

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899 The Need to Enhance Online Consumer Protection in KSA

Authors: Abdulrahman Aloufi

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E-commerce has evolved to become a functional and mainstream tool of global trading, including in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Consequently, online consumers need protection just as much as consumers in the offline world. In 2019, the Ministry of Commerce in Saudi Arabia established a so-called ‘e-commerce law’; however, this law does not cover the court enforcement of contracts entered into by international vendors, so it is not applicable in cross-border situations. The purpose of this paper is to identify the gaps present in this new e-commerce law in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: consumer protection, e-commerce law, Saudi consumer, international vendor

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898 Analysis of Consumer Preferences for Housing in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mohammad Abdulaziz Algrnas, Emma Mulliner

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Housing projects have been established in Saudi Arabia, by both government and private construction companies, to meet the increasing demand from Saudi inhabitants across the country. However, the real estate market supply does not meet consumer preference requirements. Preferences normally differ depending on the consumer’s situation, such as the household’s sociological characteristics (age, household size and composition), resources (income, wealth, information and experience), tastes and priorities. Collecting information about consumer attitudes, preferences and perceptions is important for the real estate market in order to better understand housing demand and to ensure that this is met by appropriate supply. The aim of this paper is to identify consumer preferences for housing in Saudi Arabia. A quantitative closed-ended questionnaire was conducted with housing consumers in Saudi Arabia in order to gain insight into consumer needs, current household situation, preferences for a number of investigated housing attributes and consumers’ perceptions around the current housing problem. 752 survey responses were obtained and analysed in order to describe preferences for housing attributes and make comparisons between groups. Factor analysis was also conducted to identify and reduce the attributes. The results indicate a difference in preference according to the gender of the respondents and depending on their region of residence.

Keywords: housing attributes, Saudi Arabia, consumer preferences, housing preferences

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897 Consumer Welfare in the Platform Economy

Authors: Prama Mukhopadhyay

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Starting from transport to food, today’s world platform economy and digital markets have taken over almost every sphere of consumers’ lives. Sellers and buyers are getting connected through platforms, which is acting as an intermediary. It has made consumer’s life easier in terms of time, price, choice and other factors. Having said that, there are several concerns regarding platforms. There are competition law concerns like unfair pricing, deep discounting by the platforms which affect the consumer welfare. Apart from that, the biggest problem is lack of transparency with respect to the business models, how it operates, price calculation, etc. In most of the cases, consumers are unaware of how their personal data are being used. In most of the cases, they are unaware of how algorithm uses their personal data to determine the price of the product or even to show the relevant products using their previous searches. Using personal or non-personal data without consumer’s consent is a huge legal concern. In addition to this, another major issue lies with the question of liability. If a dispute arises, who will be responsible? The seller or the platform? For example, if someone ordered food through a food delivery app and the food was bad, in this situation who will be liable: the restaurant or the food delivery platform? In this paper, the researcher tries to examine the legal concern related to platform economy from the consumer protection and consumer welfare perspectives. The paper analyses the cases from different jurisdictions and approach taken by the judiciaries. The author compares the existing legislation of EU, US and other Asian Countries and tries to highlight the best practices.

Keywords: competition, consumer, data, platform

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