Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: Bojan Radisic

6 Calculate Consumer Surplus and Producer Surplus Using Integration

Authors: Bojan Radisic, Katarina Stavlic

Abstract:

The paper describes two economics terms consumer surplus and producer surplus using the definite integrals (the Riemann integral). The consumer surplus is the difference between what consumers are willing to pay and actual price. The producer surplus is the difference between what producers selling at the current price, rather than at the price they would have been are willing to accept. Using the definite integrals describe terms and mathematical formulas of the consumer surplus and the producer surplus and will be applied to the numerical examples.

Keywords: consumer surplus, producer surplus, definite integral, integration

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5 Traffic Congestions Modeling and Predictions by Social Networks

Authors: Bojan Najdenov, Danco Davcev

Abstract:

Reduction of traffic congestions and the effects of pollution and waste of resources that come with them has been a big challenge in the past decades. Having reliable systems to facilitate the process of modeling and prediction of traffic conditions would not only reduce the environmental pollution, but will also save people time and money. Social networks play big role of people’s lives nowadays providing them means of communicating and sharing thoughts and ideas, that way generating huge knowledge bases by crowdsourcing. In addition to that, crowdsourcing as a concept provides mechanisms for fast and relatively reliable data generation and also many services are being used on regular basis because they are mainly powered by the public as main content providers. In this paper we present the Social-NETS-Traffic-Control System (SNTCS) that should serve as a facilitator in the process of modeling and prediction of traffic congestions. The main contribution of our system is to integrate data from social networks as Twitter and also implements a custom created crowdsourcing subsystem with which users report traffic conditions using an android application. Our first experience of the usage of the system confirms that the integrated approach allows easy extension of the system with other social networks and represents a very useful tool for traffic control.

Keywords: traffic, congestion reduction, crowdsource, social networks, twitter, android

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4 Conduction Transfer Functions for the Calculation of Heat Demands in Heavyweight Facade Systems

Authors: Mergim Gasia, Bojan Milovanovica, Sanjin Gumbarevic

Abstract:

Better energy performance of the building envelope is one of the most important aspects of energy savings if the goals set by the European Union are to be achieved in the future. Dynamic heat transfer simulations are being used for the calculation of building energy consumption because they give more realistic energy demands compared to the stationary calculations that do not take the building’s thermal mass into account. Software used for these dynamic simulation use methods that are based on the analytical models since numerical models are insufficient for longer periods. The analytical models used in this research fall in the category of the conduction transfer functions (CTFs). Two methods for calculating the CTFs covered by this research are the Laplace method and the State-Space method. The literature review showed that the main disadvantage of these methods is that they are inadequate for heavyweight façade elements and shorter time periods used for the calculation. The algorithms for both the Laplace and State-Space methods are implemented in Mathematica, and the results are compared to the results from EnergyPlus and TRNSYS since these software use similar algorithms for the calculation of the building’s energy demand. This research aims to check the efficiency of the Laplace and the State-Space method for calculating the building’s energy demand for heavyweight building elements and shorter sampling time, and it also gives the means for the improvement of the algorithms used by these methods. As the reference point for the boundary heat flux density, the finite difference method (FDM) is used. Even though the dynamic heat transfer simulations are superior to the calculation based on the stationary boundary conditions, they have their limitations and will give unsatisfactory results if not properly used.

Keywords: Laplace method, state-space method, conduction transfer functions, finite difference method

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3 Model Reference Adaptive Approach for Power System Stabilizer for Damping of Power Oscillations

Authors: Jožef Ritonja, Bojan Grčar, Boštjan Polajžer

Abstract:

In recent years, electricity trade between neighboring countries has become increasingly intense. Increasing power transmission over long distances has resulted in an increase in the oscillations of the transmitted power. The damping of the oscillations can be carried out with the reconfiguration of the network or the replacement of generators, but such solution is not economically reasonable. The only cost-effective solution to improve the damping of power oscillations is to use power system stabilizers. Power system stabilizer represents a part of synchronous generator control system. It utilizes semiconductor’s excitation system connected to the rotor field excitation winding to increase the damping of the power system. The majority of the synchronous generators are equipped with the conventional power system stabilizers with fixed parameters. The control structure of the conventional power system stabilizers and the tuning procedure are based on the linear control theory. Conventional power system stabilizers are simple to realize, but they show non-sufficient damping improvement in the entire operating conditions. This is the reason that advanced control theories are used for development of better power system stabilizers. In this paper, the adaptive control theory for power system stabilizers design and synthesis is studied. The presented work is focused on the use of model reference adaptive control approach. Control signal, which assures that the controlled plant output will follow the reference model output, is generated by the adaptive algorithm. Adaptive gains are obtained as a combination of the "proportional" term and with the σ-term extended "integral" term. The σ-term is introduced to avoid divergence of the integral gains. The necessary condition for asymptotic tracking is derived by means of hyperstability theory. The benefits of the proposed model reference adaptive power system stabilizer were evaluated as objectively as possible by means of a theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and laboratory realizations. Damping of the synchronous generator oscillations in the entire operating range was investigated. Obtained results show the improved damping in the entire operating area and the increase of the power system stability. The results of the presented work will help by the development of the model reference power system stabilizer which should be able to replace the conventional stabilizers in power systems.

Keywords: power system, stability, oscillations, power system stabilizer, model reference adaptive control

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2 Academic Knowledge Transfer Units in the Western Balkans: Building Service Capacity and Shaping the Business Model

Authors: Andrea Bikfalvi, Josep Llach, Ferran Lazaro, Bojan Jovanovski

Abstract:

Due to the continuous need to foster university-business cooperation in both developed and developing countries, some higher education institutions face the challenge of designing, piloting, operating, and consolidating knowledge and technology transfer units. University-business cooperation has different maturity stages worldwide, with some higher education institutions excelling in these practices, but with lots of others that could be qualified as intermediate, or even some situated at the very beginning of their knowledge transfer adventure. These latter face the imminent necessity to formally create the technology transfer unit and to draw its roadmap. The complexity of this operation is due to various aspects that need to align and coordinate, including a major change in mission, vision, structure, priorities, and operations. Qualitative in approach, this study presents 5 case studies, consisting of higher education institutions located in the Western Balkans – 2 in Albania, 2 in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1 in Montenegro- fully immersed in the entrepreneurial journey of creating their knowledge and technology transfer unit. The empirical evidence is developed in a pan-European project, illustratively called KnowHub (reconnecting universities and enterprises to unleash regional innovation and entrepreneurial activity), which is being implemented in three countries and has resulted in at least 15 pilot cooperation agreements between academia and business. Based on a peer-mentoring approach including more experimented and more mature technology transfer models of European partners located in Spain, Finland, and Austria, a series of initial lessons learned are already available. The findings show that each unit developed its tailor-made approach to engage with internal and external stakeholders, offer value to the academic staff, students, as well as business partners. The latest technology underpinning KnowHub services and institutional commitment are found to be key success factors. Although specific strategies and plans differ, they are based on a general strategy jointly developed and based on common tools and methods of strategic planning and business modelling. The main output consists of providing good practice for designing, piloting, and initial operations of units aiming to fully valorise knowledge and expertise available in academia. Policymakers can also find valuable hints on key aspects considered vital for initial operations. The value of this contribution is its focus on the intersection of three perspectives (service orientation, organisational innovation, business model) since previous research has only relied on a single topic or dual approaches, most frequently in the business context and less frequently in higher education.

Keywords: business model, capacity building, entrepreneurial education, knowledge transfer

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1 Microdiamond and Moissanite Inclusions in Garnets from Pohorje Mountains, Eastern Alps, Slovenia

Authors: Mirijam Vrabec, Marian Janak, Bojan Ambrozic, Angelja K. Surca, Nastja Rogan Smuc, Nina Zupancic, Saso Sturm

Abstract:

Natural microdiamonds and moissanite (SiC) can form during the orogenic events under ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic conditions (UHP), when parts of Earth’s crust are subducted to extreme depths. So far, such processes were identified only in few places on the Earth, and therefore, represent unique opportunity to study the evolution of the Earth’s deep interior. An important discovery of microdiamonds and moissanite was reported from Pohorje, (Slovenia), where they occurred as single or polyphase inclusions in garnets. Metasedimentary rocks from Pohorje are predominantly gneisses representing parts of the Austroalpine metamorphic units of the Eastern Alps. During Cretaceous orogeny, (ca. 95–92 Ma) continental crustal rocks were deeply subducted to the mantle depths (below 100 km) and metamorphosed at pressures exceeding 3.5 GPa and temperatures between 800–850 °C. Microstructural and phase analysis of the inclusions as well as detailed elemental analysis of host garnets were carried out combining several analytical techniques: optical microscope in plane polarized transmitted light, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) with wavelength-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (WDS) and field-emission scanning microscope (FEG-SEM) with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Micro-Raman analysis revealed sharp, first order diamond bands sometimes accompanied by graphite bands implying that transformation of diamond back to graphite occurred. To study the chemical and crystallographic relationship between microdiamonds and co-inclusions, advanced techniques of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were applied, which included high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), combined with EDS and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). To prepare electron transparent TEM lamellae selectively a dual-beam Focused Ion Beam/SEM (FIB/SEM) was employed. Detailed study of TEM lamellae, which was cross-sectioned from the highly faceted inclusion body located within the host garnet crystal matrix, revealed rich and rather complex internal structure. Namely, the negative crystal facets of the main inclusion body were typically decorated with up to 1 μm thick amorphous layer, reflecting the general garnet composition with slight variations in Fe/Ca content. Within these layers, ELNES analysis revealed the presence of a 28–30 nm thick layer of amorphous carbon. The very last section of this layer corresponds to composition of SiO2. Within the inclusion, besides diamond and moissanite alumosilicate mineral with pronounced layered structure, iron sulfides and chlorine were identified under TEM and CO2 and CH4 using Raman. Moissanite is found as single crystal or composed from numerous highly textured nano-crystals with the average size of 10 nm. Moissanite inclusions were found embedded inside the amorphous crust implying that moissanite crystalized well before the deposition of the amorphous layer. From the microstructural, crystallographic and chemical observations so far we can deduce, that polyphase inclusions in diamond bearing garnets from Pohorje most probably crystallized from reduced supercritical fluids. Based on layered interface structure of the host mineral multiphase process of crystallization is possible. The presence of microdiamonds and moissanite in rocks from Pohorje demonstrates that these parts of the Eastern Alps were subducted to extreme depths, and were subsequently exhumed back to the Earth's surface without complete breakdown of UHP mineral phases, allowing a rear and exceptional opportunity to study them in-situ.

Keywords: diamond, fluid inclusions, moissanite, TEM, UHP metamorphism.

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