Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4145

Search results for: standard deviation

4145 X̄ and S Control Charts based on Weighted Standard Deviation Method

Authors: Derya Karagöz


A Shewhart chart based on normality assumption is not appropriate for skewed distributions since its Type-I error rate is inflated. This study presents X̄ and S control charts for monitoring the process variability for skewed distributions. We propose Weighted Standard Deviation (WSD) X̄ and S control charts. Standard deviation estimator is applied to monitor the process variability for estimating the process standard deviation, in the case of the W SD X̄ and S control charts as this estimator is simple and easy to compute. Unlike the Shewhart control chart, the proposed charts provide asymmetric limits in accordance with the direction and degree of skewness to construct the upper and lower limits. The performances of the proposed charts are compared with other heuristic charts for skewed distributions by using Simulation study. The Simulation studies show that the proposed control charts have good properties for skewed distributions and large sample sizes.

Keywords: weighted standard deviation, MAD, skewed distributions, S control charts

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4144 Characteristics of Speed Dispersion in Urban Expressway

Authors: Fujian Wang, Shubin Ruan, Meiwei Dai


Speed dispersion has tight relation to traffic safety. In this paper, several kinds of indicating parameters (the standard speed deviation, the coefficient of variation, the deviation of V85 and V15, the mean speed deviations, and the difference between adjacent car speeds) are applied to investigate the characteristics of speed dispersion, where V85 and V15 are 85th and 15th percentile speed, respectively. Their relationships are into full investigations and the results show that: there exists a positive relation (linear) between mean speed and the deviation of V85 and V15; while a negative relation (quadratic) between traffic flow and standard speed deviation. The mean speed deviation grows exponentially with mean speed while the absolute speed deviation between adjacent cars grows linearly with the headway. The results provide some basic information for traffic management.

Keywords: headway, indicating parameters, speed dispersion, urban expressway

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4143 The Effect of an e-Learning Program of Basic Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation for Students of an Emergency Medical Technician Program

Authors: Itsaree Padphai, Jiranan Pakpeian, Suksun Niponchai


This study is a descriptive research which aims to: 1) Compare the difference of knowledge before and after using the e-Learning program entitled “Basic Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation for Students in an Emergency Medical Technician Diploma Program”, and 2) Assess the students’ satisfaction after using the said program. This research is a kind of teaching and learning management supplemented with the e-Learning system; therefore, the purposively selected samples are 44 first-year and class-16 students of an emergency medical technician diploma program who attend the class in a second semester of academic year 2012 in Sirindhorn College of Public Health, Khon Kaen province. The research tools include 1) the questionnaire for general information of the respondents, 2) the knowledge tests before and after using the e-Learning program, and 3) an assessment of satisfaction in using the e-Learning program. The statistics used in data analysis percentage, include mean, standard deviation, and inferential statistics: paired t-test. 1. The general information of the respondents was mostly 37 females representing 84.09 percent. The average age was 19.5 years (standard deviation was 0.81), the maximum age was 21 years, and the minimum age was 19 years respectively. Students (35 subjects) admitted that they preferred the methods of teaching and learning by using the e-Learning systems. This was totally 79.95 percent. 2. A comparison on the difference of knowledge before and after using the e-Learning program showed that the mean before an application was 6.64 (standard deviation was 1.94) and after was 18.84 (standard deviation 1.03), which was higher than the knowledge of students before using the e-Learning program with the statistical significance (P value < 0.001). 3. For the satisfaction after using the e-Learning program, it was found that students’ satisfaction was at a very good level with the mean of 4.93 (standard deviation was 0.11).

Keywords: e-Learning, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, diploma program, Khon Kaen Province

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4142 Coconut Shells as the Alternative Equipment for Foot Reflexology

Authors: Nichanant Sermsri, Chananchida Yuktirat


This research was the experimental research. Its purpose was to find out how coconut shells can be adapted to be equipment for foot and calf reflexology. The sample group was 58 female street vendors in Thewet Market, Dusit District, Bangkok, selected by selection criteria and voluntary. The data collecting tool in this research was the Visual Analogue Scale. The massaging tool made from coconut shells (designed and produced by the research team) was the key equipment for this research. The duration of the research was 1 month. The research team assessed the level of exhaustion and heart rate among sample group before and after the massage, then analyzed the data by mean, standard deviation and paired sample t-test. We found out from the research that 1) The level of exhaustion decreased 4.529 levels after the massage. The standard deviation was 1.6195. The heart rates went down 11.67 times/minute. The standard deviation was 6.742. 2) The level of exhaustion and heart rate after the massage decreased with the statistically significance at 0.01.

Keywords: foot reflexology, massaging plate, coconut shells, ecological sciences

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4141 The Consumer's Behavior of Bakery Products in Bangkok

Authors: Jiraporn Weenuttranon


The objectives of the consumer behavior of bakery products in Bangkok are to study consumer behavior of the bakery product, to study the essential factors that could possibly affect the consumer behavior and to study recommendations for the development of the bakery products. This research is a survey research. Populations are buyer’s bakery products in Bangkok. The probability sample size is 400. The research uses a questionnaire for self-learning by using information technology. The researcher created a reliability value at 0.71 levels of significance. The data analysis will be done by using the percentage, mean, and standard deviation and testing the hypotheses by using chi-square.

Keywords: consumer, behavior, bakery, standard deviation

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4140 Integrated Grey Rational Analysis-Standard Deviation Method for Handover in Heterogeneous Networks

Authors: Mohanad Alhabo, Naveed Nawaz, Mahmoud Al-Faris


The dense deployment of small cells is a promising solution to enhance the coverage and capacity of the heterogeneous networks (HetNets). However, the unplanned deployment could bring new challenges to the network ranging from interference, unnecessary handovers and handover failures. This will cause a degradation in the quality of service (QoS) delivered to the end user. In this paper, we propose an integrated Grey Rational Analysis Standard Deviation based handover method (GRA-SD) for HetNet. The proposed method integrates the Standard Deviation (SD) technique to acquire the weight of the handover metrics and the GRA method to select the best handover base station. The performance of the GRA-SD method is evaluated and compared with the traditional Multiple Attribute Decision Making (MADM) methods including Simple Additive Weighting (SAW) and VIKOR methods. Results reveal that the proposed method has outperformed the other methods in terms of minimizing the number of frequent unnecessary handovers and handover failures, in addition to improving the energy efficiency.

Keywords: energy efficiency, handover, HetNets, MADM, small cells

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4139 Dry Friction Fluctuations in Plain Journal Bearings

Authors: James Moran, Anusarn Permsuwan


This paper compares oscillations in the dry friction coefficient in different journal bearings. Measurements are made of the average and standard deviation in the coefficient of friction as a function of sliding velocity. The standard deviation of the friction coefficient changed dramatically with sliding velocity. The magnitude and frequency of the oscillations were a function of the velocity. A numerical model was developed for the frictional oscillations. There was good agreement between the model and results. Five different materials were used as the sliding surfaces in the experiments, Aluminum, Bronze, Mild Steel, Stainless Steel, and Nylon.

Keywords: Coulomb friction, dynamic friction, non-lubricated bearings, frictional oscillations

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4138 Analyzing the Results of Buildings Energy Audit by Using Grey Set Theory

Authors: Tooraj Karimi, Mohammadreza Sadeghi Moghadam


Grey set theory has the advantage of using fewer data to analyze many factors, and it is therefore more appropriate for system study rather than traditional statistical regression which require massive data, normal distribution in the data and few variant factors. So, in this paper grey clustering and entropy of coefficient vector of grey evaluations are used to analyze energy consumption in buildings of the Oil Ministry in Tehran. In fact, this article intends to analyze the results of energy audit reports and defines most favorable characteristics of system, which is energy consumption of buildings, and most favorable factors affecting these characteristics in order to modify and improve them. According to the results of the model, ‘the real Building Load Coefficient’ has been selected as the most important system characteristic and ‘uncontrolled area of the building’ has been diagnosed as the most favorable factor which has the greatest effect on energy consumption of building. Grey clustering in this study has been used for two purposes: First, all the variables of building relate to energy audit cluster in two main groups of indicators and the number of variables is reduced. Second, grey clustering with variable weights has been used to classify all buildings in three categories named ‘no standard deviation’, ‘low standard deviation’ and ‘non- standard’. Entropy of coefficient vector of Grey evaluations is calculated to investigate greyness of results. It shows that among the 38 buildings surveyed in terms of energy consumption, 3 cases are in standard group, 24 cases are in ‘low standard deviation’ group and 11 buildings are completely non-standard. In addition, clustering greyness of 13 buildings is less than 0.5 and average uncertainly of clustering results is 66%.

Keywords: energy audit, grey set theory, grey incidence matrixes, grey clustering, Iran oil ministry

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4137 Active Learning Management for Teacher's Professional Courses in Curriculum and Instruction, Faculty of Education Thaksin University

Authors: Chuanphit Chumkhong


This research aimed 1) to study the effects of the management of Active Learning among 3rd year students enrolled in teacher’s profession courses and 2) to assess the satisfaction of the students with courses using the Active Learning approach. The population for the study consisted of 442 3rd year undergraduate students enrolled in two teacher education courses in 2015: Curriculum Development and Learning Process Management. They were 442 from 11 education programs. Respondents for evaluation of satisfaction with Active Learning management comprised 432 students. The instruments used in research included a detailed course description and rating scale questionnaire on Active Learning. The data were analyzed using arithmetic mean and standard deviation. The results of the study reveal the following: 1. Overall, students gain a better understanding of the Active Learning due to their actual practice on the activity of course. Students have the opportunity to exchange learning knowledge and skills. The AL teaching activities make students interested in the contents and they seek to search for knowledge on their own. 2. Overall, 3rd year students are satisfied with the Active Learning management at a ‘high’ level with a mean score (μ) of 4.12 and standard deviation (σ) of. 51. By individual items, students are satisfied with the 10 elements in the two courses at a ‘high’ level with the mean score (μ) between 3.79 to 4.41 and a standard deviation (σ) between to 68. 79.

Keywords: active learning teaching model, teacher’s professional courses, professional courses, curriculum and instruction teacher's

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4136 Mathematics Anxiety among Male and Female Students

Authors: Wern Lin Yeo, Choo Kim Tan, Sook Ling Lew


Mathematics anxiety refers to the feeling of anxious when one having difficulties in solving mathematical problem. Mathematics anxiety is the most common type of anxiety among other types of anxiety which occurs among the students. However, level of anxiety among males and females are different. There were few past study were conducted to determine the relationship of anxiety and gender but there were still did not have an exact results. Hence, the purpose of this study is to determine the relationship of anxiety level between male and female undergraduates at a private university in Malaysia. Convenient sampling method used in this study in which the students were selected based on the grouping assigned by the faculty. There were 214 undergraduates who registered the probability courses had participated in this study. Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (MARS) was the instrument used in study which used to determine students’ anxiety level towards probability. Reliability and validity of instrument was done before the major study was conducted. In the major study, students were given briefing about the study conducted. Participation of this study were voluntary. Students were given consent form to determine whether they agree to participate in the study. Duration of two weeks were given for students to complete the given online questionnaire. The data collected will be analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) to determine the level of anxiety. There were three anxiety level, i.e., low, average and high. Students’ anxiety level were determined based on their scores obtained compared with the mean and standard deviation. If the scores obtained were below mean and standard deviation, the anxiety level was low. If the scores were at below and above the mean and between one standard deviation, the anxiety level was average. If the scores were above the mean and greater than one standard deviation, the anxiety level was high. Results showed that both of the gender were having average anxiety level. Males having high frequency of three anxiety level which were low, average and high anxiety level as compared to females. Hence, the mean values obtained for males (M = 3.62) was higher than females (M = 3.42). In order to be significant of anxiety level among the gender, the p-value should be less than .05. The p-value obtained in this study was .117. However, this value was greater than .05. Thus, there was no significant difference of anxiety level among the gender. In other words, there was no relationship of anxiety level with the gender.

Keywords: anxiety level, gender, mathematics anxiety, probability and statistics

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4135 Evaluating the Effect of Splitting Wind Farms on Power Output

Authors: Nazanin Naderi, Milton Smith


Since worldwide demand for renewable energy is increasing rapidly because of the climate problem and the limitation of fossil fuels, technologies of alternative energy sources have been developed and the electric power network now includes renewable energy resources such as wind energy. Because of the huge advantages that wind energy has, like reduction in natural gas use, price pressure, emissions of greenhouse gases and other atmospheric pollutants, electric sector water consumption and many other contributions to the nation’s economy like job creation it has got too much attention these days from different parts of the world especially in the United States which is trying to provide 20% of the nation’s energy from wind by 2030. This study is trying to evaluate the effect of splitting wind farms on power output. We are trying to find if we can get more output by installing wind turbines in different sites rather than installing all wind turbines in one site. Five potential sites in Texas have been selected as a case study and two years wind data has been gathered for these sites. Wind data are analyzed and effect of correlation between sites on power output has been evaluated. Standard deviation and autocorrelation effect has also been considered for this study. The paper has been organized as follows: After the introduction the second section gives a brief overview of wind analysis. The third section addresses the case study and evaluates correlation between sites, auto correlation of sites and standard deviation of power output. In section four we describe the results.

Keywords: auto correlation, correlation between sites, splitting wind farms, power output, standard deviation

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4134 Customers’ Satisfaction of ASEAN Camp: A Camp to Provide Training and Knowledge to Faculty and Staff Members

Authors: Kevin Wongleedee, Atcharapun Daiporn


This research paper was aimed to examine the level of satisfaction of the faculty and staff members who participated in the ASEAN camp. The population of this study included all the faculty and staff members who participated in the activities of the ASEAN camp during January 2014. Based on 106 faculty and staff members who answered the questionnaire, the data were complied by using SPSS. Mean and standard deviation were utilized in analyzing the data. The findings revealed that the average mean of satisfaction was 4.16, and standard deviation was 0.6634. Moreover, the mean average can be used to rank the level of satisfaction from each of the following factors: useful knowledge, technique of explaining knowledge, understanding materials, appropriateness of knowledge, document available, time of activities, service from staff, and public relation.

Keywords: ASEAN camp, customer, satisfaction, faculty and staff members

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4133 Satisfaction of the Training at ASEAN Camp: E-Learning Knowledge and Application at Chantanaburi Province, Thailand

Authors: Sinchai Poolklai


The purpose of this research paper was aimed to examine the level of satisfaction of the faculty members who participated in the ASEAN camp, Chantaburi, Thailand. The population of this study included all the faculty members of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University who participated in the training and activities of the ASEAN camp during March, 2014. Among a total of 200 faculty members who answered the questionnaire, the data was complied by using SPSS program. Percentage, mean and standard deviation were utilized in analyzing the data. The findings revealed that the average mean of satisfaction was 4.37, and standard deviation was 0.7810. Moreover, the mean average can be used to rank the level of satisfaction from each of the following factors: lower cost, less time consuming, faster delivery, more effective learning, and lower environment impact.

Keywords: ASEAN camp, e-learning, satisfaction, application

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4132 Identity Verification Using k-NN Classifiers and Autistic Genetic Data

Authors: Fuad M. Alkoot


DNA data have been used in forensics for decades. However, current research looks at using the DNA as a biometric identity verification modality. The goal is to improve the speed of identification. We aim at using gene data that was initially used for autism detection to find if and how accurate is this data for identification applications. Mainly our goal is to find if our data preprocessing technique yields data useful as a biometric identification tool. We experiment with using the nearest neighbor classifier to identify subjects. Results show that optimal classification rate is achieved when the test set is corrupted by normally distributed noise with zero mean and standard deviation of 1. The classification rate is close to optimal at higher noise standard deviation reaching 3. This shows that the data can be used for identity verification with high accuracy using a simple classifier such as the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN). 

Keywords: biometrics, genetic data, identity verification, k nearest neighbor

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4131 Continuous Synthesis of Nickel Nanoparticles by Hydrazine Reduction

Authors: Yong-Su Jo, Seung-Min Yang, Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha


The synthesis of nickel nanoparticles by the reduction of nickel chloride with hydrazine in an aqueous solution. The effect of hydrazine concentration on batch-processed particle characteristics was investigated using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). Both average particle size and geometric standard deviation (GSD) were decreasing with increasing hydrazine concentration. The continuous synthesis of nickel nanoparticles by microemulsion method was also studied using FESEM and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The average size and geometric standard deviation of continuous-processed particles were 87.4 nm and 1.16, respectively. X-ray diffraction revealed continuous-processed particles were pure nickel crystalline with a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure.

Keywords: nanoparticle, hydrazine reduction, continuous process, microemulsion method

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4130 Poincare Plot for Heart Rate Variability

Authors: Mazhar B. Tayel, Eslam I. AlSaba


The heart is the most important part in any body organisms. It effects and affected by any factor in the body. Therefore, it is a good detector of any matter in the body. When the heart signal is non-stationary signal, therefore, it should be study its variability. So, the Heart Rate Variability (HRV) has attracted considerable attention in psychology, medicine and have become important dependent measure in psychophysiology and behavioral medicine. Quantification and interpretation of heart rate variability. However, remain complex issues are fraught with pitfalls. This paper presents one of the non-linear techniques to analyze HRV. It discusses 'What Poincare plot is?', 'How it is work?', 'its usage benefits especially in HRV', 'the limitation of Poincare cause of standard deviation SD1, SD2', and 'How overcome this limitation by using complex correlation measure (CCM)'. The CCM is most sensitive to changes in temporal structure of the Poincaré plot as compared to SD1 and SD2.

Keywords: heart rate variability, chaotic system, poincare, variance, standard deviation, complex correlation measure

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4129 Application of the Standard Deviation in Regulating Design Variation of Urban Solutions Generated through Evolutionary Computation

Authors: Mohammed Makki, Milad Showkatbakhsh, Aiman Tabony


Computational applications of natural evolutionary processes as problem-solving tools have been well established since the mid-20th century. However, their application within architecture and design has only gained ground in recent years, with an increasing number of academics and professionals in the field electing to utilize evolutionary computation to address problems comprised from multiple conflicting objectives with no clear optimal solution. Recent advances in computer science and its consequent constructive influence on the architectural discourse has led to the emergence of multiple algorithmic processes capable of simulating the evolutionary process in nature within an efficient timescale. Many of the developed processes of generating a population of candidate solutions to a design problem through an evolutionary based stochastic search process are often driven through the application of both environmental and architectural parameters. These methods allow for conflicting objectives to be simultaneously, independently, and objectively optimized. This is an essential approach in design problems with a final product that must address the demand of a multitude of individuals with various requirements. However, one of the main challenges encountered through the application of an evolutionary process as a design tool is the ability for the simulation to maintain variation amongst design solutions in the population while simultaneously increasing in fitness. This is most commonly known as the ‘golden rule’ of balancing exploration and exploitation over time; the difficulty of achieving this balance in the simulation is due to the tendency of either variation or optimization being favored as the simulation progresses. In such cases, the generated population of candidate solutions has either optimized very early in the simulation, or has continued to maintain high levels of variation to which an optimal set could not be discerned; thus, providing the user with a solution set that has not evolved efficiently to the objectives outlined in the problem at hand. As such, the experiments presented in this paper seek to achieve the ‘golden rule’ by incorporating a mathematical fitness criterion for the development of an urban tissue comprised from the superblock as its primary architectural element. The mathematical value investigated in the experiments is the standard deviation factor. Traditionally, the standard deviation factor has been used as an analytical value rather than a generative one, conventionally used to measure the distribution of variation within a population by calculating the degree by which the majority of the population deviates from the mean. A higher standard deviation value delineates a higher number of the population is clustered around the mean and thus limited variation within the population, while a lower standard deviation value is due to greater variation within the population and a lack of convergence towards an optimal solution. The results presented will aim to clarify the extent to which the utilization of the standard deviation factor as a fitness criterion can be advantageous to generating fitter individuals in a more efficient timeframe when compared to conventional simulations that only incorporate architectural and environmental parameters.

Keywords: architecture, computation, evolution, standard deviation, urban

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4128 Factors Associated with Hotel Employees’ Loyalty: A Case Study of Hotel Employees in Bangkok, Thailand

Authors: Kevin Wongleedee


This research paper was aimed to examine the reasons associated with hotel employees’ loyalty. This was a case study of 200 hotel employees in Bangkok, Thailand. The population of this study included all hotel employees who were working in Bangkok during January to March, 2014. Based on 200 respondents who answered the questionnaire, the data were complied by using SPSS. Mean and standard deviation were utilized in analyzing the data. The findings revealed that the average mean of importance was 4.40, with 0.7585 of standard deviation. Moreover, the mean average can be used to rank the level of importance from each factor as follows: 1) salary, service charge cut, and benefits, 2) career development and possible advancement, 3) freedom of working, thinking, and ability to use my initiative, 4) training opportunities, 5) social involvement and positive environment, 6) fair treatment in the workplace and fair evaluation of job performance, and 7) personal satisfaction, participation, and recognition.

Keywords: hotel employees, loyalty, reasons, case study

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4127 The Level of Satisfaction of the Training Program from the ASEAN Camp II: A Camp to Prepare Human Resources for AEC 2015

Authors: Tanakom Potjanapitak, Kevin Wongleedee


The purpose of this research study was to study the level of satisfaction of the faculty members who participated in the ASEAN camp which aimed to prepare them for the readiness of AEC 2015. The population of this study included all the faculty members who participated in the activities of the ASEAN camp during April, 2014. Based on the survey of 120 faculty members who answered the questionnaire, the data was complied by using SPSS. Mean and standard deviation were utilized in analyzing the data. The findings revealed that the average mean of satisfaction was 4.41, and standard deviation was 0.7188. Moreover, the average mean can be used to rank the level of satisfaction from each of the following factors: helpful knowledge, understandable knowledge, proper materials, suitable knowledge, schedule of activities, staff, and advertising.

Keywords: ASEAN camp, training, satisfaction, human resources

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
4126 Ghost Frequency Noise Reduction through Displacement Deviation Analysis

Authors: Paua Ketan, Bhagate Rajkumar, Adiga Ganesh, M. Kiran


Low gear noise is an important sound quality feature in modern passenger cars. Annoying gear noise from the gearbox is influenced by the gear design, gearbox shaft layout, manufacturing deviations in the components, assembly errors and the mounting arrangement of the complete gearbox. Geometrical deviations in the form of profile and lead errors are often present on the flanks of the inspected gears. Ghost frequencies of a gear are very challenging to identify in standard gear measurement and analysis process due to small wavelengths involved. In this paper, gear whine noise occurring at non-integral multiples of gear mesh frequency of passenger car gearbox is investigated and the root cause is identified using the displacement deviation analysis (DDA) method. DDA method is applied to identify ghost frequency excitations on the flanks of gears arising out of generation grinding. Frequency identified through DDA correlated with the frequency of vibration and noise on the end-of-line machine as well as vehicle level measurements. With the application of DDA method along with standard lead profile measurement, gears with ghost frequency geometry deviations were identified on the production line to eliminate defective parts and thereby eliminate ghost frequency noise from a vehicle. Further, displacement deviation analysis can be used in conjunction with the manufacturing process simulation to arrive at suitable countermeasures for arresting the ghost frequency.

Keywords: displacement deviation analysis, gear whine, ghost frequency, sound quality

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4125 Cross-Validation of the Data Obtained for ω-6 Linoleic and ω-3 α-Linolenic Acids Concentration of Hemp Oil Using Jackknife and Bootstrap Resampling

Authors: Vibha Devi, Shabina Khanam


Hemp (Cannabis sativa) possesses a rich content of ω-6 linoleic and ω-3 linolenic essential fatty acid in the ratio of 3:1, which is a rare and most desired ratio that enhances the quality of hemp oil. These components are beneficial for the development of cell and body growth, strengthen the immune system, possess anti-inflammatory action, lowering the risk of heart problem owing to its anti-clotting property and a remedy for arthritis and various disorders. The present study employs supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) approach on hemp seed at various conditions of parameters; temperature (40 - 80) °C, pressure (200 - 350) bar, flow rate (5 - 15) g/min, particle size (0.430 - 1.015) mm and amount of co-solvent (0 - 10) % of solvent flow rate through central composite design (CCD). CCD suggested 32 sets of experiments, which was carried out. As SFE process includes large number of variables, the present study recommends the application of resampling techniques for cross-validation of the obtained data. Cross-validation refits the model on each data to achieve the information regarding the error, variability, deviation etc. Bootstrap and jackknife are the most popular resampling techniques, which create a large number of data through resampling from the original dataset and analyze these data to check the validity of the obtained data. Jackknife resampling is based on the eliminating one observation from the original sample of size N without replacement. For jackknife resampling, the sample size is 31 (eliminating one observation), which is repeated by 32 times. Bootstrap is the frequently used statistical approach for estimating the sampling distribution of an estimator by resampling with replacement from the original sample. For bootstrap resampling, the sample size is 32, which was repeated by 100 times. Estimands for these resampling techniques are considered as mean, standard deviation, variation coefficient and standard error of the mean. For ω-6 linoleic acid concentration, mean value was approx. 58.5 for both resampling methods, which is the average (central value) of the sample mean of all data points. Similarly, for ω-3 linoleic acid concentration, mean was observed as 22.5 through both resampling. Variance exhibits the spread out of the data from its mean. Greater value of variance exhibits the large range of output data, which is 18 for ω-6 linoleic acid (ranging from 48.85 to 63.66 %) and 6 for ω-3 linoleic acid (ranging from 16.71 to 26.2 %). Further, low value of standard deviation (approx. 1 %), low standard error of the mean (< 0.8) and low variance coefficient (< 0.2) reflect the accuracy of the sample for prediction. All the estimator value of variance coefficients, standard deviation and standard error of the mean are found within the 95 % of confidence interval.

Keywords: resampling, supercritical fluid extraction, hemp oil, cross-validation

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4124 Evidence of Climate Change from Statistical Analysis of Temperature and Rainfall Data of Kaduna State, Nigeria

Authors: Iliya Bitrus Abaje


This study examines the evidence of climate change scenario in Kaduna State from the analysis of temperature and rainfall data (1976-2015) from three meteorological stations along a geographic transect from the southern part to the northern part of the State. Different statistical methods were used in determining the changes in both the temperature and rainfall series. The result of the linear trend lines revealed a mean increase in average temperature of 0.73oC for the 40 years period of study in the State. The plotted standard deviation for the temperature anomalies generally revealed that years of temperatures above the mean standard deviation (hotter than the normal conditions) in the last two decades (1996-2005 and 2006-2015) were more than those below (colder than the normal condition). The Cramer’s test and student’s t-test generally revealed an increasing temperature trend in the recent decades. The increased in temperature is an evidence that the earth’s atmosphere is getting warmer in recent years. The linear trend line equation of the annual rainfall for the period of study showed a mean increase of 316.25 mm for the State. Findings also revealed that the plotted standard deviation for the rainfall anomalies, and the 10-year non-overlapping and 30-year overlapping sub-periods analysis in all the three stations generally showed an increasing trend from the beginning of the data to the recent years. This is an evidence that the study area is now experiencing wetter conditions in recent years and hence climate change. The study recommends diversification of the economic base of the populace with emphasis on moving away from activities that are sensitive to temperature and rainfall extremes Also, appropriate strategies to ameliorate the scourge of climate change at all levels/sectors should always take into account the recent changes in temperature and rainfall amount in the area.

Keywords: anomalies, linear trend, rainfall, temperature

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4123 Assesments of Some Environment Variables on Fisheries at Two Levels: Global and Fao Major Fishing Areas

Authors: Hyelim Park, Juan Martin Zorrilla


Climate change influences very widely and in various ways ocean ecosystem functioning. The consequences of climate change on marine ecosystems are an increase in temperature and irregular behavior of some solute concentrations. These changes would affect fisheries catches in several ways. Our aim is to assess the quantitative contribution change of fishery catches along the time and express them through four environment variables: Sea Surface Temperature (SST4) and the concentrations of Chlorophyll (CHL), Particulate Inorganic Carbon (PIC) and Particulate Organic Carbon (POC) at two spatial scales: Global and the nineteen FAO Major Fishing Areas divisions. Data collection was based on the FAO FishStatJ 2014 database as well as MODIS Aqua satellite observations from 2002 to 2012. Some data had to be corrected and interpolated using some existing methods. As the results, a multivariable regression model for average Global fisheries captures contained temporal mean of SST4, standard deviation of SST4, standard deviation of CHL and standard deviation of PIC. Global vector auto-regressive (VAR) model showed that SST4 was a statistical cause of global fishery capture. To accommodate varying conditions in fishery condition and influence of climate change variables, a model was constructed for each FAO major fishing area. From the management perspective it should be recognized some limitations of the FAO marine areas division that opens to possibility to the discussion of the subdivision of the areas into smaller units. Furthermore, it should be treated that the contribution changes of fishery species and the possible environment factor for specific species at various scale levels.

Keywords: fisheries-catch, FAO FishStatJ, MODIS Aqua, sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll, particulate inorganic carbon (PIC), particulate organic carbon (POC), VAR, granger causality

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4122 Wind Wave Modeling Using MIKE 21 SW Spectral Model

Authors: Pouya Molana, Zeinab Alimohammadi


Determining wind wave characteristics is essential for implementing projects related to Coastal and Marine engineering such as designing coastal and marine structures, estimating sediment transport rates and coastal erosion rates in order to predict significant wave height (H_s), this study applies the third generation spectral wave model, Mike 21 SW, along with CEM model. For SW model calibration and verification, two data sets of meteorology and wave spectroscopy are used. The model was exposed to time-varying wind power and the results showed that difference ratio mean, standard deviation of difference ratio and correlation coefficient in SW model for H_s parameter are 1.102, 0.279 and 0.983, respectively. Whereas, the difference ratio mean, standard deviation and correlation coefficient in The Choice Experiment Method (CEM) for the same parameter are 0.869, 1.317 and 0.8359, respectively. Comparing these expected results it is revealed that the Choice Experiment Method CEM has more errors in comparison to MIKE 21 SW third generation spectral wave model and higher correlation coefficient does not necessarily mean higher accuracy.

Keywords: MIKE 21 SW, CEM method, significant wave height, difference ratio

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4121 Traffic Density Measurement by Automatic Detection of the Vehicles Using Gradient Vectors from Aerial Images

Authors: Saman Ghaffarian, Ilgin Gökaşar


This paper presents a new automatic vehicle detection method from very high resolution aerial images to measure traffic density. The proposed method starts by extracting road regions from image using road vector data. Then, the road image is divided into equal sections considering resolution of the images. Gradient vectors of the road image are computed from edge map of the corresponding image. Gradient vectors on the each boundary of the sections are divided where the gradient vectors significantly change their directions. Finally, number of vehicles in each section is carried out by calculating the standard deviation of the gradient vectors in each group and accepting the group as vehicle that has standard deviation above predefined threshold value. The proposed method was tested in four very high resolution aerial images acquired from Istanbul, Turkey which illustrate roads and vehicles with diverse characteristics. The results show the reliability of the proposed method in detecting vehicles by producing 86% overall F1 accuracy value.

Keywords: aerial images, intelligent transportation systems, traffic density measurement, vehicle detection

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4120 Transient Analysis of Central Region Void Fraction in a 3x3 Rod Bundle under Bubbly and Cap/Slug Flows

Authors: Ya-Chi Yu, Pei-Syuan Ruan, Shao-Wen Chen, Yu-Hsien Chang, Jin-Der Lee, Jong-Rong Wang, Chunkuan Shih


This study analyzed the transient signals of central region void fraction of air-water two-phase flow in a 3x3 rod bundle. Experimental tests were carried out utilizing a vertical rod bundle test section along with a set of air-water supply/flow control system, and the transient signals of the central region void fraction were collected through the electrical conductivity sensors as well as visualized via high speed photography. By converting the electric signals, transient void fraction can be obtained through the voltage ratios. With a fixed superficial water velocity (Jf=0.094 m/s), two different superficial air velocities (Jg=0.094 m/s and 0.236 m/s) were tested and presented, which were corresponding to the flow conditions of bubbly flows and cap/slug flows, respectively. The time averaged central region void fraction was obtained as 0.109-0.122 with 0.028 standard deviation for the selected bubbly flow and 0.188-0.221with 0.101 standard deviation for the selected cap/slug flow, respectively. Through Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis, no clear frequency peak was found in bubbly flow, while two dominant frequencies were identified around 1.6 Hz and 2.5 Hz in the present cap/slug flow.

Keywords: central region, rod bundles, transient void fraction, two-phase flow

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4119 A Follow–Up Study of Bachelor of Science Graduates in Applied Statistics from Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University during the 1999-2012 Academic Years

Authors: Somruedee Pongsena


The purpose of this study is to follow up on the graduated students of Bachelor of Science in Applied Statistics from Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University (SSRU) during the 1999 – 2012 academic years and to provide the fundamental guideline for developing the current curriculum according to Thai Qualifications Framework for Higher Education (TQF: HEd). The sample was collected from 75 graduates by interview and online questionnaire. The content covered 5 subjects: ethics and moral, knowledge, cognitive skills, interpersonal skills and responsibility, numerical analysis as well as communication and information technology skills. Data were analyzed by using statistical methods as percentiles, means, standard deviation, t-tests, and F-tests. The findings showed that samples were mostly females younger than 26 years old. The majority of graduates had income in the range of 10,001-20,000 Baht and their experience range was 2-5 years. In addition, overall opinions from receiving knowledge to apply to work were at agree; mean score was 3.97 and standard deviation was 0.40. In terms of opinion difference, the hypothesis' testing results indicate gender only had different opinion at a significant level of 0.05.

Keywords: follow-up, graduates, knowledge, opinion, work performance.

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4118 Development of Standard Thai Appetizer in Rattanakosin Era‘s Standard: Case Study of Thai Steamed Dumpling

Authors: Nunyong Fuengkajornfung, Pattama Hirunyophat, Tidarat Sanphom


The objectives of this research were: To study of the recipe standard of Thai steamed dumpling, to study the ratio of modified starch in Thai steamed dumpling, to study chemical elements analyzing and Escherichia coli in Thai steamed dumpling. The experimental processes were designed in two stages as follows: To study the recipe standard of Thai steamed dumpling and to study the ratio of rice flour: modify starch by three levels 90:10, 73:30, and 50:50. The evaluation test used 9 Points Hedonic Scale method by the sensory evaluation test such as color, smell, taste, texture and overall liking. An experimental by Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The statistics used in data analyses were means, standard deviation, one-way ANOVA and Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. Regression equation, at a statistically significant level of .05. The results showed that the recipe standard was studied from three recipes by the sensory evaluation test such as color, odor, taste, spicy, texture and total acceptance. The result showed that the recipe standard of second was suitably to development. The ratio of rice flour: modified starch had 3 levels 90:10, 73:30, and 50:50 which the process condition of 50:50 had well scores (like moderately to like very much; used 9 Points Hedonic Scale method for the sensory test). Chemical elements analyzing, it showed that moisture 58.63%, fat 5.45%, protein 4.35%, carbohydrate 30.45%, and Ash 1.12%. The Escherichia coli is not found in lab testing.

Keywords: Thai snack in Rattanakosin era, Thai steamed dumpling, modify starch, recipe standard

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
4117 The Development of XML Resume System in Thailand

Authors: Jarumon Nookhong, Thanakorn Uiphanit


This study is a research and development project which aims to develop XML Resume System to be the standard system in Thailand as well as to measure the efficiency of the XML Resume System in Thailand. This research separates into 2 stages: 1) to develop XML Document System to be the standard in Thailand, and 2) to experiment the system performance. The sample in this research is committed by 50 specialists in the field of human resources by selecting specifically. The tool that uses in this research is XML Resume System in Thailand and the performance evaluation format of system while the analysis of the data is calculated by using average and standard deviation. The result of the research found that the development of the XML Resume System that aims to be the standard system in Thailand had the result 2.67 of the average which is in a good level. The evaluation in testing the performance of the system had been done by the specialists of human resources who use the XML Resume system. When analyzing each part, it found out that the abilities according to the user’s requirement from specialists in the field of human resources, the convenience and easiness in usages, and the functional competency are respectively in a good level. The average of the ability according to the user’s need from specialists of human resources is 2.92. The average of the convenience and easiness in usages is 2.56. The average of functional competency is 2.53. These can be used as the standard effectively.

Keywords: resume, XML, XML schema, computer science

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4116 Statistical Tools for SFRA Diagnosis in Power Transformers

Authors: Rahul Srivastava, Priti Pundir, Y. R. Sood, Rajnish Shrivastava


For the interpretation of the signatures of sweep frequency response analysis(SFRA) of transformer different types of statistical techniques serves as an effective tool for doing either phase to phase comparison or sister unit comparison. In this paper with the discussion on SFRA several statistics techniques like cross correlation coefficient (CCF), root square error (RSQ), comparative standard deviation (CSD), Absolute difference, mean square error(MSE),Min-Max ratio(MM) are presented through several case studies. These methods require sample data size and spot frequencies of SFRA signatures that are being compared. The techniques used are based on power signal processing tools that can simplify result and limits can be created for the severity of the fault occurring in the transformer due to several short circuit forces or due to ageing. The advantages of using statistics techniques for analyzing of SFRA result are being indicated through several case studies and hence the results are obtained which determines the state of the transformer.

Keywords: absolute difference (DABS), cross correlation coefficient (CCF), mean square error (MSE), min-max ratio (MM-ratio), root square error (RSQ), standard deviation (CSD), sweep frequency response analysis (SFRA)

Procedia PDF Downloads 586