Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4398

Search results for: legal framework

4398 The Current And Prospective Legal Regime of Non-Orbital Flights

Authors: Olga Koutsika

Abstract:

The paper deals primarily with the question of the legal framework of non-orbital flights. The submission is based upon two pillars, starting with the ill-defined current legal regime and proceeding to further recommendations for the prospective legal regime for non-orbital flights. For this reason, the paper focuses on certain key legal aspects of the topic, including among other things liability, responsibility, jurisdiction, registration and authorisation. Furthermore, taking into consideration the hybrid nature of both the craft conducting non-orbital flights and of the flights themselves, which exit airspace but do not enter an orbit in outer space, the paper addresses each legal question from the perspective of both air law and space law and concludes to a number of recommendations regarding the applicability of each legal regime for each legal question individually.

Keywords: current regime, legal framework, non-orbital flights, prospective regime

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
4397 Stuck Down in the Mess of Aisles: Need of a Practical Consumer Welfare Policy Framework in Sri Lanka with Special Reference to Japan

Authors: E. N. R. de Silva

Abstract:

The main purpose of this research is to set a policy framework for establishing a legal, institutional and social infrastructure that enhances the welfare, health, safety and economic interest of the consumers in Sri Lanka. It will help to develop an approach to continuously and successfully advocate for a consumer protection legal reform agenda and also it is significant as it gives directions to create national consumer protection associations in Sri Lanka. The methodology adopted for this research is purely a qualitative approach and it is generally and specifically categorized. Generally, part of this research looked at the existing laws, regulations and how effective they are in order to protect consumers. It will analyze the consumer protection framework and specially, consumer protection enhanced by the public organizations in Japan. This research offers a model with methods and legal instruments to enforce advocacy group to enhance consumer welfare, also brings out reforms to be made in the national legal framework on consumer welfare.

Keywords: consumer protection association, consumer protection law, consumer welfare, legal framework

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
4396 Legal Interpretation of the Transplanted Law

Authors: Wahyu Kurniawan

Abstract:

Indonesia developed the legal system radically since 1999. Several laws have been established and mostly the result of transplantation. Laws were made general but legal problems have been growing. In the legal enforcement, the judges have authority to interpret the laws. Authority and freedom are the source of corruption by the courts in Indonesia. Therefore, it should be built the conceptual framework to interpret the transplanted laws as the legal basis in deciding the cases. This article describes legal development based on interpretation of transplanted law in Indonesia by using the Indonesian Supervisory Commission for Business Competition (KPPU) decisions between 2000 and 2010 as the object of the research. The study was using law as a system theory and theories of legal interpretation especially the static and dynamic interpretations. The research showed that the KPPU interpreted the concept that exists in the Competition Law by using static and dynamic interpretation. Static interpretation was used to interpret the legal concepts based on two grounds, minute of meeting during law making process and the definitions that have been recognized in the Indonesian legal system. Dynamic interpretation was used when the KPPU developing the definition of the legal concepts. The general purpose of the law and the theories of the basis of the law were the conceptual framework in using dynamic interpretation. There are two recommendations in this article. Firstly, interpreting the laws by the judges should be based on the correct conceptual framework. Secondly, the technique of interpreting the laws would be the method of controlling the judges.

Keywords: legal interpretation, legal transplant, competition law, KPPU

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
4395 Competition in Kenya: The Legal and Institutional Framework and an Appraisal of Key Market Players

Authors: Edwin Njoroge Kimani, Alan M. Munyao

Abstract:

Despite Kenya’s status as a regional economic powerhouse, it struggles with economic shocks that expose the consumers. This, however, seems not to affect major cooperates such as those in the telecommunication and energy sectors. Through their operations, they have not only been able to fluctuate prices at will but also they have been accused of curtailing their rivals from penetrating the market. This study, through literature review of the legal and institutional framework, reports and publications interrogates the law and uncovers the following; i) failings of the legal framework to define market dominance and abuse of such positions, ii) the participation of the state, iii) the inertia of the government to prosecute corporations that abuse their market dominance, iv) the role of the state as a market player and as a regulator through the Competition Authority of Kenya. This study concludes that the market distortion is as a result of weak legal and institutional framework as well as conflict of interest by the government. Not much has been researched in the field of competition law the greater East Africa. This research is intended to form part of the growing research in the field and inform legal reform.

Keywords: competition law, economic power, dominance, Kenya

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
4394 Problems concerning Legal Regulation of Electronic Governance in Georgia

Authors: Giga Phartenadze

Abstract:

In the legal framework of regulation of electronic governance, those norms are considered which include measures for improvement of functions of public institutions and a complex of actions for raising their standard such as websites of public institutions, online services, some forms of internet interactions and higher level of internet services. An important legal basis for electronic governance in Georgia is Georgian Law about Electronic Communications which defines legal and economic basis for utilizing electronic communication systems in Georgia. As for single electronic basis for e-governance regulation, it can be said that it does not exist at all. The official websites of public institutions do not have standards for proactive spreading of information. At the same time, there is no common legal norm which would make all public institutions have an official website for public relations, accountability, publicity, and raising information quality. Electronic governance in Georgia needs comprehensive legal regulation. Public administration in electronic form is on the initial stage of development. Currently existing legal basis has a low quality for public institutions and officials as well as citizens and business. Services of e-involvement and e-consultation have also low quality. So far there is no established legal framework for e-governance. Therefore, a single legislative system of e-governance should be created which will help develop effective, comprehensive and multi component electronic systems in the country (central, regional, local levels). Such comprehensive legal framework will provide relevant technological, institutional, and informational conditions.

Keywords: law, e-government, public administration, Georgia

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
4393 The Impact of Emoticons in the Workplace: Legal Challenges and Regulatory Change

Authors: Jacques C. Duvenhage

Abstract:

The use of emoticons or so-called ‘emojis’ has gained much attention, not only in the daily use thereof with friends or family but also within the workplace amongst co-workers and employers. Even though emojis may be seen as a way to express feelings or even ideas, it may present legal challenges in the workplace. With new emojis being created on a daily basis, communicating through emojis, whether via phone, email or social media platforms, can become convoluted, especially within the working environment. The question to be addressed is how and/or whether Australian legislators will regulate the use of emojis (as a form of technology) in the workplace to prevent harassment, discrimination and other forms of prejudice. The emojis sent to co-workers may be interpreted by employees and even employers in different ways depending on their age, sexual orientation, and cultural background. Therefore, Australian courts will need to interpret an emoji’s meaning on a case-by-case basis. This paper will explore the use of emojis in the workplace (drawing on a desktop study), the impact emojis have on the employer-employee relationship as well as co-worker relationships, its legal application through case studies and whether a legal framework should be adopted by Australian legislators on this issue. Furthermore, this paper will reflect on the legal framework and application of emojis in the workplace considering foreign jurisdictions such as the United Kingdom and the United States of America and whether Australia should adopt similar legal approaches to these jurisdictions.

Keywords: emoticons, legal approaches, regulation, workplace

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
4392 The Reform of Chinese Migration Law and Its Actual Implementation

Authors: Wang Jie

Abstract:

This article advances the reform of Chinese migration law through an analysis of the updated and former versions of the Chinese migration law, specifically for the Exit-Entry Administration Law of the People’s Republic of China and Regulations on Foreigners’ Permanent Residence in the People’s Republic of China(Exposure Draft), which was most recently issued in 2012 and 2020 respectively. After a fundamental reform of China’s migration law, China’s immigration legal framework has become relatively well developed compared with the previous one. Immigration procedures are available online and these procedures have become relatively simple. Comparative research for the Chinese migration laws has been done during the past several years for its legislation, legal reference for western countries and its preliminary implementation. Some results show that the reform is a superficial one and may not have a practical effect on China’s current immigration legal framework. However, complete results cannot be obtained only through the comparative research of legal definitions. Some practical case studies will also be required to analyze in detail to demonstrate the reasons that some reforms still remain at the superficial level and what further progress is required in China's immigration legal framework. This is a perspective that has been overlooked in most comparative law studies. In the first part, this article will conduct a simple comparative study of the reform of Chinese migration law and use cases studies to illustrate the reform of Chinese migration law. In the second part, this article will point out another perspective that is easily overlooked, that is, how do the Chinese nationals treat the reform: whether it is a legislative advance or a failure, and whether it deepens social tensions between nationals and immigrants. In the third part, the article will discuss Chinese migration law through China’s international law perspective with international organizations, such as International Organization for Migration and International Labour Organization will also be discussed to dialectically judge the reform of Chinese migration law. This article will adopt case and comparative studies to conduct overall research based on the reform of Chinese migration law and try to put forward more constructive advice for China’s immigration legal framework.

Keywords: Chinese migration law, reform, foreigners, immigration legal framework

Procedia PDF Downloads 5
4391 Crossing the Interdisciplinary Border: A Multidimensional Linguistics Analysis of a Legislative Discourse

Authors: Manvender Kaur Sarjit Singh

Abstract:

There is a crucial mismatch between classroom written language tasks and real world written language requirements. Realizing the importance of reducing the gap between the professional needs of the legal practitioners and the higher learning institutions that offer the legislative education in Malaysia, it is deemed necessary to develop a framework that integrates real-life written communication with the teaching of content-based legislative discourse to future legal practitioners. By highlighting the actual needs of the legal practitioners in the country, the present teaching practices will be enhanced and aligned with the actual needs of the learners thus realizing the vision and aspirations of the Malaysian Education Blueprint 2013-2025 and Legal Profession Qualifying Board. The need to focus future education according to the actual needs of the learners can be realized by developing a teaching framework which is designed within the prospective requirements of its real-life context. This paper presents the steps taken to develop a specific teaching framework that fulfills the fundamental real-life context of the prospective legal practitioners. The teaching framework was developed based on real-life written communication from the legal profession in Malaysia, using the specific genre analysis approach which integrates a corpus-based approach and a structural linguistics analysis. This approach was adopted due to its fundamental nature of intensive exploration of the real-life written communication according to the established strategies used. The findings showed the use of specific moves and parts-of-speech by the legal practitioners, in order to prepare the selected genre. The teaching framework is hoped to enhance the teachings of content-based law courses offered at present in the higher learning institutions in Malaysia.

Keywords: linguistics analysis, corpus analysis, genre analysis, legislative discourse

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
4390 Translation and Legal Terminology: Techniques for Coping with the Untranslatability of Legal Terms between Arabic and English

Authors: Rafat Alwazna

Abstract:

Technical lexicon is witnessing a large upsurge in the use of new terminologies whose emergence is an inevitable result of the spread of high-quality technology, the existence of scientific paradigms and the fast growth of research in different disciplines. One important subfield of terminology is legal terminology, which forms a crucial part of legal studies, and whose translation from one legal system into another is deemed a formidable and arduous task that needs to be properly performed by legal translators. Indeed, the issue of untranslatability of legal terms, particularly between originally unrelated languages, like legal Arabic and legal English, has long been a real challenge in legal translation. It stems from the conceptual incongruency between legal terms of different legal languages, which are derived from different legal cultures and legal systems. Such conceptual asymmetry is owing to the fact that law has no universal reference and that legal language is what determines the degree of difference in conceptual correspondence. The present paper argues that although conceptual asymmetry, which is the main reason for the issue of untranslatability of legal terms, cannot be denied in legal translation, there exist certain translation techniques which, if properly adopted, would resolve the issue of untranslatability of legal terms and therefore achieve acceptable legal translation. Hence, the question of untranslatability of legal terms should no longer exist within the context of legal translation.

Keywords: conceptual incongruency, Legal terms, translation techniques, untranslatability

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
4389 Comparative International Law and Feminist Legal Studies, Uniting to Make a Difference in Addressing the Disempowerment of Women

Authors: Isaac Kfir

Abstract:

In thinking about the role of the law and its impact on socially constructed norms and identities, scholars have come to explore a multitude of issues to do with equality, empowerment, and views. The aim of this contribution is threefold. Firstly, offer a descriptive framework of feminist legal studies (FLS) through a review of the evolution of the field in the context of equality, rights, and justice. Secondly, encourage those working on equality, rights, and justice in respect to ‘women’s issues’ to engage in international comparative legal studies. Third, to highlight that those seeking solutions to disempowerment and discrimination must recognize that they need to contend with claims that one is seeking to undermine cultural norms. Therefore, one effective way for feminists to address this situation is by relying more on the international legal mechanism, which reflects basic legal tenets as to the universality of equality, rights, and justice, that can then help shape the domestic setting.

Keywords: international comparative law, feminist legal studies, equality, rights, justice

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
4388 Cartagena Protocol and Beyond: Issues and Challenges in the Nigeria's Response to Biosafety

Authors: Dalhat Binta Dan - Ali

Abstract:

The reality of the new world economic order and the ever increasing importance of biotechnology in the global economy have necessitated the ratification of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and the recent promulgation of Biosafety Act in Nigeria 2015. The legal regimes are anchored on the need to create an enabling environment for the flourishing of bio-trade and also to ensure the safety of the environment and human health. This paper critically examines the legal framework on biosafety by taking a cursory look at its philosophical foundation, key issues and milestones. The paper argues that the extant laws, though a giant leap in the establishment of a legal framework on biosafety, it posits that the legal framework raises debate and controversy on the difficulties of risk assessment on biodiversity and human health, other challenges includes lack of sound institutional capacity and the regimes direction of a hybrid approach between environmental conservation and trade issues. The paper recommend the need for the country to do more in the area of stimulating awareness and establishment of a sound institutional capacity to enable the law ensure adequate level of protection in the field of safe transfer, handling, and use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in Nigeria.

Keywords: Cartagena protocol, biosafety, issues, challenges, biotrade, genetically modified organism (GMOs), environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
4387 Legal Theories Underpinning Access to Justice for Victims of Sexual Violence in Refugee Camps in Africa

Authors: O. E. Eberechi, G. P. Stevens

Abstract:

Legal theory has been referred to as the explanation of why things do or do not happen. It also describes situations and why they ensue. It provides a normative framework by which things are regulated and a foundation for the establishment of legal mechanisms/institutions that can bring about a desired change in a society. Furthermore, it offers recommendations in resolving practical problems and describes what the law is, what the law ought to be and defines the legal landscape generally. Some legal theories provide a universal standard, e.g. human rights, while others are capable of organizing and streamlining the collective use, and, by extension, bring order to society. Legal theory is used to explain how the world works and how it does not work. This paper will argue for the application of the principles of legal theory in the achievement of access to justice for female victims of sexual violence in refugee camps in Africa through the analysis of legal theories underpinning the access to justice for these women. It is a known fact that female refugees in camps in Africa often experience some form of sexual violation. The perpetrators of these incidents may never be apprehended, prosecuted, convicted or sentenced. Where prosecution does occur, the perpetrators are either acquitted as a result of poor investigation, inept prosecution, a lack of evidence, or the case may be dismissed owing to tardiness on the part of the prosecutor, which accounts for the culture of impunity in refugee camps. In other words, victims do not have access to the justice that could ameliorate the plight of the victims. There is, thus, a need for a legal framework that will facilitate access to justice for these victims. This paper will start with an introduction, and be followed by the definition of legal theory, its functions and its application in law. Secondly, it will provide a brief explanation of the problems faced by female refugees who are victims of sexual violence in refugee camps in Africa. Thirdly, it will embark on an analysis of theories which will be a help to an understanding of the precarious situation of female refugees, why they are violated, the need for access to justice for these victims, and the principles of legal theory in its usefulness in resolving access to justice for these victims.

Keywords: access to justice, underpinning legal theory, refugee, sexual violence

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
4386 The Need for a More Robust Legal Framework to Curb the Rise in Violence against Game Officials

Authors: A. Roomy

Abstract:

The dramatic rise in violence against game officials has affected all levels of sports including recreational, amateur, and professional sports. One way to combat this rise in violence is through the creation of laws specifically aimed at preventing and punishing this kind of violence. This paper will use related legal cases as a starting point to explore possible ways of better protecting the safety of game officials. It will do this by looking at relevant cases, related legal issues, and two specific ways of reducing violence against game officials. In closing, it will be argued that there needs to be a more robust legal approach with emphasis on criminal and civil penalties for assault and battery, and a more comprehensive social approach with emphasis on raising social awareness on the need to protect game officials from violence.

Keywords: game officials, legal issues, safety, violence

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
4385 Working Together: The Nature of Collaborative Legal and Social Services and Their Influence on Practice

Authors: Jennifer Donovan

Abstract:

Practice collaborations between legal assistance and social support services have emerged as a growing framework worldwide for delivering services to clients with high degrees of disadvantage, vulnerability and complexity. In Australia, the past five years has seen a significant growth in these socio-legal collaborations, with programs being delivered through legal, social service and health organizations and addressing a range of issues including mental health, immigration, parental child abduction and domestic violence. This presentation is based on research currently mapping the nature of these collaborations in Australia and exploring the influence that collaborating professions are having on each other’s practice. In a similar way to problem-solving courts being seen as a systematic take up of therapeutic jurisprudence in the court setting, socio-legal collaborations have the potential to be a systematic take up of therapeutic jurisprudence in an advice setting. This presentation will explore the varied ways in which socio-legal collaboration is being implemented in these programs. It will also explore the development of interdisciplinary therapeutic jurisprudence within them, with preliminary findings suggesting that both legal and social service practice is being influenced by the collaborative setting, with legal practice showing a more therapeutic orientation and social service professions, such as social work, moving toward a legal and rights orientation.

Keywords: collaboration, socio-legal, Australia, therapeutic jurisprudence

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
4384 Increasing Abundance of Jellyfish in the Shorelines of Bangladesh: Analyzing the Policy Framework for Facing the Challenges

Authors: Md Mizanur Rahman, M. Aslam Alam, Muhammad Abu Yusuf

Abstract:

The abundance of Jellyfish across the coasts of the Bay of Bengal is increasing sharply due to marine pollution, increased sea acidification and climate change. Jellyfish draws our attention to address the local and global stressors. This also indicates that something wrong is happening in this bay behind the scenes. This study aimed to investigate how the policy framework governing the sea can be reformed. To do so, this study evaluated the existing policy, regulatory and institutional framework. Empirical data were collected from the middle coastal zone of Bangladesh. The secondary literature on policy, legal documents, and institutional arrangements were reviewed. The causes of poor coordination among different public sectors and non-compliance of laws were identified. The key findings show that despite the existing of Department of Environment, poor coordination with other departments, and lack of logistics and technical staffs have resulted in severe marine pollution and degradation of coastal and marine living resources. The existing policies had no monitoring and evaluation mechanisms. Non-compliance of the existing laws has been fueling the problems. This study provides an integrated policy and a guideline for updating the legal and institutional mechanism to manage coastal and marine living resources sustainably in Bangladesh to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 14.

Keywords: legal, institutional, framework, jellyfish

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
4383 Survival of Islamic Banking Services in Tanzania: A Quick Survey on Conflicting Legal Framework

Authors: Ayoub Ali Maulana

Abstract:

“The success and sustainability of an Islamic finance system depends on the ability to establish a comprehensive legal and regulatory framework that supports synergy amongst the components in the system”. Numbers of banks have introduced Islamic banking windows claiming that their products follow Islamic banking values without any compromise. National Bank of Commerce Limited, Stanbic Bank Limited, Kenya Commercial Bank, The Peoples Bank of Zanzibar and Amana Bank Limited are some of the banks which offer Islamic banking products in Tanzania. To date, there is no single provision in Tanzanian laws that speak of Islamic banking activities in the country. Despite the fact that consultancy commissioned to International Monetary Fund (IMF) to research on the best laws to govern Islamic banking industry in the country, the speed is not encouraging in making sure that the same is introduced as soon as possible. This paper highlights the trend of the banking services in Tanzania and examines the application of Islamic banking system in the Tanzanian conventional banking environment. In particular the paper considers whether the Islamic banking services in Tanzania can survive without an appropriate legal framework that accommodates it.

Keywords: islamic banks, interest, islamic windows, Tanzania

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
4382 Need of National Space Legislation for Space Faring Nations

Authors: Muhammad Naveed, Yang Caixia

Abstract:

The need for national space legislation is pivotal, particularly in light of the fact that in recent years space activities have grown immensely both in volume and diversity. Countries are progressively developing capabilities in space exploration and scientific discoveries, market their capabilities to manufacture satellites, provide launch services from their facilities and are looking to privatize and commercialize their space resources. Today, nations are also seeking to comprehend the technological and financial potential of the private sector and are considering to share their financial burdens with them and to limit their exposures to risks, but they are lagging behind in legal framework in this regard. In the perspective of these emerging developments, it is therefore, felt that national space legislation should be enacted with the goal of building and implementing a vibrant and transparent legal framework at the national level to hasten investments and to ensure growth in this capital intensive - highly yield strategic sector. This study looks at (I) the international legal framework that governs space activities; (II) motivation behind making national space laws; and (III) the need for national space legislation. The paper concludes with some recommendations with regards to the conceivable future direction for national space legislation, in particular space empowered sub-areas for countries.

Keywords: international conventions, national legislation, space faring nations, space law

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
4381 Challenges in Learning Legal English from the Students’ Perspective at Hanoi Law University

Authors: Nhac Thanh Huong

Abstract:

Legal English, also known as Language of the Law (Mellinkoff, David. 2004), is an indispensable factor contributing to the development of legal field. At Hanoi Law University, legal English is a compulsory subject in the syllabus of legal English major; International Trade law and Fast-track law training program. The question that what obstacles students face with when dealing with legal English, however, has not been answered at that institution. Therefore, this present research, which makes use of survey questionnaires as the main method, aims to study the challenges of learning legal English from the students’ perspective, from which some useful solutions are drawn up to overcome these difficulties and improve the effectiveness of learning legal English. The results indicate notable difficulties arising from the level of general English skills, the characteristics of legal English and legal background knowledge. These findings lay a scientific foundation for suggesting some solutions for practical applications in teaching as well as learning legal English among both teachers and students.

Keywords: challenges, HLU, Legal English, students' perspective

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
4380 From the Lack of Trust Law to a Controversial Judicial Case Law: Implications for Perfecting Vietnam’s Legal System

Authors: Le Bich Thuy

Abstract:

A trust is an alien notion in Vietnamese law until 2021, which not only dissatisfies the practical demands of the nation’s civilians but also results in some detrimental shortcomings. The Judicial Case Law No 2 to be applied in adjudicating subsequent cases is a typical example of such negative consequences, implying a need for an application of trust law into Vietnam’s legal system. This paper first presents the similarity in nature between parties’ relationship in the mentioned case and a proprietary trust relationship, followed by an analysis of such a case from a trusted perspective. Subsequently, an introduction of potential obstacles hindering the introduction of trust law into the Vietnamese legal framework is presented. Finally, some implications are suggested for perfecting Vietnam’s legal system.

Keywords: Vietnamese case law no 2, trust law, private property management, patrimony

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
4379 Changing Landscape of International Law of Governance: ‘One Belt One Road Initiative’ as a Case Study

Authors: Tikumporn Rodkhunmuang

Abstract:

The importance of ‘international law of governance’ is the means and end to deal with international affairs. This research paper seeks to first study the historical development of international law of governance from the classical period of the international legal framework of global governance until the contemporary period of its framework. Second, the international law of governance is extremely turning into the crucial point in its long history because of the changing of China's foreign policies towards ‘One Belt One Road Initiative’. Third, the proposing model of the existing international law of governance within Chinese characteristics will be the new rules and modalities of modern diplomacy and governed international affairs. Methodologically speaking, this research paper is conducting under mixed methods research, which are also included numerical analysis and theoretical considerations. As a result, this research paper is the critical point of the international legal framework of global governance that changing the diplomatic paradigm as well as turning China into a great-power in international politics. So, this research paper is useful for international legal scholars and diplomats for slightly changing their understanding of the rapidly changing their norms from western norms to the eastern norms of international law. Therefore, the outcome of the research is the modern model of China to make a diplomatic relationship with other countries in the global society.

Keywords: global governance, international law, landscape, one belt one road

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
4378 Curbing Abuses of Legal Power in the Society

Authors: Tajudeen Ojo Ibraheem

Abstract:

In a world characterized by greed and the lust for power and its attendant trappings, abuse of legal power is nothing new to most of us. Legal abuses of power abound in all fields of human endeavour. Accounts of such abuses dominate the mass media and for the average individual, no single day goes by without his getting to hear about at least one such occurrence. This paper briefly looks at the meaning of legal power, what legal abuse is all about, its causes, and some of its manifestations in the society. Its consequences will also be discussed and some suggestions for reform will be made. In the course of the paper, references will be made to various jurisdictions around the world.

Keywords: abuse, legal, power, society

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
4377 Legal Issues of Implementing Public Projects through Civic Crowdfunding

Authors: Mahdieh Dehghan Nayeri, Hani Arbabi, Seid Pooyan Ghafoori

Abstract:

Civic crowdfunding- crowdfunding public projects- which goes beyond people management- as a significant part of public projects stakeholders- and requires the active engagement of the public in both the financing and decision-making processes of public projects, is expanding. However, in most countries of the world, no specific legal framework has been approved for governing and managing the implementation of projects through this method. Through a systematic literature review, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA), this article has studied and discussed the legal issues of civic crowdfunded projects in the countries leading the use of this method, in four themes; one related to the legal environment and three related to three leading players in civic crowdfunded projects include the investor, the platform, and the investee. The review showed that despite the increasing attention to people's engagement in public projects -financial and non-financial- not much scientific research has been done to formulate fully structured legal structures. Finally, neglected areas in research have been discussed as a guide for future research.

Keywords: civic crowdfunding, equity crowdfunding, public projects, legal issues, crowdsourcing

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
4376 The Syntactic Features of Islamic Legal Texts and Their Implications for Translation

Authors: Rafat Y. Alwazna

Abstract:

Certain religious texts are deemed part of legal texts that are characterised by high sensitivity and sacredness. Amongst such religious texts are Islamic legal texts that are replete with Islamic legal terms that designate particular legal concepts peculiar to Islamic legal system and legal culture. However, from the syntactic perspective, Islamic legal texts prove lengthy, condensed and convoluted, with little use of punctuation system, but with an extensive use of subordinations and co-ordinations, which separate the main verb from the subject, and which, of course, carry a heavy load of legal detail. The present paper seeks to examine the syntactic features of Islamic legal texts through analysing a short text of Islamic jurisprudence in an attempt at exploring the syntactic features that characterise this type of legal text. A translation of this text into legal English is then exercised to find the translation implications that have emerged as a result of the English translation. Based on these implications, the paper compares and contrasts the syntactic features of Islamic legal texts to those of legal English texts. Finally, the present paper argues that there are a number of syntactic features of Islamic legal texts, such as nominalisation, passivisation, little use of punctuation system, the use of the Arabic cohesive device, etc., which are also possessed by English legal texts except for the last feature and with some variations. The paper also claims that when rendering an Islamic legal text into legal English, certain implications emerge, such as the necessity of a sentence break, the omission of the cohesive device concerned and the increase in the use of nominalisation, passivisation, passive participles, and so on.

Keywords: English legal texts, Islamic legal texts, nominalisation, participles, passivisation, syntactic features, translation implications

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
4375 Information Technology and the Challenges Facing the Legal Profession in Nigeria

Authors: Odoh Ben Uruchi

Abstract:

Information Technology is an outcome of the nexus between the computer technology and the communication technology which has grown as silver fiber in Nigeria. Information Technology represents the fourth generation of human communication after sight, oral and written communications. The internet, as with all path-breaking technological developments gives us all the ample privileges to act as a global community; advertise and operate across all frontiers; over boarders and beyond the control of any government. The security concerns, computer abuse and the side effects of this technology have moved to the forefront of the consciousness of law enforcement agencies. Unfortunately, Nigeria is one of the very few countries in the world to have not legislated Cyber Laws, although several unsuccessful attempts have been made in recent times at providing the legal framework for regulating the activities in Nigerian cyberspace. Traditional legal systems have led to great difficulty in keeping pace with the rapid growth of the internet and its impact throughout Nigeria. The only existing legal frameworks are constantly being challenged by technological advancement. This has created a need to constantly update and adapt the way in which we organize ourselves as Legal Practitioners in order to maintain overall control of its domestic and national interests. This paper seeks to appraise the challenges facing the legal profession in Nigeria because of want of Cyber Laws. In doing this, the paper shall highlight the loopholes in the existing laws and recommends the way forward.

Keywords: information technology, challenges, legal profession, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 432
4374 Legal Pluralism and Efficiency in International Marriage Law: Implications of Regulatory Competition on an Analysis of Conflict of Law Rules

Authors: Rorick Daniel Tovar Galvan

Abstract:

The existence of different legal systems represents an important barrier for married couples that attempt to reside in another country. Each movement can cause important changes in the rights and obligations derived from the marriage since a different law could be used by the courts to solve legal disputes arising from their relationship. In a context in which it is increasingly common to move from one country to another, people cannot be certain about the outcomes of proceedings dealing with i.e., the dissolution of property regime, maintenance payments or time to wait to initiate divorce because a foreign – and in most cases unknown – law could apply every time they move. At first glance, the answer to this issue seems to be the harmonization of the legal systems: the greater the mobility of individuals inside a group of countries, the higher the similarities of their laws should be. Such a solution could be positive for spouses because a higher degree of legal certainty would be reached in case the same legal rules applied regardless of the place where the couple lives. However, the legal pluralism brings with it also advantages that could be appreciated when one looks closely at the economic rationale behind the legal institution of marriage. This contribution carries out an economic analysis of the existence of different legal systems in the area of marriage law and proposes another strategy to cope with the problems arising from legal pluralism. Far from eliminating the diversity of legal systems, one wishes to foster it, since significant advantages could arise from such diversity in case couples are permitted to choose the applicable law themselves. Based on the idea that the law could be seem as a product offered in the market as well as states and spouses as suppliers and consumers of this product, the paper shows the advantages of designing a legal framework that allows spouses to determine freely the law governing the legal effects of their marriage. Instead of promoting the harmonization of the substantive law, one explores the benefits of encouraging the regulatory competition at international level in the area of marriage law.

Keywords: conflict of laws, harmonization, international marriage law, law and economics, regulatory competition

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
4373 Directors’ Duties, Civil Liability, and the Business Judgment Rule under the Portuguese Legal Framework

Authors: Marisa Catarina da Conceição Dinis

Abstract:

The commercial companies’ management has suffered an important material and legal transformation in the last years, mainly related to the changes in the Portuguese legal framework and because of the fact they were recently object of great expansion. In fact, next to the smaller family businesses, whose management is regularly assumed by partners, companies with social investment highly scattered, whose owners are completely out from administration, are now arising. In those particular cases, the business transactions are much more complex and require from the companies’ managers a highly technical knowledge and some specific professionals’ skills and abilities. This kind of administration carries a high-level risk that can both result in great success or in great losses. Knowing that the administration performance can result in important losses to the companies, the Portuguese legislator has created a legal structure to impute them some responsibilities and sanctions. The main goal of this study is to analyze the Portuguese law and some jurisprudence about companies’ management rules and about the conflicts between the directors and the company. In order to achieve these purposes we have to consider, on the one hand, the legal duties directly connected to the directors’ functions and on the other hand the disrespect for those same rules. The Portuguese law in this matter, influenced by the common law, determines that the directors’ attitude should be guided by loyalty and honesty. Consequently, we must reflect in which cases the administrators should respond to losses that they might cause to companies as a result of their duties’ disrespect. In this way is necessary to study the business judgment rule wich is a rule that refers to a liability exclusion rule. We intend, in the same way, to evaluate if the civil liability that results from the directors’ duties disrespect can extend itself to those who have elected them ignoring or even knowing that they don´t have the necessary skills or appropriate knowledge to the position they hold. To charge directors’, without ruining entrepreneurship, charging, in the same way, those who select them reinforces the need for more responsible and cautious attitudes which will lead consequently to more confidence in the markets.

Keywords: business judgment rule, civil liability of directors, duty of care, duty of care, Portuguese legal framework

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
4372 Investigating Legal Consciousness Among Migrants in Greece: A Study of Migrant’s Views of Hate Crime and their Legal Rights

Authors: Violeta Kapageorgiadou

Abstract:

Over the past decade, millions of individuals from middle-eastern and African countries have migrated to Europe to seek refuge. The majority of these refugees emigrate from Muslim majority countries and seek to integrate into European societies. Notably, Greece has hosted thousands of individuals seeking asylum since 2015. Many of these individuals have applied for asylum. They have sought to integrate into the Greek society and to navigate their way through the national and European legal systems with regard to their status. This paper, drawn from a PhD thesis project, focuses on the legal consciousness of migrants and the processes open to asylum seekers to assert their rights, notably with regard to incidents of hate crime and including their interactions with the legal authorities in Greece. The research seeks to capture the factors that influence the views and behaviors of migrants towards the law and their legal rights, using legal consciousness as a theoretical framework. The research findings indicate that asylum seekers have developed a multidimensional legal consciousness influenced by their religious and political background, legal knowledge, previous (negative) experiences with the legal system and their socio-economic status in Greece. Asylum seekers, while aware of the rights essential for their survival in the host country (such as applying for asylum to obtain a secure status, claiming for benefits and housing), were unaware of, and less willing to engage with, legal authorities and rights which they did not find essential for their survival. They viewed hate incidents against them as less important, not worth reporting and sometimes did not even consider these incidents as crimes. The research suggests that asylum seekers in Greece are a vulnerable population who need mechanisms to support them and raise their legal consciousness around their rights in order to better integrate, develop and thrive in the host society. Moving forwards, a better understanding of refugees' and asylum seekers’ reactions towards hate crime will help to create future policies and support mechanisms that could improve the lives of these individuals.

Keywords: hate crime, legal consciousness, legal rights, migrations

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
4371 Palliative Care: Optimizing the Quality of Life through Strengthening the Legal Regime of Bangladesh

Authors: Sonia Mannan, M. Jobair Alam

Abstract:

The concept of palliative care in Bangladesh largely remained limited to the sympathetic caring of patients with a life-limiting illness. Quality of Life (QoL) issues are rarely practiced in Bangladesh. Furthermore, palliative medicine, in the perspective of holistic palliative care service, does not have its proper recognition in Bangladesh. Apart from those socio-medical aspects, palliative care patients face legal issues that impact their quality of life, including access to health services and social benefits and dealing with other life-transactions of the patients and their families (such as disposing of property; planning for children). This paper is an attempt to articulate these legal dimensions of the right to palliative care in the context of Bangladesh. The major focus of this paper will be founded on the doctrinal analysis of the constitutional provisions and other relevant legislation on the right to health and their judicial interpretation, which is argued to offer a meaningful space for the right to palliative care. This paper will also investigate the gaps in the said legal framework to better secure such care. In conclusion, a few recommendations are made so that the palliative care practices in Bangladesh are better aligned with international standards, and it can respond more humanely to the patients who need palliative care.

Keywords: Bangladesh, constitution, legal regime, palliative care, quality of life

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
4370 Protection of Television Programme Formats in Comparative Law

Authors: Mustafa Arikan, Ibrahim Ercan

Abstract:

In this paper, protection of program formats was investigated in terms of program formats. Protection of program formats was studied in the French Law in the sense of competition law and CPI. Since the English Judicial system exhibits differences from the legal system of Continental Europe, its investigation bears a special significance. The subject was also handled in German Law at length. Indeed, German Law was investigated in detail within the overall framework of the study. Here, the court decisions in the German Law and the views in the doctrine were expressed in general. There are many court decisions in the American legal system concerning the subject. These decisions also present alternatives in terms of a solution to the problem.

Keywords: comparative law, protection of television programme formats, intellectual property, american legal system

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
4369 Rethinking Military Aid to Civil Authorities for Internal Security Operations: A Sustainable Solution to Rebuilding Civil Military Relations in Nigeria

Authors: Emmanuela Ngozi Maduka

Abstract:

In Nigeria, civil-military relations is at its lowest point as a result of the challenges emanating from incessant initiation of military aid to civil authorities (MACA) for internal security operations. This paper is concerned with the question whether it is appropriate for the military to handle internal security crisis with exception to terrorism and armed militia. It analyses the legal framework for MACA in internal security operations which appear to be in contradiction with military tactical and equipment training. The paper argues that the expectation that transitional re-training of the military for internal security operations will reconcile these inconsistencies specifically on the issue of use of force is not practicable and will always pose challenges for both the military and the citizens. Accordingly, this paper adopts a socio-legal methodology for better clarity on the interactions between the legal framework on MACA and military internal security operations. The paper also identifies the lack of effective and proficient paramilitary within the security design of Nigeria as the key issue which results in incessant initiation of MACA and advocates for the establishment of an effective and proficient paramilitary to effectively handle internal security crisis within Nigeria.

Keywords: civil-military relations, MACA, military training, operational challenges, paramilitary, use of force

Procedia PDF Downloads 45