Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 268

Search results for: generic

268 Pharmaceutical Evaluation of Five Different Generic Brands of Prednisolone

Authors: Asma A. Ben Ahmed, Hajer M. Alborawy, Alaa A. Mashina, Pradeep K. Velautham, Abdulmonem Gobassa, Emhemmed Elgallal, Mohamed N. El Attug

Abstract:

Generic medicines are those where patent protection has expired, and which may be produced by manufacturers other than the innovator company. Use of generic medicines has been increasing in recent years, primarily as a cost saving measure in healthcare provision. Generic medicines are typically 20 – 90 % cheaper than originator equivalents. Physicians often continue to prescribe brand-name drugs to their patients even when less expensive pharmacologically equivalent generic drugs are available. Because generics are less expensive than their brand-name counterparts, the cost-savings to the patient is not the only factor that physicians consider when choosing between generic and brand-name drugs. Unfortunately Physicians in general and Libyan Physicians in particular tend to prescribe brand-name drugs, even without evidence of their therapeutic superiority, because neither they nor their insured patients bear these drugs’ increased cost with respect to generic substitutes. This study is to compare the quality of five different prednisolone tablets of the same strength from different companies under different trade names: Julphar, October pharma, Akums, Actavis, Pfizer compared them with pure prednisolone reference (BPCRS).

Keywords: quality control, pharmaceutical analysis, generic medicines, prednisolone

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267 Integrating Generic Skills into Disciplinary Curricula

Authors: Sitalakshmi Venkatraman, Fiona Wahr, Anthony de Souza-Daw, Samuel Kaspi

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There is a growing emphasis on generic skills in higher education to match the changing skill-set requirements of the labour market. However, researchers and policy makers have not arrived at a consensus on the generic skills that actually contribute towards workplace employability and performance that complement and/or underpin discipline-specific graduate attributes. In order to strengthen the qualifications framework, a range of ‘generic’ learning outcomes have been considered for students undergoing higher education programs and among them it is necessary to have the fundamental generic skills such as literacy and numeracy at a level appropriate to the qualification type. This warrants for curriculum design approaches to contextualise the form and scope of these fundamental generic skills for supporting both students’ learning engagement in the course, as well as the graduate attributes required for employability and to progress within their chosen profession. Little research is reported in integrating such generic skills into discipline-specific learning outcomes. This paper explores the literature of the generic skills required for graduates from the discipline of Information Technology (IT) in relation to an Australian higher education institution. The paper presents the rationale of a proposed Bachelor of IT curriculum designed to contextualize the learning of these generic skills within the students’ discipline studies.

Keywords: curriculum, employability, generic skills, graduate attributes, higher education, information technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
266 Community Pharmacist's Perceptions Towards Generic Drugs in Algeria

Authors: M. Y. Achouri, O. A. Alleg, M. C. L. Moulai, M. A. Selka

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This study aims to assess the perception and attitudes of community pharmacists in Sidi-Bel-Abbes (Algeria) towards generic drugs. This is a descriptive cross-sectional prospective survey and quantitative, conducted over a period of two months from April to May 2014. The target population consisted of 118 pharmacists practicing in pharmacies in Sidi-Bel-Abbes. Data collection was conducted through a questionnaire consisting of thirteen (13) items. Fifty six (67%) of community pharmacists in the town of Sidi-Bel-Abbes in the survey believe that generics have a lower quality compared to brand name medicines Only 42% of respondents viewed locally manufactured generic medicines as equal in quality compared to the imported generic medicines, and 63% believe that the generics substitution has led to change the relationship between a pharmacist and patient. In order to promote the practice of generic medicines in Algeria, an educational program should be implemented.

Keywords: generic drugs, perception, attitudes, community pharmacists

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
265 Generic Polynomial of Integers and Applications

Authors: Nidal Ali

Abstract:

Consider an algebraic number field K of degree n, A0 K is its ring of integers and a prime number p inert in K. Let F(u1, . . . , un, x) be the generic polynomial of integers of K. We will study in advance the stability of this polynomial and then, we will apply it in order to obtain all the monic irreducible polynomials in Fp[x] of degree d dividing n.

Keywords: generic polynomial, irreducibility, iteration, stability, inert prime, totally ramified

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
264 A Crossover Study of Therapeutic Equivalence of Generic Product Versus Reference Product of Ivabradine in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure

Authors: Hadeer E. Eliwa, Naglaa S. Bazan, Ebtissam A. Darweesh, Nagwa A. Sabri

Abstract:

Background: Generic substitution of brand ivabradine prescriptions can reduce drug expenditures and improve adherence. However, the distrust of generic medicines by practitioners and patients due to doubts regarding their quality and fear of counterfeiting compromise the acceptance of this practice. Aim: The goal of this study is to compare the therapeutic equivalence of brand product versus the generic product of ivabradine in adult patients with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (≤ 40%) (HFrEF). Methodology: Thirty-two Egyptian patients with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) were treated with branded ivabradine (Procrolan ©) and generic (Bradipect ©) during 24 (2x12) weeks. Primary outcomes were resting heart rate (HR), NYHA FC, Quality of life (QoL) using Minnesota Living with Heart Failure (MLWHF) and EF. Secondary outcomes were the number of hospitalizations for worsening HFrEF and adverse effects. The washout period was not allowed. Findings: At the 12th week, the reduction in HR was comparable in the two groups (90.13±7.11 to 69±11.41 vs 96.13±17.58 to 67.31±8.68 bpm in brand and generic groups, respectively). Also, the increase in EF was comparable in the two groups (27.44 ±4.59 to 33.38±5.62 vs 32±5.96 to 39.31±8.95 in brand and generic groups, respectively). The improvement in NYHA FC was comparable in both groups (87.5% in brand group vs 93.8% in the generic group). The mean value of the QOL improved from 31.63±15.8 to 19.6±14.7 vs 35.68±17.63 to 22.9±15.1 for the brand and generic groups, respectively. Similarly, at end of 24 weeks, no significant changes were observed from data observed at 12th week regarding HR, EF, QoL and NYHA FC. Only minor side effects, mainly phosphenes, and a comparable number of hospitalizations were observed in both groups. Conclusion: The study revealed no statistically significant differences in the therapeutic effect and safety between generic and branded ivabradine. We assume that practitioners can safely interchange between them for economic reasons.

Keywords: bradipect©, heart failure, ivabradine, Procrolan ©, therapeutic equivalence

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263 The Primitive Code-Level Design Patterns for Distributed Programming

Authors: Bing Li

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The primitive code-level design patterns (PDP) are the rudimentary programming elements to develop any distributed systems in the generic distributed programming environment, GreatFree. The PDP works with the primitive distributed application programming interfaces (PDA), the distributed modeling, and the distributed concurrency for scaling-up. They not only hide developers from underlying technical details but also support sufficient adaptability to a variety of distributed computing environments. Programming with them, the simplest distributed system, the lightweight messaging two-node client/server (TNCS) system, is constructed rapidly with straightforward and repeatable behaviors, copy-paste-replace (CPR). As any distributed systems are made up of the simplest ones, those PDAs, as well as the PDP, are generic for distributed programming.

Keywords: primitive APIs, primitive code-level design patterns, generic distributed programming, distributed systems, highly patterned development environment, messaging

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
262 Generic Data Warehousing for Consumer Electronics Retail Industry

Authors: S. Habte, K. Ouazzane, P. Patel, S. Patel

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The dynamic and highly competitive nature of the consumer electronics retail industry means that businesses in this industry are experiencing different decision making challenges in relation to pricing, inventory control, consumer satisfaction and product offerings. To overcome the challenges facing retailers and create opportunities, we propose a generic data warehousing solution which can be applied to a wide range of consumer electronics retailers with a minimum configuration. The solution includes a dimensional data model, a template SQL script, a high level architectural descriptions, ETL tool developed using C#, a set of APIs, and data access tools. It has been successfully applied by ASK Outlets Ltd UK resulting in improved productivity and enhanced sales growth.

Keywords: consumer electronics, data warehousing, dimensional data model, generic, retail industry

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261 Genre Analysis of Postgraduate Theses and Dissertations: Case of Statement of the Problem

Authors: H. Mashhady, H. A. Manzoori, M. Doosti, M. Fatollahi

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This study reports a descriptive research in the form of a genre analysis of postgraduates' theses and dissertations at three Iranian universities, including Ferdowsi, Tehran, and Tarbiat Moddares universities. The researchers sought to depict the generic structure of “statement of the problem” section of PhD dissertations and MA theses. Moreover, researchers desired to find any probable variety based on the year the dissertations belonged, to see weather genre-consciousness developed among Iranian postgraduates. To obtain data, “statement of the problem” section of 90 Ph.D. dissertations and MA theses from 2001 to 2013 in Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) at above-mentioned universities was selected. Frequency counts was employed for the quantitative method of data analysis, while genre analysis was used as the qualitative method. Inter-rater reliability was found to be about 0.93. Results revealed that students in different degrees at each of these universities used various generic structures for writing “statement of the problem”. Moreover, comparison of different time periods (2001-2006, and 2007-2013) revealed that postgraduates in the second time period, regardless of their degree and university, employed more similar generic structures which can be optimistically attributed to a general raise in genre awareness.

Keywords: genre, genre analysis, Ph.D. and MA dissertations, statement of the problem, generic structure

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260 Guidelines to Designing Generic Protocol for Responding to Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Incidents

Authors: Mohammad H. Yarmohammadian, Mehdi Nasr Isfahani, Elham Anbari

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Introduction: The awareness of using chemical, biological, and nuclear agents in everyday industrial and non-industrial incidents has increased recently; release of these materials can be accidental or intentional. Since hospitals are the forefronts of confronting Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear( CBRN) incidents, the goal of the present research was to provide a generic protocol for CBRN incidents through a comparative review of CBRN protocols and guidelines of different countries and reviewing various books, handbooks and papers. Method: The integrative approach or research synthesis was adopted in this study. First a simple narrative review of programs, books, handbooks, and papers about response to CBRN incidents in different countries was carried out. Then the most important and functional information was discussed in the form of a generic protocol in focus group sessions and subsequently confirmed. Results: Findings indicated that most of the countries had various protocols, guidelines, and handbooks for hazardous materials or CBRN incidents. The final outcome of the research synthesis was a 50 page generic protocol whose main topics included introduction, definition and classification of CBRN agents, four major phases of incident and disaster management cycle, hospital response management plan, equipment, and recommended supplies and antidotes for decontamination (radiological/nuclear, chemical, biological); each of these also had subtopics. Conclusion: In the majority of international protocols, guidelines, handbooks and also international and Iranian books and papers, there is an emphasis on the importance of incident command system, determining the safety degree of decontamination zones, maps of decontamination zones, decontamination process, triage classifications, personal protective equipment, and supplies and antidotes for decontamination; these are the least requirements for such incidents and also consistent with the provided generic protocol.

Keywords: hospital, CBRN, decontamination, generic protocol, CBRN Incidents

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259 Implementation of a Method of Crater Detection Using Principal Component Analysis in FPGA

Authors: Izuru Nomura, Tatsuya Takino, Yuji Kageyama, Shin Nagata, Hiroyuki Kamata

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We propose a method of crater detection from the image of the lunar surface captured by the small space probe. We use the principal component analysis (PCA) to detect craters. Nevertheless, considering severe environment of the space, it is impossible to use generic computer in practice. Accordingly, we have to implement the method in FPGA. This paper compares FPGA and generic computer by the processing time of a method of crater detection using principal component analysis.

Keywords: crater, PCA, eigenvector, strength value, FPGA, processing time

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258 PEINS: A Generic Compression Scheme Using Probabilistic Encoding and Irrational Number Storage

Authors: P. Jayashree, S. Rajkumar

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With social networks and smart devices generating a multitude of data, effective data management is the need of the hour for networks and cloud applications. Some applications need effective storage while some other applications need effective communication over networks and data reduction comes as a handy solution to meet out both requirements. Most of the data compression techniques are based on data statistics and may result in either lossy or lossless data reductions. Though lossy reductions produce better compression ratios compared to lossless methods, many applications require data accuracy and miniature details to be preserved. A variety of data compression algorithms does exist in the literature for different forms of data like text, image, and multimedia data. In the proposed work, a generic progressive compression algorithm, based on probabilistic encoding, called PEINS is projected as an enhancement over irrational number stored coding technique to cater to storage issues of increasing data volumes as a cost effective solution, which also offers data security as a secondary outcome to some extent. The proposed work reveals cost effectiveness in terms of better compression ratio with no deterioration in compression time.

Keywords: compression ratio, generic compression, irrational number storage, probabilistic encoding

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257 Generic Early Warning Signals for Program Student Withdrawals: A Complexity Perspective Based on Critical Transitions and Fractals

Authors: Sami Houry

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Complex systems exhibit universal characteristics as they near a tipping point. Among them are common generic early warning signals which precede critical transitions. These signals include: critical slowing down in which the rate of recovery from perturbations decreases over time; an increase in the variance of the state variable; an increase in the skewness of the state variable; an increase in the autocorrelations of the state variable; flickering between different states; and an increase in spatial correlations over time. The presence of the signals has management implications, as the identification of the signals near the tipping point could allow management to identify intervention points. Despite the applications of the generic early warning signals in various scientific fields, such as fisheries, ecology and finance, a review of literature did not identify any applications that address the program student withdrawal problem at the undergraduate distance universities. This area could benefit from the application of generic early warning signals as the program withdrawal rate amongst distance students is higher than the program withdrawal rate at face-to-face conventional universities. This research specifically assessed the generic early warning signals through an intensive case study of undergraduate program student withdrawal at a Canadian distance university. The university is non-cohort based due to its system of continuous course enrollment where students can enroll in a course at the beginning of every month. The assessment of the signals was achieved through the comparison of the incidences of generic early warning signals among students who withdrew or simply became inactive in their undergraduate program of study, the true positives, to the incidences of the generic early warning signals among graduates, the false positives. This was achieved through significance testing. Research findings showed support for the signal pertaining to the rise in flickering which is represented in the increase in the student’s non-pass rates prior to withdrawing from a program; moderate support for the signals of critical slowing down as reflected in the increase in the time a student spends in a course; and moderate support for the signals on increase in autocorrelation and increase in variance in the grade variable. The findings did not support the signal on the increase in skewness of the grade variable. The research also proposes a new signal based on the fractal-like characteristic of student behavior. The research also sought to extend knowledge by investigating whether the emergence of a program withdrawal status is self-similar or fractal-like at multiple levels of observation, specifically the program level and the course level. In other words, whether the act of withdrawal at the program level is also present at the course level. The findings moderately supported self-similarity as a potential signal. Overall, the assessment of the signals suggests that the signals, with the exception with the increase of skewness, could be utilized as a predictive management tool and potentially add one more tool, the fractal-like characteristic of withdrawal, as an additional signal in addressing the student program withdrawal problem.

Keywords: critical transitions, fractals, generic early warning signals, program student withdrawal

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256 A Generic Middleware to Instantly Sync Intensive Writes of Heterogeneous Massive Data via Internet

Authors: Haitao Yang, Zhenjiang Ruan, Fei Xu, Lanting Xia

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Industry data centers often need to sync data changes reliably and instantly from a large-scale of heterogeneous autonomous relational databases accessed via the not-so-reliable Internet, for which a practical universal sync middle of low maintenance and operation costs is most wanted, but developing such a product and adapting it for various scenarios are a very sophisticated and continuous practice. The authors have been devising, applying, and optimizing a generic sync middleware system, named GSMS since 2006, holding the principles or advantages that the middleware must be SyncML-compliant and transparent to data application layer logic, need not refer to implementation details of databases synced, does not rely on host computer operating systems deployed, and its construction is light weighted and hence, of low cost. A series of ultimate experiments with GSMS sync performance were conducted for a persuasive example of a source relational database that underwent a broad range of write loads, say, from one thousand to one million intensive writes within a few minutes. The tests proved that GSMS has achieved an instant sync level of well below a fraction of millisecond per record sync, and GSMS’ smooth performances under ultimate write loads also showed it is feasible and competent.

Keywords: heterogeneous massive data, instantly sync intensive writes, Internet generic middleware design, optimization

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255 Exploring the Power of Words: Domesticating the Competence/Competency Concept in Ugandan Organisations

Authors: John C. Munene, Florence Nansubuga

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The study set out to examine a number of theories that have directly or indirectly implied that words are potent but that the potency depends on the context or practice in which they are utilised. The theories include the Freudian theory of Cathexis, which directly suggests that ambiguous events when named become potent as well as the word that is used to name them. We briefly examine Psychological differentiation, which submit that ambiguity is often a result of failure to distinguish figure from ground. The investigate Prospecting Theory, which suggests that in a situation when people have to make decisions, they have options to utilise intuition or reasoned judgment. It suggests that more often than not, the tendency is to utilise intuition especially when generic heuristics such as representativeness and similarity are available. That usage of these heuristics may depend on lack of a salience or accessibility of the situation due to ambiguity. We also examine Activity Theory, which proposes that meaning of words emerge directly and dialectically from the activities in which they are used. The paper argues that the power of words will depend on either or all of the theories mentioned above. To examine this general proposition we test the utilization of a generic competence framework in a local setting. The assumption is that generic frameworks are inherently ambiguous and lack the potency normally associated with the competence concept in the management of human resources. A number of case studies provide initial supporting evidence for the general proposition.

Keywords: competence, meaning, operationalisation, power of words

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254 A Temporal QoS Ontology For ERTMS/ETCS

Authors: Marc Sango, Olimpia Hoinaru, Christophe Gransart, Laurence Duchien

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Ontologies offer a means for representing and sharing information in many domains, particularly in complex domains. For example, it can be used for representing and sharing information of System Requirement Specification (SRS) of complex systems like the SRS of ERTMS/ETCS written in natural language. Since this system is a real-time and critical system, generic ontologies, such as OWL and generic ERTMS ontologies provide minimal support for modeling temporal information omnipresent in these SRS documents. To support the modeling of temporal information, one of the challenges is to enable representation of dynamic features evolving in time within a generic ontology with a minimal redesign of it. The separation of temporal information from other information can help to predict system runtime operation and to properly design and implement them. In addition, it is helpful to provide a reasoning and querying techniques to reason and query temporal information represented in the ontology in order to detect potential temporal inconsistencies. Indeed, a user operation, such as adding a new constraint on existing planning constraints can cause temporal inconsistencies, which can lead to system failures. To address this challenge, we propose a lightweight 3-layer temporal Quality of Service (QoS) ontology for representing, reasoning and querying over temporal and non-temporal information in a complex domain ontology. Representing QoS entities in separated layers can clarify the distinction between the non QoS entities and the QoS entities in an ontology. The upper generic layer of the proposed ontology provides an intuitive knowledge of domain components, specially ERTMS/ETCS components. The separation of the intermediate QoS layer from the lower QoS layer allows us to focus on specific QoS Characteristics, such as temporal or integrity characteristics. In this paper, we focus on temporal information that can be used to predict system runtime operation. To evaluate our approach, an example of the proposed domain ontology for handover operation, as well as a reasoning rule over temporal relations in this domain-specific ontology, are given.

Keywords: system requirement specification, ERTMS/ETCS, temporal ontologies, domain ontologies

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253 Employers’ Perspective on Female Graduate Employability in Nigeria

Authors: Temitope Faloye

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In today’s changing job market economy, most employers of labor want employees who are employable and possess relevant skills. Graduates need to possess generic skills due to the continually changing nature of the job market, which requires adaptive coping strategies. Most employers of labor complain that graduates are not employable, which is one of the major factors causing a high rate of graduate unemployment in Nigeria. However, the number of unemployed females is higher than that of unemployed males; hence gender difference is linked to the employability of graduates. The human capital theory is considered an appropriate theory for this study. A qualitative approach will be used to provide answers to the research questions. Therefore, the research study aims to investigate the employers’ perspective on female graduate employability in Nigeria.

Keywords: graduate employability, generic skills, graduate unemployment, gender

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252 Continuous Improvement Programme as a Strategy for Technological Innovation in Developing Nations. Nigeria as a Case Study

Authors: Sefiu Adebowale Adewumi

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Continuous improvement programme (CIP) adopts an approach to improve organizational performance with small incremental steps over time. In this approach, it is not the size of each step that is important, but the likelihood that the improvements will be ongoing. Many companies in developing nations are now complementing continuous improvement with innovation, which is the successful exploitation of new ideas. Focus area of CIP in the organization was in relation to the size of the organizations and also in relation to the generic classification of these organizations. Product quality was prevalent in the manufacturing industry while manpower training and retraining and marketing strategy were emphasized for improvement to be made in the service, transport and supply industries. However, focus on innovation in raw materials, process and methods are needed because these are the critical factors that influence product quality in the manufacturing industries.

Keywords: continuous improvement programme, developing countries, generic classfications, technological innovation

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251 A Generic Metamodel for Dependability Analysis

Authors: Moomen Chaari, Wolfgang Ecker, Thomas Kruse, Bogdan-Andrei Tabacaru

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In our daily life, we frequently interact with complex systems which facilitate our mobility, enhance our access to information, and sometimes help us recover from illnesses or diseases. The reliance on these systems is motivated by the established evaluation and assessment procedures which are performed during the different phases of the design and manufacturing flow. Such procedures are aimed to qualify the system’s delivered services with respect to their availability, reliability, safety, and other properties generally referred to as dependability attributes. In this paper, we propose a metamodel based generic characterization of dependability concepts and describe an automation methodology to customize this characterization to different standards and contexts. When integrated in concrete design and verification environments, the proposed methodology promotes the reuse of already available dependability assessment tools and reduces the costs and the efforts required to create consistent and efficient artefacts for fault injection or error simulation.

Keywords: dependability analysis, model-driven development, metamodeling, code generation

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250 Quality of Life in People with Hearing Loss: A Study of Patients Referred to an Audiological Service

Authors: Peder O. Laugen Heggdal, Oyvind Nordvik, Jonas Brannstrom, Flemming Vassbotn, Anne Kari Aarstad, Hans Jorgen Aarstad

Abstract:

Background: Hearing loss (HL) affect people of all ages and stages in life. To author's best knowledge, if patients with an HL have reduced Generic Quality of life (QoL), has yet not been answered. Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between HL and generic and disease-specific Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in adult patients (aged 18–78 years) with an HL, seeking Hearing Aid (HA). Material and Methods: 158 adult (aged 18-78 years) patients with HL, referred for HA fitting at Haukeland University Hospital in western Norway, participated in the study. Both first-time users, as well as patients referred for HA renewals, were included. First-time users had been pre-examined by an Ear Nose and Throat specialist. The questionnaires were answered before the actual HA fitting procedure. The pure-tone average (PTA; frequencies 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz) was determined for each ear. The generic European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire general part and a shortened version of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) were answered. In addition, EORTC HRQoL answers from a general population and patients with former head and neck cancer served as comparison. Results: In general, no lowered HRQoL scores were determined among HL patients compared to the general population. Patients with unilateral HL to some extent showed lower HRQoL than those with bilateral HL (social function and fatigue). The APHAB scores correlated significantly with the EORTC HRQoL scores. By stepwise linear regression analysis, the APHAB scores were scored secondary to PTA (best ear), cognitive and physical function. Conclusion: HRQoL scores in HL patients, in general, seems to be at the population level, but the unilateral HL patients scored to some extent lower than the bilateral HI patients. APHAB and generic QoL scores levels are associated. Both HRQoL and APHAB scores are generated more complexly than anticipated.

Keywords: quality of life, hearing loss, hearing impairment, distress, depression, anxiety, hearing aid

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249 UBCSAND Model Calibration for Generic Liquefaction Triggering Curves

Authors: Jui-Ching Chou

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Numerical simulation is a popular method used to evaluate the effects of soil liquefaction on a structure or the effectiveness of a mitigation plan. Many constitutive models (UBCSAND model, PM4 model, SANISAND model, etc.) were presented to model the liquefaction phenomenon. In general, inputs of a constitutive model need to be calibrated against the soil cyclic resistance before being applied to the numerical simulation model. Then, simulation results can be compared with results from simplified liquefaction potential assessing methods. In this article, inputs of the UBCSAND model, a simple elastic-plastic stress-strain model, are calibrated against several popular generic liquefaction triggering curves of simplified liquefaction potential assessing methods via FLAC program. Calibrated inputs can provide engineers to perform a preliminary evaluation of an existing structure or a new design project.

Keywords: calibration, liquefaction, numerical simulation, UBCSAND Model

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248 Examining the Relations among Autobiographical Memory Recall Types, Quality of Descriptions, and Emotional Arousal in Psychotherapy for Depression

Authors: Jinny Hong, Jeanne C. Watson

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Three types of autobiographical memory recall -specific, episodic, and generic- were examined in relation to the quality of descriptions and in-session levels of emotional arousal. Correlational analyses and general estimating equation were conducted to test the relationships between 1) quality of descriptions and type of memory, 2) type of memory and emotional arousal, and 3) quality of descriptions and emotional arousal. The data was transcripts drawn from an archival randomized-control study comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy and emotion-focused therapy in a 16-week treatment for depression. Autobiographical memory recall segments were identified and sorted into three categories: specific, episodic, and generic. Quality of descriptions of these segments was then operationalized and measured using the Referential Activity Scale, and each memory segment was rated on four dimensions: concreteness, specificity, clarity, and overall imagery. Clients’ level of emotional arousal for each recall was measured using the Client’s Expression Emotion Scale. Contrary to the predictions, generic memories are associated with higher emotional arousal ratings and descriptive language ratings compared to specific memories. However, a positive relationship emerged between the quality of descriptions and expressed emotional arousal, indicating that the quality of descriptions in which memories are described in sessions is more important than the type of memory recalled in predicting clients’ level of emotional arousal. The results from this study provide a clearer understanding of the role of memory recall types and use of language in activating emotional arousal in psychotherapy sessions in a depressed sample.

Keywords: autobiographical memory recall, emotional arousal, psychotherapy for depression, quality of descriptions, referential activity

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247 Key Competences in Economics and Business Field: The Employers’ Side of the Story

Authors: Bruno Škrinjarić

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Rapid technological developments and increase in organizations’ interdependence on international scale are changing the traditional workplace paradigm. A key feature of knowledge based economy is that employers are looking for individuals that possess both specific academic skills and knowledge, and also capability to be proactive and respond to problems creatively and autonomously. The focus of this paper is workers with Economics and Business background and its goals are threefold: (1) to explore wide range of competences and identify which are the most important to employers; (2) to investigate the existence and magnitude of gap between required and possessed level of a certain competency; and (3) to inquire how this gap is connected with performance of a company. A study was conducted on a representative sample of Croatian enterprises during the spring of 2016. Results show that generic, rather than specific, competences are more important to employers and the gap between the relative importance of certain competence and its current representation in existing workforce is greater for generic competences than for specific. Finally, results do not support the hypothesis that this gap is correlated with firms’ performance.

Keywords: competency gap, competency matching, key competences, firm performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
246 Generic Hybrid Models for Two-Dimensional Ultrasonic Guided Wave Problems

Authors: Manoj Reghu, Prabhu Rajagopal, C. V. Krishnamurthy, Krishnan Balasubramaniam

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A thorough understanding of guided ultrasonic wave behavior in structures is essential for the application of existing Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) technologies, as well as for the development of new methods. However, the analysis of guided wave phenomena is challenging because of their complex dispersive and multimodal nature. Although numerical solution procedures have proven to be very useful in this regard, the increasing complexity of features and defects to be considered, as well as the desire to improve the accuracy of inspection often imposes a large computational cost. Hybrid models that combine numerical solutions for wave scattering with faster alternative methods for wave propagation have long been considered as a solution to this problem. However usually such models require modification of the base code of the solution procedure. Here we aim to develop Generic Hybrid models that can be directly applied to any two different solution procedures. With this goal in mind, a Numerical Hybrid model and an Analytical-Numerical Hybrid model has been developed. The concept and implementation of these Hybrid models are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: guided ultrasonic waves, Finite Element Method (FEM), Hybrid model

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245 IT/IS Organisation Design in the Digital Age: A Literature Review

Authors: Dominik Krimpmann

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Information technology and information systems are currently at a tipping point. The digital age fundamentally transforms a large number of industries in the ways they work. Lines between business and technology blur. Researchers have acknowledged that this is the time in which the IT/IS organisation needs to re-strategise itself. In this paper, the author provides a structured review of the IS and organisation design literature addressing the question of how the digital age changes the design categories of an IT/IS organisation design. The findings show that most papers just analyse single aspects of either IT/IS relevant information or generic organisation design elements but miss a holistic ‘big-picture’ onto an IT/IS organisation design. This paper creates a holistic IT/IS organisation design framework bringing together the IS research strand, the digital strand and the generic organisation design strand. The research identified four IT/IS organisation design categories (strategy, structure, processes and people) and discusses the importance of two additional categories (sourcing and governance). The authors findings point to a first anchor point from which further research needs to be conducted to develop a holistic IT/IS organisation design framework.

Keywords: IT/IS strategy, IT/IS organisation design, digital age, organisational effectiveness, literature review

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244 Generic Competences, the Great Forgotten: Teamwork in the Undergraduate Degree in Translation and Interpretation

Authors: María-Dolores Olvera-Lobo, Bryan John Robinson, Juncal Gutierrez-Artacho

Abstract:

Graduates are equipped with a wide range of generic competencies which complement solid curricular competencies and facilitate their access to the labour market in diverse fields and careers. However, some generic competencies such as instrumental, personal and systemic competencies related to teamwork and interpersonal communication skills, decision-making and organization skills are seldom taught explicitly and even less often assessed. In this context, translator training has embraced a broad range of competencies specified in the undergraduate program currently taught at universities and opens up the learning experience to cover areas often ignored due to the difficulties inherent in both teaching and assessment. In practice, translator training combines two well-established approaches to teaching/learning: project-based learning and genuinely cooperative – or merely collaborative – learning. Our professional approach to translator training is a model focused on and adapted to the teleworking context of professional translation and presented through the medium of blended e-learning. Teamwork-related competencies are extremely relevant, and they require explicit and implicit teaching so that graduates can be confident about their capacity to make their way in professional contexts. In order to highlight the importance of teamwork and intra-team relationships beyond the classroom, we aim to raise awareness of teamwork processes so as to empower translation students in managing their interaction and ensure that they gain valuable pre-professional experience. With these objectives, at the University of Granada (Spain) we have developed a range of classroom activities and assessment tools. The results of their application are summarized in this study.

Keywords: blended learning, collaborative teamwork, cross-curricular competencies, higher education, intra-team relationships, students’ perceptions, translator training

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243 Students' ExperiEnce Enhancement Through Simulaton. A Process Flow in Logistics and Transportation Field

Authors: Nizamuddin Zainuddin, Adam Mohd Saifudin, Ahmad Yusni Bahaudin, Mohd Hanizan Zalazilah, Roslan Jamaluddin

Abstract:

Students’ enhanced experience through simulation is a crucial factor that brings reality to the classroom. The enhanced experience is all about developing, enriching and applications of a generic process flow in the field of logistics and transportations. As educational technology has improved, the effective use of simulations has greatly increased to the point where simulations should be considered a valuable, mainstream pedagogical tool. Additionally, in this era of ongoing (some say never-ending) assessment, simulations offer a rich resource for objective measurement and comparisons. Simulation is not just another in the long line of passing fads (or short-term opportunities) in educational technology. It is rather a real key to helping our students understand the world. It is a way for students to acquire experience about how things and systems in the world behave and react, without actually touching them. In short, it is about interactive pretending. Simulation is all about representing the real world which includes grasping the complex issues and solving intricate problems. Therefore, it is crucial before stimulate the real process of inbound and outbound logistics and transportation a generic process flow shall be developed. The paper will be focusing on the validization of the process flow by looking at the inputs gains from the sample. The sampling of the study focuses on multi-national and local manufacturing companies, third party companies (3PL) and government agency, which are selected in Peninsular Malaysia. A simulation flow chart was proposed in the study that will be the generic flow in logistics and transportation. A qualitative approach was mainly conducted to gather data in the study. It was found out from the study that the systems used in the process of outbound and inbound are System Application Products (SAP) and Material Requirement Planning (MRP). Furthermore there were some companies using Enterprises Resources Planning (ERP) and Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) as part of the Suppliers Own Inventories (SOI) networking as a result of globalized business between one countries to another. Computerized documentations and transactions were all mandatory requirement by the Royal Custom and Excise Department. The generic process flow will be the basis of developing a simulation program that shall be used in the classroom with the objective of further enhanced the students’ learning experience. Thus it will contributes to the body of knowledge on the enrichment of the student’s employability and also shall be one of the way to train new workers in the logistics and transportation filed.

Keywords: enhancement, simulation, process flow, logistics, transportation

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242 Evaluation of Golden Beam Data for the Commissioning of 6 and 18 MV Photons Beams in Varian Linear Accelerator

Authors: Shoukat Ali, Abdul Qadir Jandga, Amjad Hussain

Abstract:

Objective: The main purpose of this study is to compare the Percent Depth dose (PDD) and In-plane and cross-plane profiles of Varian Golden beam data to the measured data of 6 and 18 MV photons for the commissioning of Eclipse treatment planning system. Introduction: Commissioning of treatment planning system requires an extensive acquisition of beam data for the clinical use of linear accelerators. Accurate dose delivery require to enter the PDDs, Profiles and dose rate tables for open and wedges fields into treatment planning system, enabling to calculate the MUs and dose distribution. Varian offers a generic set of beam data as a reference data, however not recommend for clinical use. In this study, we compared the generic beam data with the measured beam data to evaluate the reliability of generic beam data to be used for the clinical purpose. Methods and Material: PDDs and Profiles of Open and Wedge fields for different field sizes and at different depths measured as per Varian’s algorithm commissioning guideline. The measurement performed with PTW 3D-scanning water phantom with semi-flex ion chamber and MEPHYSTO software. The online available Varian Golden Beam Data compared with the measured data to evaluate the accuracy of the golden beam data to be used for the commissioning of Eclipse treatment planning system. Results: The deviation between measured vs. golden beam data was in the range of 2% max. In PDDs, the deviation increases more in the deeper depths than the shallower depths. Similarly, profiles have the same trend of increasing deviation at large field sizes and increasing depths. Conclusion: Study shows that the percentage deviation between measured and golden beam data is within the acceptable tolerance and therefore can be used for the commissioning process; however, verification of small subset of acquired data with the golden beam data should be mandatory before clinical use.

Keywords: percent depth dose, flatness, symmetry, golden beam data

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241 Product Feature Modelling for Integrating Product Design and Assembly Process Planning

Authors: Baha Hasan, Jan Wikander

Abstract:

This paper describes a part of the integrating work between assembly design and assembly process planning domains (APP). The work is based, in its first stage, on modelling assembly features to support APP. A multi-layer architecture, based on feature-based modelling, is proposed to establish a dynamic and adaptable link between product design using CAD tools and APP. The proposed approach is based on deriving “specific function” features from the “generic” assembly and form features extracted from the CAD tools. A hierarchal structure from “generic” to “specific” and from “high level geometrical entities” to “low level geometrical entities” is proposed in order to integrate geometrical and assembly data extracted from geometrical and assembly modelers to the required processes and resources in APP. The feature concept, feature-based modelling, and feature recognition techniques are reviewed.

Keywords: assembly feature, assembly process planning, feature, feature-based modelling, form feature, ontology

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240 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Blast Pressure on Discrete Model in Shock Tube

Authors: Aldin Justin Sundararaj, Austin Lord Tennyson, Divya Jose, A. N. Subash

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Blast waves are generated due to the explosions of high energy materials. An explosion yielding a blast wave has the potential to cause severe damage to buildings and its personnel. In order to understand the physics of effects of blast pressure on buildings, studies in the shock tube on generic configurations are carried out at various pressures on discrete models. The strength of shock wave is systematically varied by using different driver gases and diaphragm thickness. The basic material of the diaphragm is Aluminum. To simulate the effect of shock waves on discrete models a shock tube was used. Generic models selected for this study are suitably scaled cylinder, cone and cubical blocks. The experiments were carried out with 2mm diaphragm with burst pressure ranging from 28 to 31 bar. Numerical analysis was carried out over these discrete models. A 3D model of shock-tube with different discrete models inside the tube was used for CFD computation. It was found that cone has dissipated most of the shock pressure compared to cylinder and cubical block. The robustness and the accuracy of the numerical model were validation with the analytical and experimental data.

Keywords: shock wave, blast wave, discrete models, shock tube

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239 Leveraging Business to Business Collaborations to Optimize Reverse Haul Logistics

Authors: Pallav Singh, Rajesh Yabaji, Rajesh Dhir, Chanakya Hridaya

Abstract:

Supply Chain Costs for the Indian Industries have been on an exponential trend due to steep inflation on fundamental cost factors – Fuel, Labour, Rents. In this changing context organizations have been focusing on adopting multiple approaches to keep logistics costs under control to protect the profit margins. The lever of ‘Business to Business (B2B) collaboration’ can be used by organizations to garner higher value. Given the context of Indian Logistics Industry the penetration of B2B Collaboration initiatives have been limited. This paper outlines a structured framework for adoption of B2B collaboration through discussion of a successful initiative between ITC’s Leaf Tobacco Business and a leading Indian Media House. Multiple barriers to such a collaborative process exist which need to be addressed through comprehensive structured approaches. This paper outlines a generic framework approach to B2B collaboration for the Indian Logistics Space, outlining the guidelines for arriving at potential opportunities, identification of collaborators, effective tie-up process, design of operations and sustenance factors. The generic methods outlined can be used in any other industry and also builds a foundation for further research on many topics.

Keywords: business to business collaboration, reverse haul logistics, transportation cost optimization, exports logistics

Procedia PDF Downloads 239