Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3330

Search results for: intercultural communication

3330 Intercultural Communication in the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language in Malawi

Authors: Peter Mayeso Jiyajiya

Abstract:

This paper discusses how the teaching of English as a foreign language in Malawi can enhance intercultural communication competence in a multicultural society. It argues that incorporation of intercultural communication in the teaching of English as a foreign language would improve cultural awareness in communication in the multicultural Malawi. The teaching of English in Malawi is geared towards producing students who would communicate in the global world. This entails the use of proper pedagogical approaches and instructional materials that prepare the students toward intercultural awareness. In view of this, the language teachers were interviewed in order to determine their instructional approaches to intercultural communication. Instructional materials were further evaluated to assess how interculturality is incorporated. The study found out that teachers face perceptual and technical challenges that hinder them from exercising creativity to incorporate interculturality in their lessons. This is also compounded by lack of clear direction in the teaching materials on cultural elements. The paper, therefore, suggests a holistic approach to the teaching of English language in Malawian school in which the diversity of culture in classrooms must be considered an opportunity for addressing students’ cultural needs that may be lacking in the instructional materials.

Keywords: cultural awareness, grammar, foreign language, intercultural communication, language teaching

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3329 Intercultural Competence, (Im)Politeness and the Use of Social Media during the Intercultural Adjustment Period of Indonesian Postgraduate Students in the UK

Authors: Erizal Lugman

Abstract:

To achieve their academic goals whilst studying abroad, international students must successfully adjust to cross-cultural differences. As a result, they need to develop new abilities including intercultural competence and politeness in order to effectively communicate with different languages and cultures. (Im)politeness is also an essential aspect of intercultural competence which is vital for effective intercultural communication. This study seeks to integrate different aspects of intercultural competence, (im)politeness and the use of social media platforms which is solely focused on Indonesian students studying in the UK. Using a purposive sampling method, participants will be recruited to address the research questions who will all be volunteers and have lived in Britain for at least six months or who have passed the cultural adjustment period. Using a range of quantitative and qualitative methods, in this respect, participants will be recruited and asked to relate the intercultural experiences they encountered during the cultural adjustment period through the use of e-portfolios, interviews, and critical reflection. This will be followed by online surveying from the Indonesian participants' point of view using the cross-cultural adaptability inventory (CCAI), which aims to measure the individual potential for cross-cultural adaptability. A discursive approach will be employed which aims to focus on analysing (im)politeness as reported and narrated by the participants.

Keywords: im)politeness, intercultural communication, intercultural competence, social media

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3328 The Role of Communicative Grammar in Cross-Cultural Learning Environment

Authors: Tonoyan Lusine

Abstract:

The Communicative Grammar (CG) of a language deals with semantics and pragmatics in the first place as communication is a process of generating speech. As it is well known people can communicate with the help of limited word expressions and grammatical means. As to non-verbal communication, both vocabulary and grammar are not essential at all. However, the development of the communicative competence lies in verbal, non-verbal, grammatical, socio-cultural and intercultural awareness. There are several important issues and environment management strategies related to effective communication that one might need to consider for a positive learning experience. International students bring a broad range of cultural perspectives to the learning environment, and this diversity has the capacity to improve interaction and to enrich the teaching/learning process. Intercultural setting implies creative and thought-provoking work with different cultural worldviews and international perspectives. It is worth mentioning that the use of Communicative Grammar models creates a profound background for the effective intercultural communication.

Keywords: CG, cross-cultural communication, intercultural awareness, non-verbal behavior

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3327 Intercultural Competence in Teaching Mediation to Students of Legal English

Authors: Paulina Dwuznik

Abstract:

For students of legal English, the skill of mediation is of special importance as it constitutes part of their everyday work. Developing the skill of mediation requires developing linguistic, communicative, textual, pragmatic, interactive, social, and intercultural competencies. The study conducted at the Open University of the University of Warsaw compared the results of a questionnaire concerning the needs of legal professionals relating to mediation tasks, which they perform at work with the analysis of the content of different legal English handbooks with special stress on the development of intercultural competence necessary in interlinguistic mediation. The study found that legal English handbooks focus mainly on terminology study, but some of them extend students' intercultural competence in a way which may help them to perform tasks of mediating concepts, texts, and communication. The author of the paper will present the correlation between intercultural competence and mediation skill and give some examples of mediation tasks which may be based on comparative intercultural content of some chosen academic legal English handbooks.

Keywords: intercultural competence, legal English, mediation skill, teaching

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3326 Technology Enriched Classroom for Intercultural Competence Building through Films

Authors: Tamara Matevosyan

Abstract:

In this globalized world, intercultural communication is becoming essential for understanding communication among people, for developing understanding of cultures, to appreciate the opportunities and challenges that each culture presents to people. Moreover, it plays an important role in developing an ideal personification to understand different behaviors in different cultures. Native speakers assimilate sociolinguistic knowledge in natural conditions, while it is a great problem for language learners, and in this context feature films reveal cultural peculiarities and involve students in real communication. As we know nowadays the key role of language learning is the development of intercultural competence as communicating with someone from a different cultural background can be exciting and scary, frustrating and enlightening. Intercultural competence is important in FL learning classroom and here feature films can perform as essential tools to develop this competence and overcome the intercultural gap that foreign students face. Current proposal attempts to reveal the correlation of the given culture and language through feature films. To ensure qualified, well-organized and practical classes on Intercultural Communication for language learners a number of methods connected with movie watching have been implemented. All the pre-watching, while watching and post-watching methods and techniques are aimed at developing students’ communicative competence. The application of such activities as Climax, Role-play, Interactive Language, Daily Life helps to reveal and overcome mistakes of cultural and pragmatic character. All the above-mentioned activities are directed at the assimilation of the language vocabulary with special reference to the given culture. The study dwells into the essence of culture as one of the core concepts of intercultural communication. Sometimes culture is not a priority in the process of language learning which leads to further misunderstandings in real life communication. The application of various methods and techniques with feature films aims at developing students’ cultural competence, their understanding of norms and values of individual cultures. Thus, feature film activities will enable learners to enlarge their knowledge of the particular culture and develop a fundamental insight into intercultural communication.

Keywords: climax, intercultural competence, interactive language, role-play

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3325 Online Language Tandem: Focusing on Intercultural Communication Competence and Non-Verbal Cues

Authors: Amira Benabdelkader

Abstract:

Communication presents the channel by which humankind create and maintain their relationship with others, express themselves, exchange information, learn and teach etc. The context of communication plays a distinctive role in deciding about the language to be used. The term context is mainly used to refer to the interlocutors, their cultures, languages, relationship, physical surrounding that is the communication setting, type of the information to be transmitted, the topic etc. Cultures, on one hand, impose on humans certain behaviours, attitudes, gestures and beliefs. On the other hand, the focus on language is inevitable as it is with its verbal and non-verbal components, a key tool in and for communication. Moreover, each language has its particularity in how people voice, address and express their thoughts, feelings and beliefs. Being in the same setting with people from different cultures and languages and having conversations with them would call upon the intercultural communicative competence. This latter would promote the success of their conversations. Additionally, this competence could manifest in several ways during their interactions, to the extent that no one can predict when and how the interlocutors would use it. The only thing probably that could be confirmed is that the setting and culture would in a way or another intervene and often shape the flow of their communication, if not the whole communication. Therefore, this paper will look at the intercultural communicative competence of language learners when introducing their cultures to each other in an online language tandem (henceforth OLT) using their second and/or foreign language with the L1 language speakers. The participants of this study are Algerian (use L2: French, FL: English), British (L1: English, L2/FL: French). In other words, this current paper will provide a qualitative analysis of the OLT experiment by emphasising how language learners can overcome the cultural differences in an intercultural setting while communicating online using Skype (video conversations) with people from different countries, cultures and L1. The non-verbal cues will have the lion share in the analysis by focusing on how they have been used to maintain this intercultural communication or hinder it through the misinterpretation of gestures, head movements, grimaces etc.

Keywords: intercultural communicative competence, non-verbal cues, online language tandem, Skype

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3324 The Emotional Education in the Development of Intercultural Competences

Authors: Montserrrat Dopico Gonzalez, Ramon Lopez Facal

Abstract:

The development of a critical, open and plural citizenship constitutes one of the main challenges of the school institution in the present multicultural societies. Didactics in Social Sciences has conducted important contributions to the development of active methodologies to promote the development of the intercultural competencies of the student body. Research in intercultural education has demonstrated the efficiency of the cooperative learning techniques to improve the intercultural relations in the classroom. Our study proposes to check the effect that, concerning the development of intercultural competencies of the student body, the emotional education can have in the context of the use of active methodologies such as the learning by projects and the cooperative learning. To that purpose, a programme of intervention based on activities focussed on controversial issues related to cultural diversity has been implemented in several secondary schools. Through a methodology which combines intercultural competence scales with interviews and also with the analysis of the school body’s productions, the persistence of stereotypes against immigration and the efficacy of the introduction of emotional education elements in the development of intercultural competencies have both been observed.

Keywords: active methodologies, didactics in social sciences, intercultural competences, intercultural education

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3323 The Impact of Intercultural Communicative Competence on the Academic Achievement of English Language Learners: Students Working in the Sector of Tourism in Jordan (Petra and Jerash) as a Case Study

Authors: Haneen Alrawashdeh, Naciye Kunt

Abstract:

Intercultural communicative competence or (ICC), is an extension of communicative competence that takes into account the intercultural aspect of learning a foreign language. Accordingly, this study aimed at investigating the intercultural interaction impact on English as a foreign language learners' academic achievement of language as a scholastic subject and their motivation towards learning it. To achieve the aim of the study, a qualitative research approach was implemented by means of semi-structured interviews. Interview sessions were conducted with eight teachers of English as well as ten English language learners who work in the tourism industry in a variety of career paths, such as selling antiques and traditional costumes. An analysis of learners' grades of English subjects from 2014 to 2019 academic years was performed by using the Open Education Management Information System Database in Jordan to support the findings of the study. The results illustrated that due to the fact that they work in the tourism sector, students gain skills and knowledge that assist them in better academic achievement in the subject of English by practicing intercultural communication with different nationalities on a daily basis; intercultural communication enhances students speaking skills, lexicon, and fluency; however, despite that their grades showed increasing, from teachers perspectives, intercultural communicative competence reduces their linguistic accuracy and ability to perform English academic writing in academic contexts such as exams.

Keywords: intercultural communicative competence, Jordan, language learning motivation, language academic achievement

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3322 The Role of Short-Term Study Abroad Experience on Intercultural Communication Competence

Authors: Zeynep Aksoy

Abstract:

Since global mobility of capital, information and people increase more and more, intercultural communication and management become a growing study field of investigating various aspects of the interaction between people from different cultural backgrounds. Human mobility, caused by several intentions from tourism to forced migration, often put people in facing communication barriers, issues or sometimes conflicts. This reality naturally enforces education institutions to develop international policies and programs for students in order to improve their intercultural experiences along with the educative objectives. Study-abroad programs, particularly the student exchanges in higher education provide an environment for participants to encounter with cultural differences. Therefore, international exchange programs (i.e. Erasmus Student Mobility, Global Exchange Program) are accepted to bring opportunities for intergroup contact, which may lead students to obtain new perspectives about the host culture, either in positive or negative ways, and new intercultural communication skills. This study aims to explore the role of short-term study abroad experience on intercultural communication competence with a qualitative approach. It attempts to reveal a comparative analysis, which is derived from two field studies conducted in Izmir (Turkey) and in Amsterdam (the Netherlands) in 2015 and 2016. They were both organized in two phases as pre-and-posttest to gain an insight into the changes (if any) in students’ attitudes and knowledge regarding the host culture, and their further motivations towards cross-cultural interactions. With this aim, focus group sessions and in-depth interviews have been taken place with participants at the beginning of their stay and at the end of the semester. The sample covers students mainly from Erasmus program (20 students in Izmir and 14 students in Amsterdam), and few from Global Exchange Program (5 students in Amsterdam). Data obtained from both studies were thematically analyzed and essential themes were identified within the framework of intercultural communication competence.

Keywords: Erasmus student mobility, intercultural communication competence, student exchange, short-term study abroad

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3321 The Experience of Intercultural Parenting in Australia

Authors: Dharam Bhugun

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The growth of immigration and social diversity and advances in global technology, have contributed to an increase in intercultural marriages and relationships in Australia. Consequently, intercultural parenting experience is shaping as an important issue within society. Parenting experiences can be both challenging and rewarding for the intercultural couple and their children. Much of the Australian literature has focussed on parenting styles among different cultural groups and the experiences of children, with more research needed on the parenting experience of intercultural couples, with emphasis on those who have not sought professional help. This study employed a qualitative research design consistent with humanistic approaches in social sciences. A social constructionism theoretical framework was used to explore the experience of intercultural parents. Participants were selected through purposive sampling, and semi-structured interviews in English were employed to collect data. Thematic analysis was used to examine participant’s experiences. It is anticipated that the research will generate insights and findings that may assist current and future intercultural parents, add to the family systems theory to inform practice, and suggest possible professional strategies for clinicians and other government and community agencies.

Keywords: culture, intercultural couples, parenting styles and practices, conflicts resolution

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3320 Insights into the Assessment of Intercultural Competence of Female University Students in the KSA

Authors: Agnes Havril

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to introduce some partial findings of an ongoing research project which is investigating the improvement of intercultural competence of Saudi female university students in English as a Second Language academic environment at the multicultural Jazan University. Since previous research results support the idea that this university generation has the desire to become interculturally or globally competent university students, the present-day investigation is focusing on the assessment of Saudi-specific cultural terms and intercultural competence components in comparison with the Anglo-Saxon oriented western perspective of intercultural competence theories and models. On this stage of the research quantitative research methodology is applied and a survey is being conducted among the female university students in different academic specializations. This paper discusses some empirical data with the aim of identifying and evaluating certain supplementary aspects of intercultural dimensions and components of the intercultural competence construct. The research results also highlight several gender issues in the gender separated higher education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: gender separation, globally competent university student, intercultural competence, intercultural competence construct, higher education

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3319 Exploring Non-Native English Language Teachers' Understandings and Attitudes towards the Integration of Intercultural Competence

Authors: Simin Sasani

Abstract:

This study will explore a group of English language teachers’ understanding of intercultural competence to find out if they are aware of the concept and how important it is for them. It will investigate how much they are concerned about the challenges that the learners might face in their intercultural communications and to what extent they can help the learners to overcome the barriers to increase students’ insight into cultural differences. In addition, it will explore how a group of non-native English language teachers define culture in relation to their English language teaching practices. More specifically, the research tries to take the how and why of inclusion of intercultural competence into consideration and how non-native teachers think they can improve their learners’ knowledge and skills in this domain. The study will be conducted in the UK and the participants are eight non-native English language teachers who are currently teaching general English language courses for foreigners. A pilot study have been conducted for this research which its results show three non-native English teachers are aware of the notion although they have not had any formal education about intercultural competence. Their challenges and limitation were also highlighted through interviews and observations.

Keywords: English, English language teachers, intercultural communications, intercultural competence, non-natives

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3318 Raising Intercultural Awareness in Colombia Classrooms: A Descriptive Review

Authors: Angela Yicely Castro Garces

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Aware of the relevance that intercultural education has gained in foreign language learning and teaching, and acknowledging the need to make it part of our classroom practices, this literature review explores studies that have been published in the Colombian context from the years 2012 to 2019. The inquiry was done in six national peer-reviewed journals, in order to examine the population benefited, types of studies and most recurrent topics of concern for educators. The findings present a promising panorama as teacher educators from public universities are leading the way in conducting research projects aimed at fostering intercultural awareness and building a critical intercultural discourse. Nonetheless, more studies that involve the different stakeholders and contexts need to be developed, in order to make intercultural education more visible in Colombian elementary and high school classrooms.

Keywords: Colombian scholarship, foreign language learning, foreign language teaching, intercultural awareness

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3317 Intercultural Trainings for Future Global Managers: Evaluating the Effect on the Global Mind-Set

Authors: Nina Dziatzko, Christopher Stehr, Franziska Struve

Abstract:

Intercultural competence as an explicit required skill nearly never appears in job advertisements in international or even global contexts. But especially those who have to deal with different nationalities and cultures in their everyday business need to have several intercultural competencies and further a global mind-set. This way the question arises how potential future global managers can be trained to learn these competencies. In this regard, it might be helpful to see if different types of intercultural trainings have different effects on those skills. This paper outlines lessons learned based on the evaluation of two different intercultural trainings for management students. The main differences between the observed intercultural trainings are the amount of theoretical input in relation to hands-on experiences, the number of trainers as well as the used methods to teach implicit cultural rules. Both groups contain management students with the willingness and perspective to work abroad or to work in international context. The research is carried out with a pre-training-survey and a post-training-survey which consists of questions referring the international context of the students and a self-estimation of 19 identified intercultural and global mind-set skills, such as: cosmopolitanism, empathy, differentiation and adaptability. Whereas there is no clear result which training gets overall a significant higher increase of skills, there is a clear difference between the focus of competencies trained by each of the intercultural trainings. This way this research provides a guideline for both academicals institutions as well as companies for the decision between different types of intercultural trainings, if the to be trained required skills are defined. Therefore the efficiency and the accuracy of fit of the education of future global managers get optimized.

Keywords: global mind-set, intercultural competencies, intercultural training, learning experiences

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3316 Building Intercultural Competence in English Language Learners: Practices and Materials of Cultural-Based Language Teaching

Authors: Randa Alahmadi

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Because the world has become a global village, English is not only used by native speakers, but also by non-native speakers from culturally diverse backgrounds. Even though learning a second/foreign language requires development of the four skills: reading, writing, listening, and speaking, there is also an intertwined relationship between language and culture, making it difficult to teach language without knowing the cultural context in which it is to be used. In the past decade, the number of international students enrolled in universities around the world has increased significantly. Having the urge to communicate effectively would serve as a motivation for both international and domestic students. The teaching of culture is important because linguistic competence is not enough for successful communication with speakers of other languages. Therefore, whether teaching natives or non-natives, students need to improve their cross-cultural communication skills and become culturally prepared to communicate successfully with people from other cultures. Teachers can equip their students for this environment by giving them appropriate knowledge and skills for effective intercultural communication. This paper will focus on the importance of intercultural communicative competence and its role in developing students’ understanding of diverse cultures as part of learning foreign/second languages. It will also explain how teachers can decide which culture should be taught: the target culture, the learners’ culture, or both. Moreover, practical and effective techniques that can be used in cultural-based language teaching will be shared.

Keywords: cultural-based language teaching, English as a lingua franca, English language learners, intercultural communicative competence

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3315 Disparities in Language Competence and Conflict: The Moderating Role of Cultural Intelligence in Intercultural Interactions

Authors: Catherine Peyrols Wu

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Intercultural interactions are becoming increasingly common in organizations and life. These interactions are often the stage of miscommunication and conflict. In management research, these problems are commonly attributed to cultural differences in values and interactional norms. As a result, the notion that intercultural competence can minimize these challenges is widely accepted. Cultural differences, however, are not the only source of a challenge during intercultural interactions. The need to rely on a lingua franca – or common language between people who have different mother tongues – is another important one. In theory, a lingua franca can improve communication and ease coordination. In practice however, disparities in people’s ability and confidence to communicate in the language can exacerbate tensions and generate inefficiencies. In this study, we draw on power theory to develop a model of disparities in language competence and conflict in a multicultural work context. Specifically, we hypothesized that differences in language competence between interaction partners would be positively related to conflict such that people would report greater conflict with partners who have more dissimilar levels of language competence and lesser conflict with partners with more similar levels of language competence. Furthermore, we proposed that cultural intelligence (CQ) an intercultural competence that denotes an individual’s capability to be effective in intercultural situations, would weaken the relationship between disparities in language competence and conflict such that people would report less conflict with partners who have more dissimilar levels of language competence when the interaction partner has high CQ and more conflict when the partner has low CQ. We tested this model with a sample of 135 undergraduate students working in multicultural teams for 13 weeks. We used a round-robin design to examine conflict in 646 dyads nested within 21 teams. Results of analyses using social relations modeling provided support for our hypotheses. Specifically, we found that in intercultural dyads with large disparities in language competence, partners with the lowest level of language competence would report higher levels of interpersonal conflict. However, this relationship disappeared when the partner with higher language competence was also high in CQ. These findings suggest that communication in a lingua franca can be a source of conflict in intercultural collaboration when partners differ in their level of language competence and that CQ can alleviate these effects during collaboration with partners who have relatively lower levels of language competence. Theoretically, this study underscores the benefits of CQ as a complement to language competence for intercultural effectiveness. Practically, these results further attest to the benefits of investing resources to develop language competence and CQ in employees engaged in multicultural work.

Keywords: cultural intelligence, intercultural interactions, language competence, multicultural teamwork

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3314 The Impact of Selected Personality Skills on Intercultural Interaction and Communication of Students of Social Pedagogy in the Czech Republic

Authors: Irena Balaban Cakirpaloglu, Karla Hrbackova

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the issue of intercultural competencies of university students who are preparing to work in assisting professions. In recent years, the Czech Republic has become a major destination for many people from different cultural environments, and there is a growing need for workers in assisting professions to be able to respond flexibly and adequately to the changing living conditions of multicultural coexistence. The main objective of this study is to analyse the preparedness of students in assisting professions in relation to intercultural competencies. Intercultural competences include several essential skills for working successfully with diversity. Taking into account the main objective of this research, a pilot study was conducted among students of Social Pedagogy at the Faculty of Humanities at Tomas Bata University in Zlin in the academic year 2017/2018. The research sample consisted of 116 students. To obtain the data, we used the Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory (CCAI) by Kelley and Meyers. The inventory maps strengths and weaknesses in 4 skill areas: Emotional Resilience, Flexibility/Openness, Perceptual Acuity and Personal Autonomy. This inventory also examines individual ability to succeed in intercultural interaction and communication. The results obtained from the survey were statistically processed and analysed using the relevant statistical methods. The results of the survey point to the fact that students of social pedagogy achieve average to below average results in individual skill areas. At the same time, significant differences have been detected among the students with work experience in multicultural environment and those with no experience.

Keywords: cross–cultural adaptability inventory, diversity, intercultural competences, students of social pedagogy

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3313 Thai Cultural Conceptualizations that Underly Intercultural Business Communication Problems with Koreans

Authors: Yangwon Hyun

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Nowadays, business settings are becoming increasingly multilingual and multicultural under the conditions of globalization. When people from different linguistic and cultural background interact, their divergent cultural conceptualizations may result in communicative problems. Even though intercultural business communication between Thais and South Koreans has become increasingly significant along with the development of international trade relations, there have been very few attempts to conduct research on interactional problems in that context. Based on a Cultural Linguistics perspective, this study analyzes Thai cultural conceptualizations that underly interactional problems with Koreans at Korean business organizations where were located in Thailand. The data was gathered through in-depth interviews with ten Korean and ten Thai employees as well as through six months of field observations. The results indicate that there are three cultural pragmatic schemas that underly problems of interaction between the two groups; (1) the schema of kreng-jai as a communicative strategy of withholding one’s intentions in order to not hurt another’s emotion, (2) the schema of mai-pen-rai as a linguistic strategy of inducing interlocutors to not be concerned about substantial matters so as to avoid confrontations, and (3) the schema of jai-yen as a linguistic expression used for persuading interlocutors to maintain a calm state of mind in order to avoid conflicts. The linguistic behaviors of Thai employees in relation to these three cultural schemas had led to misunderstandings and interpersonal conflicts with Korean supervisors and co-workers. These interactional problems were caused not only because Koreans were unfamiliar with Thai cultural conceptualizations, but also because these conceptualizations were incompatible with goal-oriented Korean business discourse. The findings of this study can enhance mutual understandings between Thai and Korean employees. Thus, it contributes to the promotion of smooth intercultural communication in the workplace.

Keywords: business context, cultural conceptualizations, cultural linguistics, intercultural communication, thai culture

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3312 Intercultural Urbanism: Interpreting Cultural Inclusion in Traditional Precincts of Contemporary Cities: A Case of Mattancherry

Authors: Amrutha Jayan

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The cities are attractors of the human population, offering opportunities for economic activities for different linguistic, cultural, and ethnic groups. The urban form and design of the city impact the life of these people. Social and cultural exclusions result in spatial segregation and gentrification. The spaces provided in cities must be inclusive for all these communities for them to feel part of the city and contribute to society. Intercultural urbanism is a theory and practice of city building, planning, and design of urban spaces and architectures that are cognizant of the social impact of the built environment. The postulate acknowledges cultural differences and opportunities for cultural exchange. Literature on intercultural urbanism, culture and space, spatial justice, and cultural inclusion are analyzed to identify parameters contributing to intercultural placemaking. A qualitative study on Mattancherry shows how the precinct has sustained throughout the years with different communities living together within a radius of 5 km, creating a diverse and vibrant environment. The research identifies the urban elements that contribute to intercultural interactions and maintain the synergy between these communities. The public spaces, porous edges, built-form, streets, and accessibility contribute to chance encounters and intercultural interactivity. The research seeks to find the factors that contribute to intercultural placemaking.

Keywords: intercultural urbanism, cultural inclusion, spatial justice, public space

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3311 Intensive Intercultural English Language Pedagogy among Parents from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Backgrounds (CALD)

Authors: Ann Dashwood

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Using Standard Australian English with confidence is a cultural expectation of parents of primary school aged children who want to engage effectively with their children’s teachers and school administration. That confidence in support of their children’s learning at school is seldom experienced by parents whose first language is not English. Sharing language with competence in an intercultural environment is the common denominator for meaningful communication and engagement to occur in a school community. Experience in relevant, interactive sessions is known to enhance engagement and participation. The purpose of this paper is to identify a pedagogy for parents otherwise isolated from daily use of functional Australian cultural language learned to engage effectively in their children’s learning at school. The outcomes measure parents’ intercultural engagement with classroom teachers and attention to the school’s administrative procedures using quantitative and qualitative methods. A principled communicative task-based language learning approach, combined with intercultural communication strategies provide the theoretical base for intensive English inquiry-based learning and engagement. The quantitative analysis examines data samples collected by classroom teachers and administrators and parents’ writing samples. Interviews and observations qualitatively inform the study. Currently, significant numbers of projects are active in community centers and schools to enhance English language knowledge of parents from Language Backgrounds Other Than English (LBOTE). The study is significant to explore the effects of an intensive English pedagogy with parents of varied English language backgrounds, by targeting inquiry-based language use for social interactions in the school and wider community, specific engagement and cultural interaction with teachers and school activities and procedures.

Keywords: engagement, intercultural communication, language teaching pedagogy, LBOTE, school community

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3310 Intensive Intercultural English Language for Enhanced School Community Engagement: An Exploratory Study Applied to Parents from Language Backgrounds Other Than English in a Regional Australian Primary School

Authors: Ann Dashwood

Abstract:

Using standard Australian English with confidence is a cultural expectation of parents of primary school aged children who want to engage effectively with their children’s teachers and school administration. That confidence in support of their children’s learning at school is seldom experienced by parents whose first language is not English. Sharing language with competence in an intercultural environment is the common denominator for meaningful communication and engagement to occur in a school community. Experience in relevant interactive sessions is known to enhance engagement and participation. The purpose of this paper is to identify interactional settings for which parents who are isolated from the daily use of functional Australian cultural language learned to engage more effectively in their children’s learning at school. The outcomes measured parents’ intercultural engagement with classroom teachers and attention to the school’s administrative procedures. The study used quantitative and qualitative methods. The principles of communicative task-based language learning combined with intercultural communication principles provided the theoretical base for intensive English task-based learning and engagement. The quantitative analysis examined data samples collected by classroom teachers and administrators and parents’ writing samples. Interviews and observations qualitatively informed the study. Currently significant numbers of projects are active in community centres and schools to enhance English language knowledge of parents from Language Backgrounds Other Than English (LBOTE). The study was significant to explore the effects of conducting intensive English with parents of varied English language backgrounds by targeting language use for social interactions in the community, specific engagement in school activities, cultural interaction with teachers and responsiveness to complying with school procedures.

Keywords: engagement, intercultural communication, LBOTE, school community

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3309 Tips for Effective Intercultural Collaboration on the Evaluation of an International Program

Authors: Athanase Gahungu, Karen Freeman

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Different groups of stakeholders expect the evaluation of an international, grant-funded program to inform them of the worth of the program - the funder, the agency operating the program and its community, and the citizens of the country where the program is implemented. This paper summarizes the challenges that intercultural teams of researchers faced as they crisscrossed a host country while evaluating a teaching and learning materials program, and offers useful tips for effective collaboration. Firstly, was recommended that the teams be representative of the cultures involved, and have the required research and program evaluation skills. Secondly, cultures involved must consistently establish and maintain a shared performance system. Thirdly, successful team members must be self-aware, inter-culturally knowledgeable, not just in communication, but in conceptualizing the political and social context of international grant-funded projects.

Keywords: program evaluation, international collaboration, intercultural, shared performance

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3308 Enhancing Chinese Foreign Language Teachers’ Intercultural Competence: An Action Research Study

Authors: Wei Hing Rosenkvist

Abstract:

In the past few decades, concerns and demands of promoting student intercultural communicative competence in foreign language education have been increasing along with the rapid growth of information technologies and globalization in the 21st century. In Sweden, related concepts such as internationalization, global citizenship, multiculturalism, and intercultural communication, are also keywords that would be found in the written learning objectives of foreign language education at all levels. Being one of the leading higher institutes in distance education in Europe, Dalarna University clearly states that after completion of the teacher education program, students shall understand the needs for integrating internationalization, intercultural and global perspective in teaching and learning in Swedish schools and implement their studies to promote education in an international and global context. Even though many teachers and educators agree with the institutes’ mission and vision about the importance of internationalization and the need to increase student understanding of intercultural and global perspectives, they might find this objective unattainable and restricted due to the nature of the subject and their knowledge of intercultural competence. When conducting a comprehensive Chinese language course for the students who are going to become Chinese foreign language teachers, the researcher found that all the learning objectives are linguistic oriented while grammatical components dominate the entire course. Apparently, there is a gap between the learning objectives of the course and the DU’s mission of fostering an international learner with intercultural and globalized perspectives. How to include this macro-learning objective in a foreign language course is a great challenge to the educator. Although scholars from different academic domains have provided different theoretical frameworks and approaches for developing student intercultural competence, research that focuses on the didactic perspectives of developing student intercultural competence in teaching Chinese as a foreign language education (CFL) is limited, and practical examples are rare. This challenge has motivated the researcher to conduct an action research study that aims at integrating DU’s macro-learning objective in a current CFL course through different didactic practices to develop the student's intercultural competence. This research study aims to, firstly, illustrate the cross-cultural knowledge integrated into the present Chinese language course for developing intercultural competence. Secondly, it investigates different didactic means that can be utilized to deliver cross-cultural knowledge to student teachers in the present course without generating dramatic disturbance of the syllabus. Thirdly, it examines the effectiveness of these didactic means in enhancing student-teacher intercultural competence regarding the need for integrating and implementing internationalization, intercultural and global perspectives in teaching and learning in Swedish schools. Last but not least, it intends to serve as a practical example for developing the student teachers’ intercultural competence in foreign language education in DU and fill in the research gap of this academic domain worldwide.

Keywords: action research, intercultural competence, Chinese as a foreign language education, teacher education

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3307 An Action Research Study of Developing Foreign Language Teachers’ Intercultural Competence

Authors: Wei Hing Rosenkvist

Abstract:

In the past few decades, concerns and demands of promoting student intercultural communicative competence in foreign language education have been increasing along with the rapid growth of information technologies and globalization in the 21st century. In Sweden, related concepts such as internationalization, global citizenship, multiculturalism, and intercultural communication etc., are also keywords that would be found in the written learning objectives of the foreign language education in all levels. Being one of the leading higher institutes in distance education in Europe, Dalarna University clearly states that after completion of the teacher education program, students shall understand the needs for integrating internationalization, intercultural and global perspective in teaching and learning in Swedish schools and implement their own studies to promote education in an international and global context. Despite the fact that many teachers and educators agree with the institutes’ mission and vision about the importance of internationalization and the need of increasing student understanding of intercultural and global perspective, they might find this objective unattainable and restricted due to the nature of the subject and their personal knowledge of intercultural competence. When conducting a comprehensive Chinese language course for the students who are going to become Chinese foreign language teachers, the researcher found that all the learning objectives are linguistic oriented while grammatical components dominate the entire course. Apparently, there is a gap between the learning objectives of the course and the DU’s mission of fostering an international learner with intercultural and globalized perspectives. How to include this macro-learning objective in a foreign language course is a great challenge to the educator. Although scholars from different academic domains have provided different theoretical frameworks and approaches for developing student intercultural competence, research that focuses on the didactic perspectives of developing student intercultural competence in teaching Chinese as a foreign language education (CFL) is limited and practical examples are rare. This has motivated the researcher to conduct an action research study that aims at integrating DU’s macro-learning objective in a current CFL course through different didactic practices with a purpose of developing the teacher student intercultural competence. This research study aims to, firstly, illustrate the cross-cultural knowledge integrated into the present Chinese language course for developing intercultural competence. Secondly, it investigates different didactic means that can be utilized to deliver cross-cultural knowledge to student teachers in the present course without generating dramatic disturbance of the syllabus. Thirdly, it examines the effectiveness of these didactic means in enhancing teacher student intercultural competence regarding the need for integrating and implementing internationalization, intercultural and global perspectives in teaching and learning in Swedish schools. Last but not least, it intends to serve as a practical example for developing the student teachers’ intercultural competence in foreign language education in DU and fill in the research gap of this academic domain worldwide.

Keywords: intercultural competence, foreign language education, action research, teacher education

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3306 Intercultural Competency for Teachers at the Public Multicultural Alternative School for Immigrants and Multicultural Family Student’s School Maladjustment in Korea

Authors: Kiseob Chung, Hyeonmin Kang

Abstract:

This study aims to explore what is intercultural competency needed for teacher through their experience at the public multicultural alternative school. The public alternative multicultural school is an accredited school for immigrants or students from multicultural families who have experienced school maladjustment at public school. This school has self-regulation in curriculum and function of bridge to public school by helping their adaptation. In particular, this study answers the following questions: What are the most difficulties for teacher at the multicultural alternative school in comparison to public school? What competencies are required for teacher at the multicultural alternative school? Which competencies in cognitive, emotional and practical area should be more required in order for teacher to communicate with student effectively (successfully) in class and other activities in school? What is the background of that we called these competencies especially as ‘intercultural’? This study focuses to clarify teacher’s competency to help immigrants of students from multicultural background to adjust to school life with the term of intercultural competency.

Keywords: intercultural competency for teacher, multicultural alternative school, multicultural students, school maladjustment

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3305 The Effects of Self-Reflections on Intercultural Communication Competency: A Case Study of the University of Arkansas-Fort Smith

Authors: JaeYoon Park

Abstract:

The ability to communicate effectively across different cultures is a necessary skill in today’s increasingly globalized world. Intercultural communication competency (ICC) is a way of being that benefits all members of a society in their living, learning, and working environments as well as in the context of mediated communications. This study examines the effects of self-reflection processes on the improvement of intercultural communication skills focusing on college students at the University of Arkansas-Fort Smith. A total of sixty-nine students’ works were analyzed based on the data collected in the past three years (2016, 2017 and 2018). The students in the ‘Culture and Communication’ class, each spring, completed the Diversity Awareness Profile (DAP) survey as a pre- and post-test for the course. DAP is a self-assessment tool designed by Karen Stinson and widely used in college classes, companies, and organizations to evaluate an individual’s behaviors in various intercultural settings. It can assist individuals in becoming more aware of diversity issues and also provide a foundation for developing strategies for modifying any undesirable behavior they may discover in the assessment. In addition to the DAP surveys, the students also submitted self-reflection essays that discussed their own scores. The University of Arkansas-Fort Smith is a small regional university located in the Bible Belt of the United States. White, Christian, working-class students dominate its student population. The students, whose data were collected, were predominantly seniors in college majoring in either Media Communication or International Business. Approximately, 80% of the students increased their scores, and 42% of them moved forward to a new category. The findings also indicate that the students in the underrepresented groups (i.e., women, minority, and international students) show less change in their scores and behaviors than the rest of the students (i.e., white heterosexual male students). These findings, in most part, result from the fact that the underrepresented students were already aware of diversity and intercultural issues through their personal experiences before taking the class. The white heterosexual male students demonstrated the greatest improvements, judging from their DAP scores (pre- and post-tests) and self-reflection essays. Through the class assignments and discussions, which emphasized critical thinking and self-reflection, the latter group of students not only became more aware of the meaning of their own words and behaviors, but they were also able to develop greater proficiency in intercultural communication. This e-poster presentation will analyze the findings of this research data, and also discuss the pedagogical implications of such results.

Keywords: cross-cultural communication, diversity awareness survey, self-reflection, underrepresented students

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3304 Examining the Role of Willingness to Communicate in Cross-Cultural Adaptation in East-Asia

Authors: Baohua Yu

Abstract:

Despite widely reported 'Mainland-Hong Kong conflicts', recent years have witnessed progressive growth in the numbers of Mainland Chinese students in Hong Kong’s universities. This research investigated Mainland Chinese students’ intercultural communication in relation to cross-cultural adaptation in a major university in Hong Kong. The features of intercultural communication examined in this study were competence in the second language (L2) communication and L2 Willingness to Communicate (WTC), while the features of cross-cultural adaptation examined were socio-cultural, psychological and academic adaptation. Based on a questionnaire, structural equation modelling was conducted among a sample of 196 Mainland Chinese students. Results showed that the competence in L2 communication played a significant role in L2 WTC, which had an influential effect on academic adaptation, which was itself identified as a mediator between the psychological adaptation and socio-cultural adaptation. Implications for curriculum design for courses and instructional practice on international students are discussed.

Keywords: L2 willingness to communicate, competence in L2 communication, psychological adaptation, socio-cultural adaptation, academic adaptation, structural equation modelling

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3303 Religion and Politeness: An Exploratory Study for the Integration of Religious Expressions with Politeness Strategies in Iraqi Computer-Mediated Communication

Authors: Rasha Alsabbah

Abstract:

This study explores the relationship between polite language use and religion in the Iraqi culture in computer mediated communication. It tackles the speech acts where these expressions are employed, the frequency of their occurrence and the aims behind them. It also investigates if they have equivalent expressions in English and the possibility of translating them in intercultural communication. Despite the wide assumption that language is a reflection of culture and religion, it started to grant the attention sociologists during the recent 40 years when scholars have questioned the possible interconnection between religion and language in which religion is used as a mean of producing language and performing pragmatic functions. It is presumed that Arabs in general, and Iraqis in particular, have an inclination to use religious vocabulary in showing politeness in their greeting and other speech acts. Due to Islamic religion and culture’s influences, it is observed that Iraqis are very much concerned of maintaining social solidarity and harmonious relationships which make religion a politeness strategy that operates as the key point of their social behaviours. In addition, religion has found to influence almost all their interactions in which they have a tendency of invoking religious expressions, the lexicon of Allah (God), and Qur’anic verses in their daily politeness discourse. This aspect of Islamic culture may look strange, especially to people who come from individualist societies, such as England. Data collection in this study is based on messaging applications like Viber, WhatsApp, and Facebook. After gaining the approval of the participants, there was an investigation for the different aims behind these expressions and the pragmatic function that they perform. It is found that Iraqis tend to incorporate the lexicon of Allah in most of their communication. Such employment is not only by religious people but also by individuals who do not show strong commitment to religion. Furthermore, the social distance and social power between people do not play a significant role in increasing or reducing the rate of using these expressions. A number of these expressions, though can be translated into English, do not have one to one counterpart or reflect religious feeling. In addition, they might sound odd upon being translated or transliterated in oral and written communication in intercultural communication.

Keywords: computer mediated communication (CMC), intercultural communication, politeness, religion, situation bound utterances rituals, speech acts

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3302 Intercultural Competence among Jewish and Arab Students Studying Together in an Academic Institution in Israel

Authors: Orly Redlich

Abstract:

Since the establishment of the state of Israel, and as a result of various events that led to it, Jewish citizens and Arab citizens of the state have been in constant conflict, which finds its expression in most levels of life. Therefore, the attitude of one group member to the other group members is mostly tense, loaded, and saturated with mutual suspicion. Within this reality, in many higher education institutions in Israel, Jews and Arabs meet with each other intensively and for several years. For some students, this is their first opportunity for a meaningful cross-cultural encounter. These intercultural encounters, which allow positive interactions between members of different cultural groups, may contribute to the formation of "intercultural competence" which means long-term change in knowledge, attitudes, and behavior towards 'the other culture'. The current study examined the concept of the ‘other’ among Jewish and Arab students studying together and their "intercultural competence". The study also examined whether there is a difference in the perception of the ‘other’ between students studying in different academic programs, and between students taking academic courses on multiculturalism. This quantitative study was conducted among 274 Arab and Jewish students studying together, for bachelors or master's degree, in various academic programs at the Israel Academic College of Ramat-Gan. The background data of the participants are varied, in terms of religion, origin, religiosity, employment status, living area, and marital status. The main hypothesis is that academic, social, and intercultural encounters between Jewish and Arab students, who attend college together, will be a significant factor in building "intercultural competence". Additionally, the existence of "intercultural competence" has been linked to demographic characteristics of the students, as well as the nature of intercultural encounters between Jews and Arabs in a higher education institution. The dependent variables were measured by a self-report questionnaire, using the components of '"intercultural competence"' among students, which are: 1. Cognitive knowledge of the ‘others’, 2. Feelings towards the ‘others’, 3. Change in attitudes towards the 'others', and 4. Change in behavior towards the ‘others’. The findings indicate a higher "intercultural competence" among Arab students than Jews; it was also found higher level of "intercultural competence" among Educational Counseling students than the other respondents. The importance of this research lies in finding the means to develop "intercultural competence" among Jewish and Arab students, which may reduce prejudice and stereotypes towards the other culture and may even prevent occurrences of alienation and violence in cross-cultural encounters in Israel.

Keywords: cross-cultural learning, intercultural competence, Jewish and Arab students, multiculturalism

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3301 Experiential Language Learning as a Tool for Effective Global Leadership

Authors: Christiane Dumont

Abstract:

This paper proposes to revisit foreign-language learning as a tool to increase motivation through advocacy and develop effective natural communication skills, which are critical leadership qualities. To this end, collaborative initiatives undertaken by advanced university students of French with local and international community partners will be reviewed. Close attention will be paid to the acquisition of intercultural skills, the reflective process, as well as the challenges and outcomes. Two international development projects conducted in Haiti will be highlighted, i.e., collaboration with a network of providers in the Haitian cultural heritage preservation and tourism sector (2014-15) and development of investigation and teacher training tools for a primary/secondary school in the Port-au-Prince area (current). The choice of community-service learning as a framework to teach French-as-a-second-language stemmed from the need to raise awareness against stereotypes and prejudice, which hinder the development of effective intercultural skills. This type of experiential education also proved very effective in identifying and preventing miscommunication caused by the lack of face-to-face interaction in our increasingly technology-mediated world. Learners experienced first-hand, the challenges and advantages of face-to-face communication, which, in turn, enhanced their motivation for developing effective intercultural skills. Vygotsky's and Kolb's theories, current research on service learning (Dwight, Eyler), action/project-based pedagogy (Beckett), and reflective learning (TSC Farrell), will provide useful background to analyze the benefits and challenges of community-service learning. The ultimate goal of this paper is to find out what makes experiential learning truly unique and transformative for both the learners and the community they wish to serve. It will demonstrate how enhanced motivation, community engagement, and clear, concise, and respectful communication impact and empower learners. The underlying hope is to help students in high-profile, and leading-edge industries become effective global leaders.

Keywords: experiential learning, intercultural communication, reflective learning, effective leadership, learner motivation

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