Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 62

Search results for: prosthesis

62 Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

Authors: Ail Akbar Emamverdian, Neriman Özada, Atabak Rahimzadeh Ilkhchi, Zahra Emamverdian

Abstract:

The reverse shoulder prosthesis is an innovative procedure design to treat of (GH) joint problems with severe rotator cuff deficiency. The original reverse shoulder prosthesis was invented by France surgery in1985 and has been in clinical use in the United States in 2004. These prostheses consist of baseplate that attached to the glenoid, in order to hold a spherical component, and humeral part consist of polyethylene insert which is flat. This prosthesis is the ‘reverse’ configuration. The indications for the reverse prosthesis are: (1) treating failed hemi arthroplasty with irrecoverable rotator cuff tears, (2) relief of painful arthritis associated with cuff tear arthropathy, (3) instauration after tumor resection, (4) pseudo paralysis because of irrecoverable rotator cuff tears (5) some fractures of the shoulder which reverse shoulder prostheses is only the option for treatment. This prosthesis resulting in relief of pain and decreasing the range of motion in above indications. However, this prosthesis and its applications such as notching of the scapula, dislocation of the prosthesis parts and acromial stress fractures. In this article the reverse shoulder prostheses, indication has been reviewed. This study can make clear aspect of reverse shoulder prosthesis that can help to find some solution in future.

Keywords: prostheses, complications, reverse shoulder prosthesis, indications

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
61 Method of Visual Prosthesis Design Based on Biologically Inspired Design

Authors: Shen Jian, Hu Jie, Zhu Guo Niu, Peng Ying Hong

Abstract:

There are two issues exited in the traditional visual prosthesis: lacking systematic method and the low level of humanization. To tackcle those obstacles, a visual prosthesis design method based on biologically inspired design is proposed. Firstly, a constrained FBS knowledge cell model is applied to construct the functional model of visual prosthesis in biological field. Then the clustering results of engineering domain are ob-tained with the use of the cross-domain knowledge cell clustering algorithm. Finally, a prototype system is designed to support the bio-logically inspired design where the conflict is digested by TRIZ and other tools, and the validity of the method is verified by the solution scheme

Keywords: knowledge-based engineering, visual prosthesis, biologically inspired design, biomedical engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
60 A Multi Function Myocontroller for Upper Limb Prostheses

Authors: Ayad Asaad Ibrahim

Abstract:

Myoelectrically controlled prostheses are becoming more and more popular, for below-elbow amputation, the wrist flexor and extensor muscle group, while for above-elbow biceps and triceps brachii muscles are used for control of the prosthesis. A two site multi-function controller is presented. Two stainless steel bipolar electrode pairs are used to monitor the activities in both muscles. The detected signals are processed by new pre-whitening technique to identify the accurate tension estimation in these muscles. These estimates will activate the relevant prosthesis control signal, with a time constant of 200 msec. It is ensured that the tension states in the control muscle to activate a particular prosthesis function are similar to those used to activate normal functions in the natural hand. This facilitates easier training.

Keywords: prosthesis, biosignal processing, pre-whitening, myoelectric controller

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
59 Virtual Test Model for Qualification of Knee Prosthesis

Authors: K. Zehouani, I. Oldal

Abstract:

Purpose: In the human knee joint, degenerative joint disease may happen with time. The standard treatment of this disease is the total knee replacement through prosthesis implanting. The reason lies in the fact that this phenomenon causes different material abrasion as compare to pure sliding or rolling alone. This study focuses on developing a knee prosthesis geometry, which fulfills the mechanical and kinematical requirements. Method: The MSC ADAMS program is used to describe the rotation of the human knee joint as a function of flexion, and to investigate how the flexion and rotation movement changes between the condyles of a multi-body model of the knee prosthesis as a function of flexion angle (in the functional arc of the knee (20-120º)). Moreover, the multi-body model with identical boundary conditions is constituted, and the numerical simulations are carried out using the MSC ADAMS program system. Results: It is concluded that the use of the multi-body model reduces time and cost since it does not need to manufacture the tibia and the femur as it requires for the knee prosthesis of the test machine. Moreover, without measuring or by dispensing with a test machine for the knee prosthesis geometry, approximation of the results of our model to a human knee is carried out directly. Conclusion: The pattern obtained by the multi-body model provides an insight for future experimental tests related to the rotation and flexion of the knee joint concerning the actual average and friction load.

Keywords: biomechanics, knee joint, rotation, flexion, kinematics, MSC ADAMS

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
58 Computer Aided Shoulder Prosthesis Design and Manufacturing

Authors: Didem Venus Yildiz, Murat Hocaoglu, Murat Dursun, Taner Akkan

Abstract:

The shoulder joint is a more complex structure than the hip or knee joints. In addition to the overall complexity of the shoulder joint, two different factors influence the insufficient outcome of shoulder replacement: the shoulder prosthesis design is far from fully developed and it is difficult to place these shoulder prosthesis due to shoulder anatomy. The glenohumeral joint is the most complex joint of the human shoulder. There are various treatments for shoulder failures such as total shoulder arthroplasty, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Due to its reverse design than normal shoulder anatomy, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty has different physiological and biomechanical properties. Post-operative achievement of this arthroplasty is depend on improved design of reverse total shoulder prosthesis. Designation achievement can be increased by several biomechanical and computational analysis. In this study, data of human both shoulders with right side fracture was collected by 3D Computer Tomography (CT) machine in dicom format. This data transferred to 3D medical image processing software (Mimics Materilise, Leuven, Belgium) to reconstruct patient’s left and right shoulders’ bones geometry. Provided 3D geometry model of the fractured shoulder was used to constitute of reverse total shoulder prosthesis by 3-matic software. Finite element (FE) analysis was conducted for comparison of intact shoulder and prosthetic shoulder in terms of stress distribution and displacements. Body weight physiological reaction force of 800 N loads was applied. Resultant values of FE analysis was compared for both shoulders. The analysis of the performance of the reverse shoulder prosthesis could enhance the knowledge of the prosthetic design.

Keywords: reverse shoulder prosthesis, biomechanics, finite element analysis, 3D printing

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
57 Effect of Palatal Lift Prosthesis on Speech Clarity in Flaccid Dysarthria

Authors: Firas Alfwaress, Abdelraheem Bebers Abdelhadi Hamasha, Maha Abu Awaad

Abstract:

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Palatal Lift Prosthesis (PLP) on speech clarity in patients with Flaccid Dysarthria. Five speech measures were investigated including Nasalance Scores, Diadchokinetic (DDK), Vowel Duration, airflow, and Sound Intensity. Participants: Twelve (7 Males and 5 females) native speakers of Jordanian Arabic with Flaccid Dysarthria following stroke, traumatic brain injury, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis were included. The age of the participants ranged from 8–65 years with an average of 31.75 years. Design: Nasalance Scores, Diadchokinetic rate, Vowel Duration, and Sound Intensity were obtained using the Nasometer II, Model 6450 in three conditions. The first condition included obtaining the five measures without wearing the customized Palatal Lift Prosthesis. The second and third conditions included obtaining the five measures immediately after wearing the Palatal Lift Prosthesis and three months later. Results: Palatal lift prosthesis was found to be effective in individuals with flaccid dysarthria. Results showed decrease in the Nasalance Scores for the syllable repetition tasks and vowel prolongation tasks when comparing the means in the pre PLP with the post PLP at p≤0.001 except for the /m/ prolongation task. Results showed increased DDK repetition task, airflow amount, and sound intensity, and a decrease in vowel length at p≤0.001. Conclusions: The use of palatal lift prosthesis is effective in improving the speech of patients with flaccid dysarthria.

Keywords: palatal lift prosthesis, flaccid dysarthria, hypernasality, speech clarity, diadchokinetic rate

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56 Mechanical Prosthesis Controlled by Brain-Computer Interface

Authors: Tianyu Cao, KIRA (Ruizhi Zhao)

Abstract:

The purpose of our research is to study the possibility of people with physical disabilities manipulating mechanical prostheses through brain-computer interface (BCI) technology. The brain-machine interface (BCI) of the neural prosthesis records signals from neurons and uses mathematical modeling to decode them, converting desired movements into body movements. In order to improve the patient's neural control, the prosthesis is given a natural feeling. It records data from sensitive areas from the body to the prosthetic limb and encodes signals in the form of electrical stimulation to the brain. In our research, the brain-computer interface (BCI) is a bridge connecting patients’ cognition and the real world, allowing information to interact with each other. The efficient work between the two is achieved through external devices. The flow of information is controlled by BCI’s ability to record neuronal signals and decode signals, which are converted into device control. In this way, we could encode information and then send it to the brain through electrical stimulation, which has significant medical application.

Keywords: biomedical engineering, brain-computer interface, prosthesis, neural control

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
55 Methodology for Obtaining Static Alignment Model

Authors: Lely A. Luengas, Pedro R. Vizcaya, Giovanni Sánchez

Abstract:

In this paper, a methodology is presented to obtain the Static Alignment Model for any transtibial amputee person. The proposed methodology starts from experimental data collected on the Hospital Militar Central, Bogotá, Colombia. The effects of transtibial prosthesis malalignment on amputees were measured in terms of joint angles, center of pressure (COP) and weight distribution. Some statistical tools are used to obtain the model parameters. Mathematical predictive models of prosthetic alignment were created. The proposed models are validated in amputees and finding promising results for the prosthesis Static Alignment. Static alignment process is unique to each subject; nevertheless the proposed methodology can be used in each transtibial amputee.

Keywords: information theory, prediction model, prosthetic alignment, transtibial prosthesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
54 Prophylactic Replacement of Voice Prosthesis: A Study to Predict Prosthesis Lifetime

Authors: Anne Heirman, Vincent van der Noort, Rob van Son, Marije Petersen, Lisette van der Molen, Gyorgy Halmos, Richard Dirven, Michiel van den Brekel

Abstract:

Objective: Voice prosthesis leakage significantly impacts laryngectomies patients' quality of life, causing insecurity and frequent unplanned hospital visits and costs. In this study, the concept of prophylactic voice prosthesis replacement was explored to prevent leakages. Study Design: A retrospective cohort study. Setting: Tertiary hospital. Methods: Device lifetimes and voice prosthesis replacements of a retrospective cohort, including all patients with laryngectomies between 2000 and 2012 in the Netherlands Cancer Institute, were used to calculate the number of needed voice prostheses per patient per year when preventing 70% of the leakages by prophylactic replacement. Various strategies for the timing of prophylactic replacement were considered: Adaptive strategies based on the individual patient’s history of replacement and fixed strategies based on the results of patients with similar voice prosthesis or treatment characteristics. Results: Patients used a median of 3.4 voice prostheses per year (range 0.1-48.1). We found a high inter-and intrapatient variability in device lifetime. When applying prophylactic replacement, this would become a median of 9.4 voice prostheses per year, which means replacement every 38 days, implying more than six additional voice prostheses per patient per year. The individual adaptive model showed that preventing 70% of the leakages was impossible for most patients, and only a median of 25% can be prevented. Monte-Carlo simulations showed that prophylactic replacement is not feasible due to the high Coefficient of Variation (Standard Deviation/Mean) in device lifetime. Conclusion: Based on our simulations, prophylactic replacement of voice prostheses is not feasible due to high inter-and intrapatient variation in device lifetime.

Keywords: voice prosthesis, voice rehabilitation, total laryngectomy, prosthetic leakage, device lifetime

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53 Design and Biomechanical Analysis of a Transtibial Prosthesis for Cyclists of the Colombian Team Paralympic

Authors: Jhonnatan Eduardo Zamudio Palacios, Oscar Leonardo Mosquera Dussan, Daniel Guzman Perez, Daniel Alfonso Botero Rosas, Oscar Fabian Rubiano Espinosa, Jose Antonio Garcia Torres, Ivan Dario Chavarro, Ivan Ramiro Rodriguez Camacho, Jaime Orlando Rodriguez

Abstract:

The training of cilsitas with some type of disability finds in the technological development an indispensable ally, generating every day advances to contribute to the quality of life allowing to maximize the capacities of the athletes. The performance of a cyclist depends on physiological and biomechanical factors, such as aerodynamic profile, bicycle measurements, connecting rod length, pedaling systems, type of competition, among others. This study particularly focuses on the description of the dynamic model of a transtibial prosthesis for Paralympic cyclists. To make the model, two points are chosen: in the radius centers of rotation of the plate and pinion of the track bicycle. The parametric scheme of the track bike represents a model of 6 degrees of freedom due to the displacement in X - Y of each of the reference points of the angles of the curve profile β, cant of the velodrome α and the angle of rotation of the connecting rod φ. The force exerted on the crank of the bicycle varies according to the angles of the curve profile β, the velodrome cant of α and the angle of rotation of the crank φ. The behavior is analyzed through the Matlab R2015a software. The average strength that a cyclist exerts on the cranks of a bicycle is 1,607.1 N, the Paralympic cyclist must perform a force on each crank about 803.6 N. Once the maximum force associated with the movement has been determined, it is continued to the dynamic modeling of the transtibial prosthesis that represents a model of 6 degrees of freedom with displacement in X - Y in relation to the angles of rotation of the hip π, knee γ and ankle λ. Subsequently, an analysis of the kinematic behavior of the prosthesis was carried out by means of SolidWorks 2017 and Matlab R2015a, which was used to model and analyze the variation of the hip angles π, knee γ and ankle of the λ prosthesis. The reaction forces generated in the prosthesis were performed on the ankle of the prosthesis, performing the summation of forces on the X and Y axes. The same analysis was then applied to the tibia of the prosthesis and the socket. The reaction force of the parts of the prosthesis varies according to the hip angles π, knee γ and ankle of the prosthesis λ. Therefore, it can be deduced that the maximum forces experienced by the ankle of the prosthesis is 933.6 N on the X axis and 2.160.5 N on the Y axis. Finally, it is calculated that the maximum forces experienced by the tibia and the socket of the transtibial prosthesis in high performance competitions is 3.266 N on the X axis and 1.357 N on the Y axis. In conclusion, it can be said that the performance of the cyclist depends on several physiological factors, linked to biomechanics of training. The influence of biomechanical factors such as aerodynamics, bicycle measurements, connecting rod length, or non-circular pedaling systems on the cyclist performance.

Keywords: biomechanics, dynamic model, paralympic cyclist, transtibial prosthesis

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52 Classification of Myoelectric Signals Using Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network with Back-Propagation Algorithm in a Wireless Surface Myoelectric Prosthesis of the Upper-Limb

Authors: Kevin D. Manalo, Jumelyn L. Torres, Noel B. Linsangan

Abstract:

This paper focuses on a wireless myoelectric prosthesis of the upper-limb that uses a Multilayer Perceptron Neural network with back propagation. The algorithm is widely used in pattern recognition. The network can be used to train signals and be able to use it in performing a function on their own based on sample inputs. The paper makes use of the Neural Network in classifying the electromyography signal that is produced by the muscle in the amputee’s skin surface. The gathered data will be passed on through the Classification Stage wirelessly through Zigbee Technology. The signal will be classified and trained to be used in performing the arm positions in the prosthesis. Through programming using Verilog and using a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) with Zigbee, the EMG signals will be acquired and will be used for classification. The classified signal is used to produce the corresponding Hand Movements (Open, Pick, Hold, and Grip) through the Zigbee controller. The data will then be processed through the MLP Neural Network using MATLAB which then be used for the surface myoelectric prosthesis. Z-test will be used to display the output acquired from using the neural network.

Keywords: field programmable gate array, multilayer perceptron neural network, verilog, zigbee

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51 Large-Capacity Image Information Reduction Based on Single-Cue Saliency Map for Retinal Prosthesis System

Authors: Yili Chen, Xiaokun Liang, Zhicheng Zhang, Yaoqin Xie

Abstract:

In an effort to restore visual perception in retinal diseases, an electronic retinal prosthesis with thousands of electrodes has been developed. The image processing strategies of retinal prosthesis system converts the original images from the camera to the stimulus pattern which can be interpreted by the brain. Practically, the original images are with more high resolution (256x256) than that of the stimulus pattern (such as 25x25), which causes a technical image processing challenge to do large-capacity image information reduction. In this paper, we focus on developing an efficient image processing stimulus pattern extraction algorithm by using a single cue saliency map for extracting salient objects in the image with an optimal trimming threshold. Experimental results showed that the proposed stimulus pattern extraction algorithm performs quite well for different scenes in terms of the stimulus pattern. In the algorithm performance experiment, our proposed SCSPE algorithm have almost five times of the score compared with Boyle’s algorithm. Through experiment s we suggested that when there are salient objects in the scene (such as the blind meet people or talking with people), the trimming threshold should be set around 0.4max, in other situations, the trimming threshold values can be set between 0.2max-0.4max to give the satisfied stimulus pattern.

Keywords: retinal prosthesis, image processing, region of interest, saliency map, trimming threshold selection

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50 The Predictability of Three Implants to Support a Fixed Prosthesis in the Edentulous Mandible

Authors: M. Hirani, M. Devine, O. Obisesan, C. Bryant

Abstract:

Introduction: The use of four or more implants to support a fixed prosthesis in the edentulous mandible is well documented, with high levels of clinical outcomes recorded. Despite this, the use of three implant-supported fixed prostheses offers the potential to deliver a more cost-effective method of oral rehabilitation in the lower arch, an important consideration given that edentulism is most prevalent in low-income subpopulations. The purpose of this study aimed to evaluate the implant and prosthetic survival rate, changes in marginal bone level, and patient satisfaction associated with a three-implant-supported fixed prosthesis for rehabilitation of the edentulous mandible over a follow-up period of at least one year. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed to evaluate studies that met the selection criteria. The information extracted included the study design and population, participant demographics, observation period, loading protocol, and the number of implants placed together with the required outcome measures. Mean values and standard deviations (SD) were calculated using SPSS® (IBM Corporation, New York, USA), and the level of statistical significance across all comparative studies described was set at P < 0.05. Results: The eligible studies included a total of 1968 implants that were placed in 652 patients. The subjects ranged in age from 33-89 years, with a mean of 63.2 years. The mean cumulative implant and prosthetic survival rates were 95.5% and 96.2%, respectively, over a mean follow-up period of 3.25 years. The mean marginal bone loss recorded was 1.04 mm, and high patient satisfaction rates were reported across the studies. Conclusion: Current evidence suggests that a three implant-supported fixed prosthesis for the edentulous mandible is a successful treatment strategy presenting high implant and prosthetic survival rates over the short-to-medium term. Further well-designed controlled clinical trials are required to evaluate longer-term outcomes, with supplemental data correlating implant dimensions and prosthetic design.

Keywords: implants, mandible, fixed, prosthesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
49 Prosthesis Design for Bilateral Hip Disarticulation Management

Authors: Mauricio Plaza, Willian Aperador

Abstract:

Hip disarticulation is an amputation through the hip joint capsule, removing the entire lower extremity, with a closure of the remaining musculature over the exposed acetabulum. Tumors of the distal and proximal femur were treated by total femur resection; a hip disarticulation sometimes is a performance for massive trauma with crush injuries to the lower extremity. This article discusses the design a system for rehabilitation of a patient with bilateral hip disarticulations. The prosthetics designed allowed the patient to do natural gait suspended between parallel articulate crutches with the body weight support between the crutches. The care of this patient was a challenge due to bilateral amputations at such a high level and the special needs of a patient mobility.

Keywords: amputation, prosthesis, mobility, hemipelvectomy

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48 Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation Algorithm after Mandibular Resection for Ameloblastoma

Authors: Joaquim de Almeida Dultra, Daiana Cristina Pereira Santana, Fátima Karoline Alves Araújo Dultra, Liliane Akemi Kawano Shibasaki, Mariana Machado Mendes de Carvalho, Ieda Margarida Crusoé Rocha Rebello

Abstract:

Defects originating from mandibular resections can cause significant functional impairment and facial disharmony, and they have complex rehabilitation. The aim of this report is to demonstrate the authors' experience facing challenging rehabilitation after mandibular resection in a patient with ameloblastoma. Clinical and surgical steps are described simultaneously, highlighting the adaptation of the final fixed prosthesis, reported in an unprecedented way in the literature. A 37-year-old male patient was seen after a sports accident, where a pathological fracture in the symphysis and left mandibular body was identified, where a large radiolucent lesion was found. The patient underwent resection, bone graft, distraction osteogenesis, rehabilitation with dental implants, prosthesis, and finally, orofacial harmonization, in an interval of six years. Rehabilitation should consider the patient's needs individually and should have as the main objective to provide similar aesthetics and function to that present before the disease. We also emphasize the importance of interdisciplinary work during the course of rehabilitation.

Keywords: ameloblastoma, mandibular reconstruction, distraction osteogenesis, dental implants. dental prosthesis, implant-supported, treatment outcome

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47 Bioarm, a Prothesis without Surgery

Authors: J. Sagouis, A. Chamel, E. Carre, C. Casasreales, G. Rudnik, M. Cerdan

Abstract:

Robotics provides answers to amputees. The most expensive solutions surgically connect the prosthesis to nerve endings. There are also several types of non-invasive technologies that recover nerve messages passing through the muscles. After analyzing these messages, myoelectric prostheses perform the desired movement. The main goal is to avoid all surgeries, which can be heavy and offer cheaper alternatives. For an amputee, we use valid muscles to recover the electrical signal involved in a muscle movement. EMG sensors placed on the muscle allows us to measure a potential difference, which our program transforms into control for a robotic arm with two degrees of freedom. We have shown the feasibility of non-invasive prostheses with two degrees of freedom. Signal analysis and an increase in degrees of freedom is still being improved.

Keywords: prosthesis, electromyography (EMG), robotic arm, nerve message

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
46 Stress Study in Implants Dental

Authors: M. Benlebna, B. Serier, B. Bachir Bouiadjra, S. Khalkhal

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This study focuses on the mechanical behavior of a dental prosthesis subjected to dynamic loads chewing. It covers a three-dimensional analysis by the finite element method, the level of distribution of equivalent stresses induced in the bone between the implants (depending on the number of implants). The studied structure, consisting of a braced, implant and mandibular bone is subjected to dynamic loading of variable amplitude in three directions corrono-apical, mesial-distal and bucco-lingual. These efforts simulate those of mastication. We show that compared to the implantation of a single implant, implantology using two implants promotes the weakening of the bones. This weakness is all the more likely that the implants are located in close proximity to one another.

Keywords: stress, bone, dental implant, distribution, stress levels, dynamic, effort, interaction, prosthesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
45 Cartilage Mimicking Coatings to Increase the Life-Span of Bearing Surfaces in Joint Prosthesis

Authors: L. Sánchez-Abella, I. Loinaz, H-J. Grande, D. Dupin

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Aseptic loosening remains as the principal cause of revision in total hip arthroplasty (THA). For long-term implantations, submicron particles are generated in vivo due to the inherent wear of the prosthesis. When this occurs, macrophages undergo phagocytosis and secretion of bone resorptive cytokines inducing osteolysis, hence loosening of the implanted prosthesis. Therefore, new technologies are required to reduce the wear of the bearing materials and hence increase the life-span of the prosthesis. Our strategy focuses on surface modification of the bearing materials with a hydrophilic coating based on cross-linked water-soluble (meth)acrylic monomers to improve their tribological behavior. These coatings are biocompatible, with high swelling capacity and antifouling properties, mimicking the properties of natural cartilage, i.e. wear resistance with a permanent hydrated layer that prevents prosthesis damage. Cartilage mimicking based coatings may be also used to protect medical device surfaces from damage and scratches that will compromise their integrity and hence their safety. However, there are only a few reports on the mechanical and tribological characteristics of this type of coatings. Clear beneficial advantages of this coating have been demonstrated in different conditions and different materials, such as Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), Polyethylene (XLPE), Carbon-fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK), cobalt-chromium (CoCr), Stainless steel, Zirconia Toughened Alumina (ZTA) and Alumina. Using routine tribological experiments, the wear for UHMWPE substrate was decreased by 75% against alumina, ZTA and stainless steel. For PEEK-CFR substrate coated, the amount of material lost against ZTA and CrCo was at least 40% lower. Experiments on hip simulator allowed coated ZTA femoral heads and coated UHMWPE cups to be validated with a decrease of 80% of loss material. Further experiments on hip simulator adding abrasive particles (1 micron sized alumina particles) during 3 million cycles, on a total of 6 million, demonstrated a decreased of around 55% of wear compared to uncoated UHMWPE and uncoated XLPE. In conclusion, CIDETEC‘s hydrogel coating technology is versatile and can be adapted to protect a large range of surfaces, even in abrasive conditions.

Keywords: cartilage, hydrogel, hydrophilic coating, joint

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
44 Static and Dynamic Load on Hip Contact of Hip Prosthesis and Thai Femoral Bones

Authors: K. Chalernpon, P. Aroonjarattham, K. Aroonjarattham

Abstract:

Total hip replacement had been one of the most successful operations in hip arthritis surgery. The purpose of this research had been to develop a dynamic hip contact of Thai femoral bone to analyze the stress distribution on the implant and the strain distribution on the bone model under daily activities and compared with the static load simulation. The results showed the different of maximum von Mises stress 0.14 percent under walking and 0.03 percent under climbing stair condition and the different of equivalent total strain 0.52 percent under walking and 0.05 percent under climbing stair condition. The muscular forces should be evaluated with dynamic condition to reduce the maximum von Mises stress and equivalent total strain.

Keywords: dynamic loading, static load, hip prosthesis, Thai femur, femoral bone, finite element analysis

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43 Managing of Cobalt and Chromium Ions by Patients with Metal-on-Metal Hip Prosthesis

Authors: Alina Beraudi, Simona Catalani, Dalila De Pasquale, Eva Bianconi, Umberto Santoro, Susanna Stea, Pietro Apostoli

Abstract:

Recently the European Community, in line with the international scientific community such as with the Consensus Statement, has determined to stop the use of metal-on-metal big head stemmed hip prosthesis. Among the factors accounted as responsible for the high failure rates of these hip implants are the release and accumulation of metal ions. Many studies have correlated the presence of these ions, besides other factors, with the induction of oxidative stress response. In our study on 12 subjects, we observed the patient specific capability to eliminate metal ions after revision surgery. While for cobalt all the patients were able to completely excrete cobalt ions within 5-7 months after metal-on-metal bearing removal, for chromium ions it didn’t happen. If on the one hand the toxicokinetic differences between the two types of ions are confirmed by toxicological and occupational studies, on the other hand, this peculiar way of exposition represents a novel and important point of view. Thus, two different approaches were performed to better understand the subject specific capability to transport metal ions (albumin study) and to manage the response to them (heme-oxygenase-1 study): - a mutational screening of ALBUMIN gene was conducted in 30 MoM prosthetic patients resulting in the absence of nucleotidic changes compared with the ALB reference sequence. To this study was also added the analysis of expression of modified albumin protein; - a gene and protein expression study on 44 patients of heme-oxygenase-1, that is one of the most important antioxidant enzyme induced by metallic ions, was performed. This study resulted in no statistically significant differences in the expression of the gene and protein heme-oxygenase-1 between prosthetic and non-prosthetic patients, as well as between patients with high and low ions levels. Our results show that the protein studied (albumin and heme-oxygenase-1) seem to be not involved in determining chromium and cobalt ions level. On the other hand, achromium and cobalt elimination rates are different, but similar in all patients analyzed, suggesting that this process could be not patient-related. We support the importance of researching more about ions transport within the organism once released by hip prosthesis, about the chemical species involved, the districts where they are contained and the mechanisms of elimination, not excluding the existence of a subjective susceptibility to these metals ions.

Keywords: chromium, cobalt, hip prosthesis, individual susceptibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
42 Common Causes of Eye Removal Surgery in Turkish Patients: A Review of 226 Cases

Authors: Titap Yazicioglu

Abstract:

Purpose: To determine the etiological factors responsible for the eye removal surgery and to evaluate our surgical results. Material and Methods: Medical records of 226 patients, who underwent eye removal surgery, were analyzed retrospectively. Demographic information, clinical history, surgical procedure, and histopathological data were all collected. Evisceration surgery was performed under general anesthesia in all patients except tumor cases and one patient with rhino-orbital mucormycosis. The patients were followed for an average of 16.46±10.78 months and checked for the possible complications, cosmesis, and functional results.Results: 144 men, and 82 women,with a mean age of 41.78±22.6 years, were underwent enucleation (n=15) or evisceration (n=211) due to traumatic (n=169) and non-traumatic (n=57) causes. In the traumatic group, 79.8% of 169 patients were injured by penetrating and 14.2% by blunt trauma.3.6% of the patients were injured in a traffic accident, and 2.4% of them were injured by explosives. In the non-traumatic group, 40% of 25 patients had post-traumatic endophthalmitis, 32% had endophthalmitis due to corneal ulceration and melting, and 24% had endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. One patient had panophthalmitis due to rhino-orbital mucormycosis. Another cause in the non-traumatic group was glaucoma, of which 92.3% had neovascular glaucoma, and 8.7% had congenital glaucoma. Of the 14 patients who were enucleated for tumor, 35.7% had retinoblastoma, 14.3% had medulloepithelioma, 42.9% had uveal melanoma, and 7.1% had metastatic tumor from paranasal sinuses.The most common complaint in the follow-up period was discharging, seen in all prosthesis-wearing patients. 13.3% of the patients had itching due to ocular prosthesis. 4.4% of the patients were complaining about deep superior sulcus. 4.4% had pyogenic granuloma, and 17.8% had implant exposure. Conclusion: Etiological factors should be carefully evaluated, and precautions should be taken in order to reduce the devastating effect of the physical loss of the eye.

Keywords: enucleation, evisceration, ocular injury, etiology, frequency

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41 Surface Adjustments for Endothelialization of Decellularized Porcine Pericardium

Authors: M. Markova, E. Filova, O. Kaplan, R. Matejka, L. Bacakova

Abstract:

The porcine pericardium is used as a material for cardiac and aortic valves substitutes. Current biological aortic heart valve prosthesis have a limited lifetime period because they undergo degeneration. In order to make them more biocompatible and prolong their lifetime it is necessary to reseed the decellularized prostheses with endothelial cells and with valve interstitial cells. The endothelialization of the prosthesis-surface may be supported by suitable chemical surface modification of the prosthesis. The aim of this study is to prepare bioactive fibrin layers which would both support endothelialization of porcine pericardium and enhance differentiation and maturation of the endothelial cells seeded. As a material for surface adjustments we used layers of fibrin with/without heparin and some of them with adsorbed or chemically bound FGF2, VEGF or their combination. Fibrin assemblies were prepared in 24-well cell culture plate and were seeded with HSVEC (Human Saphenous Vein Endothelial Cells) at a density of 20,000 cells per well in EGM-2 medium with 0.5% FS and without heparin, without FGF2 and without VEGF; medium was supplemented with aprotinin (200 U/mL). As a control, surface polystyrene (PS) was used. Fibrin was also used as homogeneous impregnation of the decellularized porcine pericardium throughout the scaffolds. Morphology, density, and viability of the seeded endothelial cells were observed from micrographs after staining the samples by LIVE/DEAD cytotoxicity/viability assay kit on the days 1, 3, and 7. Endothelial cells were immunocytochemically stained for proteins involved in cell adhesion, i.e. alphaV integrin, vinculin, and VE-cadherin, markers of endothelial cells differentiation and maturation, i.e. von Willebrand factor and CD31, and for extracellular matrix proteins typically produced by endothelial cells, i.e. type IV collagen and laminin. The staining intensities were subsequently quantified using a software. HSVEC cells grew on each of the prepared surfaces better than on control surface. They reached confluency. The highest cell densities were obtained on the surface of fibrin with heparin and both grow factors used together. Intensity of alphaV integrins staining was highest on samples with remained fibrin layer, i.e. on layers with lower cell densities, i.e. on fibrin without heparin. Vinculin staining was apparent, but was rather diffuse, on fibrin with both FGF2 and VEGF and on control PS. Endothelial cells on all samples were positively stained for von Willebrand factor and CD31. VE-cadherin receptors clusters were best developed on fibrin with heparin and growth factors. Significantly stronger staining of type IV collagen was observed on fibrin with heparin and both growth factors. Endothelial cells on all samples produced laminin-1. Decellularized pericardium was homogeneously filled with fibrin structures. These fibrin-modified pericardium samples will be further seeded with cells and cultured in a bioreactor. Fibrin layers with/without heparin and with adsorbed or chemically bound FGF2, VEGF or their combination are good surfaces for endothelialization of cardiovascular prostheses or porcine pericardium based heart valves. Supported by the Ministry of Health, grants No15-29153A and 15-32497A, and the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic, project No. P108/12/G108.

Keywords: aortic valves prosthesis, FGF2, heparin, HSVEC cells, VEGF

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40 Determination of the Pull-Out/ Holding Strength at the Taper-Trunnion Junction of Hip Implants

Authors: Obinna K. Ihesiulor, Krishna Shankar, Paul Smith, Alan Fien

Abstract:

Excessive fretting wear at the taper-trunnion junction (trunnionosis) apparently contributes to the high failure rates of hip implants. Implant wear and corrosion lead to the release of metal particulate debris and subsequent release of metal ions at the taper-trunnion surface. This results in a type of metal poisoning referred to as metallosis. The consequences of metal poisoning include; osteolysis (bone loss), osteoarthritis (pain), aseptic loosening of the prosthesis and revision surgery. Follow up after revision surgery, metal debris particles are commonly found in numerous locations. Background: A stable connection between the femoral ball head (taper) and stem (trunnion) is necessary to prevent relative motions and corrosion at the taper junction. Hence, the importance of component assembly cannot be over-emphasized. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the influence of head-stem junction assembly by press fitting and the subsequent disengagement/disassembly on the connection strength between the taper ball head and stem. Methods: CoCr femoral heads were assembled with High stainless hydrogen steel stem (trunnion) by Push-in i.e. press fit; and disengaged by Pull-out test. The strength and stability of the two connections were evaluated by measuring the head pull-out forces according to ISO 7206-10 standards. Findings: The head-stem junction strength linearly increases with assembly forces.

Keywords: wear, modular hip prosthesis, taper head-stem, force assembly and disassembly

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39 A Method for Precise Vertical Position of the Implant When Using Computerized Surgical Guides and Bone Reduction

Authors: Abraham Finkelman

Abstract:

Computerized Surgical Guides have been proven to be a predictable way to perform dental implants, with a relatively high accuracy in comparison to a treatment plan. When using the CSG Bone supported, it allows us to make the necessary changes of the hard tissue prior to the implant placement and after the implant placement. The CSG gives us an accurate position for the drilling, and during the implant placement it allows us to alter the vertical position of the implant altering the final position of the abutment and avoiding any risk of any damage to the adjacent anatomical structures. Any Changes required to the bone level can be done prior to the fixation of the CSG using a reduction guide, which incur extra surgical fees and the need of a second surgical guide. Any changes of the bone level after the implant placement are at the risk of damaging the implant neck surface. The technique consists of a universal system that allows us to remove the excess bone around the implant sockets prior to the implant placement which then enables us to place the implant in the vertical position with accuracy as planned with the CSG. The systems consist of a hollow pin of different sizes and diameters. Depending on the implant system that we are using. Length sizes are from 6mm-16mm and a diameter of 2.6mm-4.8mm. Upon the completion of the drilling, the pin is then inserted into the implant socket-using the insertion tool. Once the insertion tool has unscrewed the pin, we can continue with the bone reduction. The bone reduction can be done using conventional methods upon the removal of all the excess bone around the pin. The insertion tool is then screwed into the pin and the pin is then removed. We now, have the new bone level at the crest of the implant socket which is our mark for the vertical position of the implant. In some cases, when we are locating the implant very close to anatomical structures, any form of deviation to the vertical position of the implant during the surgery, can cause damage to such anatomical structures, creating irreversible damages such as paresthesia or dysesthesia of the mandibular nerve. If we are planning for immediate loading and we have done our temporary restauration in base of our computerized plan, deviation in the vertical position of the implant will affect the position of the abutment, affecting the accuracy of the temporary prosthesis, extending the working time till we adapt the prosthesis to the new position.

Keywords: bone reduction, computer aided navigation, dental implant placement, surgical guides

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38 Qualitative Needs Assessment for Development of a Smart Thumb Prosthetic

Authors: Syena Moltaji, Stephanie Posa, Sander Hitzig, Amanda Mayo, Heather Baltzer

Abstract:

Purpose: To critically assess deficits following thumb amputation and delineate elements of an ideal thumb prosthesis from the end-user perspective. Methods: This was a qualitative study based on grounded theory. End-user stakeholder groups of thumb amputees and prosthetists were interviewed. Transcripts were reviewed whole first for familiarity. Data coding was then performed by two individual authors. Coded units were grouped by similarity and reviewed to reach a consensus. Codes were then analyzed for emergent themes by each author. A consensus meeting was held with all authors to finalize themes. Results: Three patients with traumatic thumb amputation and eight prosthetists were interviewed. Seven themes emerged. First was the significant impact of losing a thumb, in which codes of functional impact, mental impact, and occupational impact were included. The second theme was the unique nature of each thumb amputee, including goals, readiness for prosthesis, nature of the injury, and insurance. The third emergent theme was cost, surrounding government funding, insurability, and prosthetic pricing. The fourth theme was patient frustration, which included mismatches of prosthetic expectations and realities, activity limitations, and causes of devices abandonment. Themes five and six surrounded the strengths and weaknesses of current prosthetics, respectively. Theme seven was the ideal design for a thumb prosthetic, including abilities, suspension, and materials. Conclusions: Representative data from stakeholders mapped the current status of thumb prosthetics. Preferences for an ideal thumb prosthetic emerged, with suggestions for a simple, durable design. The ability to oppose, grasp and sense pressure was reported as functional priorities. Feasible cost and easy fitting emerged as systemic objectives. This data will be utilized in the development of a sensate thumb prosthetic.

Keywords: smart thumb, thumb prosthetic, sensate prosthetic, amputation

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37 Antibacterial Bioactive Glasses in Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology

Authors: V. Schmidt, L. Janovák, N. Wiegand, B. Patczai, K. Turzó

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Large bone defects are not able to heal spontaneously. Bioactive glasses seem to be appropriate (bio)materials for bone reconstruction. Bioactive glasses are osteoconductive and osteoinductive, therefore, play a useful role in bony regeneration and repair. Because of their not optimal mechanical properties (e.g., brittleness, low bending strength, and fracture toughness), their applications are limited. Bioactive glass can be used as a coating material applied on metal surfaces. In this way -when using them as implants- the excellent mechanical properties of metals and the biocompatibility and bioactivity of glasses will be utilized. Furthermore, ion release effects of bioactive glasses regarding osteogenic and angiogenic responses have been shown. Silicate bioactive glasses (45S5 Bioglass) induce the release and exchange of soluble Si, Ca, P, and Na ions on the material surface. This will lead to special cellular responses inducing bone formation, which is favorable in the biointegration of the orthopedic prosthesis. The incorporation of other additional elements in the silicate network such as fluorine, magnesium, iron, silver, potassium, or zinc has been shown, as the local delivery of these ions is able to enhance specific cell functions. Although hip and knee prostheses present a high success rate, bacterial infections -mainly implant associated- are serious and frequent complications. Infection can also develop after implantation of hip prostheses, the elimination of which means more surgeries for the patient and additional costs for the clinic. Prosthesis-related infection is a severe complication of orthopedic surgery, which often causes prolonged illness, pain, and functional loss. While international efforts are made to reduce the risk of these infections, orthopedic surgical infections (SSIs) continue to occur in high numbers. It is currently estimated that up to 2.5% of primary hip and knee surgeries and up to 20% of revision arthroplasties are complicated by periprosthetic joint infection (PJIs). According to some authors, these numbers are underestimated, and they are also increasing. Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of both SSIs and PJIs, and the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is on the rise, particularly in the United States. These deep infections lead to implant removal and consequently increase morbidity and mortality. The study targets this clinical problem using our experience so far with the Ag-doped polymer coatings on Titanium implants. Non-modified or modified (e.g., doped with antibacterial agents, like Ag) bioactive glasses could play a role in the prevention of infections or the therapy of infected tissues. Bioactive glasses have excellent biocompatibility, proved by in vitro cell culture studies of human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. Ag-doped bioactive glass-scaffold has a good antibacterial ability against Escherichia coli and other bacteria. It may be concluded that these scaffolds have great potential in the prevention and therapy of implant-associated bone infection.

Keywords: antibacterial agents, bioactive glass, hip and knee prosthesis, medical implants

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36 Study of Biomechanical Model for Smart Sensor Based Prosthetic Socket Design System

Authors: Wei Xu, Abdo S. Haidar, Jianxin Gao

Abstract:

Prosthetic socket is a component that connects the residual limb of an amputee with an artificial prosthesis. It is widely recognized as the most critical component that determines the comfort of a patient when wearing the prosthesis in his/her daily activities. Through the socket, the body weight and its associated dynamic load are distributed and transmitted to the prosthesis during walking, running or climbing. In order to achieve a good-fit socket for an individual amputee, it is essential to obtain the biomechanical properties of the residual limb. In current clinical practices, this is achieved by a touch-and-feel approach which is highly subjective. Although there have been significant advancements in prosthetic technologies such as microprocessor controlled knee and ankle joints in the last decade, the progress in designing a comfortable socket has been rather limited. This means that the current process of socket design is still very time-consuming, and highly dependent on the expertise of the prosthetist. Supported by the state-of-the-art sensor technologies and numerical simulations, a new socket design system is being developed to help prosthetists achieve rapid design of comfortable sockets for above knee amputees. This paper reports the research work related to establishing biomechanical models for socket design. Through numerical simulation using finite element method, comprehensive relationships between pressure on residual limb and socket geometry were established. This allowed local topological adjustment for the socket so as to optimize the pressure distributions across the residual limb. When the full body weight of a patient is exerted on the residual limb, high pressures and shear forces between the residual limb and the socket occur. During numerical simulations, various hyperplastic models, namely Ogden, Yeoh and Mooney-Rivlin, were used, and their effectiveness in representing the biomechanical properties of soft tissues of the residual limb was evaluated. This also involved reverse engineering, which resulted in an optimal representative model under compression test. To validate the simulation results, a range of silicone models were fabricated. They were tested by an indentation device which yielded the force-displacement relationships. Comparisons of results obtained from FEA simulations and experimental tests showed that the Ogden model did not fit well the soft tissue material indentation data, while the Yeoh model gave the best representation of the soft tissue mechanical behavior under indentation. Compared with hyperplastic model, the result showed that elastic model also had significant errors. In addition, normal and shear stress distributions on the surface of the soft tissue model were obtained. The effect of friction in compression testing and the influence of soft tissue stiffness and testing boundary conditions were also analyzed. All these have contributed to the overall goal of designing a good-fit socket for individual above knee amputees.

Keywords: above knee amputee, finite element simulation, hyperplastic model, prosthetic socket

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35 Design and Modeling of Human Middle Ear for Harmonic Response Analysis

Authors: Shende Suraj Balu, A. B. Deoghare, K. M. Pandey

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The human middle ear (ME) is a delicate and vital organ. It has a complex structure that performs various functions such as receiving sound pressure and producing vibrations of eardrum and propagating it to inner ear. It consists of Tympanic Membrane (TM), three auditory ossicles, various ligament structures and muscles. Incidents such as traumata, infections, ossification of ossicular structures and other pathologies may damage the ME organs. The conditions can be surgically treated by employing prosthesis. However, the suitability of the prosthesis needs to be examined in advance prior to the surgery. Few decades ago, this issue was addressed and analyzed by developing an equivalent representation either in the form of spring mass system, electrical system using R-L-C circuit or developing an approximated CAD model. But, nowadays a three-dimensional ME model can be constructed using micro X-Ray Computed Tomography (μCT) scan data. Moreover, the concern about patient specific integrity pertaining to the disease can be examined well in advance. The current research work emphasizes to develop the ME model from the stacks of μCT images which are used as input file to MIMICS Research 19.0 (Materialise Interactive Medical Image Control System) software. A stack of CT images is converted into geometrical surface model to build accurate morphology of ME. The work is further extended to understand the dynamic behaviour of Harmonic response of the stapes footplate and umbo for different sound pressure levels applied at lateral side of eardrum using finite element approach. The pathological condition Cholesteatoma of ME is investigated to obtain peak to peak displacement of stapes footplate and umbo. Apart from this condition, other pathologies, mainly, changes in the stiffness of stapedial ligament, TM thickness and ossicular chain separation and fixation are also explored. The developed model of ME for pathologies is validated by comparing the results available in the literatures and also with the results of a normal ME to calculate the percentage loss in hearing capability.

Keywords: computed tomography (μCT), human middle ear (ME), harmonic response, pathologies, tympanic membrane (TM)

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34 Estimation of Forces Applied to Forearm Using EMG Signal Features to Control of Powered Human Arm Prostheses

Authors: Faruk Ortes, Derya Karabulut, Yunus Ziya Arslan

Abstract:

Myoelectric features gathering from musculature environment are considered on a preferential basis to perceive muscle activation and control human arm prostheses according to recent experimental researches. EMG (electromyography) signal based human arm prostheses have shown a promising performance in terms of providing basic functional requirements of motions for the amputated people in recent years. However, these assistive devices for neurorehabilitation still have important limitations in enabling amputated people to perform rather sophisticated or functional movements. Surface electromyogram (EMG) is used as the control signal to command such devices. This kind of control consists of activating a motion in prosthetic arm using muscle activation for the same particular motion. Extraction of clear and certain neural information from EMG signals plays a major role especially in fine control of hand prosthesis movements. Many signal processing methods have been utilized for feature extraction from EMG signals. The specific objective of this study was to compare widely used time domain features of EMG signal including integrated EMG(IEMG), root mean square (RMS) and waveform length(WL) for prediction of externally applied forces to human hands. Obtained features were classified using artificial neural networks (ANN) to predict the forces. EMG signals supplied to process were recorded during only type of muscle contraction which is isometric and isotonic one. Experiments were performed by three healthy subjects who are right-handed and in a range of 25-35 year-old aging. EMG signals were collected from muscles of the proximal part of the upper body consisting of: biceps brachii, triceps brachii, pectorialis major and trapezius. The force prediction results obtained from the ANN were statistically analyzed and merits and pitfalls of the extracted features were discussed with detail. The obtained results are anticipated to contribute classification process of EMG signal and motion control of powered human arm prosthetics control.

Keywords: assistive devices for neurorehabilitation, electromyography, feature extraction, force estimation, human arm prosthesis

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33 Morphological and Chemical Characterization of the Surface of Orthopedic Implant Materials

Authors: Bertalan Jillek, Péter Szabó, Judit Kopniczky, István Szabó, Balázs Patczai, Kinga Turzó

Abstract:

Hip and knee prostheses are one of the most frequently used medical implants, that can significantly improve patients’ quality of life. Long term success and biointegration of these prostheses depend on several factors, like bulk and surface characteristics, construction and biocompatibility of the material. The applied surgical technique, the general health condition and life-quality of the patient are also determinant factors. Medical devices used in orthopedic surgeries have different surfaces depending on their function inside the human body. Surface roughness of these implants determines the interaction with the surrounding tissues. Numerous modifications have been applied in the recent decades to improve a specific property of an implant. Our goal was to compare the surface characteristics of typical implant materials used in orthopedic surgery and traumatology. Morphological and chemical structure of Vortex plate anodized titanium, cemented THR (total hip replacement) stem high nitrogen REX steel (SS), uncemented THR stem and cup titanium (Ti) alloy with titanium plasma spray coating (TPS), cemented cup and uncemented acetabular liner HXL and UHMWPE and TKR (total knee replacement) femoral component CoCrMo alloy (Sanatmetal Ltd, Hungary) discs were examined. Visualization and elemental analysis were made by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Surface roughness was determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and profilometry. SEM and AFM revealed the morphological and roughness features of the examined materials. TPS Ti presented the highest Ra value (25 ± 2 μm, followed by CoCrMo alloy (535 ± 19 nm), Ti (227 ± 15 nm) and stainless steel (170 ± 11 nm). The roughness of the HXL and UHMWPE surfaces was in the same range, 147 ± 13 nm and 144 ± 15 nm, respectively. EDS confirmed typical elements on the investigated prosthesis materials: Vortex plate Ti (Ti, O, P); TPS Ti (Ti, O, Al); SS (Fe, Cr, Ni, C) CoCrMo (Co, Cr, Mo), HXL (C, Al, Ni) and UHMWPE (C, Al). The results indicate that the surface of prosthesis materials have significantly different features and the applied investigation methods are suitable for their characterization. Contact angle measurements and in vitro cell culture testing are further planned to test their surface energy characteristics and biocompatibility.

Keywords: morphology, PE, roughness, titanium

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