Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23696

Search results for: level set method

23696 Estimation of Train Operation Using an Exponential Smoothing Method

Authors: Taiyo Matsumura, Kuninori Takahashi, Takashi Ono


The purpose of this research is to improve the convenience of waiting for trains at level crossings and stations and to prevent accidents resulting from forcible entry into level crossings, by providing level crossing users and passengers with information that tells them when the next train will pass through or arrive. For this paper, we proposed methods for estimating operation by means of an average value method, variable response smoothing method, and exponential smoothing method, on the basis of open data, which has low accuracy, but for which performance schedules are distributed in real time. We then examined the accuracy of the estimations. The results showed that the application of an exponential smoothing method is valid.

Keywords: exponential smoothing method, open data, operation estimation, train schedule

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
23695 Endocardial Ultrasound Segmentation using Level Set method

Authors: Daoudi Abdelaziz, Mahmoudi Saïd, Chikh Mohamed Amine


This paper presents a fully automatic segmentation method of the left ventricle at End Systolic (ES) and End Diastolic (ED) in the ultrasound images by means of an implicit deformable model (level set) based on Geodesic Active Contour model. A pre-processing Gaussian smoothing stage is applied to the image, which is essential for a good segmentation. Before the segmentation phase, we locate automatically the area of the left ventricle by using a detection approach based on the Hough Transform method. Consequently, the result obtained is used to automate the initialization of the level set model. This initial curve (zero level set) deforms to search the Endocardial border in the image. On the other hand, quantitative evaluation was performed on a data set composed of 15 subjects with a comparison to ground truth (manual segmentation).

Keywords: level set method, transform Hough, Gaussian smoothing, left ventricle, ultrasound images.

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
23694 Integer Programming-Based Generation of Difficulty Level for a Racing Game

Authors: Sangchul Kim, Dosaeng Park


It is one of the important design issues to provide various levels of difficulty in order to suit the skillfulness of an individual. In this paper we propose an integer programming-based method for selecting a mixture of challenges for a racing game that meet a given degree of difficulty. The proposed method can also be used to dynamically adjust the difficulty of the game during the progression of playing. By experiments, it is shown that our method performs well enough to generate games with various degrees of difficulty that match the perception of players.

Keywords: level generation, level adjustment, racing game, ip

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
23693 Multivalued Behavior for a Two-Level System Using Homotopy Analysis Method

Authors: Angelo I. Aquino, Luis Ma. T. Bo-ot


We use the Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM) to solve the system of equations modeling the two-level system and extract results which will pinpoint to turbulent behavior. We look at multi-valued solutions as indicative of turbulence or turbulent-like behavior. We take di erent speci c cases which result in multi-valued velocities. The solutions are in series form and application of HAM ensures convergence in some region.

Keywords: multivalued solutions, homotopy analysis method, two-level system, equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 499
23692 Clustering Based Level Set Evaluation for Low Contrast Images

Authors: Bikshalu Kalagadda, Srikanth Rangu


The important object of images segmentation is to extract objects with respect to some input features. One of the important methods for image segmentation is Level set method. Generally medical images and synthetic images with low contrast of pixel profile, for such images difficult to locate interested features in images. In conventional level set function, develops irregularity during its process of evaluation of contour of objects, this destroy the stability of evolution process. For this problem a remedy is proposed, a new hybrid algorithm is Clustering Level Set Evolution. Kernel fuzzy particles swarm optimization clustering with the Distance Regularized Level Set (DRLS) and Selective Binary, and Gaussian Filtering Regularized Level Set (SBGFRLS) methods are used. The ability of identifying different regions becomes easy with improved speed. Efficiency of the modified method can be evaluated by comparing with the previous method for similar specifications. Comparison can be carried out by considering medical and synthetic images.

Keywords: segmentation, clustering, level set function, re-initialization, Kernel fuzzy, swarm optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
23691 Recent Advances in Pulse Width Modulation Techniques and Multilevel Inverters

Authors: Satish Kumar Peddapelli


This paper presents advances in pulse width modulation techniques which refers to a method of carrying information on train of pulses and the information be encoded in the width of pulses. Pulse Width Modulation is used to control the inverter output voltage. This is done by exercising the control within the inverter itself by adjusting the ON and OFF periods of inverter. By fixing the DC input voltage we get AC output voltage. In variable speed AC motors the AC output voltage from a constant DC voltage is obtained by using inverter. Recent developments in power electronics and semiconductor technology have lead improvements in power electronic systems. Hence, different circuit configurations namely multilevel inverters have become popular and considerable interest by researcher are given on them. A fast Space-Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) method for five-level inverter is also discussed. In this method, the space vector diagram of the five-level inverter is decomposed into six space vector diagrams of three-level inverters. In turn, each of these six space vector diagrams of three-level inverter is decomposed into six space vector diagrams of two-level inverters. After decomposition, all the remaining necessary procedures for the three-level SVPWM are done like conventional two-level inverter. The proposed method reduces the algorithm complexity and the execution time. It can be applied to the multilevel inverters above the five-level also. The experimental setup for three-level diode-clamped inverter is developed using TMS320LF2407 DSP controller and the experimental results are analysed.

Keywords: five-level inverter, space vector pulse wide modulation, diode clamped inverter, electrical engineering

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23690 Level Set and Morphological Operation Techniques in Application of Dental Image Segmentation

Authors: Abdolvahab Ehsani Rad, Mohd Shafry Mohd Rahim, Alireza Norouzi


Medical image analysis is one of the great effects of computer image processing. There are several processes to analysis the medical images which the segmentation process is one of the challenging and most important step. In this paper the segmentation method proposed in order to segment the dental radiograph images. Thresholding method has been applied to simplify the images and to morphologically open binary image technique performed to eliminate the unnecessary regions on images. Furthermore, horizontal and vertical integral projection techniques used to extract the each individual tooth from radiograph images. Segmentation process has been done by applying the level set method on each extracted images. Nevertheless, the experiments results by 90% accuracy demonstrate that proposed method achieves high accuracy and promising result.

Keywords: integral production, level set method, morphological operation, segmentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
23689 Sensory Evaluation of Meat from Broilers Bird Fed Detoxified Jatropher Curcas and that Fed Conventional Feed

Authors: W. S. Lawal, T. A. Akande


Four (4) different methods were employed to detoxified jatropha caucas, they are physical method (if include soaking and drying) chemical method (use of methylated spirit, hexane and methene) biological method,(use of Aspergillus niger and Sunday for 7 days and then baccillus lichifarming) and finally combined method (combination of all these methods). Phobol esther andysis was carried out after the detoxification and was found that combined method is better off (P>0.05). 100 broiler birds was used to further test the effect of detoxified Jatropha by combined method, 50 birds for Jatropha made feed at 10 birds per treatment and was replicated five times, this was also repeated for another 50 birds fed conventional feed, Jatropha made feed was compranded at 8% inclusion level. At the end of the 8th weeks, 8 birds were sacrificed each from each treatment and one bird each was fry, roast, boil and grilled from both conventional and Jatropha fed birds and panelist were served for evaluation. It was found that feeding Jatropha to poultry birds has no effect on the taste of the meat.

Keywords: phobol esther, inclusion level, tolerance level, Jatropha carcass

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
23688 Linear Array Geometry Synthesis with Minimum Sidelobe Level and Null Control Using Taguchi Method

Authors: Amara Prakasa Rao, N. V. S. N. Sarma


This paper describes the synthesis of linear array geometry with minimum sidelobe level and null control using the Taguchi method. Based on the concept of the orthogonal array, Taguchi method effectively reduces the number of tests required in an optimization process. Taguchi method has been successfully applied in many fields such as mechanical, chemical engineering, power electronics, etc. Compared to other evolutionary methods such as genetic algorithms, simulated annealing and particle swarm optimization, the Taguchi method is much easier to understand and implement. It requires less computational/iteration processing to optimize the problem. Different cases are considered to illustrate the performance of this technique. Simulation results show that this method outperforms the other evolution algorithms (like GA, PSO) for smart antenna systems design.

Keywords: array factor, beamforming, null placement, optimization method, orthogonal array, Taguchi method, smart antenna system

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
23687 Bitplanes Image Encryption/Decryption Using Edge Map (SSPCE Method) and Arnold Transform

Authors: Ali A. Ukasha


Data security needed in data transmission, storage, and communication to ensure the security. The single step parallel contour extraction (SSPCE) method is used to create the edge map as a key image from the different Gray level/Binary image. Performing the X-OR operation between the key image and each bit plane of the original image for image pixel values change purpose. The Arnold transform used to changes the locations of image pixels as image scrambling process. Experiments have demonstrated that proposed algorithm can fully encrypt 2D Gary level image and completely reconstructed without any distortion. Also shown that the analyzed algorithm have extremely large security against some attacks like salt & pepper and JPEG compression. Its proof that the Gray level image can be protected with a higher security level. The presented method has easy hardware implementation and suitable for multimedia protection in real time applications such as wireless networks and mobile phone services.

Keywords: SSPCE method, image compression, salt and peppers attacks, bitplanes decomposition, Arnold transform, lossless image encryption

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
23686 Design and Advancement of Hybrid Multilevel Inverter Interface with PhotoVoltaic

Authors: P.Kiruthika, K. Ramani


This paper presented the design and advancement of a single-phase 27-level Hybrid Multilevel DC-AC Converter interfacing with Photo Voltaic. In this context, the Multicarrier Pulse Width Modulation method can be implemented in 27-level Hybrid Multilevel Inverter for generating a switching pulse. Perturb & Observer algorithm can be used in the Maximum Power Point Tracking method for the Photo Voltaic system. By implementing Maximum Power Point Tracking with three separate solar panels as an input source to the 27-level Hybrid Multilevel Inverter. This proposed method can be simulated by using MATLAB/simulink. The result shown that the proposed method can achieve silky output wave forms, more flexibility in voltage range, and to reduce Total Harmonic Distortion in medium-voltage drives.

Keywords: Multi Carrier Pulse Width Modulation Technique (MCPWM), Multi Level Inverter (MLI), Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT), Perturb and Observer (P&O)

Procedia PDF Downloads 503
23685 Bitplanes Gray-Level Image Encryption Approach Using Arnold Transform

Authors: Ali Abdrhman M. Ukasha


Data security needed in data transmission, storage, and communication to ensure the security. The single step parallel contour extraction (SSPCE) method is used to create the edge map as a key image from the different Gray level/Binary image. Performing the X-OR operation between the key image and each bit plane of the original image for image pixel values change purpose. The Arnold transform used to changes the locations of image pixels as image scrambling process. Experiments have demonstrated that proposed algorithm can fully encrypt 2D Gary level image and completely reconstructed without any distortion. Also shown that the analyzed algorithm have extremely large security against some attacks like salt & pepper and JPEG compression. Its proof that the Gray level image can be protected with a higher security level. The presented method has easy hardware implementation and suitable for multimedia protection in real time applications such as wireless networks and mobile phone services.

Keywords: SSPCE method, image compression-salt- peppers attacks, bitplanes decomposition, Arnold transform, lossless image encryption

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
23684 The Level of Job Satisfaction among English as a Foreign Language Instructors

Authors: Hashem A. Alsamadani


Identifying the level of job satisfaction has many positive benefits for both the worker and employer. The purpose of the study was to examine the overall level of job satisfaction among English as a Foreign Language (EFL) instructors. During the past years, multiple methods were utilized to collect data to determine the level of job satisfaction among teachers. This study was conducted using survey research method. A questionnaire was coded and analyzed using the SPSS. The findings revealed that the overall level of job satisfaction among EFL instructors is high. The study recommended improving conditions of instructors working at public universities so as to gain a high level of job satisfaction and improve outcomes of the teaching-learning process.

Keywords: job satisfaction, EFL teachers, Saudi Arabia, instruction

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
23683 Structure of Consciousness According to Deep Systemic Constellations

Authors: Dmitry Ustinov, Olga Lobareva


The method of Deep Systemic Constellations is based on a phenomenological approach. Using the phenomenon of substitutive perception it was established that the human consciousness has a hierarchical structure, where deeper levels govern more superficial ones (reactive level, energy or ancestral level, spiritual level, magical level, and deeper levels of consciousness). Every human possesses a depth of consciousness to the spiritual level, however deeper levels of consciousness are not found for every person. It was found that the spiritual level of consciousness is not homogeneous and has its own internal hierarchy of sublevels (the level of formation of spiritual values, the level of the 'inner observer', the level of the 'path', the level of 'God', etc.). The depth of the spiritual level of a person defines the paradigm of all his internal processes and the main motives of the movement through life. At any level of consciousness disturbances can occur. Disturbances at a deeper level cause disturbances at more superficial levels and are manifested in the daily life of a person in feelings, behavioral patterns, psychosomatics, etc. Without removing the deepest source of a disturbance it is impossible to completely correct its manifestation in the actual moment. Thus a destructive pattern of feeling and behavior in the actual moment can exist because of a disturbance, for example, at the spiritual level of a person (although in most cases the source is at the energy level). Psychological work with superficial levels without removing a source of disturbance cannot fully solve the problem. The method of Deep Systemic Constellations allows one to work effectively with the source of the problem located at any depth. The methodology has confirmed its effectiveness in working with more than a thousand people.

Keywords: constellations, spiritual psychology, structure of consciousness, transpersonal psychology

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23682 The Comparison of Depression Level of Male Athlete Students with Non-Athlete Students

Authors: Seyed Hossein Alavi, Farshad Ghazalian, Soghra Jamshidi


The present study was done with the purpose of considering mental health and general purpose of describing and comparing depression level of athlete and non-athlete male students educational year of 2012 Research method in this study in proportion to the selective title, descriptive method is causative – comparative. Research samples were selected randomly from B.A students of different fields including 500 students. Average mean of research samples was between 20 to 25 years. Data collection tool is questionnaire of depression measurement of Aroun Beck (B.D.I) that analyzes and measures 21 aspects of depression in 6 ranges. Operation related to analysis of statistical data to extraction of results was done by SPSS software. To extraction of research obtained by comparison of depression level mean, show that the hypothesis of the research (H_1) based on the existence of the significance scientific difference was supported and showed that there’s a significance difference between depression level of athlete male students in comparison with depression level of non-athlete male students. Thus, depression level of athlete male students was lower in comparison with depression level of non-athlete male students.

Keywords: depression, athlete students, non-athlete students

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
23681 3D Liver Segmentation from CT Images Using a Level Set Method Based on a Shape and Intensity Distribution Prior

Authors: Nuseiba M. Altarawneh, Suhuai Luo, Brian Regan, Guijin Tang


Liver segmentation from medical images poses more challenges than analogous segmentations of other organs. This contribution introduces a liver segmentation method from a series of computer tomography images. Overall, we present a novel method for segmenting liver by coupling density matching with shape priors. Density matching signifies a tracking method which operates via maximizing the Bhattacharyya similarity measure between the photometric distribution from an estimated image region and a model photometric distribution. Density matching controls the direction of the evolution process and slows down the evolving contour in regions with weak edges. The shape prior improves the robustness of density matching and discourages the evolving contour from exceeding liver’s boundaries at regions with weak boundaries. The model is implemented using a modified distance regularized level set (DRLS) model. The experimental results show that the method achieves a satisfactory result. By comparing with the original DRLS model, it is evident that the proposed model herein is more effective in addressing the over segmentation problem. Finally, we gauge our performance of our model against matrices comprising of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity.

Keywords: Bhattacharyya distance, distance regularized level set (DRLS) model, liver segmentation, level set method

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
23680 A System Functions Set-Up through Near Field Communication of a Smartphone

Authors: Jaemyoung Lee


We present a method to set up system functions through a near filed communication (NFC) of a smartphone. The short communication distance of the NFC which is usually less than 4 cm could prevent any interferences from other devices and establish a secure communication channel between a system and the smartphone. The proposed set-up method for system function values is demonstrated for a blacbox system in a car. In demonstration, system functions of a blackbox which is manipulated through NFC of a smartphone are controls of image quality, sound level, shock sensing level to store images, etc. The proposed set-up method for system function values can be used for any devices with NFC.

Keywords: system set-up, near field communication, smartphone, android

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
23679 An Implicit Methodology for the Numerical Modeling of Locally Inextensible Membranes

Authors: Aymen Laadhari


We present in this paper a fully implicit finite element method tailored for the numerical modeling of inextensible fluidic membranes in a surrounding Newtonian fluid. We consider a highly simplified version of the Canham-Helfrich model for phospholipid membranes, in which the bending force and spontaneous curvature are disregarded. The coupled problem is formulated in a fully Eulerian framework and the membrane motion is tracked using the level set method. The resulting nonlinear problem is solved by a Newton-Raphson strategy, featuring a quadratic convergence behavior. A monolithic solver is implemented, and we report several numerical experiments aimed at model validation and illustrating the accuracy of the proposed method. We show that stability is maintained for significantly larger time steps with respect to an explicit decoupling method.

Keywords: finite element method, level set, Newton, membrane

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
23678 Implicit Eulerian Fluid-Structure Interaction Method for the Modeling of Highly Deformable Elastic Membranes

Authors: Aymen Laadhari, Gábor Székely


This paper is concerned with the development of a fully implicit and purely Eulerian fluid-structure interaction method tailored for the modeling of the large deformations of elastic membranes in a surrounding Newtonian fluid. We consider a simplified model for the mechanical properties of the membrane, in which the surface strain energy depends on the membrane stretching. The fully Eulerian description is based on the advection of a modified surface tension tensor, and the deformations of the membrane are tracked using a level set strategy. The resulting nonlinear problem is solved by a Newton-Raphson method, featuring a quadratic convergence behavior. A monolithic solver is implemented, and we report several numerical experiments aimed at model validation and illustrating the accuracy of the presented method. We show that stability is maintained for significantly larger time steps.

Keywords: finite element method, implicit, level set, membrane, Newton method

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23677 Research of the Activation Energy of Conductivity in P-I-N SiC Structures Fabricated by Doping with Aluminum Using the Low-Temperature Diffusion Method

Authors: Ilkham Gafurovich Atabaev, Khimmatali Nomozovich Juraev


The activation energy of conductivity in p-i-n SiC structures fabricated by doping with Aluminum using the new low-temperature diffusion method is investigated. In this method, diffusion is stimulated by the flux of carbon and silicon vacancies created by surface oxidation. The activation energy of conductivity in the p - layer is 0.25 eV and it is close to the ionization energy of Aluminum in 4H-SiC from 0.21 to 0.27 eV for the hexagonal and cubic positions of aluminum in the silicon sublattice for weakly doped crystals. The conductivity of the i-layer (measured in the reverse biased diode) shows 2 activation energies: 0.02 eV and 0.62 eV. Apparently, the 0.62 eV level is a deep trap level and it is a complex of Aluminum with a vacancy. According to the published data, an analogous level system (with activation energies of 0.05, 0.07, 0.09 and 0.67 eV) was observed in the ion Aluminum doped 4H-SiC samples.

Keywords: activation energy, aluminum, low temperature diffusion, SiC

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
23676 Determination of a Novel Artificial Sweetener Advantame in Food by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Fangyan Li, Lin Min Lee, Hui Zhu Peh, Shoet Harn Chan


Advantame, a derivative of aspartame, is the latest addition to a family of low caloric and high potent dipeptide sweeteners which include aspartame, neotame and alitame. The use of advantame as a high-intensity sweetener in food was first accepted by Food Standards Australia New Zealand in 2011 and subsequently by US and EU food authorities in 2014, with the results from toxicity and exposure studies showing advantame poses no safety concern to the public at regulated levels. To our knowledge, currently there is barely any detailed information on the analytical method of advantame in food matrix, except for one report published in Japanese, stating a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography/ mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method with a detection limit at ppm level. However, the use of acid in sample preparation and instrumental analysis in the report raised doubt over the reliability of the method, as there is indication that stability of advantame is compromised under acidic conditions. Besides, the method may not be suitable for analyzing food matrices containing advantame at low ppm or sub-ppm level. In this presentation, a simple, specific and sensitive method for the determination of advantame in food is described. The method involved extraction with water and clean-up via solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by detection using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in negative electrospray ionization mode. No acid was used in the entire procedure. Single laboratory validation of the method was performed in terms of linearity, precision and accuracy. A low detection limit at ppb level was achieved. Satisfactory recoveries were obtained using spiked samples at three different concentration levels. This validated method could be used in the routine inspection of the advantame level in food.

Keywords: advantame, food, LC-MS/MS, sweetener

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23675 Effect of Graded Levels of Detoxified Jatropha cursas on the Performance Characteristics of Cockerel Birds

Authors: W. S. Lawal, T. Akande


Abstract— Four (4) difference methods were employed to detoxify Jatropha carcas, they were physical method (it include soaking and sun drying) Chemical (the use of methylated sprit, hexane and methane). Biological (the use of Aspergillus niger and then sundry for 7days and then Bacillus lichiformis) and Combined method (the combination of chemical and biological methods). Phobol esther analysis was carried out after the detoxification methods and it was found that the combined method is better off (P<0.05). Detoxified Jatropha from each of this methods was sundry and grinded for easy inclusion into poultry feed, detoxified jatropha was included at 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5% but the combined method was increased up to 7% because the birds were able to tolerate it, the 0% was the control experiment. 405 day old broiler chicks was used to test the effect of detoxified Jatropha carcas on their performance, there are 5birds per treatment and there are 3 replicates, the experiment lasted for 8weeks,highest number of mortality was obtained in physical method, birds in chemical method tolerated up to 3% Jatropha carcas, biological method is better, as birds there were comfortable at 5% but the best of them is combined method the birds did very well at 7% as there were less mortality and highest weight gain was achieved here (P<0.05) and it was recommended.

Keywords: phobol esther, inclusion level, tolerance level, Jatropha carcas

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
23674 Attitude Stabilization of Satellites Using Random Dither Quantization

Authors: Kazuma Okada, Tomoaki Hashimoto, Hirokazu Tahara


Recently, the effectiveness of random dither quantization method for linear feedback control systems has been shown in several papers. However, the random dither quantization method has not yet been applied to nonlinear feedback control systems. The objective of this paper is to verify the effectiveness of random dither quantization method for nonlinear feedback control systems. For this purpose, we consider the attitude stabilization problem of satellites using discrete-level actuators. Namely, this paper provides a control method based on the random dither quantization method for stabilizing the attitude of satellites using discrete-level actuators.

Keywords: quantized control, nonlinear systems, random dither quantization

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
23673 Identification of EEG Attention Level Using Empirical Mode Decompositions for BCI Applications

Authors: Chia-Ju Peng, Shih-Jui Chen


This paper proposes a method to discriminate electroencephalogram (EEG) signals between different concentration states using empirical mode decomposition (EMD). Brain-computer interface (BCI), also called brain-machine interface, is a direct communication pathway between the brain and an external device without the inherent pathway such as the peripheral nervous system or skeletal muscles. Attention level is a common index as a control signal of BCI systems. The EEG signals acquired from people paying attention or in relaxation, respectively, are decomposed into a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMF) by EMD. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis is then applied to each IMF to obtain the frequency spectrums. By observing power spectrums of IMFs, the proposed method has the better identification of EEG attention level than the original EEG signals between different concentration states. The band power of IMF3 is the most obvious especially in β wave, which corresponds to fully awake and generally alert. The signal processing method and results of this experiment paves a new way for BCI robotic system using the attention-level control strategy. The integrated signal processing method reveals appropriate information for discrimination of the attention and relaxation, contributing to a more enhanced BCI performance.

Keywords: biomedical engineering, brain computer interface, electroencephalography, rehabilitation

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23672 Holy Quran’s Hermeneutics from Self-Referentiality to the Quran by Quran’s Interpretation

Authors: Mohammad Ba’azm


The self-referentiality method as the missing ring of the Qur’an by Qur’an’s interpretation has a precise application at the level of the Quranic vocabulary, but after entering the domain of the verses, chapters and the whole Qur’an, it reveals its defect. Self-referentiality cannot show the clear concept of the Quranic scriptures, unlike the Qur’an by Qur’an’s interpretation method that guides us to the comprehension and exact hermeneutics. The Qur’an by Qur’an’s interpretation is a solid way of comprehension of the verses of the Qur'an and does not use external resources to provide implications and meanings with different theoretical and practical supports. In this method, theoretical supports are based on the basics and modalities that support and validate the legitimacy and validity of the interpretive method discussed, and the practical supports also relate to the practitioners of the religious elite. The combination of these two methods illustrates the exact understanding of the Qur'an at the level of Quranic verses, chapters, and the whole Qur’an. This study by examining the word 'book' in the Qur'an shows the difference between the two methods, and the necessity of attachment of these, in order to attain a desirable level for comprehensions meaning of the Qur'an. In this article, we have proven that by aspects of the meaning of the Quranic words, we cannot say any word has an exact meaning.

Keywords: Qur’an’s hermeneutic, self-referentiality, The Qur’an by Qur’an’s Interpretation, polysemy

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
23671 Three-Level Converters Back-To-Back DC Bus Control for Torque Ripple Reduction of Induction Motor

Authors: T. Abdelkrim, K. Benamrane, B. Bezza, Aeh Benkhelifa, A. Borni


This paper proposes a regulation method of back-to-back connected three-level converters in order to reduce the torque ripple in induction motor. First part is dedicated to the presentation of the feedback control of three-level PWM rectifier. In the second part, three-level NPC voltage source inverter balancing DC bus algorithm is presented. A theoretical analysis with a complete simulation of the system is presented to prove the excellent performance of the proposed technique.

Keywords: back-to-back connection, feedback control, neutral-point balance, three-level converter, torque ripple

Procedia PDF Downloads 420
23670 Effect of Diamagnetic Additives on Defects Level of Soft LiTiZn Ferrite Ceramics

Authors: Andrey V. Malyshev, Anna B. Petrova, Anatoly P. Surzhikov


The article presents the results of the influence of diamagnetic additives on the defects level of ferrite ceramics. For this purpose, we use a previously developed method based on the mathematical analysis of experimental temperature dependences of the initial permeability. A phenomenological expression for the description of such dependence was suggested and an interpretation of its main parameters was given. It was shown, that the main criterion of the integral defects level of ferrite ceramics is the relation of two parameters correlating with elastic stress value in a material. Model samples containing a controlled number of intergranular phase inclusions served to prove the validity of the proposed method, as well as to assess its sensitivity in comparison with the traditional XRD (X-ray diffraction) analysis. The broadening data of diffraction reflexes of model samples have served for such comparison. The defects level data obtained by the proposed method are in good agreement with the X-ray data. The method showed high sensitivity. Therefore, the legitimacy of the selection relationship β/α parameters of phenomenological expression as a characteristic of the elastic state of the ferrite ceramics confirmed. In addition, the obtained data can be used in the detection of non-magnetic phases and testing the optimal sintering production technology of soft magnetic ferrites.

Keywords: cure point, initial permeability, integral defects level, homogeneity

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23669 Development of Numerical Method for Mass Transfer across the Moving Membrane with Selective Permeability: Approximation of the Membrane Shape by Level Set Method for Numerical Integral

Authors: Suguru Miyauchi, Toshiyuki Hayase


Biological membranes have selective permeability, and the capsules or cells enclosed by the membrane show the deformation by the osmotic flow. This mass transport phenomenon is observed everywhere in a living body. For the understanding of the mass transfer in a body, it is necessary to consider the mass transfer phenomenon across the membrane as well as the deformation of the membrane by a flow. To our knowledge, in the numerical analysis, the method for mass transfer across the moving membrane has not been established due to the difficulty of the treating of the mass flux permeating through the moving membrane with selective permeability. In the existing methods for the mass transfer across the membrane, the approximate delta function is used to communicate the quantities on the interface. The methods can reproduce the permeation of the solute, but cannot reproduce the non-permeation. Moreover, the computational accuracy decreases with decreasing of the permeable coefficient of the membrane. This study aims to develop the numerical method capable of treating three-dimensional problems of mass transfer across the moving flexible membrane. One of the authors developed the numerical method with high accuracy based on the finite element method. This method can capture the discontinuity on the membrane sharply due to the consideration of the jumps in concentration and concentration gradient in the finite element discretization. The formulation of the method takes into account the membrane movement, and both permeable and non-permeable membranes can be treated. However, searching the cross points of the membrane and fluid element boundaries and splitting the fluid element into sub-elements are needed for the numerical integral. Therefore, cumbersome operation is required for a three-dimensional problem. In this paper, we proposed an improved method to avoid the search and split operations, and confirmed its effectiveness. The membrane shape was treated implicitly by introducing the level set function. As the construction of the level set function, the membrane shape in one fluid element was expressed by the shape function of the finite element method. By the numerical experiment, it was found that the shape function with third order appropriately reproduces the membrane shapes. The same level of accuracy compared with the previous method using search and split operations was achieved by using a number of sampling points of the numerical integral. The effectiveness of the method was confirmed by solving several model problems.

Keywords: finite element method, level set method, mass transfer, membrane permeability

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23668 Novel Technique for calculating Surface Potential Gradient of Overhead Line Conductors

Authors: Sudip Sudhir Godbole


In transmission line surface potential gradient is a critical design parameter for planning overhead line, as it determines the level of corona loss (CL), radio interference (RI) and audible noise (AN).With increase of transmission line voltage level bulk power transfer is possible, using bundle conductor configuration used, it is more complex to find accurate surface stress in bundle configuration. The majority of existing models for surface gradient calculations are based on analytical methods which restrict their application in simulating complex surface geometry. This paper proposes a novel technique which utilizes both analytical and numerical procedure to predict the surface gradient. One of 400 kV transmission line configurations has been selected as an example to compare the results for different methods. The different strand shapes are a key variable in determining.

Keywords: surface gradient, Maxwell potential coefficient method, market and Mengele’s method, successive images method, charge simulation method, finite element method

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23667 Speech Emotion Recognition with Bi-GRU and Self-Attention based Feature Representation

Authors: Bubai Maji, Monorama Swain


Speech is considered an essential and most natural medium for the interaction between machines and humans. However, extracting effective features for speech emotion recognition (SER) is remains challenging. The present studies show that the temporal information captured but high-level temporal-feature learning is yet to be investigated. In this paper, we present an efficient novel method using the Self-attention (SA) mechanism in a combination of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Bi-directional Gated Recurrent Unit (Bi-GRU) network to learn high-level temporal-feature. In order to further enhance the representation of the high-level temporal-feature, we integrate a Bi-GRU output with learnable weights features by SA, and improve the performance. We evaluate our proposed method on our created SITB-OSED and IEMOCAP databases. We report that the experimental results of our proposed method achieve state-of-the-art performance on both databases.

Keywords: Bi-GRU, 1D-CNNs, self-attention, speech emotion recognition

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