Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: Razi Khalafi

20 A Mathematical-Based Formulation of EEG Fluctuations

Authors: Razi Khalafi

Abstract:

Brain is the information processing center of the human body. Stimuli in form of information are transferred to the brain and then brain makes the decision on how to respond to them. In this research we propose a new partial differential equation which analyses the EEG signals and make a relationship between the incoming stimuli and the brain response to them. In order to test the proposed model, a set of external stimuli applied to the model and the model’s outputs were checked versus the real EEG data. The results show that this model can model the EEG signal well. The proposed model is useful not only for modeling of the EEG signal in case external stimuli but it can be used for the modeling of brain response in case of internal stimuli.

Keywords: Brain, stimuli, partial differential equation, response, eeg signal

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19 A New Mathematical Method for Heart Attack Forecasting

Authors: Razi Khalafi

Abstract:

Myocardial Infarction (MI) or acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow stops to part of the heart causing damage to the heart muscle. An ECG can often show evidence of a previous heart attack or one that's in progress. The patterns on the ECG may indicate which part of your heart has been damaged, as well as the extent of the damage. In chaos theory, the correlation dimension is a measure of the dimensionality of the space occupied by a set of random points, often referred to as a type of fractal dimension. In this research by considering ECG signal as a random walk we work on forecasting the oncoming heart attack by analysing the ECG signals using the correlation dimension. In order to test the model a set of ECG signals for patients before and after heart attack was used and the strength of model for forecasting the behaviour of these signals were checked. Results show this methodology can forecast the ECG and accordingly heart attack with high accuracy.

Keywords: heart attack, ECG, random walk, correlation dimension, forecasting

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18 Study of the Thermomechanical Behavior of a Concrete Element

Authors: Douhi Reda Bouabdellah, Khalafi Hamid, Belamri Samir

Abstract:

The desire to improve the safety of nuclear reactor containment has revealed the need for data on the thermo mechanical behavior of concrete in case of accident during which the concrete is exposed to high temperatures. The aim of the present work is to study the influence of high temperature on the behavior of ordinary concrete specimens loaded by an effort of compression. A thermal model is developed by discretization volume elements (CASTEM). The results of different simulations, combined with other findings help to bring a physical phenomenon explanation Thermo mechanical concrete structures, which allowed to obtain the variation of the stresses anywhere in point or node and each subsequent temperature different directions X, Y and Z.

Keywords: concrete, thermic-gradient, fire resistant, simulation by CASTEM, mechanical strength

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17 Mystical Principles of Islamic Art

Authors: Seyed Razi Nousavi Gilani

Abstract:

Islamic culture and especially the Shia is full of mystical and philosophical elements. A close look at the history of Islamic civilization, which is supposed to represent the teachings and words of faith leaders with the knowledge and use of the philosophical and mystical concepts, has influenced Islamic art. This article explains the influence of Shiite Islamic teachings and their teachings of mystical elements on Islamic art and examines as case studies in the arts such as architecture, calligraphy and painting. These arts have always been associated with mystical and philosophical teachings in view of traditional artists.

Keywords: mystics, Islamic Art, Islamic culture, mystic

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16 Partial Differential Equation-Based Modeling of Brain Response to Stimuli

Authors: Razieh Khalafi

Abstract:

The brain is the information processing centre of the human body. Stimuli in the form of information are transferred to the brain and then brain makes the decision on how to respond to them. In this research, we propose a new partial differential equation which analyses the EEG signals and make a relationship between the incoming stimuli and the brain response to them. In order to test the proposed model, a set of external stimuli applied to the model and the model’s outputs were checked versus the real EEG data. The results show that this model can model the EEG signal well. The proposed model is useful not only for modelling of EEG signal in case external stimuli but it can be used for modelling of brain response in case of internal stimuli.

Keywords: brain, stimuli, partial differential equation, response, EEG signal

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15 Mathematical Based Forecasting of Heart Attack

Authors: Razieh Khalafi

Abstract:

Myocardial infarction (MI) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow stops to part of the heart causing damage to the heart muscle. An ECG can often show evidence of a previous heart attack or one that's in progress. The patterns on the ECG may indicate which part of your heart has been damaged, as well as the extent of the damage. In chaos theory, the correlation dimension is a measure of the dimensionality of the space occupied by a set of random points, often referred to as a type of fractal dimension. In this research by considering ECG signal as a random walk we work on forecasting the oncoming heart attack by analyzing the ECG signals using the correlation dimension. In order to test the model a set of ECG signals for patients before and after heart attack was used and the strength of model for forecasting the behavior of these signals were checked. Results shows this methodology can forecast the ECG and accordingly heart attack with high accuracy.

Keywords: heart attack, ECG, random walk, correlation dimension, forecasting

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14 Experimental and Numerical Analyses of Tehran Research Reactor

Authors: A. Lashkari, H. Khalafi, H. Khazeminejad, S. Khakshourniya

Abstract:

In this paper, a numerical model is presented. The model is used to analyze a steady state thermo-hydraulic and reactivity insertion transient in TRR reference cores respectively. The model predictions are compared with the experiments and PARET code results. The model uses the piecewise constant and lumped parameter methods for the coupled point kinetics and thermal-hydraulics modules respectively. The advantages of the piecewise constant method are simplicity, efficiency and accuracy. A main criterion on the applicability range of this model is that the exit coolant temperature remains below the saturation temperature, i.e. no bulk boiling occurs in the core. The calculation values of power and coolant temperature, in steady state and positive reactivity insertion scenario, are in good agreement with the experiment values. However, the model is a useful tool for the transient analysis of most research reactor encountered in practice. The main objective of this work is using simple calculation methods and benchmarking them with experimental data. This model can be used for training proposes.

Keywords: thermal-hydraulic, research reactor, reactivity insertion, numerical modeling

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13 Evaluation of Hepatic Antioxidant Changes in Ovine Dicrocoeliosis

Authors: Arash Jafari, Somaye Bahrami, Mohammad Hossein Razi Jalali

Abstract:

Dicrocoeliosis, caused by Dicrocoelium dendriticum is a hepatic parasitic disease of clinical and financial significance in ruminant breeding, which causes direct losses due to condemnation of parasitized livers. The purpose of our study was to assess the effects of natural dicrocoeliosis on the antioxidant defense capability of the liver in sheep. For this purpose, livers of 40 infected sheep with D. dendriticumalong with livers of 20 healthy (control) sheep were collected from animals slaughtered in Khuzestan province, Iran. An increase in malondialdehyde concentrations accompanied by decreased activities of SOD and GPX of infected liver was noticed when com-pared with control values. Our data indicate that through dicrocoeliosis insufficient scavenging of reactive oxygen species takes place and caused oxidative liver damage.

Keywords: Dicrocoelium dendriticum, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme, liver

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12 Buckling Analysis of Composite Shells under Compression and Torsional Loads: Numerical and Analytical Study

Authors: Güneş Aydın, Razi Kalantari Osgouei, Murat Emre Öztürk, Ahmad Partovi Meran, Ekrem Tüfekçi

Abstract:

Advanced lightweight laminated composite shells are increasingly being used in all types of modern structures, for enhancing their structural efficiency and performance. Such thin-walled structures are susceptible to buckling when subjected to various loading. This paper focuses on the buckling of cylindrical shells under axial compression and torsional loads. Effects of fiber orientation on the maximum buckling load of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) shells are optimized. Optimum fiber angles have been calculated analytically by using MATLAB program. Numerical models have been carried out by using Finite Element Method program ABAQUS. Results from analytical and numerical analyses are also compared.

Keywords: buckling, composite, cylindrical shell, finite element, compression, torsion, MATLAB, optimization

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11 Evaluation of Humoral Immune Response Against Somatic and Excretory- Secretory Antigens of Dicrocoelium Dendriticum in Infected Sheep by Western Blot

Authors: Arash Jafari, Somaye Bahrami, Mohammad Hossein Razi Jalali

Abstract:

The aim of this study was the isolation and identification of excretory-secretory and somatic antigens from D. dendriticum by SDS-PAGE and evaluation of humeral immune response against these antigens. The sera of infected sheep with different infection degrees were collected. Somatic and ES proteins were isolated with SDS PAGE. Immunogenicity properties of the resulting proteins were determined using western blot analysis. The total extract of somatic antigens analysed by SDS-PAGE revealed 21 proteins. In mild infection, bands of 130 KDa were immune dominant. In moderate infections 48, 80 and 130 KDa and in heavy infections 48, 60, 80, 130 KDa were detected as immune dominant bands. In ES antigens, mild infection 130 KDa, in moderate infection 100, 120 and 130 KDa and in heavy infection 45, 80, 85, 100, 120 and 130 KDa were immune dominant bands. The most immunogenic protein band during different degrees of infection was 130KDa.

Keywords: Dicrocoelium dendriticum excretory-secretory antigens, somatic antigens, western blot

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10 The Effect of 8 Weeks Endurance Training and L-NAME on Apelin in Adipose Tissue, Glucose and Insulin in Elderly Male's Rats

Authors: Asieh Abbassi Daloii, Fatemeh Fani, Ahmad Abdi

Abstract:

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks endurance training and L-NAME on apelin in adipose tissue, glucose and insulin in elderly male’s rats. Methods: For this purpose, 24 vistar elderly rats with average 20 months old purchased from Razi Institute and transferred to Research Center were randomly divided into four groups: 1. control, 2. training, 3.training and L-NAME and 4. L-NAME. Training protocol performed for 8 weeks and 5 days a week with 75-80 VO2 max. All rats were killed 72 hours after the final training session and after 24 hours of fasting adipose tissue samples were collected and kept in -80. Also, Data was analyzed with One way ANOVA and Tucky in p < 0/05. Results: The results showed that the inhibition of nitric oxide on apelin in adipose tissue of adult male rats after eight weeks of endurance training increased significantly compared to the control group (p < 0.00). Also, the results showed no significant difference between the levels of insulin and glucose groups. Conclusion: It is likely that the increased apelin in adipose tissue in mice independent of insulin and glucose.

Keywords: endurance training, L-NAME, apelin in adipose tissue, elderly male rats

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9 Screening Methodology for Seismic Risk Assessment of Aging Structures in Oil and Gas Plants

Authors: Mohammad Nazri Mustafa, Pedram Hatami Abdullah, M. Fakhrur Razi Ahmad Faizul

Abstract:

With the issuance of Malaysian National Annex 2017 as a part of MS EN 1998-1:2015, the seismic mapping of Malaysian Peninsular including Sabah and Sarawak has undergone some changes in terms of the Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) value. The revision to the PGA has raised a concern on the safety of oil and gas onshore structures as these structures were not designed to accommodate the new PGA values which are much higher than the previous values used in the original design. In view of the high numbers of structures and buildings to be re-assessed, a risk assessment methodology has been developed to prioritize and rank the assets in terms of their criticality against the new seismic loading. To-date such risk assessment method for oil and gas onshore structures is lacking, and it is the main intention of this technical paper to share the risk assessment methodology and risk elements scoring finalized via Delphi Method. The finalized methodology and the values used to rank the risk elements have been established based on years of relevant experience on the subject matter and based on a series of rigorous discussions with professionals in the industry. The risk scoring is mapped against the risk matrix (i.e., the LOF versus COF) and hence, the overall risk for the assets can be obtained. The overall risk can be used to prioritize and optimize integrity assessment, repair and strengthening work against the new seismic mapping of the country.

Keywords: methodology, PGA, risk, seismic

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8 The Effects of Time and Cyclic Loading to the Axial Capacity for Offshore Pile in Shallow Gas

Authors: Christian H. Girsang, M. Razi B. Mansoor, Noorizal N. Huang

Abstract:

An offshore platform was installed in 1977 at about 260km offshore West Malaysia at the water depth of 73.6m. Twelve (12) piles were installed with four (4) are skirt piles. The piles have 1.219m outside diameter and wall thickness of 31mm and were driven to 109m below seabed. Deterministic analyses of the pile capacity under axial loading were conducted using the current API (American Petroleum Institute) method and the four (4) CPT-based methods: the ICP (Imperial College Pile)-method, the NGI (Norwegian Geotechnical Institute)-Method, the UWA (University of Western Australia)-method and the Fugro-method. A statistical analysis of the model uncertainty associated with each pile capacity method was performed. There were two (2) piles analysed: Pile 1 and piles other than Pile 1, where Pile 1 is the pile that was most affected by shallow gas problems. Using the mean estimate of soil properties, the five (5) methods used for deterministic estimation of axial pile capacity in compression predict an axial capacity from 28 to 42MN for Pile 1 and 32 to 49MN for piles other than Pile 1. These values refer to the static capacity shortly after pile installation. They do not include the effects of cyclic loading during the design storm or time after installation on the axial pile capacity. On average, the axial pile capacity is expected to have increased by about 40% because of ageing since the installation of the platform in 1977. On the other hand, the cyclic loading effects during the design storm may reduce the axial capacity of the piles by around 25%. The study concluded that all piles have sufficient safety factor when the pile aging and cyclic loading effect are considered, as all safety factors are above 2.0 for maximum operating and storm loads.

Keywords: axial capacity, cyclic loading, pile ageing, shallow gas

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7 Comparing Effects of Supervised Exercise Therapy versus Home-Based Exercise Therapy on Low Back Pain Severity, Muscle Strength and Anthropometric Parameters in Patients with Nonspecific Chronic Low Back Pain

Authors: Haleh Dadgostar, Faramarz Akbari, Hosien Vahid Tari, Masoud Solaymani-Dodaran, Mohammad Razi

Abstract:

Introduction: There are a number of exercises-protocols have been applied to improve low back pain. We compared the effect of supervised exercise therapy and home-based exercise therapy among patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain. Methods: 70 patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain were randomly (using a random number generator, excel) divided into two groups to compare the effects of two types of exercise therapy. After a common educational session to learn how to live with low back pain as well as to use core training protocols to strengthen the muscles, the subjects were randomly assigned to follow supervised exercise therapy (n = 31) or home-based exercise therapy (n = 34) for 20 weeks. Results: Although both types of exercise programs resulted in reduced pain, this factor decreased more significantly in supervised exercise program. All scores of fitness improved significantly in supervised exercise group. But only knee extensor strength score was increased in the home base exercise group. Conclusion: Comparing between two types of exercise, supervised group exercise showed more effective than the other one. Reduction in low back pain severity and improvement in muscle flexibility and strength can be more achieved by using a 20-week supervised exercise program compared to the home-based exercise program in patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain.

Keywords: low back pain, anthropometric parameters, supervised exercise therapy, home-based exercise therapy

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6 Tsunami Disasters Preparedness among the Coastal Residence in Penang, Malaysia

Authors: A. R. Shakura, A. B. Elistina, M. S. Aini, S. Norhasmah, A. Fakhru’l-Razi

Abstract:

Tsunami 2004 was an unforeseeable event that caught Malaysia of guard resulting with 68 losses of lives and with an estimated economic loss of about 55.15billion US dollar. Scientists predict that if the earthquake epicentre originates from the Andaman-Nicobar region, the coastal population of Penang will have about 30 minutes to evacuate to safety. Thus, a study was conducted to enhance resiliency of Penang community as the area was the worst affected region during 2004 tsunami disaster. This paper is intended to examine the factors that influence intention to prepare for future tsunami among the coastal residence in Penang. The differences in the level of intention to prepare were also examined between those who experience and did not experience the 2004 tsunami. This study utilized a cross-sectional research design using a survey method. A total of 503 respondents were chosen systematically and data gathered were analysed using SPSS. Both genders, male and female were equally represented with a mean age of 44 years. Data indicated that the level of intention to prepare for tsunami disaster was moderate (M=3.72) with no significant difference in intention to prepare between those who had experienced or had not experienced the 2004 tsunami. Subsequently, results from a multiple regression analysis found that sense of community to be the most influential factor followed by subjective norm, trust, positive outcome expectancy and risk perception, explaining the 57% variance in intention to prepare. These factors reflect the influence of the collectivistic culture in Malaysia whereby households plus communities have a central role in encouraging each other. Therefore, the findings highlights the potential of adopting a community based disaster risk management as recommended by the United Nations International Strategy Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) which encompasses the cooperation between the local community and relevant stakeholders in preparing for future tsunami disaster.

Keywords: disaster management, experience, intention to prepare, tsunami

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5 Evaluation of Antibody Titer Produced in Layer Chicken after Vaccination with an Experimental Ornitobacterium rhinotracheal Vaccine

Authors: Mohammad Javad Mehrabanpour, Mohammad Hosein Hosseini, Ali Shirazi, Dorsa Mehrabanpour

Abstract:

Respiratory infections are the most important diseases that affect poultry. Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale is a bacterium that causes respiratory infections including alveolar inflation and pneumonia in birds. The aim of this study was to evaluated antibody titer against Ornitobacterium rhinotracheal in layer chicken sera after vaccination with an experimental ORT vaccine that produced in Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute. Cultured bacteria were inactivated by formalin, and controlled tests were conducted on it. The obtained antigens were formulated using Montanide oil and were homogenized using homogenizer. Eighty SPF chickens were kept until the age of 14 days under existing standards for temperature, humidity, and light. At the age of 14 days, chickens were divided into 3 groups. The first group included 50 chickens injected with prepared ORT vaccine, the second group, as control group, included 15 chickens injected with sterile PBS to get stress of infection and the third group included 15 chickens with no injection performed to them. All 3 groups were kept in separate cages at same room. Blood samples were regularly taken from the chickens every week for serum separation and evaluation of antibody titer. During the fifth week post vaccination, booster vaccine was injected into the chickens of vaccinated group. The chickens were inspected every day in terms of mortality as well as any injection site reactions. Three weeks after the booster injection, blood samples were taken from all chickens of all groups, and sera were isolated. The sera of immunized (vaccinated) SPF chickens with ORT vaccine as well as that of SPF chickens in the control groups were reviewed according to the recommendations of ELISA kit manufacturer to examine the chicken’s humeral immune response to the studied vaccine. Potency, stability and sterility tests were also performed on the above mentioned vaccine. Results obtained indicate high antibody titer in sera of chickens vaccinated with experimental ORT vaccine as compared with the control groups that emphasize the ability of experimentally prepared ORT vaccine to stimulate humoral immune response of chicken. After the second injection, antibody titer increased and remained almost stable up to 9 weeks after the injection. ORT vaccine can cause potency in chickens and can protect them against disease.

Keywords: antibody, layer chicken, Ornithobactrium rhinotracitis, vaccine

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4 High-Throughput Artificial Guide RNA Sequence Design for Type I, II and III CRISPR/Cas-Mediated Genome Editing

Authors: Farahnaz Sadat Golestan Hashemi, Mohd Razi Ismail, Mohd Y. Rafii

Abstract:

A huge revolution has emerged in genome engineering by the discovery of CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats) and CRISPR-associated system genes (Cas) in bacteria. The function of type II Streptococcus pyogenes (Sp) CRISPR/Cas9 system has been confirmed in various species. Other S. thermophilus (St) CRISPR-Cas systems, CRISPR1-Cas and CRISPR3-Cas, have been also reported for preventing phage infection. The CRISPR1-Cas system interferes by cleaving foreign dsDNA entering the cell in a length-specific and orientation-dependant manner. The S. thermophilus CRISPR3-Cas system also acts by cleaving phage dsDNA genomes at the same specific position inside the targeted protospacer as observed in the CRISPR1-Cas system. It is worth mentioning, for the effective DNA cleavage activity, RNA-guided Cas9 orthologs require their own specific PAM (protospacer adjacent motif) sequences. Activity levels are based on the sequence of the protospacer and specific combinations of favorable PAM bases. Therefore, based on the specific length and sequence of PAM followed by a constant length of target site for the three orthogonals of Cas9 protein, a well-organized procedure will be required for high-throughput and accurate mining of possible target sites in a large genomic dataset. Consequently, we created a reliable procedure to explore potential gRNA sequences for type I (Streptococcus thermophiles), II (Streptococcus pyogenes), and III (Streptococcus thermophiles) CRISPR/Cas systems. To mine CRISPR target sites, four different searching modes of sgRNA binding to target DNA strand were applied. These searching modes are as follows: i) coding strand searching, ii) anti-coding strand searching, iii) both strand searching, and iv) paired-gRNA searching. The output of such procedure highlights the power of comparative genome mining for different CRISPR/Cas systems. This could yield a repertoire of Cas9 variants with expanded capabilities of gRNA design, and will pave the way for further advance genome and epigenome engineering.

Keywords: CRISPR/Cas systems, gRNA mining, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus thermophiles

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3 Genome-Wide Mining of Potential Guide RNAs for Streptococcus pyogenes and Neisseria meningitides CRISPR-Cas Systems for Genome Engineering

Authors: Farahnaz Sadat Golestan Hashemi, Mohd Razi Ismail, Mohd Y. Rafii

Abstract:

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) system can facilitate targeted genome editing in organisms. Dual or single guide RNA (gRNA) can program the Cas9 nuclease to cut target DNA in particular areas; thus, introducing concise mutations either via error-prone non-homologous end-joining repairing or via incorporating foreign DNAs by homologous recombination between donor DNA and target area. In spite of high demand of such promising technology, developing a well-organized procedure in order for reliable mining of potential target sites for gRNAs in large genomic data is still challenging. Hence, we aimed to perform high-throughput detection of target sites by specific PAMs for not only common Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) but also for Neisseria meningitides (NmCas9) CRISPR-Cas systems. Previous research confirmed the successful application of such RNA-guided Cas9 orthologs for effective gene targeting and subsequently genome manipulation. However, Cas9 orthologs need their particular PAM sequence for DNA cleavage activity. Activity levels are based on the sequence of the protospacer and specific combinations of favorable PAM bases. Therefore, based on the specific length and sequence of PAM followed by a constant length of the target site for the two orthogonals of Cas9 protein, we created a reliable procedure to explore possible gRNA sequences. To mine CRISPR target sites, four different searching modes of sgRNA binding to target DNA strand were applied. These searching modes are as follows i) coding strand searching, ii) anti-coding strand searching, iii) both strand searching, and iv) paired-gRNA searching. Finally, a complete list of all potential gRNAs along with their locations, strands, and PAMs sequence orientation can be provided for both SpCas9 as well as another potential Cas9 ortholog (NmCas9). The artificial design of potential gRNAs in a genome of interest can accelerate functional genomic studies. Consequently, the application of such novel genome editing tool (CRISPR/Cas technology) will enhance by presenting increased versatility and efficiency.

Keywords: CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, gRNA mining, SpCas9, NmCas9

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2 Managing Shallow Gas for Offshore Platforms via Fit-For-Purpose Solutions: Case Study for Offshore Malaysia

Authors: Noorizal Huang, Christian Girsang, Mohamad Razi Mansoor

Abstract:

Shallow gas seepage was first spotted at a central processing platform offshore Malaysia in 2010, acknowledged as Platform T in this paper. Frequent monitoring of the gas seepage was performed through remotely operated vehicle (ROV) baseline survey and a comprehensive geophysical survey was conducted to understand the characteristics of the gas seepage and to ensure that the integrity of the foundation at Platform T was not compromised. The origin of the gas back then was unknown. A soil investigation campaign was performed in 2016 to study the origin of the gas seepage. Two boreholes were drilled; a composite borehole to 150m below seabed for the purpose of soil sampling and in-situ testing and a pilot hole to 155m below the seabed, which was later converted to a fit-for-purpose relief well as an alternate migration path for the gas. During the soil investigation campaign, dissipation tests were performed at several layers which were potentially the source or migration path for the gas. Five (5) soil samples were segregated for headspace test, to identify the gas type which subsequently can be used to identify the origin of the gas. Dissipation tests performed at four depth intervals indicates pore water pressure less than 20 % of the effective vertical stress and appear to continue decreasing if the test had not been stopped. It was concluded that a low to a negligible amount of excess pore pressure exist in clayey silt layers. Results from headspace test show presence of methane corresponding to the clayey silt layers as reported in the boring logs. The gas most likely comes from biogenic sources, feeding on organic matter in situ over a large depth range. It is unlikely that there are large pockets of gas in the soil due to its homogeneous clayey nature and the lack of excess pore pressure in other permeable clayey silt layers encountered. Instead, it is more likely that when pore water at certain depth encounters a more permeable path, such as a borehole, it rises up through this path due to the temperature gradient in the soil. As the water rises the pressure decreases, which could cause gases dissolved in the water to come out of solution and form bubbles. As a result, the gas will have no impact on the integrity of the foundation at Platform T. The fit-for-purpose relief well design as well as adopting headspace testing can be used to address the shallow gas issue at Platform T in a cost effective and efficient manners.

Keywords: dissipation test, headspace test, excess pore pressure, relief well, shallow gas

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1 Assessment of the Efficacy of Routine Medical Tests in Screening Medical Radiation Staff in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences Educational Centers

Authors: Z. Razi, S. M. J. Mortazavi, N. Shokrpour, Z. Shayan, F. Amiri

Abstract:

Long-term exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation occurs in radiation health care workplaces. Although doses in health professions are generally very low, there are still matters of concern. The radiation safety program promotes occupational radiation safety through accurate and reliable monitoring of radiation workers in order to effectively manage radiation protection. To achieve this goal, it has become mandatory to implement health examination periodically. As a result, based on the hematological alterations, working populations with a common occupational radiation history are screened. This paper calls into question the effectiveness of blood component analysis as a screening program which is mandatory for medical radiation workers in some countries. This study details the distribution and trends of changes in blood components, including white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs) and platelets as well as received cumulative doses from occupational radiation exposure. This study was conducted among 199 participants and 100 control subjects at the medical imaging departments at the central hospital of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences during the years 2006–2010. Descriptive and analytical statistics, considering the P-value<0.05 as statistically significance was used for data analysis. The results of this study show that there is no significant difference between the radiation workers and controls regarding WBCs and platelet count during 4 years. Also, we have found no statistically significant difference between the two groups with respect to RBCs. Besides, no statistically significant difference was observed with respect to RBCs with regards to gender, which has been analyzed separately because of the lower reference range for normal RBCs levels in women compared to men and. Moreover, the findings confirm that in a separate evaluation between WBCs count and the personnel’s working experience and their annual exposure dose, results showed no linear correlation between the three variables. Since the hematological findings were within the range of control levels, it can be concluded that the radiation dosage (which was not more than 7.58 mSv in this study) had been too small to stimulate any quantifiable change in medical radiation worker’s blood count. Thus, use of more accurate method for screening program based on the working profile of the radiation workers and their accumulated dose is suggested. In addition, complexity of radiation-induced functions and the influence of various factors on blood count alteration should be taken into account.

Keywords: blood cell count, mandatory testing, occupational exposure, radiation

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