Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 367

Search results for: adhesion

367 Centrifuge Testing to Determine the Effect of Temperature on the Adhesion Strength of Ice

Authors: Zaid A. Janjua, Barbara Turnbull, Kwing-So Choi

Abstract:

The adhesion of glaze ice on power infrastructure, ships and aerofoils cause monetary and structural damage. Here we investigate the influence of temperature as an important parameter affecting adhesion strength of ice. Two terms are defined to investigate this: 'freezing temperature', the temperature at which glaze ice forms; and 'ambient temperature', the temperature of the surrounding during the test. Using three metal surfaces, the adhesion strength of ice has been calculated as a value of shear stress at the point of detachment on a spinning centrifuge. Findings show that the ambient temperature has a greater influence than the freezing temperature on the adhesion strength of ice. This is because there exists an amorphous liquid-like layer at the ice-surface interface, whose bond with the surface increases in strength at lower ambient temperatures when the substrate conducts heat much faster than the ice and acts as a heat sink. The results will help us to measure the actual adhesion strength of ice to metal surfaces based on data from weather monitoring devices. Future tests envisaged focus on thermally non-conducting substrates and their influence on adhesion strength.

Keywords: ice adhesion, centrifuge, glaze ice, freezing temperature, ambient temperature

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366 Influence of S.carnosus Bacteria as Biocollector for the Recovery Organic Matter in the Flotation Process

Authors: G. T. Ramos-Escobedo, E. T. Pecina-Treviño, L. F. Camacho-Ortegon, E. Orrantia-Borunda

Abstract:

The mineral bioflotation represents a viable alternative for the evaluation of new processes benefit alternative. The adsorption bacteria on minerals surfaces will depend mainly on the type of the microorganism as well as of the studied mineral surface. In the current study, adhesion of S. carnosus on coal was studied. Several methods were used as: DRX, Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) adhesion isotherms and kinetic. The main goal is the recovery of organic matter by the microflotation process on coal particles with biological reagent (S. carnosus). Adhesion tests revealed that adhesion took place after 8 h at pH 9. The results suggest that the adhesion of bacteria to solid substrates can be considered an abiotic physicochemical process that is consequently governed by bacterial surface properties such as their specific surface area, hydrophobicity and surface functionalities. The greatest coal fine flotability was 75%, after 5 min of flotation.

Keywords: fine coal, bacteria, adhesion, recovery organic matter

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365 Adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus to Intravascular cannulae

Authors: Ghadah Abusalim, Suliman Alharbi, Hesham Khalil, Milton Wainwright, Mohammad A. Khiyami

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The use of implantable foreign devices in medicine has recently increased dramatically. Intravascular cannulae and catheters are used to administer fluids, medications, parenteral nutrition, and blood products in order to monitor hemodynamic status and also to provide hemodialysis. The early and late failure of inserted or implanted devices is largely the result of bacterial infection and may lead to the disruption of integration between the device and the tissues which surround it. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are widely considered to be the most common organisms causing device-related infection. Our study showed that S. aureus and S. epidermidis adhered to intravascular cannulae made up of PTFE, SPTFE and vialon. Adhesion of S. epidermidis and S. aureus to intravascular cannulae varied significantly depending upon the type of material used and the presence of coating materials. Both bacteria adhered less to PTFE followed by Vialon and SPTFE and the adhesion capacity of S. aureus and S. epidermidis increased over time. Coating intravascular cannulae with human serum albumin inhibited the adhesion of S. aureus and S. epidermidis to these cannulae, and pretreatment of cannulae with fibronectin inhibited the adhesion of S. epidermidis but increased the adhesion of S. aureus to all types of cannulae. Pretreatment of cannulae surface with potassium chloride or calcium chloride increased the adhesion of S. aureus and S. epidermidis to cannulae, suggesting a role for electrostatic forces in the mechanism of such adhesion. This study will hopefully clarify the mechanism of adhesion and provide possible means of preventing such adhesion either by the use of better material coatings or by interfering with the process of adhesion by targeting bacterial structures responsible for it. Currently we recommend the use of PTFE cannulae as they exhibit a lower bacterial adhesion capacity compared to the other tested cannulae.

Keywords: Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, adhesion, cannulae, PTFE, Vialon

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364 Independent Control over Surface Charge and Wettability Using Polyelectrolyte Architecture

Authors: Shanshan Guo, Xiaoying Zhu, Dominik Jańczewski, Koon Gee Neoh

Abstract:

Surface charge and wettability are two prominent physical factors governing cell adhesion and have been extensively studied in the literature. However, a comparison between the two driving forces in terms of their independent and cooperative effects in affecting cell adhesion is rarely explored on a systematic and quantitative level. Herein, we formulate a protocol which allows two-dimensional and independent control over both surface charge and wettability. This protocol enables the unambiguous comparison of the effects of these two properties on cell adhesion. This strategy is implemented by controlling both the relative thickness of polyion layers in the layer-by-layer assembly and the polyion side chain chemical structures. The 2D property matrix spans surface isoelectric point ranging from 5 to 9 and water contact angle from 35º to 70º, with other interferential factors (e.g. roughness) eliminated. The interplay between these two surface variables influences 3T3 fibroblast cell adhesion. The results show that both surface charge and wettability have an effect on its adhesion. The combined effects of positive charge and hydrophilicity led to the highest cell adhesion whereas negative charge and hydrophobicity led to the lowest cell adhesion. Our design strategy can potentially form the basis for studying the distinct behaviors of electrostatic force or wettability driven interfacial phenomena and serving as a reference in future studies assessing cell adhesion to surfaces with known charge and wettability within the property range studied here.

Keywords: cell adhesion, layer-by-layer, surface charge, surface wettability

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363 Biomimetic Adhesive Pads for Precision Manufacturing Robots

Authors: Hoon Yi, Minho Sung, Hangil Ko, Moon Kyu Kwak, Hoon Eui Jeong

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Inspired by the remarkable adhesion properties of gecko lizards, bio-inspired dry adhesives with smart adhesion properties have been developed in the last decade. Compared to earlier dry adhesives, the recently developed ones exhibit excellent adhesion strength, smart directional adhesion, and structural robustness. With these unique adhesion properties, bio-inspired dry adhesive pads have strong potential for use in precision industries such as semiconductor or display manufacturing. In this communication, we present a new manufacturing technology based on advanced dry adhesive systems that enable precise manipulation of large-area substrates over repeating cycles without any requirement for external force application. This new manufacturing technique is also highly accurate and environment-friendly, and thus has strong potential as a next-generation clean manufacturing technology.

Keywords: gecko, manufacturing robot, precision manufacturing

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362 Effect of UV/Ozone Treatment on the Adhesion Strength of Polymeric Systems

Authors: Marouen Hamdi, Johannes A. Poulis

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This study investigates the impact of UV/ozone treatment on the adhesion of ethylene propylene diene methylene (EPDM) rubber, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) materials. The experimental tests consist of contact angle measurements, standardized adhesion tests, and spectroscopic and microscopic observations. Also, commonly-used surface free energy models were applied to characterize the wettability of the materials. Preliminary results show that the treatment enhances the wettability of the examined polymers. Also, it considerably improved the adhesion strength of PVC and ABS and shifted their failure modes from adhesive to cohesive, without a significant effect on EPDM. Spectroscopic characterization showed significant oxidation-induced changes in the chemical structures of treated PVC and ABS surfaces. Also, new morphological changes (microcracks, micro-holes, and wrinkles) were observed on these two materials using the SEM. These chemical and morphological changes on treated PVC and ABS promote more reactivity and mechanical interlocking with the adhesive, which explains the improvement in their adhesion strength. After characterizing the adhesion strength of the systems, accelerated ageing tests in controlled environment chambers will be conducted to determine the effect of temperature, moisture, and UV radiation on the performance of the polymeric bonded joints.

Keywords: accelerated tests, adhesion strength, ageing of polymers, UV/ozone treatment

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361 Core-Shell Nanofibers for Prevention of Postsurgical Adhesion

Authors: Jyh-Ping Chen, Chia-Lin Sheu

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In this study, we propose to use electrospinning to fabricate porous nanofibrous membranes as postsurgical anti-adhesion barriers and to improve the properties of current post-surgical anti-adhesion products. We propose to combine FDA-approved biomaterials with anti-adhesion properties, polycaprolactone (PCL), polyethylene glycol (PEG), hyaluronic acid (HA) with silver nanoparticles (Ag) and ibuprofen (IBU), to produce anti-adhesion barrier nanofibrous membranes. For this purpose, PEG/PCL/Ag/HA/IBU core-shell nanofibers were prepared. The shell layer contains PEG + PCL to provide mechanical supports and Ag was added to the outer PEG-PCL shell layer during electrospinning to endow the nanofibrous membrane with anti-bacterial properties. The core contains HA to exert anti-adhesion and IBU to exert anti-inflammation effects, respectively. The nanofibrous structure of the membranes can reduce cell penetration while allowing nutrient and waste transports to prevent postsurgical adhesion. Nanofibers with different core/shell thickness ratio were prepared. The nanofibrous membranes were first characterized for their physico-chemical properties in detail, followed by in vitro cell culture studies for cell attachment and proliferation. The HA released from the core region showed extended release up to 21 days for prolonged anti-adhesion effects. The attachment of adhesion-forming fibroblasts is reduced using the nanofibrous membrane from DNA assays and confocal microscopic observation of adhesion protein vinculin expression. The Ag released from the shell showed burst release to prevent E Coli and S. aureus infection immediately and prevent bacterial resistance to Ag. Minimum cytotoxicity was observed from Ag and IBU when fibroblasts were culture with the extraction medium of the nanofibrous membranes. The peritendinous anti-adhesion model in rabbits and the peritoneal anti-adhesion model in rats were used to test the efficacy of the anti-adhesion barriers as determined by gross observation, histology, and biomechanical tests. Within all membranes, the PEG/PCL/Ag/HA/IBU core-shell nanofibers showed the best reduction in cell attachment and proliferation when tested with fibroblasts in vitro. The PEG/PCL/Ag/HA/IBU nanofibrous membranes also showed significant improvement in preventing both peritendinous and peritoneal adhesions when compared with other groups and a commercial adhesion barrier film.

Keywords: anti-adhesion, electrospinning, hyaluronic acid, ibuprofen, nanofibers

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360 On the Thermodynamics of Biological Cell Adhesion

Authors: Ben Nadler

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Cell adhesion plays a vital role in many cell activities. The motivation to model cell adhesion is to study important biological processes, such as cell spreading, cell aggregation, tissue formation, and cell adhesion, which are very challenging to study by experimental methods alone. This study provides important insight into cell adhesion, which can lead to improve regenerative medicine and tissue formation techniques. In this presentation the biological cells adhesion is mediated by receptors–ligands binding and the diffusivity of the receptor on the cell membrane surface. The ability of receptors to diffuse on the cell membrane surface yields a very unique and complicated adhesion mechanism, which is exclusive to cells. The phospholipid bilayer, which is the main component in the cell membrane, shows fluid-like behavior associated with the molecules’ diffusivity. The biological cell is modeled as a fluid-like membrane with negligible bending stiffness enclosing the cytoplasm fluid. The in-plane mechanical behavior of the cell membrane is assumed to depend only on the area change, which is motivated by the fluidity of the phospholipid bilayer. In addition, the presence of receptors influences on the local mechanical properties of the cell membrane is accounted for by including stress-free area change, which depends on the receptor density. Based on the physical properties of the receptors and ligands the attraction between the receptors and ligands is modeled as a charged-nonpolar which is a noncovalent interaction. Such interaction is a short-range type, which decays fast with distance. The mobility of the receptor on the cell membrane is modeled using the diffusion equation and Fick’s law is used to model the receptor–receptor interactions. The resultant interaction force, which includes receptor–ligand and receptor–receptor interaction, is decomposed into tangential part, which governs the receptor diffusion, and normal part, which governs the cell deformation and adhesion. The formulation of the governing equations and numerical simulations will be presented. Analysis of the adhesion characteristic and properties are discussed. The roles of various thermomechanical properties of the cell, receptors and ligands on the cell adhesion are investigated.

Keywords: cell adhesion, cell membrane, receptor-ligand interaction, receptor diffusion

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359 A Platform to Screen Targeting Molecules of Ligand-EGFR Interactions

Authors: Wei-Ting Kuo, Feng-Huei Lin

Abstract:

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is often constitutively stimulated in cancer owing to the binding of ligands such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), so it is necessary to investigate the interaction between EGFR and its targeting biomolecules which were over ligands binding. This study would focus on the binding affinity and adhesion force of two targeting products anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody (mAb) and peptide A to EGFR comparing with EGF. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was used to obtain the equilibrium dissociation constant to evaluate the binding affinity. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was performed to detect adhesion force. The result showed that binding affinity of mAb to EGFR was higher than that of EGF to EGFR, and peptide A to EGFR was lowest. The adhesion force between EGFR and mAb that was higher than EGF and peptide A to EGFR was lowest. From the studies, we could conclude that mAb had better adhesion force and binding affinity to EGFR than that of EGF and peptide A. SPR and AFM could confirm the interaction between receptor and targeting ligand easily and carefully. It provide a platform to screen ligands for receptor targeting and drug delivery.

Keywords: adhesion force, binding affinity, epidermal growth factor receptor, target molecule

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358 The Effect of Adhesion on the Frictional Hysteresis Loops at a Rough Interface

Authors: M. Bazrafshan, M. B. de Rooij, D. J. Schipper

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Frictional hysteresis is the phenomenon in which mechanical contacts are subject to small (compared to contact area) oscillating tangential displacements. In the presence of adhesion at the interface, the contact repulsive force increases leading to a higher static friction force and pre-sliding displacement. This paper proposes a boundary element model (BEM) for the adhesive frictional hysteresis contact at the interface of two contacting bodies of arbitrary geometries. In this model, adhesion is represented by means of a Dugdale approximation of the total work of adhesion at local areas with a very small gap between the two bodies. The frictional contact is divided into sticking and slipping regions in order to take into account the transition from stick to slip (pre-sliding regime). In the pre-sliding regime, the stick and slip regions are defined based on the local values of shear stress and normal pressure. In the studied cases, a fixed normal force is applied to the interface and the friction force varies in such a way to start gross sliding in one direction reciprocally. For the first case, the problem is solved at the smooth interface between a ball and a flat for different values of work of adhesion. It is shown that as the work of adhesion increases, both static friction and pre-sliding distance increase due to the increase in the contact repulsive force. For the second case, the rough interface between a glass ball against a silicon wafer and a DLC (Diamond-Like Carbon) coating is considered. The work of adhesion is assumed to be identical for both interfaces. As adhesion depends on the interface roughness, the corresponding contact repulsive force is different for these interfaces. For the smoother interface, a larger contact repulsive force and consequently, a larger static friction force and pre-sliding distance are observed.

Keywords: boundary element model, frictional hysteresis, adhesion, roughness, pre-sliding

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357 Adhesion Performance According to Lateral Reinforcement Method of Textile

Authors: Jungbhin You, Taekyun Kim, Jongho Park, Sungnam Hong, Sun-Kyu Park

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Reinforced concrete has been mainly used in construction field because of excellent durability. However, it may lead to reduction of durability and safety due to corrosion of reinforcement steels according to damage of concrete surface. Recently, research of textile is ongoing to complement weakness of reinforced concrete. In previous research, only experiment of longitudinal length were performed. Therefore, in order to investigate the adhesion performance according to the lattice shape and the embedded length, the pull-out test was performed on the roving with parameter of the number of lateral reinforcement, the lateral reinforcement length and the lateral reinforcement spacing. As a result, the number of lateral reinforcement and the lateral reinforcement length did not significantly affect the load variation depending on the adhesion performance, and only the load analysis results according to the reinforcement spacing are affected.

Keywords: adhesion performance, lateral reinforcement, pull-out test, textile

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356 Nanostructure and Adhesion of Cement/Polymer Fiber Interfaces

Authors: Faezeh Shalchy

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Concrete is the most used materials in the world. It is also one of the most versatile while complex materials which human have used for construction. However, concrete is weak in tension, over the past thirty years many studies were accomplished to improve the tensile properties of concrete (cement-based materials) using a variety of methods. One of the most successful attempts is to use polymeric fibers in the structure of concrete to obtain a composite with high tensile strength and ductility. Understanding the mechanical behavior of fiber reinforced concrete requires the knowledge of the fiber/matrix interfaces at the small scale. In this study, a combination of numerical simulations and experimental techniques have been used to study the nano structure of fiber/matrix interfaces. A new model for calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H)/fiber interfaces is proposed based on Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. The adhesion energy between the C-S-H gel and 2 different polymeric fibers (polyvinyl alcohol and polypropylene) was numerically studied at the atomistic level since adhesion is one of the key factors in the design of fiber reinforced composites. The mechanisms of adhesion as a function of the nano structure of fiber/matrix interfaces are also studied and discussed.

Keywords: fiber-reinforced concrete, adhesion, molecular modeling

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355 The Evaluation for Interfacial Adhesion between SOFC and Metal Adhesive in the High Temperature Environment

Authors: Sang Koo Jeon, Seung Hoon Nahm, Oh Heon Kwon

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The unit cell of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) must be stacked as several layers type to obtain the high power. The most of researcher have concerned about the performance of stacked SOFC rather than the structural stability of stacked SOFC and especially interested how to design for reducing the electrical loss and improving the high efficiency. Consequently, the stacked SOFC able to produce the electrical high power and related parts like as manifold, gas seal, bipolar plate were developed to optimize the stack design. However, the unit cell of SOFC was just layered on the interconnector without the adhesion and the hydrogen and oxygen were injected to the interfacial layer in the high temperature. On the operating condition, the interfacial layer can be the one of the weak point in the stacked SOFC. Therefore the evaluation of the structural safety for the failure is essentially needed. In this study, interfacial adhesion between SOFC and metal adhesive was estimated in the high temperature environment. The metal adhesive was used to strongly connect the unit cell of SOFC with interconnector and provide the electrical conductivity between them. The four point bending test was performed to measure the interfacial adhesion. The unit cell of SOFC and SiO2 wafer were diced and then attached by metal adhesive. The SiO2 wafer had the center notch to initiate a crack from the tip of the notch. The modified stereomicroscope combined with the CCD camera and system for measuring the length was used to observe the fracture behavior. Additionally, the interfacial adhesion was evaluated in the high temperature condition because the metal adhesive was affected by high temperature. Also the specimen was exposed in the furnace during several hours and then the interfacial adhesion was evaluated. Finally, the interfacial adhesion energy was quantitatively determined and compared in the each condition.

Keywords: solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), metal adhesive, adhesion, high temperature

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354 Development of Antibacterial Surface Based on Bio-Inspired Hierarchical Surface

Authors: M.Ayazi, N. Golshan Ebrahimi

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The development of antibacterial surface has devoted extensive researches and important field due to the growing antimicrobial resistance strains. The superhydrophobic surface has raised attention because of reducing bacteria adhesion in the absence of antibiotic agents. Evaluating the current development antibacterial surface has to be investigating to consider the potential of applying superhydrophobic surface to reduce bacterial adhesion or role of patterned surfaces on it. In this study, we present different samples with bio-inspired hierarchical and microstructures to consider their ability in reducing bacterial adhesion. The structures have inspired from rice-like pattern and lotus-leaf that developed on the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polypropylene (PP). The results of the attachment behaviors have considered on two bacteria strains of gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria and gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The reduction of bacteria adhesion on these roughness surfaces demonstrated the effectiveness of rinsing ability on removing bacterial cells on structured plastic surfaces. Results have also offered the important role of bacterial species, material chemistry and hierarchical structure to prevent bacterial adhesion.

Keywords: hierarchical structure, self-cleaning, lotus-effect, bactericidal

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353 Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Conditions to Improve Interfacial Adhesion

Authors: Filip Stojcevski, Tim Hilditch, Luke Henderson

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Although carbon fibre composites are becoming ever more prominent in the engineering industry, interfacial failure still remains one of the most common limitations to material performance. Carbon fiber surface treatments have played a major role in advancing composite properties however research into the influence of manufacturing variables on a fiber manufacturing line is lacking. This project investigates the impact of altering carbon fiber manufacturing conditions on a production line (specifically electrochemical oxidization and sizing variables) to assess fiber-matrix adhesion. Pristine virgin fibers were manufactured and interfacial adhesion systematically assessed from a microscale (single fiber) to a mesoscale (12k tow), and ultimately a macroscale (laminate). Correlations between interfacial shear strength (IFSS) at each level is explored as a function of known interfacial bonding mechanisms; namely mechanical interlocking, chemical adhesion and fiber wetting. Impact of these bonding mechanisms is assessed through extensive mechanical, topological and chemical characterisation. They are correlated to performance as a function of IFSS. Ultimately this study provides a bottoms up approach to improving composite laminates. By understanding the scaling effects from a singular fiber to a composite laminate and linking this knowledge to specific bonding mechanisms, material scientists can make an informed decision on the manufacturing conditions most beneficial for interfacial adhesion.

Keywords: carbon fibers, interfacial adhesion, surface treatment, sizing

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352 Adhesion Study of Repair Mortar Based in Dune and Crushed Limestone Sand

Authors: Krobba Benharzallah, Kenai Said, Bouhicha Mohamed, Lakhdari Mohammed Fatah, Merah Ahmed

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In recent years, great interest has been directed towards the use of local materials and natural resources in building and public works. This is to satisfy the enormous need for these materials and contribute to sustainable development. Among these resources, dune sand and limestone crushed sand, which can be an interesting alternative to the replacement of siliceous alluvial sands for the formulation of a repair mortar. The results found show that the particle size correction of dune sand by limestone sand and the addition of a superplasticizer are very beneficial in terms of adhesion and mechanical strength.

Keywords: repair mortar, dune sand, crushed limestone sand, adhesion, mechanical strength

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351 Select-Low and Select-High Methods for the Wheeled Robot Dynamic States Control

Authors: Bogusław Schreyer

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The paper enquires on the two methods of the wheeled robot braking torque control. Those two methods are applied when the adhesion coefficient under left side wheels is different from the adhesion coefficient under the right side wheels. In case of the select-low (SL) method the braking torque on both wheels is controlled by the signals originating from the wheels on the side of the lower adhesion. In the select-high (SH) method the torque is controlled by the signals originating from the wheels on the side of the higher adhesion. The SL method is securing stable and secure robot behaviors during the braking process. However, the efficiency of this method is relatively low. The SH method is more efficient in terms of time and braking distance but in some situations may cause wheels blocking. It is important to monitor the velocity of all wheels and then take a decision about the braking torque distribution accordingly. In case of the SH method the braking torque slope may require significant decrease in order to avoid wheel blocking.

Keywords: select-high, select-low, torque distribution, wheeled robots

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350 Nanostructural Analysis of the Polylactic Acid (PLA) Fibers Functionalized by RF Plasma Treatment

Authors: J. H. O. Nascimento, F. R. Oliveira, K. K. O. S. Silva, J. Neves, V. Teixeira, J. Carneiro

Abstract:

These the aliphatic polyesters such as Polylactic Acid (PLA) in the form of fibers, nanofibers or plastic films, generally possess chemically inert surfaces, free porosity, and surface free energy (ΔG) lesser than 32 mN/m. It is therefore considered a low surface energy material, consequently has a low work of adhesion. For this reason, the products manufactured using these polymers are often subjected to surface treatments in order to change its physic-chemical surface, improving their wettability and the Work of Adhesion (WA). Plasma Radio Frequency low pressure (RF) treatment was performed in order to improve the Work of Adhesion (WA) on PLA fibers. Different parameters, such as, power, ratio of working gas (Argon/Oxygen) and treatment time were used to optimize the plasma conditions to modify the PLA surface properties. With plasma treatment, a significant increase in the work of adhesion on PLA fiber surface was observed. The analysis performed by XPS showed an increase in polar functional groups and the SEM and AFM image revealed a considerable increase in roughness.

Keywords: RF plasma, surface modification, PLA fabric, atomic force macroscopic, Nanotechnology

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349 Force Measurement for E-Cadherin-Mediated Intercellular Adhesion Probed by Protein Micropattern and Traction Force Microscopy

Authors: Chieh-Chung Tsou, Chun-Min Lo, Yeh-Shiu Chu

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Cell’s mechanical forces provide important physical cues in regulation of proper cellular functions, such as cell differentiation, proliferation and migration. It is believed that adhesive forces generated by cell-cell interaction are able to transmit to the interior of cell through filamentous cortical cytoskeleton. Prominent among other membrane receptors, Cadherins are prototypical adhesive molecules able to generate remarkable forces to regulate intercellular adhesion. However, the mechanistic steps of mechano-transduction in Cadherin-mediated adhesion remain very controversial. We are interested in understanding how Cadherin protein complexes enable force generation and transmission at cell-cell contact in the initial stage of intercellular adhesion. For providing a better control of time, space, and substrate stiffness, in this study, a combination of protein micropattern, micropipette manipulation, and traction force microscopy is used. Pair micropattern with different forms confines cell spreading area and the gaps in pairs varied from 2 to 8 microns are applied for monitoring the forces that cell pairs generated, measured by traction force microscopy. Moreover, cell clones obtained from epithelial cells undergone genome editing are used to score the importance for known components of Cadherin complexes in force generation. We believe that our results from this combinatory mechanobiological method will provide deep insights on understanding the biophysical principle governing mechano- transduction of Cadherin-mediated intercellular adhesion.

Keywords: cadherin, intercellular adhesion, protein micropattern, traction force microscopy

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348 Supplementation of Citrulline with Lactic Acid Bacteria Protects Foodborne Pathogens Adhesion and Improves the Cell Integrity on the Intestinal Epithelial Cell

Authors: Sze Wing Ho, Nagendra P. Shah

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Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have shown the beneficial effects on human gastrointestinal tract, such as protects diarrhea induced by lactose intolerance or enteric pathogens. Citrulline is a non-protein amino acid and also the precursors of arginine and nitric oxide, it has shown to enhance intestinal barrier function. Citrulline has shown to improve the growth of some strains of LAB, it is important for LAB to have a sufficient cell concentration to contribute the effects. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate the effect of combining citrulline with LAB on the anti-adhesion effect against pathogens and the effect on the cell integrity. The effect of citrulline on selected LAB was determined by incubating in 0%, 0.1% or 0.2% citrulline enriched MRS broth for 18 h. The adhesion ability of LAB and the anti-adhesion effect of LAB and citrulline against pathogens were performed on IPEC-J2 cell line. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) assay was used to measure the tight junction (TJ) integrity. TJ proteins (claudin-1, occludin and zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1)) were determined by western blot analysis. It found that the growth of Lactobacillus helveticus ASCC 511 was significantly stimulated by 0.2% citrulline compared with control during 18 h fermentation. The adhesion of L. helveticus ASCC 511 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) ASCC 756 was increased when supplemented with citrulline. Citrulline has shown significant inhibitory effect on the adhesion of Escherichia coli PELI0480 (O157:H7), Shigella sonnei ATCC 25931, Staphyloccocus aureus CMCC26003 and Cronobacter sakazakii ATCC 29544. The anti-adhesion effect of L. helveticus ASCC 511, L. bulgaricus ASCC 756 and Lactobacillus paracasei ASCC 276 against Cronobacter sakazakii ATCC 29544 was significantly enhanced with citrulline supplementation. Treatments with citrulline and LAB were able to maintain the TEER of IPEC-J2 cell and shown the positive effect on the TJ proteins. In conclusion, citrulline had stimulating effect on some strains of LAB and determined to improve the adhesion of LAB on intestinal epithelial cell, to enhance the inhibitory effect on enteric pathogens adhesion as well as had beneficial effects on maintaining cell integrity. It implied LAB supplemented with citrulline might have advantageous effects on gastrointestinal tracts.

Keywords: citrulline, lactic acid bacteria, amino acid, anti-adhesion effect, cell integrity

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347 Adhesion of Sputtered Copper Thin Films Deposited on Flexible Substrates

Authors: Rwei-Ching Chang, Bo-Yu Su

Abstract:

Adhesion of copper thin films deposited on polyethylene terephthAdhesion of copper thin films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrate by direct current sputtering with different sputtering parameters is discussed in this work. The effects of plasma treatment with 0, 5, and 10 minutes on the thin film properties are investigated first. Various argon flow rates at 40, 50, 60 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm), deposition power at 30, 40, 50 W, and film thickness at 100, 200, 300 nm are also discussed. The 3-dimensional surface profilometer, micro scratch machine, and optical microscope are used to characterize the thin film properties. The results show that the increase of the plasma treatment time on the polyethylene terephthalate surface affects the roughness and critical load of the films. The critical load increases as the plasma treatment time increases. When the plasma treatment time was adjusted from 5 minutes to 10 minutes, the adhesion increased from 8.20 mN to 13.67 mN. When the argon flow rate is decreased from 60 sccm to 40 sccm, the adhesion increases from 8.27 mN to 13.67 mN. The adhesion is also increased by the condition of higher power, where the adhesion increased from 13.67 mN to 25.07 mN as the power increases from 30 W to 50 W. The adhesion of the film increases from 13.67 mN to 21.41mN as the film thickness increases from 100 nm to 300 nm. Comparing all the deposition parameters, it indicates the change of the power and thickness has much improvement on the film adhesion.alate substrate by direct current sputtering with different sputtering parameters is discussed in this work. The effects of plasma treatment with 0, 5, and 10 minutes on the thin film properties are investigated first. Various argon flow rates at 40, 50, 60 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm), deposition power at 30, 40, 50 W, and film thickness at 100, 200, 300 nm are also discussed. The 3-dimensional surface profilometer, micro scratch machine, and optical microscope are used to characterize the thin film properties. The results show that the increase of the plasma treatment time on the polyethylene terephthalate surface affects the roughness and critical load of the films. The critical load increases as the plasma treatment time increases. When the plasma treatment time was adjusted from 5 minutes to 10 minutes, the adhesion increased from 8.20 mN to 13.67 mN. When the argon flow rate is decreased from 60 sccm to 40 sccm, the adhesion increases from 8.27 mN to 13.67 mN. The adhesion is also increased by the condition of higher power, where the adhesion increased from 13.67 mN to 25.07 mN as the power increases from 30 W to 50 W. The adhesion of the film increases from 13.67 mN to 21.41mN as the film thickness increases from 100 nm to 300 nm. Comparing all the deposition parameters, it indicates the change of the power and thickness has much improvement on the film adhesion.

Keywords: flexible substrate, sputtering, adhesion, copper thin film

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346 Comparing Pathogen Inhibition Effect of Different Preparations of Probiotic L. reuteri Strains

Authors: Tejinder Pal Singh, Ravinder Kumar Malik, Gurpreet Kaur

Abstract:

Adhesion is key factor for colonization of the gastrointestinal tract and the ability of probiotic strains to inhibit pathogens. Therefore, the adhesion ability is considered as a suitable biomarker for the selection of potential probiotic. In the present study, eight probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri strains were evaluated as viable, LiCl treated or heat-killed forms and compared with probiotic reference strains (L. reuteri ATCC55730). All strains investigated were able to adhere to Caco-2 cells. All probiotic L. reuteri strains tested were able to inhibit and displace (P < 0.05) the adhesion of Escherichia coli ATCC25922, Salmonella typhi NCDC113, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC53135 and Enterococcus faecalis NCDC115. The probiotic strain L. reuteri LR6 showed the strongest adhesion and pathogen inhibition ability among the eight L. reuteri strains tested. In addition, the abilities to inhibit and to displace adhered pathogens depended on both the probiotic and the pathogen strains tested suggesting the involvement of various mechanisms. The adhesion and antagonistic potential of the probiotic strains were significantly decreased upon exposure to 5M LiCl, showing that surface molecules, proteinaceous in nature, are involved. The heat-killed forms of the probiotic L. reuteri strains also inhibited the attachment of selected pathogens to Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, in vitro assays showed that L. reuteri strains, as viable or heat-killed forms, are adherent to Caco-2 cell line model and are highly antagonistic to selected pathogens in which surface molecules, proteinaceous molecules in particular, plays an important role.

Keywords: probiotics, Lactobacillus reuteri, adhesion, Caco-2 cells

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345 Physiological Normoxia and Cellular Adhesion of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Primary Cells: Real-Time PCR and Immunohistochemistry Study

Authors: Kamila Duś-Szachniewicz, Kinga M. Walaszek, Paweł Skiba, Paweł Kołodziej, Piotr Ziółkowski

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Cell adhesion is of fundamental importance in the cell communication, signaling, and motility, and its dysfunction occurs prevalently during cancer progression. The knowledge of the molecular and cellular processes involved in abnormalities in cancer cells adhesion has greatly increased, and it has been focused mainly on cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) and tumor microenvironment. Unfortunately, most of the data regarding CAMs expression relates to study on cells maintained in standard oxygen condition of 21%, while the emerging evidence suggests that culturing cells in ambient air is far from physiological. In fact, oxygen in human tissues ranges from 1 to 11%. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of physiological lymph node normoxia (5% O2), and hyperoxia (21% O2) on the expression of cellular adhesion molecules of primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells (DLBCL) isolated from 10 lymphoma patients. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to confirm the differential expression of several CAMs, including ICAM, CD83, CD81, CD44, depending on the level of oxygen. Our findings also suggest that DLBCL cells maintained at ambient O2 (21%) exhibit reduced growth rate and migration ability compared to the cells growing in normoxia conditions. Taking into account all the observations, we emphasize the need to identify the optimal human cell culture conditions mimicking the physiological aspects of tumor growth and differentiation.

Keywords: adhesion molecules, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, physiological normoxia, quantitative RT-PCR

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
344 The Influence of Alginate Microspheres Modified with DAT on the Proliferation and Adipogenic Differentiation of ASCs

Authors: Shin-Yi Mao, Jiashing Yu

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Decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) has received lots of attention as biological scaffolds recently. DAT that extracted from the extracellular matrix (ECM) of adipose tissues holds great promise as a xenogeneic biomaterial for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In our study, 2-D DATsol film was fabricated to enhance cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of ASCs in vitro. DAT was also used to modify alginate for improvement of cell adhesion. Alginate microspheres modified with DAT were prepared by Nisco. These microspheres could provide a highly supportive 3-D environment for ASCs. In our works, ASCs were immobilized in alginate microspheres modified with DAT to promoted cell adhesion and adipogenic differentiation. Accordingly, we hypothesize that tissue regeneration in vivo could be promoted with the aid of modified microspheres in future.

Keywords: adipose stem cells, decellularize adipose tissue, Alginate, microcarries

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
343 The Effect of the Spinacia oleracea Extract on the Control of the Green Mold 'Penilillium digitatum' at the Post Harvested Citrus

Authors: Asma Chbani, Douaa Salim, Josephine Al Alam, Pascale De Caro

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Penicillium digitatum, the causal agent of citrus green mold, is responsible for 90% of post-harvest losses. Chemical fungicides remain the most used products for protection against this pathogen but are also responsible for damage to human health and the environment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability of Spinacia oleracea extract to serve as biological control agents, an alternative to harmful synthetic fungicides, against orange decay for storing fruit caused by P. digitatum. In this study, we studied the implication of a crude extract of a green plant, Spinacia oleracea, in the protection of oranges against P. digitatum. Thus, in vivo antifungal tests as well as adhesion test were done. For in vivo antifungal test, oranges were pulverized with the prepared crude extracts at different concentrations ranged from 25 g L⁻¹ to 200 g L⁻¹, contaminated by the fungus and then observed during 8 weeks for their macroscopic changes at 24°C. For adhesion test, the adhesion index is defined as the number of Penicillium digitatum spores fixed per orange cell. An index greater than 25 is the indicator of a strong adhesion, whereas for an index less than 10, the adhesion is low. Ten orange cells were examined in triplicate for each extract, and the averages of adherent cells were calculated. Obtained results showed an inhibitory activity of the Penicillium development with the aqueous extract of dry Spinacia oleracea with a concentration of 50 g L⁻¹ considered as the minimal protective concentration. The prepared extracts showed a greater inhibition of the development of P. digitatum up to 10 weeks, even greater than the fungicide control Nystatin. Adhesion test’s results showed that the adhesion of P. digitatum spores to the epidermal cells of oranges in the presence of the crude spinach leaves extract is weak; the mean of the obtained adhesion index was estimated to 2.7. However, a high adhesion was observed with water used a negative control. In conclusion, all these results confirm that the use of this green plant highly rich in chlorophyll having several phytotherapeutic activities, could be employed as a great treatment for protection of oranges against mold and also as an alternative for chemical fungicides.

Keywords: Penicillium digitatum, Spinacia oleracea, oranges, biological control, postharvest diseases

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
342 Correlation Mapping for Measuring Platelet Adhesion

Authors: Eunseop Yeom

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Platelets can be activated by the surrounding blood flows where a blood vessel is narrowed as a result of atherosclerosis. Numerous studies have been conducted to identify the relation between platelets activation and thrombus formation. To measure platelet adhesion, this study proposes an image analysis technique. Blood samples are delivered in the microfluidic channel, and then platelets are activated by a stenotic micro-channel with 90% severity. By applying proposed correlation mapping, which visualizes decorrelation of the streaming blood flow, the area of adhered platelets (APlatelet) was estimated without labeling platelets. In order to evaluate the performance of correlation mapping on the detection of platelet adhesion, the effect of tile size was investigated by calculating 2D correlation coefficients with binary images obtained by manual labeling and the correlation mapping method with different sizes of the square tile ranging from 3 to 50 pixels. The maximum 2D correlation coefficient is observed with the optimum tile size of 5×5 pixels. As the area of the platelet adhesion increases, the platelets plug the channel and there is only a small amount of blood flows. This image analysis could provide new insights for better understanding of the interactions between platelet aggregation and blood flows in various physiological conditions.

Keywords: platelet activation, correlation coefficient, image analysis, shear rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
341 Adhesion Problematic for Novel Non-Crimp Fabric and Surface Modification of Carbon-Fibres Using Oxy-Fluorination

Authors: Iris Käppler, Paul Matthäi, Chokri Cherif

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In the scope of application of technical textiles, Non-Crimp Fabrics are increasingly used. In general, NCF exhibit excellent load bearing properties, but caused by the manufacturing process, there are some remaining disadvantages which have to be reduced. Regarding to this, a novel technique of processing NCF was developed substituting the binding-thread by an adhesive. This stitch-free method requires new manufacturing concept as well as new basic methods to prove adhesion of glue at fibres and textiles. To improve adhesion properties and the wettability of carbon-fibres by the adhesive, oxyfluorination was used. The modification of carbon-fibres by oxyfluorination was investigated via scanning electron microscope, X-ray photo electron spectroscopy and single fibre tensiometry. Special tensile tests were developed to determine the maximum force required for detachment.

Keywords: non-crimp fabric, adhesive, stitch-free, high-performance fibre

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340 The Impact of Alumina Cement on Properties of Portland Cement Slurries and Mortars

Authors: Krzysztof Zieliński, Dariusz Kierzek

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The addition of a small amount of alumina cement to Portland cement results in immediate setting, a rapid increase in the compressive strength and a clear increase of the adhesion to concrete substrate. This phenomenon is used, among others, for the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds. Alumina cement is several times more expensive than Portland cement and is a component having a significant impact on prices of products manufactured with its use. For the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds, low-alumina cement containing approximately 40% Al2O3 is normally used. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of Portland cement with the addition of alumina cement on the basic physical and mechanical properties of cement slurries and mortars. CEM I 42.5R and three types of alumina cement containing 40%, 50% and 70% of Al2O3 were used for the tests. Mixes containing 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 12% of different varieties of alumina cement were prepared; for which, the time of initial and final setting, compressive and flexural strength and adhesion to concrete substrate were determined. The analysis of the obtained test results showed that a similar immediate setting effect and clearly better adhesion strength can be obtained using the addition of 6% of high-alumina cement than 12% of low-alumina cement. As the prices of these cements are similar, this can give significant financial savings in the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds.

Keywords: alumina cement, immediate setting, compression strength, adhesion to substrate

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339 Modeling of the Cellular Uptake of Rigid Nanoparticles: Investigating the Influence of the Adaptation of the Cell’s Mechanical Properties during Endocytosis

Authors: Sarah Iaquinta, Christophe Blanquart, Elena Ishow, Sylvain Freour, Frederic Jacquemin, Shahram Khazaie

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Nanoparticles have recently emerged as a possible cancer treatment tool. Several formulations have been used to enhance the uptake of these nanoparticles by cancer cells and avoid their immediate clearance when administrated in vivo. Most of the previous studies focus on the investigation of the influence of the mechanical properties of the cell membrane and the particle. However, these studies do not account for the variation of adhesion and tension during the wrapping of the nanoparticle by the membrane. These couplings should be considered since the cell adapts to the interaction with the nanoparticle by, e.g., increasing the number of interactions (consequently leading to an increase of the cell membrane/nanoparticle adhesion) and by reorganizing its cytoskeleton, leading to the releasing of the tension of the cell membrane. The main contribution of this work is the proposal of a novel model for representing the cellular uptake of rigid circular nanoparticles based on an energetic model tailored to take into account the adaptation of the nanoparticle/cell membrane adhesion and of the membrane stress during wrapping. Several coupling models using sigmoidal functions are considered and compared. The study calculations revealed that the results considering constant parameters underestimated the final wrapping degree of the particle by up to 50%.

Keywords: adhesion, cellular adaptation, cellular uptake, mechanical properties, tension

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338 Tool Damage and Adhesion Effects in Turning and Drilling of Hardened Steels

Authors: Chris M. Taylor, Ian Cook, Raul Alegre, Pedro Arrazola, Phil Spiers

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Noteworthy results have been obtained in the turning and drilling of hardened high-strength steels using tungsten carbide based cutting tools. In a finish turning process, it was seen that surface roughness and tool flank wear followed very different trends against cutting time. The suggested explanation for this behaviour is that the profile cut into the workpiece surface is determined by the tool’s cutting edge profile. It is shown that the profile appearing on the cut surface changes rapidly over time, so the profile of the tool cutting edge should also be changing rapidly. Workpiece material adhered onto the cutting tool, which is also known as a built-up edge, is a phenomenon which could explain the observations made. In terms of tool damage modes, workpiece material adhesion is believed to have contributed to tool wear in examples provided from finish turning, thread turning and drilling. Additionally, evidence of tool fracture and tool abrasion were recorded.

Keywords: turning, drilling, adhesion, wear, hard steels

Procedia PDF Downloads 214