Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1505

Search results for: adult Korean speakers

1505 Acquisition of Overt Pronoun Constraint in L2 Turkish by Adult Korean Speakers

Authors: Oktay Cinar

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate the acquisition of Overt Pronoun Constraint (OPC) by adult Korean L2 Turkish speakers in order to find out how constraints regulating the syntax of null and overt subjects are acquired. OPC is claimed to be a universal feature of all null subject languages restricting the co-indexation between overt embedded pronoun and quantified or wh-question antecedents. However, there is no such restriction when the embedded subject is null or the antecedent is a referential subject. Considered as a principle of Universal Grammar (UG), OPC knowledge of L2 speakers has been widely tested with different language pairs. In the light of previous studies on OPC, it can be argued that L2 learners display early sensitivity to OPC constraints during their interlanguage grammar development. Concerning this, the co-indexation between overt embedded pronoun o (third person pronoun) and referential matrix subject is claimed to be controversial in Turkish, which poses problems with the universality of OPC. However, the current study argues against this claim by providing evidence from advanced Korean speakers that OPC is universal to all null subject languages and OPC knowledge can be accessed with direct access to UG. In other words, the performances of adult Korean speakers on the syntax of null and overt subjects are tested to support this claim. In order to test this, OPC task is used. 15 advanced speakers and a control group of adult native Turkish participants are instructed to determine the co-reference relationship between the subject of embedded clause, either overt pronominal o or null, and the subject of the matrix clause, either quantified pronoun and wh-question or referential antecedent. They are asked to select the interpretation of the embedded subject, either as the same person as in the matrix subject or another person who is not the same person in the matrix subject. These relations are represented with four conditions, and each condition has four questions (16 questions in total). The results claim that both control group and Korean L2 Turkish speakers display sensitivity to all constraints that OPC has, which suggests that OPC works in Turkish as well.

Keywords: adult Korean speakers, binding theory, generative second language acquisition, overt pronoun constraint

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1504 Dialect and Gender Variations in the Place and Manner of Articulation of the Korean Fricatives

Authors: Kyung-Im Han

Abstract:

This study examines dialect and gender variations in the place and manner of articulation between the two Korean fricatives, /s/ and /s’/, as produced by speakers of the Daegu and Jeju dialects. The acoustic parameters of center of gravity and skewness for the place of articulation, and the rise time and the amplitude rise slope for the manner of articulation were measured. The study results revealed a gender effect, but no dialect effect, for the center of gravity and the skewness. No main effect for either the gender or dialect was found for the rise time and the amplitude rise slope. These findings indicated that, with regard to the place of articulation, Korean fricative sound differences are a gender distinction, not a dialectal one.

Keywords: dialect, gender, Korean fricative, manner of articulation, place of articulation, spectral moments

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1503 Segmentation of Korean Words on Korean Road Signs

Authors: Lae-Jeong Park, Kyusoo Chung, Jungho Moon

Abstract:

This paper introduces an effective method of segmenting Korean text (place names in Korean) from a Korean road sign image. A Korean advanced directional road sign is composed of several types of visual information such as arrows, place names in Korean and English, and route numbers. Automatic classification of the visual information and extraction of Korean place names from the road sign images make it possible to avoid a lot of manual inputs to a database system for management of road signs nationwide. We propose a series of problem-specific heuristics that correctly segments Korean place names, which is the most crucial information, from the other information by leaving out non-text information effectively. The experimental results with a dataset of 368 road sign images show 96% of the detection rate per Korean place name and 84% per road sign image.

Keywords: segmentation, road signs, characters, classification

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1502 Overuse Equals to Low Proficiency Level in English: A Corpus-Based Study on the Use of Linking Adverbials between Male and Female Speakers

Authors: Tsungming Wu

Abstract:

The present paper investigates the use of linking adverbials between native male speakers and female speakers in their presentation. From previous studies, overuse of linking adverbials may be an indicator of the low proficiency level in English. In this study, female speakers are found to use more linking adverbials in general. However, the overuse of linking adverbials found in female speakers’ speeches does not imply female speakers’ lower English proficiency, but imply different approaches that male and female speakers adopt in dealing with their presentation tasks. Female speakers are found to be more interactional, leading to their more uses of interactive devices in the presenting process. On the other hand, male speakers take different approaches in dealing with their tasks. Male speakers try to be authoritative and amicable at the same time, resulting in the uses of both interactive devices and distancing devices in their speeches. The paper specifically presents and compares the use of the linking adverbial items, actually and so, in male speakers’ and female speakers’ speeches.

Keywords: LAs, linking adverbial, low proficiency, overuse

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1501 The Influence of Language and Background Culture on Speakers from the Viewpoint of Gender and Identity

Authors: Yuko Tomoto

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to examine the assumption that female bilingual speakers more often change the way they talk or think depending on the language they use compared with male bilingual speakers. The author collected data through questionnaires on 241 bilingual speakers. Also, in-depth interview surveys were conducted with 13 Japanese/English bilingual speakers whose native language is Japanese and 16 English/Japanese bilingual speakers whose native language is English. The results indicate that both male and female bilingual speakers are more or less influenced consciously and unconsciously by the language they use, as well as by the background cultural values of each language. At the same time, it was found that female speakers are much more highly affected by the language they use, its background culture and also by the interlocutors they were talking to. This was probably due to the larger cultural expectations on women. Through conversations, speakers are not only conveying a message but also attempting to express who they are, and what they want to be like. In other words, they are constantly building up and updating their own identities by choosing the most appropriate language and descriptions to express themselves in the dialogues. It has been claimed that the images of ideal L2 self could strongly motivate learners. The author hopes to make the best use of the fact that bilingual speakers change their presence depending on the language they use, in order to motivate Japanese learners of English, especially female learners from the viewpoint of finding their new selves in English.

Keywords: cultural influence, gender expectation, language learning, L2 self

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1500 A Recognition Method for Spatio-Temporal Background in Korean Historical Novels

Authors: Seo-Hee Kim, Kee-Won Kim, Seung-Hoon Kim

Abstract:

The most important elements of a novel are the characters, events and background. The background represents the time, place and situation that character appears, and conveys event and atmosphere more realistically. If readers have the proper knowledge about background of novels, it may be helpful for understanding the atmosphere of a novel and choosing a novel that readers want to read. In this paper, we are targeting Korean historical novels because spatio-temporal background especially performs an important role in historical novels among the genre of Korean novels. To the best of our knowledge, we could not find previous study that was aimed at Korean novels. In this paper, we build a Korean historical national dictionary. Our dictionary has historical places and temple names of kings over many generations as well as currently existing spatial words or temporal words in Korean history. We also present a method for recognizing spatio-temporal background based on patterns of phrasal words in Korean sentences. Our rules utilize postposition for spatial background recognition and temple names for temporal background recognition. The knowledge of the recognized background can help readers to understand the flow of events and atmosphere, and can use to visualize the elements of novels.

Keywords: data mining, Korean historical novels, Korean linguistic feature, spatio-temporal background

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1499 Critical Understanding on Equity and Access in Higher Education Engaging with Adult Learners and International Student in the Context of Globalisation

Authors: Jin-Hee Kim

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The way that globalization distinguishes itself from the previous changes is scope and intensity of changes, which together affect many parts of a nation’s system. In this way, globalization has its relation with the concept of ‘internationalization’ in that a nation state formulates a set of strategies in many areas of its governance to actively react to it. In short, globalization is a ‘catalyst,’ and internationalization is a ‘response’. In this regard, the field of higher education is one of the representative cases that globalization has several consequences that change the terrain of national policy-making. Started and been dominated mainly by the Western world, it has now been expanded to the ‘late movers,’ such as Asia-Pacific countries. The case of internationalization of Korean higher education is, therefore, located in a unique place in this arena. Yet Korea still is one of the major countries of sending its students to the so-called, ‘first world.’ On the other hand, it has started its effort to recruit international students from the world to its higher education system. After new Millennium, particularly, internationalization of higher education has been launched in its full-scale and gradually been one of the important global policy agenda, striving in both ways by opening its turf to foreign educational service providers and recruiting prospective students from other countries. Particularly the latter, recruiting international students, has been highlighted under the government project named ‘Study Korea,’ launched in 2004. Not only global, but also local issues and motivations were based to launch this nationwide project. Bringing international students means various desirable economic outcomes such as reducing educational deficit as well as utilizing them in Korean industry after the completion of their study, to name a few. In addition, in a similar vein, Korea's higher education institutes have started to have a new comers of adult learners. When it comes to the questions regarding the quality and access of this new learning agency, the answer is quite tricky. This study will investigate the different dimension of education provision and learning process to empower diverse group regardless of nationality, race, class and gender in Korea. Listening to the voices of international students and adult learning as non-traditional participants in a changing Korean higher educational space not only benefit students themselves, but Korean stakeholders who should try to accommodate more comprehensive and fair educational provisions for more and more diversifying groups of learners.

Keywords: education equity, access, globalisation, international students, adult learning, learning support

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1498 Participatory Culture and Value Perception Amongst the Korean and Chinese Drama International Fandom

Authors: Patricia P. M. C. Lourenco, Javier Bringué Sala, Anaisa D. A. de Sena

Abstract:

Almost everyone in Dramaland knows the names of big Korean stars that grace their computer screens on a roll through social media and video streaming platforms that enable awareness of Korean dramas and lifestyle at a click. A surface culture instilled with notions of belonging has redefined the meaning of friendship and challenged deep inner values. Not everyone, however, knows Chinese Dramas or their stars, which is a consequence of Dramaland's focus on Korean dramas and promoting the Korean experience. Despite a parity in terms of production quality, star power, scripts and compelling visual settings, Chinese Dramas have been playing catch up to their famous counterparts. While they might have a strong competitive soft power for international drama fans, the soft power of Korean dramas is imbued with substantial societal values that they want to share with others. Those values are portrayed in an artistic way that connects with audiences who experience loneliness in the non-virtual world contrary to the way Chinese Dramas are perceived.

Keywords: Chinese dramas, fandom, Korean dramas, participatory culture, value perception, soft power, surface culture

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1497 Views of the Self in Beast and the Beauty K-Dramas - The South Korean Paradigm of Beauty

Authors: Patricia Portugal Marques de Carvalho Lourenco

Abstract:

South Korean Entertainment Industry has reversed the gender binary through Beast and Beauty Korean dramas that perpetuate Korean unrealistic beauty standards by emphasizing freckles, acne, pimples, excessive weight, fizzy hair, glasses and braces as ugly and unattractive, therefore in need of correction to fit into society’s pre-established beauty mould. This pursuit of physical beauty as a happiness goal only detracts singularity in favour of mundaneness, sustaining the illusion that unsightly women need to undergo a physical transformation to improve their lives while handsome, wealthy men need not do anything more than altruistically accept them for who they really are inside. SevenBeast and Beauty dramas and one movie were analysed for this paper. The assessment revealed that there is a standardization and typecasting of Beast and Beauty roles in K-Dramas, a reflection of South Korean’s patriarchal society where women and men are continuously expected to fulfil their pre-established gender binary roles and stereotypes.

Keywords: K-dramas, gender binary, beauty, low self-esteem, bullying, tolerance, plastic surgery, South Korean stereotypes

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1496 South Korean Discourse on Bioecomomy in the Sector of Agriculture

Authors: Mi Sun Park

Abstract:

Biotechnology provides us with technological solutions to resource-based challenges facing the global society. A bioeconomy or bio-based economy emerged as all economic activities derived from biotechnology. This paper aims to understand discourses on bioeconomy in the sector of agriculture with three dimensions; media discourse, science discourse, and policy discourse. For achieving research goals, content analysis was applied to this research. Media articles, academic journal articles and policy documents published from 2000 to 2016 were collected in South Korea. The text was coded and analyzed with the categories of speakers and their arguments. The research findings indicate that powerful actors and key messages of bioeconomy in South Korean agriculture. Differences and similarities among media, science, and policy were examined. Therefore this case study can contribute to understanding dynamic interaction and interfaces of media, science and policy discourse on biotechnology in the sector of agriculture.

Keywords: media, discourse, bioeconomy, agriculture

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1495 The Influence of Married Women's Adult Children Care Burden and Stress on Depression: Testing the Moderated Mediating Effect of Satisfaction with Husbands’ Sharing of the Care

Authors: Soo-Bi Lee, Jun Young Jeong, Zehgn Lin, Chenminxi

Abstract:

Background: In South Korea, a problematic phenomenon has recently arisen whereby adult children continue to receive parentalcaregivingin some cases. These phenomena has been shown to affect the mental health of mothers. Study Goals: The purposes of this study are to verify whether the mediating effects of stress on the relationship between a woman’s care burden for their adult children and depression are moderated by their satisfaction about their husbands’ sharing of the caregiving. Methodology: This study analyzed 3,053 married women with adult children using the most recent data from the “Korean Longitudinal Survey of Women & Families 7th(2018)" conducted at the national level. The analysis was conducted using the SPSS Process Macro Model 7 to verify the moderated mediating effects and subsequently confirm their significance based on the bootstrapping method. Results and Implications: (1) Stress was identified a mediating factor in the relationship between the care burden for adult children and depression; and (2) the mediating effects of stress on depression from the burden of caring for adult children are modulated by the woman's satisfaction with her husband’s sharing of the care burden. In other words, the higher the caring burden of adult children, the higher the mother's stress, which increases depression. At this time, the higher the their satisfaction with the husband's share of care in the path of mother's care burden and stress, the lower the mother's stress and, ultimately, the depression be alleviated. Conclusion: Programs that promote the mental health of married women heavily with the caring burden for their adult children, as well as those that improve social awareness regarding husbands' sharing of the care burden, should be implemented. Also, social welfare policy alternatives are needed at the national level to reduce the caring burden caused by adult children.

Keywords: married women, adult children care burden, stress, depression, satisfaction with husbands sharing of the care

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1494 Korean Men’s Interest in Gonzo Pornography and Use of Condoms

Authors: Chyng Sun

Abstract:

This brief report examines correlations between Korean men’s interest in gonzo pornography, perceptions of pornography’s functional value, and use of condoms. The report found that, neither a higher interest in gonzo or the perception that pornography is a source of sexual information was directly related to condom utilization. However, interest in gonzo pornography interacted with pornography perceptions to predict condomless sex. The findings suggest that Korean men who 1) had higher interest in viewing gonzo pornography, and 2) had a tendency to view pornography as a source of sexual information, are more likely to have sex without condoms. That is, when viewers consider pornography to be a form of sexual education, they are more likely to use the learned pornographic script to inform their sexual behavior.

Keywords: Korean, male, pornography, sexuality

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1493 A Loop between Victimhood and Women with Choice: Case of Trafficked North Korean Women in China

Authors: Jinah Kwon

Abstract:

Why are there North Korean women who prefer their life in China, living as an undocumented migrant, to legal residence in South Korea? What is the line between choice and coercion in trafficking and how does it relate to family, especially in Asian culture? Is family function as a haven in the unsecured world or a fetter against the better world? Are the current international mechanisms on trafficked victims fully reflecting the voices of the victims? This study is about the paradoxical conditions of North Korean women situated in China as the trafficked victim and as members of their Chinese family. In order to answer the questions above, this study explored the case of trafficked North Korean women in China. This mixed-methods study employed in-depth interviews of 18 trafficked women living in China and a survey of 98 North Korean origin women residing in South Korea. From the survey, 40 out of 98 women from the survey indicated an unexpected function of trafficking, which was used as a channel of supporting the subjectivity of women in the North Korean context. Such results supported the actual observation and narratives of North Korean women who experienced trafficking from the author’s two visits to the Northeastern area of China in 2012 and 2018, respectively. Based on the findings, the last part of the study makes policy implications on international trafficking mechanisms—theories by Gayatri Spivak and Herbert A. Simon was employed to approach the relatively less dealt aspect of trafficking.

Keywords: China, North Korean women, trafficking, victimhood

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1492 Information Technology and Business Alignments among Different Divisions: A Comparative Analysis of Japan and South Korea

Authors: Michiko Miyamoto

Abstract:

This paper empirically investigates whether information technology (IT) strategies, business strategies, and divisions are aligned to meet overall business goals for Korean Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), based on structure based Strategic Alignment Model, and make comparison with those of Japanese SMEs. Using 2,869 valid responses of Korean Human Capital Corporate Panel survey, a result of this study suggests that Korean human resources (HR) departments have a major influence over IT strategy, which is the same as Japanese SMEs, even though their management styles are quite different. As for IT strategy, it is not related to other departments at all for Korean SMEs. The Korean management seems to possess a great power over each division, such as Sales/Service, Research and Development/Technical Experts, HR, and Production.

Keywords: IT-business alignment, structured based strategic alignment model, structural equation model, human resources department

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1491 Adult Education for Transformation and Security Challenges in Nigeria

Authors: Asmau Zarma Gogaram

Abstract:

The paper examines adult education and how it can be employed as a strategy for transformation and security challenges in Nigeria. It defines the meaning of adult education and its objectives.The issue of the necessity of employing adult education as a strategy for transformation and security challenges was also examined in the paper.In doing this it discussed the different types of adult education programmes, i.e.continuing education, literacy education, retirement and pre-retirement education and civic education. The paper concluded by stating that if the programmes stated are internalizes and applied they can help to raise awareness. Finally the paper proffered some recommendations one of which was that government should at all levels increase their efforts or promoting acquisition of adult education.

Keywords: adult education, transformation and security challenges, Nigeria, education and human development

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1490 A Relationship Extraction Method from Literary Fiction Considering Korean Linguistic Features

Authors: Hee-Jeong Ahn, Kee-Won Kim, Seung-Hoon Kim

Abstract:

The knowledge of the relationship between characters can help readers to understand the overall story or plot of the literary fiction. In this paper, we present a method for extracting the specific relationship between characters from a Korean literary fiction. Generally, methods for extracting relationships between characters in text are statistical or computational methods based on the sentence distance between characters without considering Korean linguistic features. Furthermore, it is difficult to extract the relationship with direction from text, such as one-sided love, because they consider only the weight of relationship, without considering the direction of the relationship. Therefore, in order to identify specific relationships between characters, we propose a statistical method considering linguistic features, such as syntactic patterns and speech verbs in Korean. The result of our method is represented by a weighted directed graph of the relationship between the characters. Furthermore, we expect that proposed method could be applied to the relationship analysis between characters of other content like movie or TV drama.

Keywords: data mining, Korean linguistic feature, literary fiction, relationship extraction

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1489 Sociological Portrait of the Korean Diaspora in Kazakhstan

Authors: Yefrem Yefremov

Abstract:

In Kazakhstan, there are approximately 100,000 ethnic Koreans with the ethnonym "Koryo Saram". They are part of the global Korean diaspora around the world, deported to Kazakhstan by Stalin’s decree in 1937. Koryo Saram's diasporic identity is a composite of numerous identities based on a shared cultural heritage of the USSR and independent Kazakhstan and has mosaic character. The author has conducted a sociological survey to find out the main features of the identity of the Koryo Saram diaspora. The purpose of this paper is to depict the degree of ethnic, cultural, and diasporic identity of Koryo Saram and which effect on the preserving Korean diaspora in Kazakhstna do they have. The following elements impacting the above-mentioned identities were investigated in the survey: criteria by which Koryo Saram perceive themselves to be Korean, attitude of Koryo Saram to their ethnicity, degree of feeling of ethnocultural similarity between Koreans of Kazakhstan and Koreans of the Republic of Korea, degree of association of Koreans of Kazakhstan with other Koreans living in other CIS countries, degree of practicing Korean traditions Koryo Saram's attitudes towards interethnic marriages. The primary factor in defining the identity among the respondents is the factor of ethnic origin. Nationality is the second most significant component in establishing Koryo Saram’s identity. The maintenance of "Koreanness" of Koryo Sarams in the context of a multiethnic community, particularly in Kazakhstan, is based on genetic elements as well as the preservation of the culture. In conclusion, the high level of preserving Korean identity is being observed in the Korean Diaspora of Kazakhstan.

Keywords: diasporic identity, diaspora, ethnic identity, identity markers, korean diaspora, koreans of kazakhstan, koryo saram, multiethnicity

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1488 Development of Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion (ALIF) Peek Cage Based on the Korean Lumbar Anatomical Information

Authors: Chang Soo Chon, Cheol Woong Ko, Han Sung Kim

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to develop an anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) PEEK cage suitable for Korean people. In this study, CT images were obtained from Korean male (173cm, 71kg) and 3D Korean lumbar models were reconstructed based on the CT images to investigate anatomical characteristics. Major design parameters of anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) PEEK Cage were selected using the morphological measurement information of the Korean Lumbar models. Through finite element analysis and mechanical tests, the developed ALIF PEEK Cage prototype was compared with the Fidji Cage (Zimmer.Inc, USA) and it was found that the ALIF prototype showed similar and/or superior mechanical performance compared to the FidJi Cage. Also, clinical validation for the ALIF PEEK Cage prototype was carried out to check predictable troubles in surgical operations. Finally, it is considered that the convenience and stability of the prototype was clinically verified.

Keywords: inter-body anterior fusion, ALIF cage, PEEK, Korean lumbar, CT image, animal test

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1487 Simulation Approach for Analyzing Transportation Energy System in South Korea

Authors: Sungjun Hong, Youah Lee, Jongwook Kim

Abstract:

In the last COP21 held in Paris on 2015, Korean government announced that Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) was 37% based on BAU by 2030. The GHG reduction rate of the transportation sector is the strongest among all sectors by 2020. In order to cope with Korean INDC, Korean government established that 3rd eco-friendly car deployment national plans at the end of 2015. In this study, we make the energy system model for estimating GHG emissions using LEAP model.

Keywords: INDC, greenhouse gas, LEAP, transportation

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1486 The Influence of Modernity and Globalization upon Language: The Korean Language between Confucianism and Americanization

Authors: Raluca-Ioana Antonescu

Abstract:

The field research of the paper stands at the intersection between Linguistics and Sociology, while the problem of the research is the importance of language in the modernization process and in a globalized society. The research objective is to prove that language is a stimulant for modernity, while it defines the tradition and the culture of a specific society. In order to examine the linguistic change of the Korean language due to the modernity and globalization, the paper tries to answer one main question, What are the changes the Korean language underwent from a traditional version of Korean, towards one influenced by modernity?, and two secondary questions, How are explored in specialized literature the relations between globalization (and modernity) and culture (focusing on language)? and What influences the Korean language? For the purpose of answering the research questions, the paper has the main premise that due to modernity and globalization, the Korean language changed its discourse construction, and two secondary hypothesis, first is that in literature there are not much explored the relations between culture and modernity focusing on the language discourse construction, but more about identity issue and commodification problems, and the second hypothesis is that the Korean language is influenced by traditional values (like Confucianism) while receiving influence also of globalization process (especially from English language). In terms of methodology, the paper will analyze the two main influences upon the Korean language, referring to traditionalism (being defined as the influence of Confucianism) and modernism (as the influence of other countries’ language and culture), and how the Korean language it was constructed and modified due to these two elements. The paper will analyze at what level (grammatical, lexical, etc.) the traditionalism help at the construction of the Korean language, and what are the changes at each level that modernism brought along. As for the results of this research, the influence of modernism changed both lexically and grammatically the Korean language. In 60 years the increase of English influence is astonishing, and this paper shows the main changes the Korean language underwent, like the loanwords (Konglish), but also the reduction of the speech levels and the ease of the register variation use. Therefore the grammatical influence of modernity and globalization could be seen at the reduction of the speech level and register variation, while the lexical change comes with the influence of English language especially, where about 10% of the Korean vocabulary is considered to be loanwords. Also the paper presents the interrelation between traditionalism and modernity, with the example of Konglish, but not only (we can consider also the Korean greetings which are translated by Koreans when they speak in other languages, bringing their cultural characteristics in English discourse construction), which makes the Koreans global, since they speak in an international language, but still local since they cannot get rid completely of their culture.

Keywords: Confucianism, globalization, language and linguistic change, modernism, traditionalism

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1485 Code-Switching and Code Mixing among Ogba-English Bilingual Conversations

Authors: Ben-Fred Ohia

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Code-switching and code-mixing are linguistic behaviours that arise in a bilingual situation. They limit speakers in a conversation to decide which code they should use to utter particular phrases or words in the course of carrying out their utterance. Every human society is characterized by the existence of diverse linguistic varieties. The speakers of these varieties at some points have various degrees of contact with the non-speakers of their variety, which one of the outcomes of the linguistic contact is code-switching or code-mixing. The work discusses the nature of code-switching and code-mixing in Ogba-English bilinguals’ speeches. It provides a detailed explanation of the concept of code-switching and code-mixing and explains the typology of code-switching and code-mixing and their manifestation in Ogba-English bilingual speakers’ speeches. The findings reveal that code-switching and code-mixing are functionally motivated and being triggered by various conversational contexts.

Keywords: bilinguals, code-mixing, code-switching, Ogba

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1484 A Study on Adult Attachment Styles and Romantic Relationship Quality among Young Adults

Authors: Kaliammah Kumaran, Thilaagheswary Thangadurai

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This study examined the relationship between anxious attachment and avoidant attachment among young adult romantic relationship quality. Our survey was administered to 300 young adult participants (126 males and 174 females) aged 18-24 years old (M= 20.85, SD=1.89), accomplished the English version of the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS) used to measure adult attachment and Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS). All the participants were tertiary level students. Findings of our study indicated that young adults experienced anxious attachment style is negatively correlated with romantic relationship quality as well as young adult from avoidant attachment also negatively correlated with romantic relationship quality among young adults. The results showed that insecure adult attachment styles which are anxious and avoidance adult attachment styles links with reduced quality of romantic relationship.

Keywords: adult attachment style, anxious attachment style, avoidant attachment style, romantic relationship quality

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1483 Duration Patterns of English by Native British Speakers and Mandarin ESL Speakers

Authors: Chen Bingru

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This study is intended to describe and analyze the effects of polysyllabic shortening and word or phrase boundary on the duration patterns of spoken utterances by Mandarin learners of English in comparison with native speakers of English. To investigate the relative contribution of these effects, two production experiments were conducted. The study included 11 native British English speakers and 20 Mandarin learners of English who were asked to produce four sets of tokens consisting of a mono-syllabic base form, disyllabic, and trisyllabic words derived from the base by the addition of suffixes, and a set of short sentences with a particular combination of phrase size, stress pattern, and boundary location. The duration of words and segments was measured, and results from the data analysis suggest that the amount of polysyllabic shortening and the effect of word or phrase position are likely to affect a Chinese accent for Mandarin ESL speakers. This study sheds light on research on the duration patterns of language by demonstrating the effect of duration-related factors on the foreign accent of Mandarin ESL speakers. It can also benefit both L2 learners and language teachers by increasing their sensitivity to the duration differences and difficulties experienced by L2 learners of English. An understanding of the amount of polysyllabic shortening and the effect of position in words and phrase on syllable duration can also facilitate L2 teachers to establish priorities for teaching pronunciation to ESL learners.

Keywords: duration patterns, Chinese accent, Mandarin ESL speakers, polysyllabic shortening

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1482 Survival and Growth Factors of Korean Start-Ups: Focusing on the Industrial Characteristics

Authors: Hanei Son

Abstract:

Since the beginning of the 2010s, ‘start-up boom’ has continued with the creation of many new enterprises in Korea. Such tendency was led by various changes in society such as emergence and diffusion of smartphones. Especially, the Korean government has been interested in start-ups and entrepreneurship as an alternative engine for Korea's economic growth. With strong support from the government, as a result, many new enterprises have been established for recent years and the Korean government seems to have achieved its goal: expanding the basis of start-ups. However, it is unclear which factors affect the survival and growth of these new enterprises after their creation. Therefore, this study aims to identify which start-ups from early 2010s survived and which factors influenced their survival and growth. The study will strongly focus on which industries the new enterprises were in, as environmental elements are expected to be critical factors for business of start-ups in Korean context. For this purpose, 105 companies which were introduced as high potential start-ups from 2010 to 2012 were considered in the analysis. According to their current status, dead or alive, the start-ups were categorized by their industries and service area. Through this analysis, it was observed that many start-ups that are still in business are in internet or mobile platform businesses and four major sectors. In each group, a representative case has been studied to reveal its survival and growth factors. The results point to the importance of industrial characteristics for the survival and success of Korean startups and offer political implications in which sector and business more potentials for start-ups in Korea lie in.

Keywords: government support for start-ups, industrial characteristics, Korean start-ups, survival of start-ups

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1481 The Phonology and Phonetics of Second Language Intonation in Case of “Downstep”

Authors: Tayebeh Norouzi

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the acquisition process of intonation. It examines the intonation structure of Tokyo Japanese and its realization by Iranian learners of Japanese. Seven Iranian learners of Japanese, differing in fluency, and two Japanese speakers participated in the experiment. Two sentences were used to test the phonological and phonetic characteristics of lexical pitch-accent as well as the intonation patterns produced by the speakers. Both sentences consisted of similar words with the same number of syllables and lexical pitch-accents but different syntactic structure. Speakers were asked to read each sentence three times at normal speed, and the data were analyzed by Praat. The results show that lexical pitch-accent, Accentual Phrase (AP) and AP boundary tone realization vary depending on sentence type. For sentences of type XdeYwo, the lexical pitch-accent is realized properly. However, there is a rise in AP boundary tone regardless of speakers’ level of fluency. In contrast, in sentences of type XnoYwo, the lexical pitch-accent and AP boundary tone vary depending on the speakers’ fluency level. Advanced speakers are better at grouping words into phrases and produce more native-like intonation patterns, though they are not able to realize downstep properly. The non-native speakers tried to realize proper intonation patterns by making changes in lexical accent and boundary tone.

Keywords: intonation, Iranian learners, Japanese prosody, lexical accent, second language acquisition.

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1480 Language Shapes Thought: An Experimental Study on English and Mandarin Native Speakers' Sequencing of Size

Authors: Hsi Wei

Abstract:

Does the language we speak affect the way we think? This question has been discussed for a long time from different aspects. In this article, the issue is examined with an experiment on how speakers of different languages tend to do different sequencing when it comes to the size of general objects. An essential difference between the usage of English and Mandarin is the way we sequence the size of places or objects. In English, when describing the location of something we may say, for example, ‘The pen is inside the trashcan next to the tree at the park.’ In Mandarin, however, we would say, ‘The pen is at the park next to the tree inside the trashcan.’ It’s clear that generally English use the sequence of small to big while Mandarin the opposite. Therefore, the experiment was conducted to test if the difference of the languages affects the speakers’ ability to do the different sequencing. There were two groups of subjects; one consisted of English native speakers, another of Mandarin native speakers. Within the experiment, three nouns were showed as a group to the subjects as their native languages. Before they saw the nouns, they would first get an instruction of ‘big to small’, ‘small to big’, or ‘repeat’. Therefore, the subjects had to sequence the following group of nouns as the instruction they get or simply repeat the nouns. After completing every sequencing and repetition in their minds, they pushed a button as reaction. The repetition design was to gather the mere reading time of the person. As the result of the experiment showed, English native speakers reacted more quickly to the sequencing of ‘small to big’; on the other hand, Mandarin native speakers reacted more quickly to the sequence ‘big to small’. To conclude, this study may be of importance as a support for linguistic relativism that the language we speak do shape the way we think.

Keywords: language, linguistic relativism, size, sequencing

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1479 Adult and Non Formal Education for the Attainment of Enterprenuerial Skills in Nigeria

Authors: Zulaiha Maluma Ahmad

Abstract:

This paper attempted to examine adult and non formal education for the attainment of entrepreneurial skills in empowering the citizens with entrepreneurial skills, for Nigeria’s socioeconomic development. This paper highlighted the meaning of education in the context of skill acquisition, entrepreneurial education, adult and non formal education. It also examined the objectives, issues and challenges as well as prospects of this type of education. It further discussed the role of adult and non formal education for the attainment of socioeconomic development of a growing nation like Nigeria. The paper equally proffered some recommendations and eventually concluded that adult and non formal education can indeed make self reliance, personal satisfaction and the attainment of entrepreneurial education for the socioeconomic development of any nation, possible.

Keywords: entrepreneurial education, adult education, non formal education skills, Nigeria

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1478 Culture, Trust and Adaptation: A Study of International Students in Japan

Authors: Shaoyu Ye

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the relationship between international students’ (ISs) trust of others (Japanese people and other different-language speakers) and intercultural adaptation in Japan, controlling for the effects of language abilities (both Japanese and English) and their liking of Japanese students. A total of 206 ISs completed a questionnaire survey measuring their degree of liking of general Japanese students (JSs) and trust of others, their most frequently contact persons and their communication ways, their received social support from same-language speakers, Japanese native speakers and other different-language speakers, and their degree of feeling been accepted, and so on. The following results were observed. (a) Neither Japanese language nor English language had significant effects on their sense of acceptance, while their degree of liking of JSs and trust of others had significant positive effects on it; (b) ISs’ Japanese language, along with their trust of others, led them to receive more social support from Japanese people, which helped raise their sense of acceptance in Japan; (c) ISs’ English language and their trust of others helped them receive more social support from other different- language speakers, which led them to feel been accepted in Japan. The importance of distinguishing between the effects of trust of Japanese people on intercultural adaptation and the effects of trust of other different-language speakers on intercultural adaptation is discussed.

Keywords: international students in Japan, language abilities, social support, sense of acceptance, trust of others.

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1477 National Branding through Education: South Korean Image in Romania through the Language Textbooks for Foreigners

Authors: Raluca-Ioana Antonescu

Abstract:

The paper treats about the Korean public diplomacy and national branding strategies, and how the Korean language textbooks were used in order to construct the Korean national image. The field research of the paper stands at the intersection between Linguistics and Political Science, while the problem of the research is the role of language and culture in national branding process. The research goal is to contribute to the literature situated at the intersection between International Relations and Applied Linguistics, while the objective is to conceptualize the idea of national branding by emphasizing a dimension which is not much discussed, and that would be the education as an instrument of the national branding and public diplomacy strategies. In order to examine the importance of language upon the national branding strategies, the paper will answer one main question, How is the Korean language used in the construction of national branding?, and two secondary questions, How are explored in literature the relations between language and national branding construction? and What kind of image of South Korea the language textbooks for foreigners transmit? In order to answer the research questions, the paper starts from one main hypothesis, that the language is an essential component of the culture, which is used in the construction of the national branding influenced by traditional elements (like Confucianism) but also by modern elements (like Western influence), and from two secondary hypothesis, the first one is that in the International Relations literature there are little explored the connections between language and national branding, while the second hypothesis is that the South Korean image is constructed through the promotion of a traditional society, but also a modern one. In terms of methodology, the paper will analyze the textbooks used in Romania at the universities which provide Korean Language classes during the three years program B.A., following the dialogs, the descriptive texts and the additional text about the Korean culture. The analysis will focus on the rank status difference, the individual in relation to the collectivity, the respect for the harmony, and the image of the foreigner. The results of the research show that the South Korean image projected in the textbooks convey the Confucian values and it does not emphasize the changes suffered by the society due to the modernity and globalization. The Westernized aspect of the Korean society is conveyed more in an informative way about the Korean international companies, Korean internal development (like the transport or other services), but it does not show the cultural changed the society underwent. Even if the paper is using the textbooks which are used in Romania as a teaching material, it could be used and applied at least to other European countries, since the textbooks are the ones issued by the South Korean language schools, which other European countries are using also.

Keywords: confucianism, modernism, national branding, public diplomacy, traditionalism

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1476 Gender Difference in the Use of Request Strategies by Urdu/Punjabi Native Speakers

Authors: Muzaffar Hussain

Abstract:

Requests strategies are considered as a part of the speech acts, which are frequently used in everyday communication. Each language provides speech acts to the speakers; therefore, the selection of appropriate form seems more culture-specific rather than language. The present paper investigates the gender-based difference in the use of request strategies by native speakers of Urdu/Punjabi male and female who are learning English as a second language. The data for the present study were collected from 68 graduate students, who are learning English as an L2 in Pakistan. They were given an online close-ended questionnaire, based on Discourse Completion Test (DCT). After analyzing the data, it was found that the L1 male Urdu/Punjabi speakers were inclined to use more direct request strategies while the female Urdu/Punjabi speakers used indirect request strategies. This paper also found that in some situations female participants used more direct strategies than male participants. The present study concludes that the use of request strategies is influenced by culture, social status, and power distribution in a society.

Keywords: gender variation, request strategies, face-threatening, second language pragmatics, language competence

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