Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 52

Search results for: dialect

52 The Acoustic Features of Ulu Terengganu Malay Monophthongs

Authors: Siti Nadiah Nuwawi, Roshidah Hassan


Dialect is one of the language variants emerge due to certain factors. One of the distinctive dialects spoken by people in Malaysia is the one spoken by those who reside in the inland area of the East Peninsular Malaysia; Hulu Terengganu, which is known as Ulu Terengganu Malay dialect. This dialect is unique since it possesses ancient elements in its phonology elements, which makes it is hard to be understood by people who come from other states. There is dearth of acoustic studies of the dialect in which this paper aims to attain by describing the quality of the monophthongs found in the dialect instrumentally based on their first and second formant values. The hertz values are observed and recorded from the waveforms and spectrograms depicted in PRAAT version 6.0.43 software. The findings show that Ulu Terengganu Malay speakers produced ten monophthongs namely /ɛ/, /e/, /a/, /ɐ/, /ɞ/, /ɔ/, /i/, /o/, /ɵ/ and /ɘ/ which applauds a few monophthongs suggested by past researchers which were based on auditory impression namely /ɛ/, /e/, /a/, ɔ/, and /i/. It also discovers the other five monophthongs of the dialect which are unknown before namely /ɐ/, /ɞ/, /o/, /ɵ/ and /ɘ/.

Keywords: acoustic analysis, dialect, formant values, monophthongs, Ulu Terengganu Malay

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51 Dialect and Gender Variations in the Place and Manner of Articulation of the Korean Fricatives

Authors: Kyung-Im Han


This study examines dialect and gender variations in the place and manner of articulation between the two Korean fricatives, /s/ and /s’/, as produced by speakers of the Daegu and Jeju dialects. The acoustic parameters of center of gravity and skewness for the place of articulation, and the rise time and the amplitude rise slope for the manner of articulation were measured. The study results revealed a gender effect, but no dialect effect, for the center of gravity and the skewness. No main effect for either the gender or dialect was found for the rise time and the amplitude rise slope. These findings indicated that, with regard to the place of articulation, Korean fricative sound differences are a gender distinction, not a dialectal one.

Keywords: dialect, gender, Korean fricative, manner of articulation, place of articulation, spectral moments

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50 Against Language Disorder: A Way of Reading Dialects in Yan Lianke’s Novels

Authors: Thuy Hanh Nguyen Thi


By the method of deep reading and text analysis, this article will analyze the use and creation of dialects as a way of demonstrating Yan Lianke's creative stance. This article indicates that this is the writer’s narrative strategy in a fight against aphasia, a language disorder of Chinese people and culture, demonstrating a sense of return to folklore and marks his own linguistic style. In terms of verbal text, the dialect in the Yan Lianke’s novels manifested through the use of words, sentences and dialects. There are two types of dialects that exist in Yan Lianke’s novels: the current dialect system and the particular dialect system of Pa Lau world created by the writer himself in order to enrich the vocabulary of Han Chinese.

Keywords: Yan Lianke , aphasia, dialect, Pa Lou world

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
49 Saudi Twitter Corpus for Sentiment Analysis

Authors: Adel Assiri, Ahmed Emam, Hmood Al-Dossari


Sentiment analysis (SA) has received growing attention in Arabic language research. However, few studies have yet to directly apply SA to Arabic due to lack of a publicly available dataset for this language. This paper partially bridges this gap due to its focus on one of the Arabic dialects which is the Saudi dialect. This paper presents annotated data set of 4700 for Saudi dialect sentiment analysis with (K= 0.807). Our next work is to extend this corpus and creation a large-scale lexicon for Saudi dialect from the corpus.

Keywords: Arabic, sentiment analysis, Twitter, annotation

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48 A Fresh Look at Tense System of Qashqaie Dialect of Turkish Language

Authors: Mohammad Sharifi Bohlouli


Turkish language with many dialects is native or official language of great number of people all around the world. The Qashqaie dialect of Turkish language is spoken by the Qashqaie tribe mostly scattered in the southern part of Iran. This paper aims at analyzing the tense system of this dialect to detect the type and number of tense and aspects available to its speakers. To collect a reliable data, a group of 50 old native speakers were randomly chosen as the informants and different techniques such as; Shuy et al interviews, selective listening ,and eavesdropping were used. The results of data analysis showed that the tense system in the Qashqaie dialect of Turkish language includes 3 absolute tenses , 6 aspectual , and 2 subjunctive ones. The interesting part of the study is that Qashqaie dialect enables its speakers to make a kind of aspectual opposition through verb structure which seems to be almost impossible through verb forms in any other nonturkish languages. For example in the following examples sentences 1 &2 and 3&4 have the same translation In English although they are different in both meaning and structure. 1. Ali ensha yazirdi. 2. Ali ensha yazirmush. (Ali was writing a composition.) 3. Ali yadmishdi. 4. Ali yadmishimish. ( Ali had slept.) The changes in the verb structure in Qashqaie dialect enables its speakers to say that whether the doer of the action remembers the process of doing the action or not. So, it presents a new aspectual opposition as Observed /nonobserved. The research findings reveal many other regularities and linguistic features that can be useful for linguists interested in Turkish in general and for those interested in tense and aspect and also they can be helpful for different pedagogical purposes including teaching and translating.

Keywords: qashqaie dialect, tense, aspect, linguistics, Turkish Language

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47 Dialect as a Means of Identification among Hausa Speakers

Authors: Hassan Sabo


Language is a system of conventionally spoken, manual and written symbols by human beings that members of a certain social group and participants in its culture express themselves. Communication, expression of identity and imaginative expression are among the functions of language. Dialect is a form of language, or a regional variety of language that is spoken in a particular geographical setting by a particular group of people. Hausa is one of the major languages in Africa, in terms of large number of people for whom it is the first language. Hausa is one of the western Chadic groups of languages. It constitutes one of the five or six branches of Afro-Asiatic family. The predominant Hausa speakers are in Nigeria and they live in different geographical locations which resulted to variety of dialects within the Hausa language apart of the standard Hausa language, the Hausa language has a variety of dialect that distinguish from one another by such features as phonology, grammar and vocabulary. This study intends to examine such features that serve as means of identification among Hausa speakers who are set off from others, geographically or socially.

Keywords: dialect, features, geographical location, Hausa language

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46 A Fresh Look at the Tense-Aspect System of the Qashqaie Dialect of Turkish Language

Authors: Mohammad Sharifi Bohlouli, Elnaz Sharifi Bohlouli


Turkish language with many dialects is native or official language of great number of people all around the world. The Qashqaie dialect of Turkish language is spoken by the Qashqaie tribe mostly scattered in the southern part of Iran. This paper aims at analyzing the tense system of this dialect to detect the type and number of tense and aspects available to its speakers. To collect a reliable data, a group of 50 old native speakers were randomly chosen as the informants and different techniques such as; Shuy et al interviews, selective listening ,and eavesdropping were used. The results of data analysis showed that the tense system in the Qashqaie dialect of Turkish language includes 3 absolute tenses, 6 aspectual, and 2 subjunctive ones. The interesting part of the study is that Qashqaie dialect enables its speakers to make a kind of aspectual opposition through verb structure which seems to be almost impossible through verb forms in any other nonturkish languages. For example in the following examples sentences 1&2 and 3&4 have the same translation In English although they are different in both meaning and structure. 1. Ali ensha yazirdi. 2. Ali ensha yazirmush. (Ali was writing a composition.) 3. Ali yadmishdi. 4. Ali yadmishimish. (Ali had slept.). The changes in the verb structure in Qashqaie dialect enables its speakers to say that whether the doer of the action remembers the process of doing the action or not. So, it presents a new aspectual opposition as Observed /nonobserved. The research findings reveal many other regularities and linguistic features that can be useful for linguists interested in Turkish in general and for those interested in tense and aspect and also they can be helpful for different pedagogical purposes including teaching and translating.

Keywords: qashqaie dialect, tense, aspect, linguistics, Turkish language

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45 A Cross-Dialect Statistical Analysis of Final Declarative Intonation in Tuvinian

Authors: D. Beziakina, E. Bulgakova


This study continues the research on Tuvinian intonation and presents a general cross-dialect analysis of intonation of Tuvinian declarative utterances, specifically the character of the tone movement in order to test the hypothesis about the prevalence of level tone in some Tuvinian dialects. The results of the analysis of basic pitch characteristics of Tuvinian speech (in general and in comparison with two other Turkic languages - Uzbek and Azerbaijani) are also given in this paper. The goal of our work was to obtain the ranges of pitch parameter values typical for Tuvinian speech. Such language-specific values can be used in speaker identification systems in order to get more accurate results of ethnic speech analysis. We also present the results of a cross-dialect analysis of declarative intonation in the poorly studied Tuvinian language.

Keywords: speech analysis, statistical analysis, speaker recognition, identification of person

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44 Uvulars Alternation in Hasawi Arabic: A Harmonic Serialism Approach

Authors: Huda Ahmed Al Taisan


This paper investigates a phonological phenomenon, which exhibits variation ‘alternation’ in terms of the uvular consonants [q] and [ʁ] in Hasawi Arabic. This dialect is spoken in Alahsa city, which is located in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. To the best of our knowledge, no such research has systematically studied this phenomenon in Hasawi Arabic dialect. This paper is significant because it fills the gap in the literature about this alternation phenomenon in this understudied dialect. A large amount of the data is extracted from several interviews the author has conducted with 10 participants, native speakers of the dialect, and complemented by additional forms from social media. The latter method of collecting the data adds to the significance of the research. The analysis of the data is carried out in Harmonic Serialism Optimality Theory (HS-OT), a version of the Optimality Theoretic (OT) framework, which holds that linguistic forms are the outcome of the interaction among violable universal constraints, and in the recent development of OT into a model that accounts for linguistic variation in harmonic derivational steps. This alternation process is assumed to be phonologically unconditioned and in free variation in other varieties of Arabic dialects in the area. The goal of this paper is to investigate whether this phenomenon is in free variation or governed, what governs this alternation between [q] and [ʁ] and whether the alternation is phonological or other linguistic constraints are in action. The results show that the [q] and [ʁ] alternation is not free and it occurs due to different assimilation processes. Positional, segmental sequence and vowel adjacency factors are in action in Hasawi Arabic.

Keywords: harmonic serialism, Hasawi, uvular, variation

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43 Cross-Cultural Pragmatics: Apology Strategies by Libyans

Authors: Ahmed Elgadri


In the last thirty years, studies on cross-cultural pragmatics in general and apology strategies in specific have focused on western and East-Asian societies. A small volume of research has been conducted in investigating speech acts production by Arabic dialect speakers. Therefore, this study investigated the apology strategies used by Libyan Arabic speakers using an online Discourse Completion Task (DCT) questionnaire. The DCT consisted of six situations covering different social contexts. The survey was written in Libyan Arabic dialect to help generate vernacular speech as much as possible. The participants were 25 Libyan nationals, 12 females, and 13 males. Also, to get a deeper understanding of the motivation behind the use of certain strategies, the researcher interviewed four participants using the Libyan Arabic dialect as well. The results revealed a high use of IFID, offer of repair, and explanation. Although this might support the universality claim of speech acts strategies, it was clear that cultural norms and religion determined the choice of apology strategies significantly. This led to the discovery of new culture-specific strategies, as outlined later in this paper. This study gives an insight into politeness strategies in Libyan society, and it is hoped to contribute to the field of cross-cultural pragmatics.

Keywords: apologies, cross-cultural pragmatics, language and culture, Libyan Arabic, politeness, pragmatics, socio-pragmatics, speech acts

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42 Morpho-Syntactic Pattern in Maithili Urdu

Authors: Mohammad Jahangeer Warsi


This is, perhaps, the first linguistic study of Maithili Urdu, a dialect of Urdu language of Indo-Aryan family, spoken by around four million speakers in Darbhanga, Samastipur, Begusarai, Madhubani, and Muzafarpur districts of Bihar. It has the subject–verb–object (SOV) word order and it lacks script and literature. Needless to say, this work is an attempt to document this dialect so that it should contribute to the field of descriptive linguistics. Besides, it is also spoken by majority of Maithili diaspora community. Maithili Urdu does not have its own script or literature, yet it has maintained an oral history of over many centuries. It has contributed to enriching the Maithili, Hindi and Urdu languages and literature very profoundly. Dialects are the contact languages of particular regions, and they have a deep impact on their cultural heritage. Slowly with time, these dialects begin to take shape of languages. The convergence of a dialect into a language is a symbol and pride of the people who speak it. Although, confined to the five districts of northern Bihar, yet highly popular among the natives, it is the primary mode of communication of the local Muslims. The paper will focus on the structure of expressions about Maithili Urdu that include the structure of words, phrases, clauses, and sentences. There are clear differences in linguistic features of Maithili Urdu vis-à-vis Urdu, Maithili and Hindi. Though being a dialect of Urdu, interestingly, there is only one second person pronoun tu and lack of agentive marker –ne. Although being spoken in the vicinity of Hindi, Urdu and Maithili, it undoubtedly has its own linguistic features, of them, verb conjugation is remarkably unique. Because of the oral tradition of this link language, intonation has become significantly prominent. This paper will discuss the morpho-syntactic pattern of Maithili Urdu and will go through a sample text to authenticate the findings.

Keywords: cultural heritage, morpho-syntactic pattern, Maithili Urdu, verb conjugation

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41 Pharyngealization Spread in Ibbi Dialect of Yemeni Arabic: An Acoustic Study

Authors: Fadhl Qutaish


This paper examines the pharyngealization spread in one of the Yemeni Arabic dialects, namely, Ibbi Arabic (IA). It investigates how pharyngealized sounds spread their acoustic features onto the neighboring vowels and change their default features. This feature has been investigated quietly well in MSA but still has to be deeply studied in the different dialect of Arabic which will bring about a clearer picture of the similarities and the differences among these dialects and help in mapping them based on the way this feature is utilized. Though the studies are numerous, no one of them has illustrated how far in the multi-syllabic word the spread can be and whether it takes a steady or gradient manner. This study tries to fill this gap and give a satisfactory explanation of the pharyngealization spread in Ibbi Dialect. This study is the first step towards a larger investigation of the different dialects of Yemeni Arabic in the future. The data recorded are represented in minimal pairs in which the trigger (pharyngealized or the non-pharyngealized sound) is in the initial or final position of monosyllabic and multisyllabic words. A group of 24 words were divided into four groups and repeated three times by three subjects which will yield 216 tokens that are tested and analyzed. The subjects are three male speakers aged between 28 and 31 with no history of neurological, speaking or hearing problems. All of them are bilingual speakers of Arabic and English and native speakers of Ibbi-Dialect. Recordings were done in a sound-proof room and praat software was used for the analysis and coding of the trajectories of F1 and F2 for the low vowel /a/ to see the effect of pharyngealization on the formant trajectory within the same syllable and in other syllables of the same word by comparing the F1 and F2 formants to the non-pharyngealized environment. The results show that pharyngealization spread is gradient (progressively and regressively). The spread is reflected in the gradual raising of F1 as we move closer towards the trigger and the gradual lowering of F2 as well. The results of the F1 mean values in tri-syllabic words when the trigger is word initially show that there is a raise of 37.9 HZ in the first syllable, 26.8HZ in the second syllable and 14.2HZ in the third syllable. F2 mean values undergo a lowering of 239 HZ in the first syllable, 211.7 HZ in the second syllable and 176.5 in the third syllable. This gradual decrease in the difference of F2 values in the non-pharyngealized and pharyngealized context illustrates that the spread is gradient. A similar result was found when the trigger is word-final which proves that the spread is gradient (progressively and regressively.

Keywords: pharyngealization, Yemeni Arabic, Ibbi dialect, pharyngealization spread

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40 An Automatic Speech Recognition of Conversational Telephone Speech in Malay Language

Authors: M. Draman, S. Z. Muhamad Yassin, M. S. Alias, Z. Lambak, M. I. Zulkifli, S. N. Padhi, K. N. Baharim, F. Maskuriy, A. I. A. Rahim


The performance of Malay automatic speech recognition (ASR) system for the call centre environment is presented. The system utilizes Kaldi toolkit as the platform to the entire library and algorithm used in performing the ASR task. The acoustic model implemented in this system uses a deep neural network (DNN) method to model the acoustic signal and the standard (n-gram) model for language modelling. With 80 hours of training data from the call centre recordings, the ASR system can achieve 72% of accuracy that corresponds to 28% of word error rate (WER). The testing was done using 20 hours of audio data. Despite the implementation of DNN, the system shows a low accuracy owing to the varieties of noises, accent and dialect that typically occurs in Malaysian call centre environment. This significant variation of speakers is reflected by the large standard deviation of the average word error rate (WERav) (i.e., ~ 10%). It is observed that the lowest WER (13.8%) was obtained from recording sample with a standard Malay dialect (central Malaysia) of native speaker as compared to 49% of the sample with the highest WER that contains conversation of the speaker that uses non-standard Malay dialect.

Keywords: conversational speech recognition, deep neural network, Malay language, speech recognition

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39 Exploring Exterior and Oral Tradition of Kyoto as the Act of Cultural Design

Authors: Takuya Inoue


Applying affordance theory to the field of communication research has been more significant. This paper suggests that the act of design, including language, is defined as encouraging or restricting affordance of an object or event and make it perceivable for users, rather merely conveying information. From this point of view, 5 types of oral expressions in Kyoto dialect, as well as 4 types of exterior design such as sekimori-ishi (a barrier-stone in a teahouse garden) which are specific to traditions in Kyoto, are examined. We found that exterior designs have no physical power in itself, they work as ‘signifier’ to highlight cultural frames which heavily depend on exclusive culture among city-dwellers in Kyoto. At the same time, the expressions are implicit, even sometimes sarcastic, which are also supported by cultural frames. In conclusion, the existence of traditional design is motivated in informative ‘ecological frame.’

Keywords: affordance theory, communication, cultural design, Japanese culture, Kyoto dialect, signifier

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38 The Contrastive Survey of Phonetic Structure in Two Iranian Dialects

Authors: Iran Kalbasi, Foroozandeh Zardashti


Dialectology is a branch of social linguistics that studies systematic language variations. Dialects are the branches of a unique language that have structural, morphological and phonetic differences with each other. In Iran, these dialects and language variations themselves have a lot of cultural loads, and studying them have linguistic and cultural importance. In this study, phonetic structure of two Iranian dialects, Bakhtiyari Lori of Masjedsoleyman and Shushtari in Khuzestan Province of Iran have been surveyed. Its statistical community includes twenty speakers of two dialects. The theoretic bases of this research is based on structuralism. Its data have been collected by interviewing the questionnaire that consist of 3000 words, 410 sentences and 110 complex and simple verbs. These datas are analysed and described synchronically. Then, the phonetic characteristics of these two dialects and standard Persian have been compared. Therefore, we can say that in phonetic level of these two dialects and standard Persian, there are clearly differences.

Keywords: standard language, dialectology, bakhtiyari lori dialect of Masjedsoleyman, Shushtari dialect, vowel, consonant

Procedia PDF Downloads 499
37 Variation of Lexical Choice and Changing Need of Identity Expression

Authors: Thapasya J., Rajesh Kumar


Language plays complex roles in society. The previous studies on language and society explain their interconnected, complementary and complex interactions and, those studies were primarily focused on the variations in the language. Variation being the fundamental nature of languages, the question of personal and social identity navigated through language variation and established that there is an interconnection between language variation and identity. This paper analyses the sociolinguistic variation in language at the lexical level and how the lexical choice of the speaker(s) affects in shaping their identity. It obtains primary data from the lexicon of the Mappila dialect of Malayalam spoken by the members of Mappila (Muslim) community of Kerala. The variation in the lexical choice is analysed by collecting data from the speech samples of 15 minutes from four different age groups of Mappila dialect speakers. Various contexts were analysed and the frequency of borrowed words in each instance is calculated to reach a conclusion on how the variation is happening in the speech community. The paper shows how the lexical choice of the speakers could be socially motivated and involve in shaping and changing identities. Lexical items or vocabulary clearly signal the group identity and personal identity. Mappila dialect of Malayalam was rich in frequent use of borrowed words from Arabic, Persian and Urdu. There was a deliberate attempt to show their identity as a Mappila community member, which was derived from the socio-political situation during those days. This made a clear variation between the Mappila dialect and other dialects of Malayalam at the surface level, which was motivated to create and establish the identity of a person as the member of Mappila community. Historically, these kinds of linguistic variation were highly motivated because of the socio-political factors and, intertwined with the historical facts about the origin and spread of Islamism in the region; people from the Mappila community highly motivated to project their identity as a Mappila because of the social insecurities they had to face before accepting that religion. Thus the deliberate inclusion of Arabic, Persian and Urdu words in their speech helped in showing their identity. However, the socio-political situations and factors at the origin of Mappila community have been changed over a period of time. The social motivation for indicating their identity as a Mappila no longer exist and thus the frequency of borrowed words from Arabic, Persian and Urdu have been reduced from their speech. Apart from the religious terms, the borrowed words from these languages are very few at present. The analysis is carried out by the changes in the language of the people according to their age and found to have significant variations between generations and literacy plays a major role in this variation process. The need of projecting a specific identity of an individual would vary according to the change in the socio-political scenario and a variation in language can shape the identity in order to go with the varying socio-political situation in any language.

Keywords: borrowings, dialect, identity, lexical choice, literacy, variation

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36 A House for Men: A Study of the Dong Minority Residential Architecture in the Southern Dialect Areas from a Gender Perspective

Authors: Fung Sze Wai Veera, Peter W. Ferretto


Gender functions as a principle in organizing society based on the cultural meanings given to males and females. It is an essential component in constructing the spatial reality, one that is in most cases in favor of men’s needs and disregards that of women’s. Similar to other minorities in China, men of the Dong community hold the primary position in policymaking, moral standards, social values, and, furthermore, the building of the physical environment. This study, therefore, aims to investigate the residential architecture of Dong through the lens of gender. Specifically, it examines how the patriarchal practice of Dong is manifested in terms of the spatial organization, the architectural feature, and the construction process of Dong houses in the southern dialect areas. While the residential architecture of Dong has been extensively researched, the role of gender culture in designing and constructing it deserves more research attention. Ultimately, the objective of this study is to challenge the notion of gender-inclusive design in the rural China context while opening up a cross-disciplinary discussion concerning Chinese minority architecture and gender studies.

Keywords: Dong minority residential architecture, gender study, built environment, male-dominated society, gender-inclusive design

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
35 The Syllable Structure and Syllable Processes in Suhwa Arabic: An Autosegmental Analysis

Authors: Muhammad Yaqub Olatunde


Arabic linguistic science is redirecting its focus towards the analysis and description of social, regional, and temporal varieties of social, regional, and temporal varieties in order to show how they vary in pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar. This is not to say that the traditional Arabic linguists did not mention scores of dialectical variations but such works focused on the geographical boundaries of the Arabic speaking countries. There is need for a comprehensive survey of various Arabic dialects within the boundary of Arabic speaking countries and outside showing both the similarities and differences of linguistic and extra linguistic elements. This study therefore examines the syllable structure and process in noun and verb in the shuwa Arabic dialect speaking in North East Nigeria [mainly in Borno state]. The work seeks to establish the facts about this phenomenon, using auto- segmental analysis. These facts are compared, where necessary; using possible alternative analysis, with what operate in other related dialects within and outside Arabic speaking countries. The interaction between epenthesis and germination in the language also generate an interesting issue. The paper then conclude that syllable structure and process in the language need to recognize the existence of complex onset and a complex rhyme producing a consonant cluster in the former and a closed syllable in the letter. This emerges as result of resyllabification, which is motivated by these processes.

Keywords: Arabic, dialect, linguistics, processes, resyllabification

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34 The Impact of Mother Tongue Interference on Students' Performance in English Language in Bauchi State

Authors: Mairo Musa Galadima


This paper examines the impact of Mother tongue interference on students’ performance in English Language in Bauchi State. It is observed that the students of Bauchi district share the same problem with Hausa native speakers of Kano dialect which is the standard form. It is observed that there are some phonemes which are present in English but absent in Hausa so the Hausa speakers of Bauchi district also replace these sounds with similar ones present in Hausa. Students in Bauchi district fail English language because they transfer features of their mother tongue (MT) into English. The data is obtained through unobtrusive observation of the English speech of about fifty Hausa native speakers of Bauchi district which is similar to Kano dialect from Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic, Bauchi since only those who have had some good background of secondary education are used because uneducated Nigeria English of whatever geographical location is more likely to be unintelligible as cockney or uneducated African-American English. For instance /Ə:/ is absent in Hausa so the speakers find it difficult to distinguish between such pairs of words as /bƏ:d / and /bΛst/, /fa:st/ and /fƏ:st / hence /a:/ is generally used wherever /Ə:/ is present regardless of the spelling, that is why words like ‘work’, ‘first’ and ‘person’ all have / a:/. In Hausa most speakers use /P/ in place of, or in alternation with /f/, e.g. ‘few’ is pronounced as ‘pew’, or ‘pen’, as ‘fen’, /b/ for /v/, /s/ for /z/ and /z/ for /ᵹ/. Also the word vision/visn/ is pronounced as /vidzn/. Therefore, there is confusion in spellings and pronunciation of words. One solution out of the problem is having constant practice with a qualified consistent staff and making use of standard textbooks in the learning process.

Keywords: English, failure, mother tongue, interference, students

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33 Vernacular Language Origin and Student's Accent Neutralization: A Basis for BPO Employability

Authors: Elma C. Sultan


The study concentrated on Vernacular Language Origin and Students’ Accent Neutralization of the College of Arts and Sciences fourth students in Samar State University, Catbalogan City answering respondent’s locale profile, vernacular language origin in terms of local dialect/s and domestic language/s used; the significant relationship between vernacular language origin and accent neutralization of the respondents; and the proposed activities to adopt in neutralizing students’ accent. It utilized the descriptive-correlational method of research determining the significant relationship between vernacular language origin and students’ accent neutralization. The researcher used: (1) questionnaire divided into three parts: the first part identified the students’ locale; the second part determined the respondents’ domestic language/s used while the third part identified their local language/s used, (2) validated accent neutralization assessment tool, (3) statistical treatments in the analysis of data: percentage to determine the profile of the students; chi-square test for independence to determine the significant relationship between vernacular language origin and students’ accent neutralization. Findings of the study showed that vowel and diphthong sound production, domestic and local languages in indigenous, and native dialects are significantly related to accent neutralization. While, slow reading speed has a higher possibility in affecting accent neutralization. These caused designing a 50-hour short-term program for accent neutralization focusing in the correct vowel and diphthong sounds production and appropriate reading speed in preparation for the respondents’ search for BPO employment. This short-term program ran for 5 hours in a day for five days in a week.

Keywords: accent neutralization, dialect, diphthongs, indigenous, language origin, language, native, reading speed, vernacular, vowels

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32 Language Politics and Identity in Translation: From a Monolingual Text to Multilingual Text in Chinese Translations

Authors: Chu-Ching Hsu


This paper focuses on how the government-led language policies and the political changes in Taiwan manipulate the languages choice in translations and what translation strategies are employed by the translator to show his or her language ideology behind the power struggles and decision-making. Therefore, framed by Lefevere’s theoretical concept of translating as rewriting, and carried out a diachronic and chronological study, this paper specifically sets out to investigate the language ideology and translator’s idiolect of Chinese language translations of Anglo-American novels. The examples drawn to explore these issues were taken from different versions of Chinese renditions of Mark Twain’s English-language novel The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn in which there are several different dialogues originally written in the colloquial language and dialect used in the American state of Mississippi and reproduced in Mark Twain’s works. Also, adapted corpus methodology, many examples are extracted as instances from the translated texts and source text, to illuminate how the translators in Taiwan deal with the dialectal features encoded in Twain’s works, and how different versions of Chinese translations are employed by Taiwanese translators to confirm the language polices and to express their language identity textually in different periods of the past five decades, from the 1960s onward. The finding of this study suggests that the use of Taiwanese dialect and language patterns in translations does relate to the movement of the mother-tongue language and language ideology of the translator as well as to the issue of language identity raised in the island of Taiwan. Furthermore, this study confirms that the change of political power in Taiwan does bring significantly impact in language policy-- assimilationism, pluralism or multiculturalism, which also makes Taiwan from a monolingual to multilingual society, where the language ideology and identity can be revealed not only in people’s daily communication but also in written translations.

Keywords: language politics and policies, literary translation, mother-tongue, multiculturalism, translator’s ideology

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31 Referring to Jordanian Female Relatives in Public

Authors: Ibrahim Darwish, Noora Abu Ain


Referring to female relatives by male Jordanian speakers in public is governed by various linguistic and social constraints. Although Jordanian society is less conservative than it was a few decades ago, women are still considered the weaker link in society and men still believe that they need to protect them. Conservative Jordanians often avoid referring to their female relatives overtly, i.e., using their real names. Instead, they use covert names, such as pseudonyms, nicknames, pet names, etc. The reason behind such language use has to do with how Arab men, in general, see women as part of their honor. This study intends to investigate to what extent Jordanian males hide their female relatives’ names in public domains. The data was collected from spontaneous informal voice-recorded interviews carried out in the village of Saham in the far north of Jordan. Saham’s dialect is part of a larger Horani dialect used by speakers along a wide area that stretches from Salt in the south to the Syrian borders in the north of Jordan. The voice-recorded interviews were originally carried out as an audio record of some customs and traditions in the village of Saham in 2013. During most of these interviews, the researchers observed how the male participants indirectly referred to their female relatives. Instead of using real names, the male speakers used broad terms to refer to their female relatives, such al-Beit ‘the home,’ al-ciyaal ‘the kids’, um-x ‘the mother of x,’ etc. All tokens related to the issue in question were collected, analyzed and quantified about three age cohorts: young, middle-aged and old speakers. The results show that young speakers are more direct in referring to their female relatives than the other two age groups. This can point to a possible change in progress in the speech community of Saham. It is argued that due to contact with other urban speech communities, the young speakers in Saham do not feel the need to hide the real names of their female relatives as they consider them as equals. Indeed, the young generation is more open to the idea of women's rights and call for expanding Jordanian women’s roles in Jordanian society.

Keywords: gender differences, Horan, proper names, social constraints

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30 An Optimal Perspective on Research in Translation Studies

Authors: Andrea Musumeci


General theory of translation has suffered the lack of a homogeneous academic dialect, a holistic methodology to account for the diversity of factors involved in the discipline. An underlying pattern amongst theories of translation belonging to different periods and schools has been identified. Such pattern, which is linguistics oriented, could play a role towards unified academic and professional environments, both in terms of research and as a professional category. The implementation of such an approach has also led to a critique of the concept of equivalence, as being not the best of ways to account for translating phenomena.

Keywords: optimal, translating, research translation theory, methodology, descriptive analysis

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29 The Formation of the Diminutive in Colloquial Jordanian Arabic

Authors: Yousef Barahmeh


This paper is a linguistic and pragmatic analysis of the use of the diminutive in Colloquial Jordanian Arabic (CJA). It demonstrates a peculiar form of the diminutive in CJA inflected by means of feminine plural ends with -aat suffix. The analysis shows that the pragmatic function(s) of the diminutive in CJA refers primarily to ‘littleness’ while the morphological inflection conveys the message of ‘the plethora’. Examples of this linguistic phenomenon are intelligible and often include a large number of words that are culture-specific to the rural dialect in the north of Jordan. In both cases, the diminutive in CJA is an adaptive strategy relative to its pragmatic and social contexts.

Keywords: Colloquial Jordanian Arabic, diminutive, morphology, pragmatics

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28 Hybrid SVM/DBN Model for Arabic Isolated Words Recognition

Authors: Elyes Zarrouk, Yassine Benayed, Faiez Gargouri


This paper presents a new hybrid model for isolated Arabic words recognition. To do this, we apply Support Vectors Machine (SVM) as an estimator of posterior probabilities within the Dynamic Bayesian networks (DBN). This paper deals a comparative study between DBN and SVM/DBN systems for multi-dialect isolated Arabic words. Performance using SVM/DBN is found to exceed that of DBNs trained on an identical task, giving higher recognition accuracy for four different Arabic dialects. In fact, the average of recognition rates for the four dialects with SVM/DBN was 87.67% while 83.01% with DBN.

Keywords: dynamic Bayesian networks, hybrid models, supports vectors machine, Arabic isolated words

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27 Articles, Delimitation of Speech and Perception

Authors: Nataliya L. Ogurechnikova


The paper aims to clarify the function of articles in the English speech and specify their place and role in the English language, taking into account the use of articles for delimitation of speech. A focus of the paper is the use of the definite and the indefinite articles with different types of noun phrases which comprise either one noun with or without attributes, such as the King, the Queen, the Lion, the Unicorn, a dimple, a smile, a new language, an unknown dialect, or several nouns with or without attributes, such as the King and Queen of Hearts, the Lion and Unicorn, a dimple or smile, a completely isolated language or dialect. It is stated that the function of delimitation is related to perception: the number of speech units in a text correlates with the way the speaker perceives and segments the denotation. The two following combinations of words the house and garden and the house and the garden contain different numbers of speech units, one and two respectively, and reveal two different perception modes which correspond to the use of the definite article in the examples given. Thus, the function of delimitation is twofold, it is related to perception and cognition, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, to grammar, if the subject of grammar is the structure of speech. Analysis of speech units in the paper is not limited by noun phrases and is amplified by discussion of peripheral phenomena which are nevertheless important because they enable to qualify articles as a syntactic phenomenon whereas they are not infrequently described in terms of noun morphology. With this regard attention is given to the history of linguistic studies, specifically to the description of English articles by Niels Haislund, a disciple of Otto Jespersen. A discrepancy is noted between the initial plan of Jespersen who intended to describe articles as a syntactic phenomenon in ‘A Modern English Grammar on Historical Principles’ and the interpretation of articles in terms of noun morphology, finally given by Haislund. Another issue of the paper is correlation between description and denotation, being a traditional aspect of linguistic studies focused on articles. An overview of relevant studies, given in the paper, goes back to the works of G. Frege, which gave rise to a series of scientific works where the meaning of articles was described within the scope of logical semantics. Correlation between denotation and description is treated in the paper as the meaning of article, i.e. a component in its semantic structure, which differs from the function of delimitation and is similar to the meaning of other quantifiers. The paper further explains why the relation between description and denotation, i.e. the meaning of English article, is irrelevant for noun morphology and has nothing to do with nominal categories of the English language.

Keywords: delimitation of speech, denotation, description, perception, speech units, syntax

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26 A Sociolinguistic Study of the Outcomes of Arabic-French Contact in the Algerian Dialect Tlemcen Speech Community as a Case Study

Authors: R. Rahmoun-Mrabet


It is acknowledged that our style of speaking changes according to a wide range of variables such as gender, setting, the age of both the addresser and the addressee, the conversation topic, and the aim of the interaction. These differences in style are noticeable in monolingual and multilingual speech communities. Yet, they are more observable in speech communities where two or more codes coexist. The linguistic situation in Algeria reflects a state of bilingualism because of the coexistence of Arabic and French. Nevertheless, like all Arab countries, it is characterized by diglossia i.e. the concomitance of Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) and Algerian Arabic (AA), the former standing for the ‘high variety’ and the latter for the ‘low variety’. The two varieties are derived from the same source but are used to fulfil distinct functions that is, MSA is used in the domains of religion, literature, education and formal settings. AA, on the other hand, is used in informal settings, in everyday speech. French has strongly affected the Algerian language and culture because of the historical background of Algeria, thus, what can easily be noticed in Algeria is that everyday speech is characterized by code-switching from dialectal Arabic and French or by the use of borrowings. Tamazight is also very present in many regions of Algeria and is the mother tongue of many Algerians. Yet, it is not used in the west of Algeria, where the study has been conducted. The present work, which was directed in the speech community of Tlemcen-Algeria, aims at depicting some of the outcomes of the contact of Arabic with French such as code-switching, borrowing and interference. The question that has been asked is whether Algerians are aware of their use of borrowings or not. Three steps are followed in this research; the first one is to depict the sociolinguistic situation in Algeria and to describe the linguistic characteristics of the dialect of Tlemcen, which are specific to this city. The second one is concerned with data collection. Data have been collected from 57 informants who were given questionnaires and who have then been classified according to their age, gender and level of education. Information has also been collected through observation, and note taking. The third step is devoted to analysis. The results obtained reveal that most Algerians are aware of their use of borrowings. The present work clarifies how words are borrowed from French, and then adapted to Arabic. It also illustrates the way in which singular words inflect into plural. The results expose the main characteristics of borrowing as opposed to code-switching. The study also clarifies how interference occurs at the level of nouns, verbs and adjectives.

Keywords: bilingualism, borrowing, code-switching, interference, language contact

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25 Morphological Properties in Ndre Mjeda's Works

Authors: Shyhrete Morina


This paper deals with morphological features in Mjeda's works. To make such a distinction, these features will be compared to standard Albanian language, considering the linguistic structure in the morphological field, which represent an all-important segment of Albanian language. Therefore, the study will focus mainly on the description and construction of these paradigms, which will give a linguistic insight into the entire work of Mjeda as the author who wrote in the dialect of northwestern Geg. Therefore, we have tried to distinguish different parts of the author's language, as well as the distinctive features or even the similarities of these paradigms that arise in the literary work of Mjeda. By constructing the corpus of this phonetic and grammar segment from the whole of Mjeda's work, we have seen that in these fields has built a variety of grammar structures, which for the history of Albanian are of special importance, that in the full variant of the work, as far as we can investigate, we will point out in all the distinctive features. Therefore, our study aims to highlight the linguistic features, namely the author's deep knowledge toward the language, the authenticity of its use, and its mutual relationship with it.

Keywords: distinctive morpholgy, nouns, adjetives, pronouns, Albanian standard language

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24 English Loanwords in the Egyptian Variety of Arabic: Morphological and Phonological Changes

Authors: Mohamed Yacoub


This paper investigates the English loanwords in the Egyptian variety of Arabic and reaches three findings. Data, in the first finding, were collected from Egyptian movies and soap operas; over two hundred words have been borrowed from English, code-switching was not included. These words then have been put into eleven different categories according to their use and part of speech. Finding two addresses the morphological and phonological change that occurred to these words. Regarding the phonological change, eight categories were found in both consonant and vowel variation, five for consonants and three for vowels. Examples were given for each. Regarding the morphological change, five categories were found including the masculine, feminine, dual, broken, and non-pluralize-able nouns. The last finding is the answers to a four-question survey that addresses forty eight native speakers of Egyptian Arabic and found that most participants did not recognize English borrowed words and thought they were originally Arabic and could not give Arabic equivalents for the loanwords that they could recognize.

Keywords: sociolinguistics, loanwords, borrowing, morphology, phonology, variation, Egyptian dialect

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23 A Syntactic Errors Analysis in the Malaysian ESL Learners' Written Composition

Authors: Annie Gedion, Johan Severinus Tati, Jacinta Caroline Peter


Syntax error analysis studies have a significant role in English language teaching especially in the second language. This study investigates the syntax errors in written composition by 50 multilingual ESL learners in Politeknik Kota Kinabalu Sabah, Malaysia. The subjects speak their own dialect, Malay as their second language and English as their third or foreign language. Data were collected from the written discourse in the form of descriptive essays. The subjects were asked to write in the classroom within 45 minutes. 15 categories of errors were classified into a set of syntactic categories and were analysed based on the five steps of the syntactic analysis procedure. The findings of the study showed that the mother tongue interference, as well as lack of vocabulary and grammar knowledge, were the major sources of syntax errors in the learners’ written composition. Learners should be exposed to the differentiation of Malay and English grammar to avoid interference and effective learning of second language writing.

Keywords: errors analysis, syntactic analysis, English as a second language, ESL writing

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