Search results for: modernism
44 The Evaluation and Assessment of Modernism
Authors: Mohammad Mirzaei
Abstract:The term "modernism" is at the heart of debates about 20th-century literature and critical theory. Astradur Eysteinsson argues here that the notion of modernity does not emerge directly from the literature it encompasses but is actually a product of critical practices related to non-traditional literature. By intervening in and relating them to modernist works and contemporary literary theories, Esteinsson takes a comprehensive look at the idea of modernity. Eysteinsson critically examines various expressions of modernism in the rich spectrum of American, British, and European literature, criticism, and theory. He first explored a number of modernist paradigms and found a conflict between modernism's potential for cultural subversion and its relatively conservative status as a formalist project. In turn, he sees these paradigms as interpretations and inventions of literary history. Seen in this way, modernism presents both a historical change in the literary scene and the context of this change. Imbued with the connotations of tradition and modernity, modernity fulfills its primary function. Highlights and defines the complex relationship between history and post-realist literature. Eysteinsson focuses on how concepts of modernism guide our understanding of literature and literary history and how they influence the evaluation of experimental and 3post realist works in literature and art. He discusses in detail the relationship between modernism and the key terms postmodernism, avant-garde, and realism. In staging a crisis of subject and reference, modernity is not a form of discourse but its subversion, the "other" that may reveal important aspects of our social and linguistic experience in Western culture.
Keywords: literature, modernism, western cultures, postmodernismProcedia PDF Downloads 8
43 Disputed Heritage: Modernism as Resistance
Authors: Marcos Fabris
Abstract:The flaccidity of the contemporary art production, its banality and incapacity of raising social and political relevant issues, and its ubiquitous connection to an ever prospering art market have become a trite, prosaic mantra, a thought-terminating cliché repeated by many, at least in the academic circles, who constantly lament the absence of pressing issues, artistically articulated from a Marxist perspective. This ‘resignation’ or crystalized insistence to consider Contemporary Art as a monolithic block – insufficiently critical – seems to be part of a pattern in Art History, not excluding its leftist wings: the idea that Modernism was, too, a homogeneous movement, one that despite its attempts to establish meaningful connections between art and society are now part of a museological past. This post-mortem attributed to a ‘flat’ modernism disregards it’s highly contradictory character and diverging tendencies, in permanent conflict between themselves and part of a larger movement that questioned Capitalism – as a system. The aim of this presentation is to shed light on some of the most radical modern tendencies, how they articulated ways to figure the uneven and combined development, and how this ‘Alternative Modernism’ may inform, inspire, and make us advance critically in our struggles against the returns of Capitalism.
Keywords: art criticism, art history, contemporary art, modernismProcedia PDF Downloads 182
42 Parvi̇z Jabrail's Novel 'in Foreign Language': Delimitation of Postmodernism with Modernism
Authors: Nargiz Ismayilova
Abstract:The issue of modernism and the concept of postmodernism has been the focus of world researchers for many years, and there are very few researchers who have come to a common denominator about this term. During the independence period, the expansion of the relations of Azerbaijani literature with the world has led to the spread of many currents and tendencies formed in the West to the literary environment in our country. In this context, the works created in our environment are distinguished by their extreme richness in terms of subject matter and diversity in terms of genre. As an interesting example of contemporary postmodern prose in Azerbaijan, Parviz Jabrayil's novel "In a Foreign Language" pays attention with its more different plotline. The disagreement exists among the critics about the novel. Some are looking for high artistry in work; others are satisfied with the elements of postmodernism in work. Delimitation of the border between modernism and postmodernism can serve to carry out a deep scientific study of the novel. The novel depicts the world in the author's consciousness against the background of water shortage (thirst) in the Old City (Icharishahar). The author deconstructs today's Ichari Shahar mould. Along with modernism, elements of postmodernism occupy a large place in the work. When we look at the general tendencies of postmodernist art, we see that science and individuality are questioned, criticizing the sharp boundaries of modernism and the negativity of these restrictions, and modernism offers alternatives to artistic production by identifying its negatives and shortcomings in the areas of artistic freedom. The novel is extremely interesting in this point of view.
Keywords: concept of postmodernism, modernism, delimitation, political postmodernism, modern postmodern prose, Azerbaijani literature, novel, comparison, world literature, analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 82
41 Re-Envisioning Modernity: Transformations of Postwar Suburban Landscapes
Authors: Shannon Clayton
Abstract:In an effort to explore the potential transformation of North American postwar suburbs, this M.Arch thesis actively engages in the ongoing critique of modernism from the mid 20th century to the present. Contemporary urban design practice has emerged out of the reaction to orthodox modernism. Typically, new suburban development falls into one of two strategies; an attempt to replicate pre-war fabric that never existed, or a reliance on high-density to create instant urbanism. In both cases, the critical role of architecture has been grossly undervalued. Ironically, it is the denial of suburbia’s inherent modernity that has served to prevent genuine place-making. As history demonstrates, modernism is not antithetical to architecture and place. In the postwar years, a critical discussion emerged amongst architects, which sought to evolve modernism beyond functionalism. This was demonstrated through critical discussions on image, experience, and monumentality. As well as increased interest in civic space, and investigations into mat urbanism and the megastructure. The undercurrent within these explorations was a belief that the scale and complexity of modern development could become an opportunity to create urbanism, rather than squander it. This critical discourse has continued through architectural work in the Netherlands and Denmark since the early 1990s, where an emphasis on visual variety, human scale, and public interaction has been given high priority. This thesis applies principles from this ongoing dialogue, and identifies hidden potential within existing North American suburban networks. As a result, the project re-evaluates the legacy of the master plan from a contemporary perspective.
Keywords: urbanism, modernism, suburbia, place-makingProcedia PDF Downloads 192
40 The Role of Islam in the Political Thought of Muhammad Abduh
Authors: Mehdi Beyad
Abstract:Muhammad Abduh stands as a founding thinker of Islamic revivalism and modernism, the political phenomenon which began with him and Jamal al-Din al-Afghani in the 19th century which sought to address the perceived regression of Islamic societies in the face of western colonialism and the onslaught of modernity. The scholarship on Abduh and al-Afghani, and Islamic modernism in general, is vast. This paper, however, provides a critical approach to some of this scholarship and attempts to re-think the epistemic framework of Abduh's political thought and the place of Islam therein. Much of the current work on Abduh falls into the trap of seeing his task as one of "compromising" Islam for the values of European modernity. This paper argues that for Abduh, Islam was not just a compartmentalised theological framework: it was at the nexus of societal emancipation, intellectual and cultural rejuvenation, and political progress. Far from “modernising” and diluting Islam to the extent that it became irrelevant in the face of rationality as defined by European modernity, Islam remained central to Abduh’s political framework.
Keywords: Islamic political thought, Islamic revivalism, modernism, Muhammad Abduh, epistemologyProcedia PDF Downloads 826
39 Between an Idea and the Experiment: Dome Houses in Warsaw
Authors: Zaguła Artur, Jaruga-rozdolska Anna
Abstract:The idea of prefabricated dwellings dates back to the earliest times; however, it was during the modern era that it became one of the main thoughts that stimulated the imagination of architects. The system of prefabrication invented by Ford had inspired them to try to create a system or prototype that could become the basis for the mass 'production' of houses. The attempts made by Le Corbusier, Buckminster Fuller or Charles and Ray Eames, among others, are well known in this regard. The economic attractiveness of replicable, mass-producible houses meant that experiments in this area were undertaken in both the West and the East. Among such attempts was the project of dome-shaped houses conceived by the architect and inventor Andrzej Iwanicki and realised between 1961 and 1966 in Warsaw's Okęcie district on Ustrzycka Street.
Keywords: dome houses, polish modernism, postwar modernism, modernist housesProcedia PDF Downloads 2
38 Legal Feminism, Modernity and Their Impact on Some African Countries
Authors: Umulisa Linda, Andy Cons Matata
Abstract:The origin of legal feminism can be attributed to an attempt to provide a safe space for women such as voting, parental, and inheritance rights, among others. It was also a rebellion against male supremacy. However, with the development of technology and especially in the era of the internet, it appears that both legal feminism and the modernism are losing their luster. While these movements had their origin either in the United States of America or western Europe, their impacts have been felt as far as Africa, Asia, and Latin America. In Africa, different countries have different levels of penetration of these movements. This study, therefore, had its focus on how legal feminism and modernism have influenced legal developments in Kenya and Rwanda. The study adopted a qualitative approach with the respondents being asked about their feelings and perceptions on how the two movements had affected legal developments in their countries. In order to gauge the opinion of different categories of people such as the youth, middle-aged and the elderly people as well as being gender-sensitive, the study adopted a purpose method of sampling. The questionnaires and the focus group discussions were employed as the main tools for data gathering. From the questionnaires, the focus group discussions, and the data analysis that followed, the study concluded that both legal feminism and modernity had penetrated the legal systems of both Kenya and Rwanda so deeply. The study further found that the proponents of the two movements were mostly urban based and educated women. The men were generally opposed to the movements.
Keywords: legal development, legal feminsim, modernism, voting, parental and inheritance rightsProcedia PDF Downloads 74
37 Migration as a Trigger Causing Change to the Levant Literary Modernism
Authors: Aathira Peedikaparambil Somasundaran
Abstract:The beginning of the 20th century marked the perios when a new generation of Lebanese radicals sowed the seeds for the second phase of Levant literary modernism, situated in the Levant. Beirut, during this era popularly fit every radical writer’s criterion owing to its weakened censorship and political control, despite the absence of a protective womb for the development of literary modernism, caused by the natively prevalent political unsettlement. The third stage of literary modernization, in which scholars used Western-inspired critical techniques to better understand their own cultures, coincides with the time period examined in this paper, which involved the international-inspired critical analysis of native cultural stimulants, which raised questions among Arab freethinking intellectuals. Locals who ventured outside recognised the difference between the West's progress and their own nations' stagnation. The awareness of such ‘gap of success’ aroused an ambition from journalists, authors, and proletarian revolutionaries who had studied in Europe, and finally developed enlightened ideas. Some Middle Eastern authors and artists only adopted current social and political frameworks after discovering western modernity. After learning about the upheavals that were happening in the West, these thinkers aspired to bring about equally broad drastic developments in their own country's social, political, and cultural milieu. These occurrences illustrate the increased power of migration to alter the cultural and literary scene in the Levant. The paper intends to discuss the different effects of migration that contributed to Levant literary modernism. The exploration of these factors as causes begins with addressing the politically influenced activism, that has always been a relevant part of Beirut, and then diving into the psychological effects of migration in the individuals of the society, which might have induced an accommodability to alien thoughts and ideas over time, as a coping mechanism. Nature or environmental stimuli, a common trigger for any creative output, often having the highest influence during travel will be identified and analysed to inspect the extent of its impact on the exchange of ideas that resulted in Levant modernism. The efficiency of both the stimulating component of travel and the diaspora of the indigenous, a by-product of travel in catalysing modernism in the Levant has to be proven in order to understand how migration indirectly affected the transmission and adoption of ideas in Levant literature. The paper will revisit the events revolving around these key players and platforms like Shir, to understand how the Lebanese literature, tied down in poetry drastically mutated under the leadership of Adonis, Yusuf et Khal, and other pioneers of Levant literary modernism. The conclision will identify the triggers that helped authors overcome personal and geographical barriers to unite the West and the Levant, and investigate the extent to which the bi-directional migration prompted a transformation in the local poetry. Consequently, the paper aims to shed light into the unique factor that provoked the shift in the literary scene of Twentieth century in the Middle East.
Keywords: literature, modernism, Middle East, levant, BeirutProcedia PDF Downloads 8
36 Traditionalism and Modernity in Seoul’s Urban Planning for the Disabled
Authors: Helena Park
Abstract:For the last three decades, Seoul has experienced an exponential increase in population and concomitant rapid urbanization. With such development, Korea adopted a predominantly Western style of architecture but still based the structures on Korea’s traditionalism and Confucian precepts of pung su (feng shui). While Korean urban planning is focusing on balancing out the modernism and traditionalism in its city architecture, particularly in and landmark sites like The Seoul N Tower and Gyeongbok Palace, the accessibility and convenience concerns of minorities in social groups like the disabled are habitually disregarded. With the implementations of ramps and elevators, the welfare of all citizens seemed to improve. According to the dictates of traditional Korean culture, it was crucial for those construed as “disabled” or “underprivileged” to feel natural in the city of Seoul, which is planned and built with the background aesthetic theory of being harmonized with nature. It was interesting and also alarming to see the extent to which Korean landmarks were lacking facilities for the disabled throughout the city. Standards set by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and the Seoul Metropolitan City insist that buildings accommodate the needs of the disabled as well as the non-disabled equally, but it was hard to find buildings in Seoul - old or new - that fulfilled all the requirements. If fulfilled, some of the facilities were hard to find or not well maintained. There is thus a serious concern for planning reform in connection with Seoul’s 2030 Urban Plan. This paper argues that alternative planning could better integrate Korea’s traditionalist architecture and concepts of pung su rather than insist on the necessity of Western-style modernism as the sole modality for achieving accessibility for the disabled in Korea.
Keywords: accessibility, architecture of Seoul , Pung Su (Feng Shui), traditionalism, modernism in SeoulProcedia PDF Downloads 166
35 Cultural Reflection within Contemporary Residential Interior in India
Authors: Icy Vinod Sanghvi
Abstract:In the light of rising modernism within the residential design industry, a significant growth of the western concepts of maximalism or minimalism is observed in the Indian housings. Although dynamism in design styles is natural due to the constant emergence of new innovations, it is imperative that local houses reflect cultural identity. This paper highlights the importance of ‘Indian Modernism’, and how to incorporate the same in residential design. Thus, helping the Indian culture to flourish and become a significant part of housing design in the future. A literature review was conducted to analyze and derive effective methods to build cultural value whilst catering to the urban and contemporary design industry. Alongside, a questionnaire survey was conducted to observe how the local houses are designed and to understand the preferences of people with regards to the design styles incorporated in their homes. In addition, their opinions on the excessive use of contemporary styles in home designs was recorded. The results of the same provided a better understanding of the local audience, their demands, and their willingness to adapt to contemporary designs. Studying color, materials, ornamentation, symbolism, detail, and structure offers an in-depth understanding of the essence of traditional Indian homes. These variables further provided effective solutions for design ideation and mockups for efficient traditional yet contemporary spaces. Design interventions like these can build a revolutionary set of practices that involve creating a balance between contemporary and traditional styles. The emergence of this synergy will not only make contemporary homes communicative but also allow India to compete within the global residential architecture industry with a strong foundation of its rich heritage.
Keywords: balance, contemporary design, cultural identity, Indian modernismProcedia PDF Downloads 64
34 Thinking about Drawing: The Evolution of Architectural Education in China After 1949
Authors: Wang Yanze
Abstract:Architectural design results from the interaction between space and drawing. Stemming from the Beaux-Arts architectural education, drawing kept its dominant position in teaching and learning process for centuries. However, this education system is being challenged in the present time due to the development of the times. Based on the architectural education of China after 1949, a brief introduction to the history of the evolution of the design concept and drawing is given in this paper. Illustrating with the reference to the students’ works in Nanjing Institute of Technology, the predecessor of Southeast University, in China, the paper analyses the relationship between concept and representation, as well as the participation of Space, the modernism discourse. This process contains the transmission of the character of architects, the renovation of drawing skills and the profound social background. With different purposes, the emphasis on representation tends to be combined with the operation on space, and the role of drawing in architectural design process also changes. Therefore, based on the continuity of the traditional architectural education system, the discussion on the “Drawing of Space” in contemporary education system is proposed.
Keywords: architectural education, beaux-arts, drawing, modernismProcedia PDF Downloads 418
33 The Influence of Modernity and Globalization upon Language: The Korean Language between Confucianism and Americanization
Authors: Raluca-Ioana Antonescu
Abstract:The field research of the paper stands at the intersection between Linguistics and Sociology, while the problem of the research is the importance of language in the modernization process and in a globalized society. The research objective is to prove that language is a stimulant for modernity, while it defines the tradition and the culture of a specific society. In order to examine the linguistic change of the Korean language due to the modernity and globalization, the paper tries to answer one main question, What are the changes the Korean language underwent from a traditional version of Korean, towards one influenced by modernity?, and two secondary questions, How are explored in specialized literature the relations between globalization (and modernity) and culture (focusing on language)? and What influences the Korean language? For the purpose of answering the research questions, the paper has the main premise that due to modernity and globalization, the Korean language changed its discourse construction, and two secondary hypothesis, first is that in literature there are not much explored the relations between culture and modernity focusing on the language discourse construction, but more about identity issue and commodification problems, and the second hypothesis is that the Korean language is influenced by traditional values (like Confucianism) while receiving influence also of globalization process (especially from English language). In terms of methodology, the paper will analyze the two main influences upon the Korean language, referring to traditionalism (being defined as the influence of Confucianism) and modernism (as the influence of other countries’ language and culture), and how the Korean language it was constructed and modified due to these two elements. The paper will analyze at what level (grammatical, lexical, etc.) the traditionalism help at the construction of the Korean language, and what are the changes at each level that modernism brought along. As for the results of this research, the influence of modernism changed both lexically and grammatically the Korean language. In 60 years the increase of English influence is astonishing, and this paper shows the main changes the Korean language underwent, like the loanwords (Konglish), but also the reduction of the speech levels and the ease of the register variation use. Therefore the grammatical influence of modernity and globalization could be seen at the reduction of the speech level and register variation, while the lexical change comes with the influence of English language especially, where about 10% of the Korean vocabulary is considered to be loanwords. Also the paper presents the interrelation between traditionalism and modernity, with the example of Konglish, but not only (we can consider also the Korean greetings which are translated by Koreans when they speak in other languages, bringing their cultural characteristics in English discourse construction), which makes the Koreans global, since they speak in an international language, but still local since they cannot get rid completely of their culture.
Keywords: Confucianism, globalization, language and linguistic change, modernism, traditionalismProcedia PDF Downloads 138
32 An Investigation on Climate Responsive Design Strategies of Apartment Buildings in Athens of the Period 1920-1960s
Authors: Angeliki Chronopoulou, Eleni Alexandrou
Abstract:This paper thoroughly investigates residential buildings of the period 1920 – 1960 in Athens and evaluates their bioclimatic response and energy performance. A methodology adapted to the specific context of the city is proposed and applied in order to assess and extract results related to the climate analysis of the city of Athens, the general/architectural design and construction characteristics of the apartment buildings constructed during the period 1920 – 1960, the bioclimatic strategies applied on them, and the achieved thermal comfort based on questionnaires answered by their users. The results of the current study indicate that the residential architecture of that period in the city of Athens is adapted to an extend to the local climate with various climate responsive strategies. As an outcome of the analysis, the most frequently applied depending on the period of construction are presented. For this reason, the examined period is divided into 3 sub – periods: 1st period 1920s – 1930s (late neoclassicism & eclecticism), 2nd period 1930s – 1940s (modernism), 3rd period 1940s – 1960s (postwar modernism).
Keywords: Athens, climatic design strategies, residential buildings, middle war and post war architecture, thermal comfortProcedia PDF Downloads 32
31 Reimaging Archetype of Mosque: A Case Study on Contemporary Mosque Architecture in Bangladesh
Authors: Sabrina Rahman
Abstract:The Mosque is Islam’s most symbolic structure, as well as the expression of collective identity. From the explicit words of our Prophet, 'The earth has been created for me as a masjid and a place of purity, and whatever man from my Ummah finds himself in need of prayer, let him pray' (anywhere)! it is obvious that a devout Muslim does not require a defined space or structure for divine worship since the whole earth is his prayer house. Yet we see that from time immemorial man throughout the Muslim world has painstakingly erected innumerable mosques. However, mosque design spans time, crosses boundaries, and expresses cultures. It is a cultural manifestation as much as one based on a regional building tradition or a certain interpretation of religion. The trend to express physical signs of religion is not new. Physical forms seem to convey symbolic messages. However, in recent times physical forms of mosque architecture are dominantly demising from mosque architecture projects in Bangladesh. Dome & minaret, the most prominent symbol of the mosque, is replacing by contextual and contemporary improvisation rather than subcontinental mosque architecture practice of early fellows. Thus the recent mosque projects of the last 15 years established the contemporary architectural realm in their design. Contextually, spiritual lighting, the serenity of space, tranquility of outdoor spaces, the texture of materials is widely establishing a new genre of Muslim prayer space. A case study based research will lead to specify its significant factors of modernism. Based on the findings, the paper presents evidence of recent projects as well as a guideline for the future image of contemporary Mosque architecture in Bangladesh.
Keywords: contemporary architecture, modernism, prayer space, symbolismProcedia PDF Downloads 65
30 Bauhaus Exhibition 1922: New Weapon of Anti-Colonial Resistance in India
Authors: Suneet Jagdev
Abstract:The development of the original Bauhaus occurred at a time in the beginning of the 20th century when the industrialization of Germany had reached a climax. The cities were a reflection of the new living conditions of an industrialized society. The Bauhaus can be interpreted as an ambitious attempt to find appropriate answers to the challenges by using architecture-urban development and design. The core elements of the conviction of the day were the belief in the necessary crossing of boundaries between the various disciplines and courage to experiment for a better solution. Even after 100 years, the situation in our cities is shaped by similar complexity. The urban consequences of developments are difficult to estimate and to predict. The paper critically reflected on the central aspects of the history of the Bauhaus and its role in bringing the modernism in India by comparative studies of the methodology adopted by the artists and designer in both the countries. The paper talked in detail about how the Bauhaus Exhibition in 1922 offered Indian artists a new weapon of anti-colonial resistance. The original Bauhaus fought its aesthetic and political battles in the context of economic instability and the rise of German fascism. The Indians had access to dominant global languages and in a particular English. The availability of print media and a vibrant indigenous intellectual culture provided Indian people a tool to accept technology while denying both its dominant role in culture and the inevitability of only one form of modernism. The indigenous was thus less an engagement with their culture as in the West than a tool of anti-colonial struggle. We have shown how the Indian people used Bauhaus as a critique of colonialism itself through an undermining of its typical modes of representation and as a means of incorporating the Indian desire for spirituality into art and as providing the cultural basis for a non-materialistic and anti-industrial form of what we might now term development. The paper reflected how through painting the Bauhaus entered the artistic consciousness of the sub-continent not only for its stylistic and technical innovations but as a tool for a critical and even utopian modernism that could challenge both the hegemony of academic and orientalist art and as the bearer of a transnational avant-garde as much political as it was artistic, and as such the basis of a non-Eurocentric but genuinely cosmopolitan alternative to the hierarchies of oppression and domination that had long bound India and were at that moment rising once again to a tragic crescendo in Europe. We have talked about how the Bauhaus of today can offer an innovative orientation towards discourse around architecture and design.
Keywords: anti-colonial struggle, art over architecture, Bauhaus exhibition of 1922, industrializationProcedia PDF Downloads 169
29 The 'Plain Style' in the Theory and Practice of Project Design: Contributions to the Shaping of an Urban Image on the Waterfront Prior to the 1755 Earthquake
Authors: Armenio Lopes, Carlos Ferreira
Abstract:In the specific context of the Iberian Union between 1580 and 1640, characteristics emerged in Portuguese architecture that stood out from the main architectural production of the period. Recognised and identified aspects that had begun making their appearance decades before (1521) became significantly more marked during the Hapsburg-Spanish occupation. Distinctive even from the imperialist language of Spain, this trend would endure even after the restoration of independence (1706), continuing through to the start of the age of absolutism. Or perhaps not. This trend, recognised as Plain Style (Kubler), associated with a certain scarcity of resources, involved a certain formal and decorative simplification, as well as a particular set of conventions that would subsequently mark the landscape. This expression could also be seen as a means of asserting a certain spirit of independence as the Iberian Union breathed its last. The image of a simple, bare-bones architecture with purer design lines is associated by various authors –most notably Kubler– with the narratives of modernism, to whose principles it is similar, in a context-specific to the period. There is a contrast with some of the exuberance of the baroque or its expression in the Manueline period, in a similar fashion to modernism's responses to nineteenth-century eclecticism. This assertion and practice of simple architecture, drafted from the interpretation of the treaties, and highlighting a certain classical inspiration, was to become a benchmark in the theory of architecture, spanning the Baroque and Mannerism, until achieving contemporary recognition within certain originality and modernity. At a time when the baroque and its scenography became generally very widespread, it is important also to recognise the role played by plain style architecture in the construction of a rather complex and contradictory waterfront landscape, featuring promises of exuberance and more discrete practices.
Keywords: Carlos Mardel, Lisbon's waterfront, plain style, urban image on the waterfrontProcedia PDF Downloads 71
28 The Development of Modernist Chinese Architecture from the Perspective of Cultural Regionalism in Taiwan: Spatial Practice by the Fieldoffice Architects
Authors: Yilei Yu
Abstract:Modernism, emerging in the Western world of the 20th century, attempted to create a universal international style, which pulled the architectural and social systems created by classicism back to an initial pure state. However, out of the introspection of the Modernism, Regionalism attempted to restore a humanistic environment and create flexible buildings during the 1950s. Meanwhile, as the first generation of architects came back, the wind of the Regionalism blew to Taiwan. However, with the increasing of political influence and the tightening of free creative space, from the second half of the 1950s to the 1980s, the "real" Regional Architecture, which should have taken roots in Taiwan, becomes the "fake" Regional Architecture filled with the oriental charm. Through the Comparative Method, which includes description, interpretation, juxtaposition, and comparison, this study analyses the difference of the style of the Modernist Chinese Architecture between the period before the 1980s and the after. The paper aims at exploring the development of Regionalism Architecture in Taiwan, which includes three parts. First, the burgeoning period of the "modernist Chinese architecture" in Taiwan was the beginning of the Chinese Nationalist Party's coming to Taiwan to consolidate political power. The architecture of the "Ming and Qing Dynasty Palace Revival Style" dominated the architectural circles in Taiwan. These superficial "regional buildings" have nearly no combination with the local customs of Taiwan, which is difficult to evoke the social identity. Second, in the late 1970s, the second generation of architects headed by Baode Han began focusing on the research and preservation of traditional Taiwanese architecture, and creating buildings combined the terroirs of Taiwan through the imitation of styles. However, some scholars have expressed regret that very few regionalist architectural works that appeared in the 1980s can respond specifically to regional conditions and forms of construction. Instead, most of them are vocabulary-led representations. Third, during the 1990s, by the end of the period of martial law, community building gradually emerged, which made the object of Taiwan's architectural concern gradually extended to the folk and ethnic groups. In the Yilan area, there are many architects who care about the local environment, such as the Field office Architects. Compared with the hollow regionality of the passionate national spirits that emerged during the martial law period, the local practice of the architect team in Yilan can better link the real local environmental life and reflect the true regionality. In conclusion, with the local practice case of the huge construction team in Yilan area, this paper focuses on the Spatial Practice by the Field office Architects to explore the spatial representation of the space and the practical enlightenment in the process of modernist Chinese architecture development in Taiwan.
Keywords: regionalism, modernism, Chinese architecture, political landscape, spatial representationProcedia PDF Downloads 72
27 Colonialism and Modernism in Architecture, the Case of a Blank Page Opportunity in Casablanka
Authors: Nezha Alaoui
Abstract:The early 1950s French colonial context in Morocco provided an opportunity for architects to question the modernist established order by building dwellings for the local population. The dwellings were originally designed to encourage Muslims to adopt an urban lifestyle based on local customs. However, the inhabitants transformed their dwelling into a hybrid habitation. This paper aims to prove the relevance of the design process in accordance with the local colonial context by analyzing the dwellers' appropriation process and the modification of their habitat.
Keywords: colonial heritage, appropriation process, islamic spatial habit, housing experiment, modernist mass housingProcedia PDF Downloads 62
26 Re-interpreting Ruskin with Respect to the Wall
Authors: Anjali Sadanand, R. V. Nagarajan
Abstract:Architecture morphs with advances in technology and the roof, wall, and floor as basic elements of a building, follow in redefining themselves over time. Their contribution is bound by time and held by design principles that deal with function, sturdiness, and beauty. Architecture engages with people to give joy through its form, material, design structure, and spatial qualities. This paper attempts to re-interpret John Ruskin’s “Seven lamps of Architecture” in the context of the architecture of the modern and present period. The paper focuses on the “wall” as an element of study in this context. Four of Ruskin’s seven lamps will be discussed, namely beauty, truth, life, and memory, through examples of architecture ranging from modernism to contemporary architecture of today. The study will focus on the relevance of Ruskin’s principles to the “wall” in specific, in buildings of different materials and over a range of typologies from all parts of the world. Two examples will be analyzed for each lamp. It will be shown that in each case, there is relevance to the significance of Ruskin’s lamps in modern and contemporary architecture. Nature to which Ruskin alludes to for his lamp of “beauty” is found in the different expressions of interpretation used by Corbusier in his Villa Stein façade based on proportion found in nature and in the direct expression of Toyo Ito in his translation of an understanding of the structure of trees into his façade design of the showroom for a Japanese bag boutique. “Truth” is shown in Mies van der Rohe’s Crown Hall building with its clarity of material and structure and Studio Mumbai’s Palmyra House, which celebrates the use of natural materials and local craftsmanship. “Life” is reviewed with a sustainable house in Kerala by Ashrams Ravi and Alvar Aalto’s summer house, which illustrate walls as repositories of intellectual thought and craft. “Memory” is discussed with Charles Correa’s Jawahar Kala Kendra and Venturi’s Vana Venturi house and discloses facades as text in the context of its materiality and iconography. Beauty is reviewed in Villa Stein and Toyo Ito’s Branded Retail building in Tokyo. The paper thus concludes that Ruskin’s Lamps can be interpreted in today’s context and add richness to meaning to the understanding of architecture.
Keywords: beauty, design, facade, modernismProcedia PDF Downloads 64
25 Modern Literary Authors and Samuel Beckett's Trace of Lost Self in Modernity
Authors: Mohammad Mehdi Mazaheri, Mohammad Motiee Lahromi
Abstract:In a depression after world wars, Beckett's plays presented a picture of the world fragmented and disrupted. Among other modern literary works, Beckett's path-breakingly innovative literature presented the parodies of pointlessness of human actions and thoughts in the world. This new dramatic style catapulted Beckett to the centre stage of modern drama, though it should be mentioned that he may not have been influenced in this without the prevailing climate of ideas. The prevailing literary attitude of Modernism indicates that the modern world is irrational and incoherent. The present study explores Samuel Beckett's literary approach to modern drama and shows how the author could create the characters stuck in a lifelong suspicious about the Self.
Keywords: modern drama, absurdity, the theatre of the absurd, existentialism, self searchingProcedia PDF Downloads 418
24 Identifying Chaotic Architecture: Origins of Nonlinear Design Theory
Authors: Mohammadsadegh Zanganehfar
Abstract:Since the modernism, movement, and appearance of modern architecture, an aggressive desire for a general design theory in the theoretical works of architects in the form of books and essays emerges. Since Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown’s published complexity and contradiction in architecture in 1966, the discourse of complexity and volumetric composition has been an important and controversial issue in the discipline. Ever since various theories and essays were involved in this discourse, this paper attempt to identify chaos theory as a scientific model of complexity and its relation to architecture design theory by conducting a qualitative analysis and multidisciplinary critical approach through architecture and basic sciences resources. As a result, we identify chaotic architecture as the correlation of chaos theory and architecture as an independent nonlinear design theory with specific characteristics and properties.
Keywords: architecture complexity, chaos theory, fractals, nonlinear dynamic systems, nonlinear ontologyProcedia PDF Downloads 98
23 Modernist Trends in Ilahiyat Faculties (Islamic Studies Faculties) Turkey, Post-Coup 1980
Authors: Muhammad Hamza Tariq
Abstract:The regrouping of the Islamists and the politics of religious education was the most common debate in the last decades of Turkish history. Religious schools were criticized to be influenced by partisan politics. Within this turmoil, the faculty of Ilahiyat which was established by the Republic to cherish Islamic modernism and to raise modern clergy also underwent a considerable change. This research studies the revisions in the curriculum of the faculty over the last few decades. A series of interviews were also conducted to observe the prevalent trends, especially modernist among the professors at the Ilahiyat faculties. Lastly, a survey was done among the freshman and final year students based on the similar questions to observe the changes of opinions with regards to their views on Islam, modernity, political Islam, interpretation, etc. A shift in the curriculum was noted though it cannot be overgeneralized whereas a degree of prevalence of modernist thoughts was also recorded among the teachers and the students.
Keywords: ilahiyat, divinity, religion, IslamizationProcedia PDF Downloads 291
22 The Criteria of the Aesthetic Quality of Art: Contemporary Photography
Authors: Artem Surkov
Abstract:This work is devoted to a problem of aesthetic quality determinism in the context of contemporary art. The object of study is photography regarding as a kind of art which demands specific system of quality marking. Objective: To define aesthetic criteria in photography art. For current searching different kind of texts by such powerful authors like Clement Greenberg and Rosalind Krauss, Theodor Adorno and Herbert Marcuse, Charlott Cotton and Boris Groys, Viktor Miziano and Ekaterina Degot' were analyzed. Before all, there are two different kinds of photography: the classic art photography (by Ansel Adams) and the photography as kind of art (by Andreas Gursky). In this text we are talking about the photography as kind of art. The main principle of current searching is synthesis of two different approaches: modernism and postmodernism. This method helps us to define uniform criteria of aesthetic quality in photography as kind of art. The criteria mentioned in conclusion paragraph are: aesthetic rationality, aesthetic economy, awareness (using photographic technics or references), and intention to go beyond form, practice and method.
Keywords: aesthetic, art, criteria of quality, photography, visuallyProcedia PDF Downloads 336
21 The Manifestation of Decadent Mood in Vagif Samadoglu's Poetry
Authors: İlahe Hajiyeva Mesim
Abstract:The term "Azerbaijani decadent literature" that dates back to the 70s of the 20th century emerged due to the frustration of the people's wishes concerning egalitarian society and bright future pledged by Soviet Russia. The decadent mood - despair, loneliness, stagnation born of this delusion became the major theme of Azerbaijani literature. One of the zealous promulgators of the philosophy of decadence in Azerbaijani literature, so to speak, the founder of "Azerbaijani decadent literature" appeared to be Vagif Samadoglu known as a poet, playwright, essayist whose poems reflecting his decadent mood and motifs have become the scope of research in this paper. In his poems, the poet depicts realities with unusual metaphors, symbols and similes, giving them new breath. Vagif Samadoglu's poetry is particularly based on absurd situations of life. The figurative language and non-traditional forms of expression of associative thinking unique to the poet distinguish him from his other counterparts. A different view of reality and special approach to objects had enabled Vagif Samadoglu to occupy a leading place among modernist writers. The key purpose of the article is to reveal similar properties of decadent character in Vagif Samadoglu's poetry.
Keywords: Azerbaijan decadent literature, Vagif Samadoglu, poetry, modernismProcedia PDF Downloads 292
20 The Trend of Epidemics in Population and Body Regulation in Iran (1850-1920)
Authors: Seyedfateh Moradi
Abstract:Medical issues mark the beginning of a new form of epistemology in nineteenth-century Iran. The emergence of epidemic diseases led to the formation of a medical discourse and conflict over the body which displayed itself in the concept of health progress and development. The discourse attributed to this development in the health system defines the general structure of the given period. This discourse manifested itself in the conflict between the traditional and new medicine. The regulation and classification of body and population reveal the nature of this period. The government attempted to adapt itself to the modern and progressive discourse. This paper seeks to reveal part of this rupture and adaptation around epidemics and modern medical discourse. Also, accepting part of the traditional discourse in the new era, or adapting and integrating parts of it indicate a delegation of part of the power of traditional authorities. The delegation of power arose in the context of the discursive hegemony of Western modernism from which there was no escape. This provided the ground for the acceptance of government and emergence of other discourses. Finally, during the reign of Reza Shah (1922-1942), body and population planning changed into the key issues of government, which created serious tensions in society.
Keywords: epidemic, population, body, cholera, plagueProcedia PDF Downloads 8
19 Exploring Manufacturing Competency and Strategic Success: A Review
Authors: Chandan Deep Singh, Jaimal Singh Khamba, Harleen Kaur
Abstract:Eminence, charge, deliverance, modernism, and awareness underlie most manufacturing strategic plan today. Firms have traditionally pursued the above tasks through the implementation of advanced technologies and manufacturing practices, such as Reverse Engineering, Value Engineering, worker empowerment, etc. Recent developments in industry suggest the materialization of another route to manufacturing brilliance, that is, there is an increasing focus by industry regulators and professional bodies on the need to stimulate innovation in a broad range of manufacturing competencies. By ‘competencies’ we mean the methods, equipment and expertise that can be developed as a leading capability in one market sector or application and have real potential to be applied successfully across other sectors or applications as well. Further, competencies are the ability to apply or use a set of related knowledge, skills, and abilities to perform 'critical work functions' or tasks in a defined work setting. Competencies often serve as the basis for skill standards that specify the level of knowledge, skills, and abilities required for success in the workplace as well as potential measurement criteria for assessing competency attainment. The present research is so designed to come up to the level of the expectations of the industrialists, policy makers, designers of the competencies, specially, the manufacturing competencies upon which the whole strategic success of the industry depends.
Keywords: manufacturing competency, strategic success, manufacturing excellence, competitive strategyProcedia PDF Downloads 512
18 Explanation of Sustainable Architecture Models in Tabriz Residential Fabric Monuments: Case Study of Sharbatoglu House and Ghadaki House
Authors: Fereshteh Pashaei Kamali, Elham Kazemi, Shokooh Neshani Fam
Abstract:The subject of sustainable development is a reformist revision of modernism and tradition, proposing reconciliatory strategies between these two. Sustainability in architecture cannot only be interpreted as the construction’s physical stability, but also as stability, the preserving of the continuous totality of earth and its energy resources as well, whose available resources and materials should be employed more efficiently. In other words, by referring to the building ecology, emphasizing the combinatory capacity of the building with the environmental factors (existence context), the aim of sustainability is to achieve spatial quality and comfort, as well as proper design in the architectural composition. To achieve these traditional Iranian architecture objectives, it is essential to plan on protecting the environment, maintaining aesthetic measures and responding to the needs of each climatic region. This study was conducted based on the descriptive-analytical method, and aimed to express the design patterns compatible with the climate of the Tabriz residential fabric. The present article attempts to express the techniques and patterns used in traditional Iranian architecture, especially the Tabriz Sharbatoglu houses and Ghadaki houses, which are supposed to be in accordance with modern concepts of sustainable architecture.
Keywords: sustainable architecture, climate, Tabriz, Sharbatoglu house, Ghadaki houseProcedia PDF Downloads 296
17 Inquiry of Gender Discrimination in Contrast Emotions: A Study on Perception of Gender of Youth University
Authors: Duygu Alptekin
Abstract:Patriarchal social structure is based on a gender-based discrimination. Due to confrontational nature of discrimination; in a patriarchal society men and women exists in a based on contrasts and inequalities interaction patterns and this situation continues as socio-cultural with dominant gender perception in society. In this context gender perception of youth is a required vision tool for multidimensional understanding and resolving of gender discrimination problem and making projections about future. The aim of the study is explaining the gender discrimination by helping of Ambivalent Sexism Inventory and hostile benevolent sexism which are subdimensions of (ASI). Additionally the sexism perception of youth will be try to analyse ın the context of conflict of conventionalism and modernism. For that purpose survey have carried aout with the participation of students at the Selcuk University and the conclusions revealed that reached ampirically Young people's perceptions about the hierarchy of power revealed between men and women; sexual, economic and occupational segregation by pointing to statements about male-female relationships commitment, guardianship, gratitude, expressions containing highlights the superiority of socio-psychological (ASI) where results are determined by the application. The results of the factor analysis performed in this direction with the detection of the previous studies were evaluated by blending.
Keywords: ambivalent sexism inventory, gender discrimination, youth, conventionalismProcedia PDF Downloads 278
16 Focus on Sustainable Future of New Vernacular Architecture — Building "Vernacular Consciousness" in the New Ara
Authors: Ji Min China
Abstract:The 20th century was the century of globalization. Developed transportation and the progress of information media made the earth into a global village. The differences between regions is increasingly reduced, "cultural convergence" phenomenon intensified, regional specialties and traditional culture has been eroded. In the field of architecture, while experienced orderly rational modernism baptism, it is increasingly recognized that set the expense of cultural differences and forced to follow the universal international-style building has been outdated. At the same time, in the 21st century environmental issues has been paid more and more attention, and the concept of sustainable development and sustainable building have been proposed.This makes the domestic and foreign architects began to explore the possibilities of building and reflect local cultural characteristics of the new vernacular architecture as a viable diversified architectural tendencies by domestic and foreign architects’ favor. The author will use the production and creative process of the new vernacular architecture at home and abroad as the background, and select some outstanding examples of the analysis and discussion, then reinterpret the "new vernacular architecture" in China now. This paper will pay more attention to how to master the true meaning of the here and now "new vernacular" as well as its multiple dimensions of sustainability in the future. It also determines the paper will be a two-way aspect and multi-dimensional understanding and mining of the "new vernacular".
Keywords: new vernacular architecture, regional culture, multi dimension, sustainableProcedia PDF Downloads 361
15 Transforming Art: A Cross-Cultural Study of Visual Art and Literature in Rainer Maria Rilke
Authors: Rosy Saikia, Krishna Barua
Abstract:The evolution of visual art can be traced back from “pre-historic” humans, from the age of Paleolithic, Neolithic, and Metal Age. Mesopotamians and the Egyptians were the pioneers of art, in the first period of history. But the field of art first flourished in the west during the Renaissance. Since then, art represents a continuous yet varied tradition till present day. Until the early 19th century art focused chiefly on representational, religious and classical motifs, but gradually art became more abstract and conceptual approaches gained popularity. Rainer Maria Rilke (1875-1926) was one of the leading poets cum art critic of European modernism. This paper addresses the relationship between Rilke's poetry and visual art, which involves an intimate transference of aesthetic means and definitions of form in the creative process of writing. Rilke’s connection with Auguste Rodin made him learn that a person who can “see” things could realize the beauty of a “thing” and could subsequently write. To “see” the “thing” or “object” rather than representing emotion was considered as more important by Rodin and that was the way he cracked the old aesthetic mould. Rilke himself agreed that his correspondence with the artists made him acquainted nothing but a new way of seeing. Rilke admitted to the constant reference to the Bible, the books of the Danish poet Jens Peter Jacobsen and Auguste Rodin, who all had given him the experience of the essence of creativity, its depths and eternity. Rilke’s association with philosophers such as Nietzhche and artists, starting from Worpweders and Rodin to Cezanne’s paintings, made him almost an apprentice in visual art.
Keywords: seeing, gaze, aesthetic, beauty, visual art, RilkeProcedia PDF Downloads 430