Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3911

Search results for: focus

3911 Effects of External and Internal Focus of Attention in Motor Learning of Children with Cerebral Palsy

Authors: Morteza Pourazar, Fatemeh Mirakhori, Fazlolah Bagherzadeh, Rasool Hemayattalab

Abstract:

The purpose of study was to examine the effects of external and internal focus of attention in the motor learning of children with cerebral palsy. The study involved 30 boys (7 to 12 years old) with CP type 1 who practiced throwing beanbags. The participants were randomly assigned to the internal focus, external focus, and control groups, and performed six blocks of 10-trial with attentional focus reminders during a practice phase and no reminders during retention and transfer tests. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures on the last factor was used. The results show that significant main effects were found for time and group. However, the interaction of time and group was not significant. Retention scores were significantly higher for the external focus group. The external focus group performed better than other groups; however, the internal focus and control groups’ performance did not differ. The study concluded that motor skills in Spastic Hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy (SHCP) children could be enhanced by external attention.

Keywords: cerebral palsy, external attention, internal attention, throwing task

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3910 The Effect of Explicit Focus on Form on Second Language Learning Writing Performance

Authors: Keivan Seyyedi, Leila Esmaeilpour, Seyed Jamal Sadeghi

Abstract:

Investigating the effectiveness of explicit focus on form on the written performance of the EFL learners was the aim of this study. To provide empirical support for this study, sixty male English learners were selected and randomly assigned into two groups of explicit focus on form and meaning focused. Narrative writing was employed for data collection. To measure writing performance, participants were required to narrate a story. They were given 20 minutes to finish the task and were asked to write at least 150 words. The participants’ output was coded then analyzed utilizing Independent t-test for grammatical accuracy and fluency of learners’ performance. Results indicated that learners in explicit focus on form group appear to benefit from error correction and rule explanation as two pedagogical techniques of explicit focus on form with respect to accuracy, but regarding fluency they did not yield any significant differences compared to the participants of meaning-focused group.

Keywords: explicit focus on form, rule explanation, accuracy, fluency

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3909 Quantom Magnetic Effects of P-B Fusion in Plasma Focus Devices

Authors: M. Habibi

Abstract:

The feasibility of proton-boron fusion in plasmoids caused by magneto hydrodynamics instabilities in plasma focus devices is studied analytically. In plasmoids, fusion power for 76 keV < Ti < 1500 keV exceeds bremsstrahlung loss (W/Pb=5.39). In such situation gain factor and the ratio of Te to Ti for a typical 150 kJ plasma focus device will be 7.8 and 4.8 respectively. Also with considering the ion viscous heating effect, W/Pb and Ti/Te will be 2.7 and 6 respectively. Strong magnetic field will reduces ion-electron collision rate due to quantization of electron orbits. While approximately there is no change in electron-ion collision rate, the effect of quantum magnetic field makes ions much hotter than electrons which enhance the fraction of fusion power to bremsstrahlung loss. Therefore self-sustained p-11B fusion reactions would be possible and it could be said that p-11B fuelled plasma focus device is a clean and efficient source of energy.

Keywords: plasmoids, p11B fuel, ion viscous heating, quantum magnetic field, plasma focus device

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
3908 Honor Endorsement from the Perspective of System Justification and Regulatory Focus Orientation

Authors: Gülçin Akbas Uslu

Abstract:

Honor cultures put importance on the sexual purity of women. Women are expected to avoid acts that may spoil their honor. The emphasis on honor leads to the subordination of women and the dominance of men. In order to protect and clean honor, women are exposed to physical and psychological violence. Therefore, understanding the motivations driving people to endorse honor bears importance. For this purpose, this study aims to explore honor endorsement from the joint perspective of System Justification Theory (SJT) and Regulatory Focus Theory (RFT). SJT asserts that people have a tendency to support and rationalize the system. The motivation to maintain the system may be a factor in the endorsement of honor. RFT proposes two distinct regulatory processes, namely promotion and prevention focus. Having a dominant prevention focus, such as a deep concern for responsibilities, risk avoidance, and minimizing negative outcomes, may have a role in honor. Data were collected conveniently from 366 participants (216 women; 150 men). Participants filled out Honor Endorsement Index, Honor Based System Justification Scale and Regulatory Focus Orientation Scale Results revealed that both regulatory focus and system justification play a role in understanding honor. One-way ANOVA findings showed that individuals with a dominant prevention focus endorse honor beliefs more than individuals with a dominant promotion focus. Besides, regression analysis revealed that prevention focus and system justification significantly and positively predict honor. Results provide clarifications for why honor has an important meaning in individuals’ life and why honor-based violence is approved. These findings bear great importance in Turkey, where emphasis on honor is high and can be used in reducing people’s adherence to honor, which is based on women’s sexuality and men’s power over women.

Keywords: honor, system justification theory, regulatory focus theory, prevention focus

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3907 The Attentional Focus Impact on the Decision Making in Three-Game Situations in Tennis

Authors: Marina Tsetseli, Eleni Zetou, Maria Michalopoulou, Nikos Vernadakis

Abstract:

Game performance, besides the accuracy and the quality skills execution, depends heavily on where the athletes will focus their attention while performing a skill. The purpose of the present study was to examine and compare the effect of internal and external focus of attention instructions on the decision making in tennis at players 8-9 years old (M=8.4, SD=0.49). The participants (N=40) were divided into two groups and followed an intervention training program that lasted 4 weeks; first group (N=20) under internal focus of attention instructions and the second group (N=20) under external focus of attention instructions. Three measurements took place (pre-test, post-test, and retention test) in which the participants were video recorded while playing matches in real scoring conditions. GPAI (Game Performance Assessment Instrument) was used to evaluate decision making in three game situations; service, return of the service, baseline game. ANOVA repeated measures (2 groups x 3 measurements) revealed a significant interaction between groups and measurements. Specifically, the data analysis showed superiority of the group that was instructed to focus externally. The high scores of the external attention group were maintained at the same level at the third measurement as well, which indicates that the impact was concerning not only performance but also learning. Thus, cues that lead to an external focus of attention enhance the decision-making skill and therefore the game performance of the young tennis players.

Keywords: decision making, evaluation, focus of attention, game performance, tennis

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
3906 Using Focus Groups to Identify Mon Set Menus of Bang Kadi Community in Bangkok

Authors: S. Nitiworakarn

Abstract:

In recent years, focus-group discussions, as a resources of qualitative facts collection, have gained popularity amongst practices within social science studies. Despite this popularity, studying qualitative information, particularly focus-group meetings, creates a challenge to most practitioner inspectors. The Mons, also known as Raman is considered to be one of the earliest peoples in mainland South-East Asia and to be found in scattered communities in Thailand, around the central valley and even in Bangkok. The present project responds to the needs identified traditional Mon set menus based on the participation of Bang Kadi community in Bangkok, Thailand. The aim of this study was to generate Mon food set menus based on the participation of the community and to study Mon food in set menus of Bang Kadi population by focus-group interviews and discussions during May to October 2015 of Bang Kadi community in Bangkok, Thailand. Data were collected using (1) focus group discussion between the researcher and 147 people in the community, including community leaders, women of the community and the elderly of the community (2) cooking between the researcher and 22 residents of the community. After the focus group discussion, the results found that Mon set menus of Bang Kadi residents involved of Kang Neng Kua-dit, Kang Luk-yom, Kang Som-Kajaeb, Kangleng Puk-pung, Yum Cha-cam, Pik-pa, Kao-new dek-ha and Num Ma-toom and the ingredients used in cooking are mainly found in local and seasonal regime. Most of foods in set menus are consequent from local wisdom.

Keywords: focus groups, Mon Food, set menus, Bangkok

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
3905 Using Focus Group Method to Identify Citizen Requirements to Saudi Mobile Government Services

Authors: S. Alotaibi, D. Roussinov

Abstract:

Mobile government services implementation faces several challenges in developing countries. This paper studies some of those challenges in the context of Saudi Arabia. The study aims to investigate factors affecting m-government acceptance in Saudi Arabia, including ease of use, usefulness, service quality, trust, intention to use and users’ satisfaction. Our investigation will help in integrating the m-government services in citizens’ everyday life. We collected and analyzed our data from focus groups. These focus groups are from King Saud University and Imam Muhammed Bin Saud University, so the samples size are five and seven participants, respectively. We found that there are some factors to identifying citizen requirements to Saudi mobile government services. These services should be easy to use and not require too much effort. Also, these services must be fully trusted.

Keywords: e-government, m-government, focus group, Saudi mobile government services

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
3904 Accentuation Moods of Blaming Utterances in Egyptian Arabic: A Pragmatic Study of Prosodic Focus

Authors: Reda A. H. Mahmoud

Abstract:

This paper investigates the pragmatic meaning of prosodic focus through four accentuation moods of blaming utterances in Egyptian Arabic. Prosodic focus results in various pragmatic meanings when the speaker utters the same blaming expression in different emotional moods: the angry, the mocking, the frustrated, and the informative moods. The main objective of this study is to interpret the meanings of these four accentuation moods in relation to their illocutionary forces and pre-locutionary effects, the integrated features of prosodic focus (e.g., tone movement distributions, pitch accents, lengthening of vowels, deaccentuation of certain syllables/words, and tempo), and the consonance between the former prosodic features and certain lexico-grammatical components to communicate the intentions of the speaker. The data on blaming utterances has been collected via elicitation and pre-recorded material, and the selection of blaming utterances is based on the criteria of lexical and prosodic regularity to be processed and verified by three computer programs, Praat, Speech Analyzer, and Spectrogram Freeware. A dual pragmatic approach is established to interpret expressive blaming utterance and their lexico-grammatical distributions into intonational focus structure units. The pragmatic component of this approach explains the variable psychological attitudes through the expressions of blaming and their effects whereas the analysis of prosodic focus structure is used to describe the intonational contours of blaming utterances and other prosodic features. The study concludes that every accentuation mood has its different prosodic configuration which influences the listener’s interpretation of the pragmatic meanings of blaming utterances.

Keywords: pragmatics, pragmatic interpretation, prosody, prosodic focus

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3903 Overview of the CRM Market in Tunisia

Authors: Mohamed Amine Bouraoui

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to realize the importance of a CRM approach, to detect the degree of awareness of Tunisian managers of this importance and analyse the degree of integration of CRM in the Tunisian companies. Initially, we focus on the definition and components of CRM, then we focus on the level of integration of CRM within Tunisian enterprises.

Keywords: CRM, operational tools, analytical tools, Tunisian company

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
3902 Temporal Focus Scale: Examination of the Reliability and Validity in Japanese Adolescents and Young Adults

Authors: Yuta Chishima, Tatsuya Murakami, Michael McKay

Abstract:

Temporal focus is described as one component of an individual’s time perspective and defined as the attention individuals devote to thinking about the past, present, and future. It affects how people incorporate perceptions about past experiences, current situations, and future expectations into their attitudes, cognitions, and behavior. The 12-item Temporal Focus Scale (TFS) is comprised of three-factors (past, current and future focus). The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of TFS scores in Japanese adolescents and young adults. The TFS was translated into Japanese by a professional translator, and the original author confirmed the back translated items. Study 1 involved 979 Japanese university students aged 18-25 years old in a questionnaire-based study. The hypothesized three-factor structure (with reliability) was confirmed, although there were problems with item 10. Internal consistency estimates for scores without item 10 were over .70, and test-retest reliability was also adequate. To verify the concurrent and convergent validity, we tested the relationship between TFS scores and life satisfaction, time perspective, self-esteem, and career efficacy. Results of correlational analyses supported our hypotheses. Specifically, future focus was strongly correlated to career efficacy, while past and current focus was not. Study 2 involved 1030 Japanese junior and junior high school students aged 12-18 years old in a questionnaire-based study, and results of multigroup analyses supported the age invariance of the TFS.

Keywords: Japanese, reliability, scale, temporal focus, validity

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3901 Multi-Focus Image Fusion Using SFM and Wavelet Packet

Authors: Somkait Udomhunsakul

Abstract:

In this paper, a multi-focus image fusion method using Spatial Frequency Measurements (SFM) and Wavelet Packet was proposed. The proposed fusion approach, firstly, the two fused images were transformed and decomposed into sixteen subbands using Wavelet packet. Next, each subband was partitioned into sub-blocks and each block was identified the clearer regions by using the Spatial Frequency Measurement (SFM). Finally, the recovered fused image was reconstructed by performing the Inverse Wavelet Transform. From the experimental results, it was found that the proposed method outperformed the traditional SFM based methods in terms of objective and subjective assessments.

Keywords: multi-focus image fusion, wavelet packet, spatial frequency measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
3900 Financial Planning Framework: A Perspective of Wealth Accumulation and Retirement Planning

Authors: Stanley Yap, Mahadevan Supramaniam, Chong Wei Ying, Fatemeh Kimiyaghalam

Abstract:

Purpose: The paper shows the framework of financial planning in a different paradigm. It highlights the results from a focus group on retirement planning in the aspect of financial literacy and wealth accumulation in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: A focus group consisted of thirty individuals and divided into six different clusters amongst 25 to 55 years old. The selection of focus group members is pertaining to retirement planning behavior and saving profile from the different level of educations. Findings: Our results show, firstly, the focus group reflects individual capacity on saving attitude, financial literacy and awareness towards financial products. Secondly, availability, accessibility and affordability which are the significant factors that influence saving attitude, financial literacy and awareness on personal retirement planning behavior. Practical implications: The participants express the concerns of retirement planning during their golden years and the current financial products in the Malaysian financial market. Originality/value: This study is a different approach that recognizes the needs of the consumers in the context of retirement planning and wealth accumulation. Therefore, customers should obtain financial services and products from financial providers to achieve financial independence.

Keywords: retirement planning, wealth accumulation, financial literacy, focus group, saving attitude, availability, accessibility, affordability

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
3899 Performing Fat Activism in Australia: An Autoethnographic Exploration

Authors: Jenny Lee

Abstract:

Fat Studies is emerging as an interdisciplinary area of study, intersecting with Gender Studies, Sociology, Human Development and the Creative Arts. A focus on weight loss, and, therefore, fat hatred, has resulted in a form of discriminatory institutional practice that impacts women in the Western world. This focus is sanctioned by a large dieting industry, medical associations, the media, and at times, government initiatives. This paper will discuss the emergence of the so-called ‘Obesity Epidemic’ in Australia and the Western world and the stereotypes that thin equals healthy and fat equals unhealthy. This paper will argue that, for those with a health focus, ‘Health at every size’ is a more effective principle, which involves striving for healthy living, without a focus on weight loss. This discussion will contextualise an autoethnographic exploration of how fat acceptance and Health at Every Size can be encouraged through fat activism and fat political art. As part of this paper, a selection of the recent performance, writing and art in Australia will be presented, including Aquaporko, the fat femme synchronised swim team and VaVaBoomBah, the Melbourne fat burlesque performances.

Keywords: activism, fat, health, obesity, performance

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3898 Significant Factors in Agile Manufacturing and the Role of Product Architecture

Authors: Mehrnoosh Askarizadeh

Abstract:

Agile manufacturing concept was first coined by Iacocca institute in 1991 as a new manufacturing paradigm in order to provide and ensure competitiveness in the emerging global manufacturing order. Afterward, a considerable number of studies have been conducted in this area. Reviewing these studies reveals that they mostly focus on agile manufacturing drivers, definition and characteristics but few of them propose practical solutions to achieve it. Agile manufacturing is recommended as a successful paradigm after lean for the 21st manufacturing firms. This competitive concept has been developed in response to the continuously changes and uncertainties in today’s business environment. In order to become an agile competitor, a manufacturing firm should focus on enriching its agility capabilities. These agility capabilities can be categorized into seven groups: proactiveness, customer focus, responsiveness, quickness, flexibility, basic competence and partnership. A manufacturing firm which is aiming at achieving agility should first develop its own appropriate agility strategy. This strategy prioritizes required agility capabilities.

Keywords: agile manufacturing, product architecture, customer focus, responsiveness, quickness, flexibility, basic competence

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3897 Analysis of Soft and Hard X-Ray Intensities Using Different Shapes of Anodes in a 4kJ Mather Type Plasma Focus Facility

Authors: Mahsa Mahtab, Morteza Habibi

Abstract:

The effect of different anode tip geometries on the intensity of soft and hard x-ray emitted from a 4 kJ plasma focus device is investigated. For this purpose, 5 different anode tips are used. The shapes of the uppermost region of these anodes have been cylindrical-flat, cylindrical-hollow, spherical-convex, cone-flat and cone-hollow. Analyzed data have shown that cone-flat, spherical-convex and cone-hollow anodes significantly increase X-ray intensity respectively in comparison with cylindrical-flat anode; while the cylindrical-hollow tip decreases. Anode radius reduction at its end in conic or spherical anodes enhance SXR by increasing plasma density through collecting a greater mass of gas and more gradual transition phase to form a more stable dense plasma pinch. Also, HXR is enhanced by increasing the energy of electrons colliding with the anode surface through raise of induced electrical field. Finally, the cone-flat anode is introduced to use in cases in which the plasma focus device is used as an X-ray source due to its highest yield of X-ray emissions.

Keywords: plasma focus, anode tip, HXR, SXR, pinched plasma

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3896 Doing Cause-and-Effect Analysis Using an Innovative Chat-Based Focus Group Method

Authors: Timothy Whitehill

Abstract:

This paper presents an innovative chat-based focus group method for collecting qualitative data to construct a cause-and-effect analysis in business research. This method was developed in response to the research and data collection challenges faced by the Covid-19 outbreak in the United Kingdom during 2020-21. This paper discusses the methodological approaches and builds a contemporary argument for its effectiveness in exploring cause-and-effect relationships in the context of focus group research, systems thinking and problem structuring methods. The pilot for this method was conducted between October 2020 and March 2021 and collected more than 7,000 words of chat-based data which was used to construct a consensus drawn cause-and-effect analysis. This method was developed in support of an ongoing Doctorate in Business Administration (DBA) thesis, which is using Design Science Research methodology to operationalize organisational resilience in UK construction sector firms.

Keywords: cause-and-effect analysis, focus group research, problem structuring methods, qualitative research, systems thinking

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
3895 Using Divergent Nozzle with Aerodynamic Lens to Focus Nanoparticles

Authors: Hasan Jumaah Mrayeh, Fue-Sang Lien

Abstract:

ANSYS Fluent will be used to simulate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for an efficient lens and nozzle design which will be explained in this paper. We have designed and characterized an aerodynamic lens and a divergent nozzle for focusing flow that transmits sub 25 nm particles through the aerodynamic lens. The design of the lens and nozzle has been improved using CFD for particle trajectories. We obtained a case for calculating nanoparticles (25 nm) flowing through the aerodynamic lens and divergent nozzle. Nanoparticles are transported by air, which is pumped into the aerodynamic lens through the nozzle at 1 atmospheric pressure. We have also developed a computational methodology that can determine the exact focus characteristics of aerodynamic lens systems. Particle trajectories were traced using the Lagrange approach. The simulation shows the ability of the aerodynamic lens to focus on 25 nm particles after using a divergent nozzle.

Keywords: aerodynamic lens, divergent nozzle, ANSYS Fluent, Lagrange approach

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3894 Spatial Emission of Ions Produced by the APF Plasma Focus Device

Authors: M. Habibi

Abstract:

The angular distribution of ion beam emission from the APF plasma focus device (15kV, 40μf, 115nH) filled with nitrogen gas has been examined through investigating the effect of ion beams on aluminum thin foils in different angular positions. The samples are studied in different distances from the anode end with different shots. The optimum pressure that would be obtained at the applied voltages of 12kV was 0.7 torr. The ions flux declined as the pressure inclined and the maximum ion density at 0.7 torr was about 10.26 × 1022 ions/steradian. The irradiated foils were analyzed with SEM method in order to study their surface and morphological changes. The results of the analysis showed melting and surface evaporation effects and generation of some cracks in the specimens. The result of ion patterns on the samples obtained in this study can be useful in determining ion spatial distributions on the top of anode.

Keywords: plasma focus, spatial distribution, high energy ions, ion angular distribution

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3893 Contextual Distribution for Textual Alignment

Authors: Yuri Bizzoni, Marianne Reboul

Abstract:

Our program compares French and Italian translations of Homer’s Odyssey, from the XVIth to the XXth century. We focus on the third point, showing how distributional semantics systems can be used both to improve alignment between different French translations as well as between the Greek text and a French translation. Although we focus on French examples, the techniques we display are completely language independent.

Keywords: classical receptions, computational linguistics, distributional semantics, Homeric poems, machine translation, translation studies, text alignment

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
3892 An Exploration of Australian Teacher Training Programs in an Indonesian Context

Authors: Yayan Rahayani

Abstract:

Transnational Education (TNE) encompasses mobile and diverse student cohorts, a complex array of educational programs, and a range of providers that serve students across countries in a multicultural setting. In Australia, education is the fourth largest industry that contributes to economic prosperity, and Australia relies heavily on international students to support it. There is a concern that TNE in Australia is limited by a lack of understanding regarding cultural sensitivity towards international students. This research will contribute to the theories of Culturally Responsive Pedagogy (CRP) by incorporating religion as a dimension of culture. This study will also investigate TNE practices provided for educators from culturally diverse backgrounds. The focus of this paper will examine TNE programs in Australia with a focus on Indonesian teachers to examine the extent that they are supported culturally and religiously within the programs. The study an ethnographically-informed case study approach using in-depth interviews. The preliminary results of the study highlight the lack of focus given to the local context of participants. Whilst programs may take into consideration the religious and cultural needs of the participants, the pedagogical focus of the content does not address the local and specific contexts of the participants who will return to Indonesia to teach.

Keywords: culturally responsive pedagogy, professional development, teacher training, transnational education

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3891 Persuading ICT Consumers to Disconnect from Work: An Experimental Study on the Influence of Message Frame, Regulatory Focus, Ad Believability and Attitude toward the Ad on Message Effectiveness

Authors: Katharina Ninaus, Ralf Terlutter, Sandra Diehl

Abstract:

Information and communication technologies (ICT) have become pervasive in all areas of modern life, both in work and leisure. Technological developments and particularly the ubiquity of smartphones have made it possible for ICT consumers to be constantly connected to work, fostering an always-on mentality and increasing the pressure to be accessible at all times. However, performing work tasks outside of working hours using ICT results in a lack of mental detachment and recovery from work. It is, therefore, necessary to develop effective behavioral interventions to increase risk awareness of a constant connection to the workplace in the employed population. Drawing on regulatory focus theory, this study aims to investigate the persuasiveness of tailoring messages to individuals’ chronic regulatory focus in order to encourage ICT consumers to set boundaries by defining fixed times for professional accessibility outside of working hours in order to contribute to the well-being of ICT consumers with high ICT involvement in their work life. The experimental study examines the interaction effect between consumers’ chronic regulatory focus (i.e. promotion focus versus prevention focus) and positive or negative message framing (i.e. gain frame versus loss frame) on consumers’ intention to perform the advocated behavior. Based on the assumption that congruent messages create regulatory fit and increase message effectiveness, it is hypothesized that behavioral intention will be higher in the condition of regulatory fit compared to regulatory non-fit. It is further hypothesized that ad believability and attitude toward the ad will mediate the effect of regulatory fit on behavioral intention given that ad believability and ad attitude both determine consumer behavioral responses. Results confirm that the interaction between regulatory focus and message frame emerged as a predictor of behavioral intention such as that consumers’ intentions to set boundaries by defining fixed times for professional accessibility outside of working hours increased as congruency with their regulatory focus increased. The loss-framed ad was more effective for consumers with a predominant prevention focus, while the gain-framed ad was more effective for consumers with a predominant promotion focus. Ad believability and attitude toward the ad both emerged as predictors of behavioral intention. Mediation analysis revealed that the direct effect of the interaction between regulatory focus and message frame on behavioral intention was no longer significant when including ad believability and ad attitude as mediators in the model, indicating full mediation. However, while the indirect effect through ad believability was significant, the indirect effect through attitude toward the ad was not significant. Hence, regulatory fit increased ad believability, which then increased behavioral intention. Ad believability appears to have a superior effect indicating that behavioral intention does not depend on attitude toward the ad, but it depends on whether or not the ad is perceived as believable. The study shows that the principle of regulatory fit holds true in the context of ICT consumption and responds to calls for more research on mediators of health message framing effects.

Keywords: always-on mentality, Information and communication technologies (ICT) consumption, message framing, regulatory focus

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3890 Effect of Accelerated Ions Interacted with Al Targets Using Plasma Focus Device

Authors: Morteza Habibi, Reza Amrollahi

Abstract:

The Aluminum made targets were placed at the central part of a Fillipov type (90KJ) plasma focus cathode. These targets were exposed to perpendicular dense plasma stream incidence. Melt layer erosion by melt motion, surface smoothing, and bubble formation were some of different effects caused by diverse working conditions. Micro hardness of surface layer tends to decrease particularly in the central region of the sample where destruction is more intense. The most pronouced melt motion is registered in the region of the maximum gradient of pressure and the etching of aluminium surface is noticeable in the central part of target. The crater with a maximum depth of 200µm, and the diameter of about 8.5mm is observed close to the mountains. Adding Krypton admixture to the Deuterium gas lead to collapsing bubbles and greater surface damage.

Keywords: fillipov type plasma focus, al target interaction, bubbling effect, melt layer motion, surface smoothing

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3889 Focus Group Study Exploring Researchers Perspective on Open Science Policy

Authors: E. T. Svahn

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Knowledge about the factors that influence the exchange between research and society is of the utmost importance for developing collaboration between different actors, especially in future science policy development and the creation of support structures for researchers. Among other things, how researchers look at the surrounding open science policy environment and what conditions and attitudes they have for interacting with it. This paper examines the Finnish researchers' attitudes towards open science policies in 2020. Open science is an integrated part of researchers' daily lives and supports not only the effectiveness of research outputs but also the quality of research. Open science policy in ideal situation is seen as a supporting structure that enables the exchange between research and society, but in other situation, it can end up being red tape generating obstacles and hindering possibilities of making science in an efficient way. Results of this study were carried out through focus group interviews. This qualitative research method was selected because it aims to understand the phenomenon under study. In addition, focus group interviews produce diverse and rich material that would not be available with other research methods. Focus group interviews have well-established applications in social science, especially in understanding the perspectives and experiences of research subjects. In this study, focus groups were used in studying the mindset and actions of researchers. Each group's size was between 4-10 people, and the aim was to bring out different perspectives on the subject. The interviewer enabled the presentation of different perceptions and opinions, and the focus group interviews were recorded and written as text. The material was analysed using grounded theory method. The results are presented as thematic areas, theoretical model, and as direct quotations. Attitudes towards open science policy can vary greatly depending on the research area. This study shows that the open science policy demands in medicine, technology, and natural sciences compared to social sciences, educational sciences, and the humanities, varies somewhat. The variation in attitudes between different research areas can thus be largely explained by the fact that the research output and ethical code vary significantly between certain subjects. This study aims to increase understanding of the nuances to what extent open science policies should be tailored for different disciplines and research areas.

Keywords: focus group interview, grounded theory, open science policy, science policy

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3888 In the Primary Education, the Classroom Teacher's Procedure of Coping WITH Stress, the Health of Psyche and the Direction of Check Point

Authors: Caglayan Pinar Demirtas, Mustafa Koc

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Objective: This study was carried out in order to find out; the methods which are used by primary school teachers to cope with stress, their psychological health, and the direction of controlling focus. The study was carried out by using the ‘school survey’ and ‘society survey’ methods. Method: The study included primary school teachers. The study group was made up of 1066 people; 511 women and 555 men who accepted volunteerly to complete; ‘the inventory for collecting data, ‘the Scale for Attitude of Overcoming Stress’ (SBTE / SAOS), ‘Rotter’s Scale for the Focus of Inner- Outer Control’ (RİDKOÖ / RSFIOC), and ‘the Symptom Checking List’ (SCL- 90). The data was collected by using ‘the Scale for Attitude of Overcoming Stress’, ‘the Scale for the Focus of Inner- Outer Control’, ‘the Symptom Checking List’, and a personal information form developed by the researcher. SPSS for Windows packet programme was used. Result: The age variable is a factor in interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxciety, hostality symptoms but it is not a factor in the other symptoms. The variable, gender, is a factor in emotional practical escaping overcoming method but it is not a factor in the other overcoming methods. Namely, it has been found out that, women use emotional practical escaping overcoming method more than men. Marital status is a factor in methods of overcoming stress such as trusting in religion, emotional practical escaping and biochemical escaping while it is not a factor in the other methods. Namely, it has been found out that married teachers use trusting in religion method, and emotional practical escaping method more than single ones. Single teachers generally use biochemical escaping method. In primary school teachers’ direction of controlling focus, gender variable is a factor. It has been found out that women are more inner controlled while the men are more outer controlled. The variable, time of service, is a factor in the direction of controlling focus; that is, teachers with 1-5 years of service time are more inner controlled compared with teachers with 16-20 years of service time. The variable, age, is a factor in the direction of controlling focus; that is, teachers in 26-30 age groups are more outer controlled compared with the other age groups and again teachers in 26-30 age group are more inner controlled when compared with the other age groups. Direction of controlling focus is a factor in the primary school teachers’ psychological health. Namely, being outer controlled is a factor but being inner controlled is not. The methods; trusting in religion, active plannıng and biochemical escaping used by primary school teachers to cope with stress act as factors in the direction of controlling focus but not in the others. Namely, it has been found out that outer controlled teachers prefer the methods of trusting in religion and active planning while the inner controlled ones prefer biochemical escaping.

Keywords: coping with, controlling focus, psychological health, stress

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3887 Infection of Phlebotomus Sergenti with Leishmania Tropica in a Classical Focus of Leishmania Major in Tunisia

Authors: Kaouther Jaouadi, Jihene Bettaieb, Amira Bennour, Ghassen Kharroubi, Sadok Salem, Afif Ben Salah

Abstract:

In Tunisia, chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (L) tropica is an important health problem. Its spreading has not been fully elucidated. Information on sandfly vectors, as well as their associated Leishmania species, is of paramount importance since vector dispersion is one of the major factors responsible for pathogen dissemination. In total, 650 sandflies were captured between June and August 2015 using sticky paper traps in the governorate of Sidi Bouzid, a classical focus of L. major in the Central-West of Tunisia. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 and sequencing were used for Leishmania detection and identification. Ninety-seven unfed females were tested for the presence of Leishmania parasite DNA. Six Phlebotomus sergenti were found positive for L. tropica. This finding enhances the understanding of the cycle extension of L. tropica outside its original focus of Tataouine in the South-East of the country.

Keywords: cutaneous leishmaniasis, Leishmania tropica, sandflies, Tunisia

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3886 Simple Multipath Compensation for Frequency Modulated Signals: A Case of Radio Frequency vs. Quadrature Baseband

Authors: Lusungu Ndovi

Abstract:

Radio propagation from point-to-point is affected by the physical channel in many ways. A signal arriving at a destination travels through a number of different paths which are referred to as multi-paths. Research in this area of wireless communications has progressed well over the years with the research taking different angles of focus. By this is meant that some researchers focus on ways of reducing or eluding Multipath effects whilst others focus on ways of mitigating the effects of Multipath through compensation schemes. Baseband processing is seen as one field of signal processing that is cardinal to the advancement of software-defined radio technology. This has led to wide research into the carrying out certain algorithms at baseband. This paper considers compensating for Multipath for Frequency Modulated signals. The compensation process is carried out at Radio frequency (RF) and at Quadrature baseband (QBB) and the results are compared. Simulations are carried out using MatLab so as to show the benefits of working at lower QBB frequencies than at RF.

Keywords: quadrature baseband, qadio frequency, qultipath compensation, frequency qodulation, signal processing

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3885 Comprehensive Study of X-Ray Emission by APF Plasma Focus Device

Authors: M. Habibi

Abstract:

The time-resolved studies of soft and hard X-ray were carried out over a wide range of argon pressures by employing an array of eight filtered photo PIN diodes and a scintillation detector, simultaneously. In 50% of the discharges, the soft X-ray is seen to be emitted in short multiple pulses corresponding to different compression, whereas it is a single pulse for hard X-rays corresponding to only the first strong compression. It should be stated that multiple compressions dominantly occur at low pressures and high pressures are mostly in the single compression regime. In 43% of the discharges, at all pressures except for optimum pressure, the first period is characterized by two or more sharp peaks.The X–ray signal intensity during the second and subsequent compressions is much smaller than the first compression.

Keywords: plasma focus device, SXR, HXR, Pin-diode, argon plasma

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3884 Focus Group Discussion (FGD) Strategy in Teaching Sociolinguistics to Enhance Students' Mastery: A Survey Research in Sanata Dharma ELESP Department

Authors: Nugraheni Widianingtyas, Niko Albert Setiawan

Abstract:

For ELESP Teachers’ College, teaching learning strategies such as presentation and group discussion are classical ones to be implemented in the class. In order to create a breakthrough which can bring about more positive advancements in the learning process, a Focus Group Discussion (FGD) is being offered and implemented in certain classes. Interestingly, FGD is frequently used in the social-business inquiries such as for recruiting employees. It is then interesting to investigate FGD when it is implemented in the educational scope, especially in the Sociolinguistics class which regarded as one of the most arduous subjects in this study program. Thus, this study focused on how FGD enhances students Sociolinguistics mastery. In response to that, a quantitative survey research was conducted in which observation, questionnaire, and interview (triangulation method) became the instruments. The respondents of this study were 29 sixth-semester students who take Sociolinguistics of ELESP, Sanata Dharma University in 2017. The findings indicated that FGD could help students in enhancing Sociolinguistics mastery. In addition, it also revealed that FGD was exploring students’ logical thinking, English communication skill, and decision-making.

Keywords: focus group discussion, material mastery, sociolinguistics, teaching strategy

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3883 Identifying Understanding Expectations of School Administrators Regarding School Assessment

Authors: Eftah Bte. Moh Hj Abdullah, Izazol Binti Idris, Abd Aziz Bin Abd Shukor

Abstract:

This study aims to identify the understanding expectations of school administrators concerning school assessment. The researcher utilized a qualitative descriptive study on 19 administrators from three secondary schools in the North Kinta district. The respondents had been interviewed on their understanding expectations of school assessment using the focus group discussion method. Overall findings showed that the administrators’ understanding expectations of school assessment was weak; especially in terms of content focus, articulation across age and grade, transparency and fairness, as well as the pedagogical implications. Findings from interviews indicated that administrators explained their understanding expectations of school assessment from the aspect of school management, and not from the aspect of instructional leadership or specifically as assessment leaders. The study implications from the administrators’ understanding expectations may hint at the difficulty of the administrators to function as assessment leaders, in order to reduce their focus as manager, and move towards their primary role in the process of teaching and learning. The administrator, as assessment leaders, would be able to reach assessment goals via collaboration in identifying and listing teacher assessment competencies, how to construct assessment capacity, how to interpret assessment correctly, the use of assessment and how to use assessment information to communicate confidently and effectively to the public.

Keywords: assessment leaders, assessment goals, instructional leadership, understanding expectation of assessment

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3882 Focus-Latent Dirichlet Allocation for Aspect-Level Opinion Mining

Authors: Mohsen Farhadloo, Majid Farhadloo

Abstract:

Aspect-level opinion mining that aims at discovering aspects (aspect identification) and their corresponding ratings (sentiment identification) from customer reviews have increasingly attracted attention of researchers and practitioners as it provides valuable insights about products/services from customer's points of view. Instead of addressing aspect identification and sentiment identification in two separate steps, it is possible to simultaneously identify both aspects and sentiments. In recent years many graphical models based on Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) have been proposed to solve both aspect and sentiment identifications in a single step. Although LDA models have been effective tools for the statistical analysis of document collections, they also have shortcomings in addressing some unique characteristics of opinion mining. Our goal in this paper is to address one of the limitations of topic models to date; that is, they fail to directly model the associations among topics. Indeed in many text corpora, it is natural to expect that subsets of the latent topics have higher probabilities. We propose a probabilistic graphical model called focus-LDA, to better capture the associations among topics when applied to aspect-level opinion mining. Our experiments on real-life data sets demonstrate the improved effectiveness of the focus-LDA model in terms of the accuracy of the predictive distributions over held out documents. Furthermore, we demonstrate qualitatively that the focus-LDA topic model provides a natural way of visualizing and exploring unstructured collection of textual data.

Keywords: aspect-level opinion mining, document modeling, Latent Dirichlet Allocation, LDA, sentiment analysis

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