Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2090

Search results for: male

2090 Environmental /Occupational Factors and Seasonality of Birth- Male Infertility

Authors: C. Lalitha, R. Sayee, D. Apoorva

Abstract:

Reproductive failure or infertility may be due to several factors that are not limited to one sex. It remains a common problem causing significant psychological distress to those affected individuals and who are increasingly seeking medical advice. Male infertility means inability to induce conception in normal woman within a year. The etiological factors associated with male infertility are anatomical, developmental, seminal, hormonal, immunological and environmental factors. The paper was aimed to highlight the environmental factors and its association to male infertility and seasonality of birth and its influence. The data was collected from the 75 male patients referred with infertility for karyotyping and counseling. Their age ranged from 21 to 45 years. It is opined that certain occupations are preferentially associated with male infertility.

Keywords: environmental, occupational, seasonal, male infertility

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
2089 A Philosophical Study of Men's Rights Discourses in Light of Feminism

Authors: Michael Barker

Abstract:

Men’s rights activists are largely antifeminism. Evaluation of men’s rights discourses, however, shows that men’s rights’ goals would be better achieved by working with feminism. Discussion of men’s rights discourses, though, is prone to confusion because there is no commonly used men’s rights language. In the presentation ‘male sexism’, ‘matriarchy’ and ‘masculism’ will be unpacked as part of a suggested men’s rights language. Once equipped with a men’s rights vocabulary, sustained philosophical assessment of the extent to which several categories of male disadvantages are wrongful will be offered. Following this, conditions that cause each category of male sexism will be discussed. It shall be argued that male sexism is caused more so by matriarchy than by patriarchy or by feminism. In closing, the success at which various methods address the categories of male sexism will be contrasted. Ultimately, it will be shown that male disadvantages are addressed more successfully by methods that work with, than against, feminism.

Keywords: gender studies, feminism, patriarchy, men’s rights, male sexism, matriarchy, masculism

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
2088 Influences of Emerging Beauty Industry for Men on Construction of Masculinities of Male Students of Dhaka City

Authors: Abu Saleh Mohammad Sowad

Abstract:

Back in history, muscular and strong male body has always been used to promulgate masculinity; for physically representing supreme manliness there were not many other options. This idealized male figure was proliferated mainly for spreading the notion of male superiority in relation to power and to give a strong base to the social construction of masculinity. This study targets to disclose the perception about the attributes masculinities among the male students of Dhaka city regarding male beautification. It is an attempt to unveil young men’s perspectives regarding their masculinities and beauty. Till the very recent past, beauty was always seen as sole feminine trait in Bangladeshi society. From history we can see men have always been assumed as the ambassador of roughness but in recent time the emergence of fashion-conscious men can be seen, who are slowly occupying a handsome position in the society. Concerning study attempts to bring out the way in which such changing trend of male beauty is perceived among the male students of Dhaka city. What could be the ideologies of these young men who are being involved with it? What is influencing them to be part of such arena which, to a great extent, is still considered as female domain? Is their perception about construction of masculinity is shifting from the so called idealized masculinity? The study tries to find out the answers.

Keywords: masculinity, male beauty, Bangladesh, identity, body

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2087 Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors Influencing Male Antenatal Care Participation in Zimbabwe

Authors: Lucia Mavudzi

Abstract:

Socioeconomic and demographic factors influence male attendance of antenatal care (ANC) activities which are beneficial in improving maternal health and birth outcome. When a male, as the head of the family is expected to solely make decisions of how finances are managed, when and where health services are sought, it impacts on the woman’s health seeking behavior. Using the data from the Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey 2010-2011 this paper seeks to assess the prevalence of male ANC attendance in Zimbabwe and factors that influence male ANC attendance. We hypothesized that socioeconomic and demographic factors do not influence male ANC attendance. To achieve the objectives of this paper, descriptive analysis was used to describe the characteristics of men and the Binomial logistic modelling was used to assess the relationship between male ANC attendance and selected socioeconomic and demographic factors. Male ANC attendance was used as the dependent variable, and the independent variables are age, marital status, place of residence, wealth, education, religion and employment. A high percentage of males did not attend ANC with their pregnant partners. Religion, education, and place of residence were found to be significantly associated with male ANC attendance. There was no evidence to show that there was a difference in male ANC attendance by employment, marital status, and age. Findings from this paper are relevant to public health. They will be used to develop strategies and intervention programs to improve pregnant women’s attendance of ANC attendance by involving men in maternal health.

Keywords: antenatal care, male participation, maternal health, socio-economic and demographic factors

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2086 The confluence of Societal Dogmas and Extremist (Religious) Ideologies: A Case Study of Male Youth Involved in Violent Extremism in Sargodha and Jhang, Punjab

Authors: Tehmina Aslam

Abstract:

South-Asian societies elicit a male-dominant hierarchy, socio-economically and politico-religiously. The aim of the study was to examine the contribution of gender to violent extremism in order to devise means for its control in Pakistan. A qualitative case study based on interviews was conducted of de-radicalized former militants who were affiliated to militant organizations such as Sipahe Sahaba Pakistan, Lashkare Jhangvi, Laskhare Taibah, and Jaishe Mohammad, and who resided in Sargodha and Jhang, cities of the Punjab. The study exuded three main findings: first, gender alone was insufficient to motivate a male youth to resort to violent extremism; second, gender segregation made a male youth more vulnerable to an extremist ideology; and third, male gender was more prone to the influence of an extremist misguided religious ideology that pandered to male chauvinistic (societal dogmas constructing a male identity) needs and offered a male youth an opportunity to reinforce male dominance in society. The conclusion drawn was that the confluence of societal dogmas and extremist (religious) ideologies offered the major resistance against preventing violent extremism and, without dealing with both of them simultaneously, the tendency in male youth to resorting to violent extremism could not be dissipated.

Keywords: violent extremism, countering violent extremism, preventing violent extremism, youth

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2085 The Approach of Male and Female Spectators about the Presence of Female Spectators in Sport Stadiums of Iran

Authors: Mohammad Reza Boroumand Devlagh, Seyed Mohammad Hosein Razavi, Fatemeh Ahmadi, Azam Fazli Darzi

Abstract:

The issue of female presence in Iran stadiums has long been considered and debated by governmental experts and authorities, however, no conclusion is yielded yet. Thus, the present study has been done with the aim of investigating the approach of male and female spectators about the presence of female spectators in Iranian stadiums. The statistical population of the study includes all male and female spectators who have not experienced the live watching of male championship matches in stadiums. 224 subjects from the statistical population have selected through stratified random sampling as the sample of the study. For data collection, researcher-made questionnaire has been used whose validity has been confirmed by the university professors and its reliability has been studied and confirmed through an preliminary study. (r= 0.81). Data analysis has been done using descriptive and referential statistics in P< 0.05. The results of the study showed that male and female were meaningfully agreed with the female presence in stadiums and there is no meaningful difference between male and female approaches concerning the female spectators’ presence in sport stadiums of Iran (sig= 0.867).

Keywords: male, female spectators, Iran, sport stadiums, population

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2084 A Comparative Analysis on the Perspectives of Secular and Non-Secular Male Groups on Female Masturbation

Authors: Marc Angelo C. Balon, Maxine Joy A. Yongoyong

Abstract:

Female masturbation has been an age-old controversy. In fact, it is not widely talked about specifically in the Philippines since the Filipino culture still preserves the space for conservativeness. Although, considering the numerous and emerging studies on female masturbation, this study will focus on the perspectives of secular and non-secular male groups with regard to female masturbation. The objectives of this study is to identify the perceptions of these male groups and their taking on considering women who masturbate as their sexual partner, as a sexual object, and as a life partner and lastly, to have a comparative analysis of the perceptions of these male groups drawing out their sense of meaning on the masturbation of women. The researchers made use of purposive sampling technique and interview guide questionnaire. The secular male group were psychology students while the non-secular male group was drawn from a Catholic Church seminary in Tagaytay City, Cavite. Results showed that the secular male group had scientific perspectives such as exploring the genitals, contradicting moral perspectives on masturbation as a regular practice, while the non-secular male groups had theological perspectives in accordance with the fundamental moral theology, moral perspectives and perspectives on masturbation as a regular practice. Moreover, men who came from the non-secular group highly believe that masturbation is immoral. Otherwise, men who came from the secular group noted that masturbation is primary physiological need.

Keywords: secular, non-secular, masturbation, comparative analysis

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2083 A Study of Competition Anxiety among Male and Female Volleyball Players of Gujarat

Authors: Mukesh R. Goswami

Abstract:

Sports Competition Anxiety test (SCAT) constructed and standardized by Martens was Administrated on 30 National level (15 male, 15 female) Volleyball players of Gujarat. The age of subjects ranged between 19 to 22 years. The purpose of the study was to compare the level of Anxiety between male and female national level Volleyball players of Gujarat. Statistical analysis has been done by T-test and the significance of the result was seen on 0.05 level. The t-test showed that there was no significant difference found in mean difference among the male and the female National level Volleyball players in relation to sports competition anxiety.

Keywords: competition, anxiety, male and female volleyball players, sports

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2082 A Critical Analysis on Gaps Associated with Culture Policy Milieu Governing Traditional Male Circumcision in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

Authors: Thanduxolo Nomngcoyiya, Simon M. Kang’ethe

Abstract:

The paper aimed to critically analyse gaps pertaining to the cultural policy environments governing traditional male circumcision in the Eastern Cape as exemplified by an empirical case study. The original study which this paper is derived from utilized qualitative paradigm; and encompassed 28 participants. It used in-depth one-on-one interviews complemented by focus group discussions and key informants as a method of data collection. It also adopted interview guide as a data collection instrument. The original study was cross-sectional in nature, and the data was audio recorded and transcribed later during the data analysis and coding process. The study data analysis was content thematic analysis and identified the following key major findings on the culture of male circumcision policy: Lack of clarity on culture of male circumcision policy operations; Myths surrounding procedures on culture of male circumcision; Divergent views on cultural policies between government and male circumcision custodians; Unclear cultural policies on selection criteria of practitioners; and Lack of policy enforcement and implementation on transgressors of culture of male circumcision. It recommended: a stringent selection criteria of practitioners; a need to carry out death-free male circumcision; a need for male circumcision stakeholders to work with other culture and tradition-friendly stakeholders.

Keywords: human rights, policy enforcement, traditional male circumcision, traditional surgeons and nurses

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2081 Assessment of Nutrient Intake, Nutritional Knowledge and Dietary Habits of Omani University Student Athletes

Authors: Amanat Ali, Muhammad S. Al-Siyabi, Mostafa I. Waly, Hashem Al-Kilani

Abstract:

In a cross-sectional research design, we assessed the nutrient intake, nutritional status, nutritional knowledge and dietary habits of Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) student athletes. A total of 71 (49 male and 22 female) student athletes with a mean age of 21.0 ± 1.81 and 19.32 ± 0.72 years and body mass index (BMI) of 22.51 ± 1.98 and 20.34 ± 2.97 kg/m2 for male and female respectively, participated in this study. A study questionnaire consisting of 2 sections was distributed to the participants. Section I included 18 questions regarding the demographic information, whereas the Section II consisted of 20 questions regarding the nutrition knowledge. The dietary intake of participants was collected by using a 7-days food diary identifying the frequency as well as the variety of food consumption. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed in the main sources of nutrition information used by the male and female athletes. Male athletes mainly had most of the nutrition information from friends (17%) whereas female athletes relied mainly on the family (20%). More female athletes (20%) were using TV as a source of nutrition information as compared to male athletes (15%). Both male and female athletes had the minimum nutrition information from dietitians and physicians. Significant (P < 0.05) differences were also observed in the nutritional knowledge and dietary habits scores of male and female athletes, which were 57 % and 49 %, respectively. Male athletes were classified to have fair nutritional knowledge and dietary habits, whereas the female athletes had poor nutritional knowledge and dietary habits. The average daily energy intake of male athletes was 2595 ± 358 kcal/day. Carbohydrate, fat, and protein contributed 64%, 22%, and 14%, of the total energy intake for the male athletes, respectively. The energy and macronutrients intake of male athletes was within the recommended dietary intake. The results indicated some gaps in the nutritional knowledge of SQU student athletes and suggest that there is a need for developing strategies in counseling and teaching the athletes to improve their nutritional knowledge and dietary habits.

Keywords: nutrient assessment, nutritional knowledge, dietary habits, Omani University athletes

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2080 The Comparison of Depression Level of Male Athlete Students with Non-Athlete Students

Authors: Seyed Hossein Alavi, Farshad Ghazalian, Soghra Jamshidi

Abstract:

The present study was done with the purpose of considering mental health and general purpose of describing and comparing depression level of athlete and non-athlete male students educational year of 2012 Research method in this study in proportion to the selective title, descriptive method is causative – comparative. Research samples were selected randomly from B.A students of different fields including 500 students. Average mean of research samples was between 20 to 25 years. Data collection tool is questionnaire of depression measurement of Aroun Beck (B.D.I) that analyzes and measures 21 aspects of depression in 6 ranges. Operation related to analysis of statistical data to extraction of results was done by SPSS software. To extraction of research obtained by comparison of depression level mean, show that the hypothesis of the research (H_1) based on the existence of the significance scientific difference was supported and showed that there’s a significance difference between depression level of athlete male students in comparison with depression level of non-athlete male students. Thus, depression level of athlete male students was lower in comparison with depression level of non-athlete male students.

Keywords: depression, athlete students, non-athlete students

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2079 Comparative Study of Propensity for Amyloidogenesis in Male and Female Mice

Authors: Keivan Jamshidi, Afshin Zahedi

Abstract:

Reactive amyloidosis is a condition that complicates a long list of chronic inflammation, chronic infectious, malignant, and hereditary disorders. In the present study the propensity for amyloidogenesis in male and female rats on spatio-temporal pattern was evaluated. For this purpose a total of 40 male and female Swiss mice, obtained from Pasteur Institute Tehran, after being weighted were randomly divided into 4 groups including 2 treatment groups [ 10 male (Group A1) and 10 female (Group B1) each], and 2 control groups [10 male (Group A2) and 10 female (Group B2) each]. At the end of 3rd, 5th and 7th weeks of experiment 3 mice were randomly selected and euthnised. Spleen samples of each animal were obtained and preserved in 10% neutral buffer formalin. Sample were then processed through different stages of dehydration, clearing and impregnation and finally embedded in paraffin blocks. Sections of 5µm thickness then cut and stained by alkaline Congo red techniques. The data obtained from polarized microscopic quantitative analysis did show significant differences between groups A1 and B1. A preferential expression of reactive amyloidosis is concluded in male, indicating sex differences in amyloidosis.

Keywords: amyloidosis, amyloidogenesis, mice, gender

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2078 The Moving and Special Ability Influence Player Preference in the Dual Protagonist Game

Authors: Shih-Chieh Liao, Jen-Ying Ma

Abstract:

Dual protagonists game always bring a unique experience compared to the other games. This research wants to discuss whether the dual protagonists have the moving ability and special ability or not; it will affect the preference of the players. This research will focus on the single-player dual protagonists game. After the observation, we found that when players control the dual protagonists, the moving ability and special ability are a great point defining the preference of players. When players control the character, which is lack of moving ability, they often feel impatient with the inconvenient mechanism and then reduce the will to play with the character or even the game. Furthermore, the special ability is also important in the situation that there is another character to compare with. When the character is too powerful, players tend not to use the weaker one. In addition, gender is a big deal in the games. It surprisingly controls the will of play occasionally. In view of these, this research makes a single-player dual protagonists game and the dual protagonists are limited to male and female. The experiment content detected with Electrodermal Activity (EDA) includes seven different situations. (1) male and females both have the moving ability and special ability. (2) male and female both have a special ability, but female does not have the moving ability. (3) male and females both have a special ability, but the male does not have the moving ability. (4) male and female both have the moving ability, but the male does not have special ability (5) male and female both have the moving ability, but female does not have a special ability (6) male-only has the moving ability and female-only has a special ability (7) male-only has a special ability and female only has the moving ability. The experiment will evaluate the emotional changes of the subjects in those situations. The result sorted by the significance of player preference is (6)>(4)>(1)>(2)>(5)>(3)>(7). The result demonstrates that players prefer females with special abilities or males with moving abilities. The game developer could design the ability of dual protagonists based on this research. Therefore, players may have a better experience.

Keywords: biofeedback, dual protagonists, emotional responses, psychology, user experience

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2077 Overuse Equals to Low Proficiency Level in English: A Corpus-Based Study on the Use of Linking Adverbials between Male and Female Speakers

Authors: Tsungming Wu

Abstract:

The present paper investigates the use of linking adverbials between native male speakers and female speakers in their presentation. From previous studies, overuse of linking adverbials may be an indicator of the low proficiency level in English. In this study, female speakers are found to use more linking adverbials in general. However, the overuse of linking adverbials found in female speakers’ speeches does not imply female speakers’ lower English proficiency, but imply different approaches that male and female speakers adopt in dealing with their presentation tasks. Female speakers are found to be more interactional, leading to their more uses of interactive devices in the presenting process. On the other hand, male speakers take different approaches in dealing with their tasks. Male speakers try to be authoritative and amicable at the same time, resulting in the uses of both interactive devices and distancing devices in their speeches. The paper specifically presents and compares the use of the linking adverbial items, actually and so, in male speakers’ and female speakers’ speeches.

Keywords: LAs, linking adverbial, low proficiency, overuse

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2076 Study of the Mental Toughness of the Basketball Players

Authors: Jaswinder Singh

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to compare the mental toughness between male and female basketball players of District shri muktsar sahib Panjab. A sample of fifty male players (N=50) age ranging 18 to 25 years and Fifty female player(N=50) age ranging 18 to 25 years. The Data was collected by using mental toughness questionnaire developed by Goldberg (1998). The t-test was applied to assess the differences male and female basketball players. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Study revealed that there were significant differences male and female basketball players with regard to Rebound Ability, Ability to Handle Pressure, Confidence and Overall Mental Toughness and insignificant differences with regard to Concentration and Motivation.

Keywords: mental toughness, basketball, psychological, competitive

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2075 Growth Pattern and Condition Factor of Oreochromis niloticus and Sarotherodon galilaeus in Epe Lagoon, Lagos State, Nigeria

Authors: Ahmed Bolaji Alarape, Oluwatobi Damilola Aba

Abstract:

The growth pattern of Oreochromis niloticus and Sarotherodon galilaeus in Epe Lagoon Lagos State was investigated. One hundred (100) samples of each species were collected from fishermen at the landing site. They were transported to the Fisheries Laboratory of National Institute of Oceanography for identification, sexing morphometric measurement. The results showed that 58.0% and 56.0 % of the O.niloticus and S.galilaeus were female respectively while 42.0% and 44.0% were male respectively. The length-weight relationship of O.niloticus showed a strong regression coefficient (r = 0.944) (p<0.05) for the combined sex, (r =0.901) (p<0.05) for female and (r=0.985) (p<.05) for male with b-value of 2.5, 3.1 and 2.8 respectively. The S.galilaeus also showed a regression coefficient of r=0.970; p<0.05 for the combined sex, r=0.953; p<0.05 for the female and r= 0.979; p<0.05 for the male with b-value of 3.4, 3.1 and 3.6 respectively. O.niloticus showed an isometric growth pattern both in male and female. The condition factor in O.niloticus are 1.93 and 1.95 for male and female respectively while that of S.galilaeus is 1.95 for both sexes. Positive allometric was observed in both species except the male O.niloticus that showed negative allometric growth pattern. From the results of this study, the growth pattern of the two species indicated a good healthy environment.

Keywords: Epe Lagoon, length-weight relationship, Oreochromis niloticus, Sarotherodon galilaeus

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2074 The Safety of Microbiologically Prepared Fructooligosaccharide on White Albino Rats

Authors: Olayinka Risiquat Raimi

Abstract:

FOS was produced from FTase of Aspergillus niger. HPLC analysis showed 32.24%. Consisting of 28.57% ketose and 4.67% nystose. Effects of FOS were studied on 12 weeks old albino rats. All animals survived until scheduled euthanasia. A low incidence of clinical sign and no toxicological effect were observed. Male rats fed with 2500mg/kg fructooligosaccharides had the highest weight. Male and female rat showed a significant increase in weight from first week to the fifth week. All haematological parameters examined were normal in male and female rats. Mean haematological and haemoglobin values for 2500mg/kg bw FOS fed male rats were the highest. Clinical chemistry test, glucose, albumin, and cholesterol were within normal laboratory values for a rat. The mean glucose value was lower for FOS fed male and female rats compared to those fed with honey and 60% sucrose. Gross necropsy observation showed no remarkable internal gross abnormalities for any of the animals.

Keywords: fructooligosaccharide, white albino rat, haematology values, clinical chemistry values

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2073 A Comparative Study of Spirituality and Psychological Well-Being among Senior Secondary Male and Female Students

Authors: Farzana Parveen, Shahina Maqbool

Abstract:

Nowadays most of the researchers focused on adolescents that were the most crucial and critical stage of their life’s. In this study, we want to know to what extent does spirituality and psychological well-being plays a vital role in adolescent’s life, and to what extent both were correlated. The first objective of the present study is to examine difference between the mean scores of male and female students on spirituality and Psychological well-being. The second objective of this study is to find out the relationship between Spirituality and Psychological Well-being. The participants of the present study comprised N=100 students who are further divided n=50 male and n=50 female and they were from senior secondary schools and recruited from Metropolitan cities, their age ranged from 13 to 18 years. Data were collected through Spirituality questionnaire and Psychological well-being questionnaire. Results showed that there was insignificant difference between male and female students on spirituality and significant difference between male and female students on psychological well-being. Relationship showed that there was positive correlation between spirituality and psychological well-being. Result was analyzed by SPSS version 20.0 software. Insignificant difference was found between males and females students on Spirituality and significant difference showed between males and females students on Psychological well-being. There was positive correlation between Spirituality and psychological well-being.

Keywords: spirituality, psychological well-being, male and female, students

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2072 Girl Child Education: A Veritable Tool to Gender Equality and Empowerment

Authors: Egena Obaje Innocent

Abstract:

In Africa generally and Nigeria in particular one the major setbacks for the girl-child is her deprivation or denial if you like to equal opportunity to education. In most Nigerian communities which are male dominated parents make no pretense of their preference of the male children when it come to the choice of who to send to school between the male and female child. Indeed, certain inhibiting cultural and religious practices are the root cause of this annually. It is against this background that this paper looked at the phenomenon the girl-child education, causes of the negligent its effects on the girl child and nation remedies and conclusion.

Keywords: education, empowerment, girl child, gender equality

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2071 A Study on the Effects of Prolactin and Its Abnormalities on Semen Parameters of Male White Rats

Authors: R. Hasan

Abstract:

Male factor infertility due to endocrine disturbances such as abnormalities in prolactin levels are encountered in a significant proportion. This case control study was carried out to determine the effects of prolactin on the male reproductive tract, using 200 male white rats. The rats were maintained as the control group (G1), hypoprolactinaemic group (G2), 3 hyperprolactinaemic groups induced using oral largactil (G3), low dose fluphenazine (G4) and high dose fluphenazine (G5). After 100 days, rats were subjected to serum prolactin (PRL) level measurements and for basic seminal fluid analysis (BSA). The difference between serum PRL concentrations of rats in G2, G3, G4 and G5 as compared to the control group were highly significant by Student’s t-test (p<0.001). There were statistically significant differences in seminal fluid characteristics of rats with induced prolactin abnormalities when compared with those of control group (p value <0.05), effects were more marked as the PRL levels rise.

Keywords: male factor infertility, prolactin, seminal fluid analysis, animal studies

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2070 The Effect of Spent Mushroom Substrate on Blood Metabolites in Kurdish Male Lambs

Authors: Alireza Vakili, Shahab Ehtesham, Mohsen Danesh Mesgaran

Abstract:

The objective of this study was use different levels of spent mushroom substrate as a suitable substitute for wheat straw in the ration of male lambs. In this study 20 male lambs with the age of 90 days and initial average weight of 33± 1.7 kg were used. The animals were divided separately into single boxes with four treatments (control treatment, spent mushroom substrate 15%, spent mushroom substrate 25% and spent mushroom substrate 35%) and five replications. The experiment period was 114 days being 14 days adaptation and 90 days for breeding. On the days 36 and 94, blood samples were taken from the jugular vein. In order to carry out the trial, 20 male lambs received the four experimental diets in completely randomized design. The statistical analyses were carried out by using the GLM procedure of SAS 9.1. Means among treatments were compared by Tukey test. The results of the study showed that there was no significant differences between the serum biochemical and hematological contents of the lambs in the four treatments (p>0.05). It was concluded that spent mushroom substrate consumption has no harmful effect on the blood parameters of Kurdish male lambs.

Keywords: alternative food, nutrition, sheep performance, spent mushroom substrate

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2069 Sentence Variation in Academic Writing: A Contrastive Study of the Variation of Sentence Types between Male and Female ESL Writers

Authors: Fatima Muhammad Shitu

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the variation of sentence types in English academic writing. The major focus is on whether variation in sentence types can be attributable to the linguistic and most of all the gender of the writers. The objective of this paper is to analyze the sentence types produced by Male and Female ESL writers and to determine whether writers vary the frequency and use of sentence types across the text depending on the rhetorical choices of the writers to construct identity. This study is hinged on the functionalist approach to analyzing academic writing in use. For the purpose of this study, a corpus of 20 academic papers was created and the use of sentences types was analyzed. The data for the study was collated using percentages. In this case, the number of occurrences of the different sentence types were analyzed, calculated and then converted to percentages for each group i.e., male and female ESL writers. The results from these analyses were compared and contrasted in order to determine whether Male and Female ESL writer vary their sentence types, and, or employed the same or different sentence types in their texts. The conclusion is that Male and Female ESL writers not only vary in their use of sentence types in academic writings but also differ.

Keywords: sentence variation, ESL, gender, academic writing

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2068 Promoting Couple HIV Testing among Migrants for HIV Prevention: Learnings from Integrated Counselling and Testing Centre (ICTC) in Odisha, India

Authors: Sunil Mekale, Debasish Chowdhury, Sanchita Patnaik, Amitav Das, Ashok Agarwal

Abstract:

Background: Odisha is a low HIV prevalence state in India (ANC-HIV positivity of 0.42% as per HIV sentinel surveillance 2010-2011); however, it is an important source migration state with 3.2% of male migrants reporting to be PLHIV. USAID Public Health Foundation of India -PIPPSE project is piloting a source-destination corridor programme between Odisha and Gujarat. In Odisha, the focus has been on developing a comprehensive strategy to reach out to the out migrants and their spouses in the place of their origin based on their availability. The project has made concerted attempts to identify vulnerable districts with high out migration and high positivity rate. Description: 48 out of 97 ICTCs were selected from nine top high out migration districts through multistage sampling. A retrospective descriptive analysis of HIV positive male migrants and their spouses for two years (April 2013-March 2015) was conducted. A total of 3,645 HIV positive records were analysed. Findings: Among 34.2% detected HIV positive in the ICTCs, 23.3% were male migrants and 11% were spouses of male migrants; almost 50% of total ICTC attendees. More than 70% of the PLHIV male migrants and their spouses were less than 45 years old. Conclusions: Couple HIV testing approach may be considered for male migrants and their spouses. ICTC data analysis could guide in identifying the locations with high HIV positivity among male migrants and their spouses.

Keywords: HIV testing, migrants, spouse of migrants, Integrated Counselling and Testing Centre (ICTC)

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2067 The Effects of Music and Gender on Recall Ability on College Students: A Study in Students from Universitas Indonesia

Authors: Hestika D. Waraningrum, Indriani N. Khairunnisa, Nabila Isnandini, Nadine Yasminah, Sekar A. Winesa

Abstract:

Each individual’s ability to recall, whether they are male or female, is allegedly influenced by the environmental circumstances during the recalling process. The presence of a distraction is one of the environmental variables that affect recall ability in its capacity in the Short Term Memory. This study was made to see the difference in number of words that was successfully recalled by male participants and female participants with the presence of music as a distraction and also without music as a distraction. Data was taken using an experimental procedure from 75 female and male undergraduate students of Universitas Indonesia. The study design used was a 2x2 Factorial ANOVA, which aimed to see the difference between two variables, which were gender (male vs female) and the presence of a distraction (music serving as a distraction vs absence of music). The results indicated that there were no significant mean differences in the ability to recall between male and female participants. There are no significant mean differences between the presence and the absence of music as a distraction, but a significant interaction was found between gender and distraction with the ability to recall.

Keywords: college, gender, music, recall

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2066 Trans-Gendered Female Characters: A Comparative Study of Two Female Characters in English and Persian Literature - Lady Macbeth and Gord Afarid

Authors: Seyedeh Azadeh Johari

Abstract:

For thousand years, the literature of the world has been mostly composed of men, and in all different forms of it, men have tried to propose their masculine desires, ideologies, and beliefs. What has been less written about or studied, however, was the role that female desire plays in the predominantly masculine society, and mostly the role of male desires was the key point in literature. Male writers have mostly shown their female characters either as stereotypes and void of dynamic characters, images of a meek person who bent to the will of her male superiors or as wicked or villains. The only exception was the kind of strong and courageous women who have mostly been masculinized by their authors, mostly male authors, as showing the valuable or important features of men, instead of women’s. These characters are transgendered by the author and have a gender identity or expression that differs from the sex to which they were assigned. This is the issue that is discussed in this project. We will refer to some examples of female characters who show masculine traits and characteristics.

Keywords: comparative literature, female, masculinized, transgendered

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2065 Chaos Fuzzy Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Mohammad Jalali Varnamkhasti

Abstract:

The genetic algorithms have been very successful in handling difficult optimization problems. The fundamental problem in genetic algorithms is premature convergence. This paper, present a new fuzzy genetic algorithm based on chaotic values instead of the random values in genetic algorithm processes. In this algorithm, for initial population is used chaotic sequences and then a new sexual selection proposed for selection mechanism. In this technique, the population is divided such that the male and female would be selected in an alternate way. The layout of the male and female chromosomes in each generation is different. A female chromosome is selected by tournament selection size from the female group. Then, the male chromosome is selected, in order of preference based on the maximum Hamming distance between the male chromosome and the female chromosome or The highest fitness value of male chromosome (if more than one male chromosome is having the maximum Hamming distance existed), or Random selection. The selections of crossover and mutation operators are achieved by running the fuzzy logic controllers, the crossover and mutation probabilities are varied on the basis of the phenotype and genotype characteristics of the chromosome population. Computational experiments are conducted on the proposed techniques and the results are compared with some other operators, heuristic and local search algorithms commonly used for solving p-median problems published in the literature.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, fuzzy system, chaos, sexual selection

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2064 Comparative Perceptions on Gender, Leadership, and Diversity

Authors: Saloni Diwakar, Hansika Kapoor

Abstract:

The study undertook comparative analyses between 130 male and female managers in a power/electric company, relating to prevalent perceptions about gendered leadership, leadership efficacy, perceived organizational support, and diversity and inclusiveness. Results showed no significant difference in POS, leadership aspirations, expression, and self- and other leadership efficacy between male and female managers. However, within-groups analyses revealed that female managers reported a disparity between self and other leadership efficacy (value), to a far greater extent than male managers (value). Additionally, females reported a dip in POS during middle management, as compared to junior management, whereas men reported a steady increase in POS from junior, middle on to senior management. Descriptively, both men and women reported preferring gender neutral leadership traits, as compared to male or female centered traits, and both genders least preferred male centered leadership traits. Compared to women, male managers were found to significantly undervalue diversity and inclusion initiatives. Subjective feedback was elicited to corroborate quantitative output. Also, female participants provided subjective feedback regarding efficacy of existing D&I practices in the organization. Findings and implications are discussed relevant to existing gender inclusion agendas.

Keywords: gendered leadership, diversity, inclusivity, perceived organizational support

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2063 Effect of Sex and Breed on Live Weight of Adult Iranian Pigeons

Authors: Sepehr Moradi, Mehdi Asadi Rad

Abstract:

This study is to evaluate the live weight of adult pigeons to investigate about their sex, race, their mutual effects and some auxiliary variables in 4 races of Kabood, Tizpar, Parvazy, and Namebar. In this paper, 152 pieces of pigeons as 76 male and female pairs with equal age are studied randomly. Then the birds were weighted by a scale with one gram precision. Software was used for statistical analysis. Mean live weight of adult male and female pigeons in 4 races (Kabood, Tizpar, Parvazy and Namebar with (15, 20, 20, 21) and (20, 21, 18, 17) records were, (530±56, 388.75±32, 392±34, 552±48) and (446±34, 342±32, 341±46, 457±57) gr, respectively. Difference weight of adult live of male with female was significant in 1% level (P < 0.01). Difference live weight of male adult pigeon was significant in 5% level (P < 0.05). Different live weight of female adult pigeon between Kabood, Parvazy and Tizpar races were significant in 5% level (P < 0.05) but mean live weight Kabood race with Namebar race and Parvazy with Tizpar were not significant. The results showed that most and least mean live weights belonged to Namebar of the male pigeon race and Parvazy of the female pigeon race.

Keywords: Iranian Native Pigeons, adult weight, live weight, adult pigeons

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2062 Effect of Education and Occupation on Smokeless Tobacco Use: A Study of Male Adults in India

Authors: Ramu Rawat

Abstract:

Background: This paper is an effort to analyze the role of education and occupation as critical determinants in using smokeless tobacco among male adults in India and its selected states. Methodology: Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) India 2009-10 data have been used for this study. Bivariate and Multivariate (Cox proportion hazards model) analyses are carried out to measure the impact of education and occupation on use of smokeless tobacco among male adults in India. Results and Conclusion: The study evidently suggests that, majority of Indian male adults are using Khaini and Gutkha (local names for smokeless tobacco). The analysis also shows that education and occupation are two important critical predictors of use of smokeless tobacco. The males at younger age with no or little education from rural area use smokeless tobacco more than their counterpart group from urban areas. This distinction can be attributable to their lack of knowledge or ignorance about the consequences of tobacco consumption. Place of residence played significant role for declining use of smokeless tobacco along with the effect of society. Society awareness about harmful effects of smokeless tobacco with local level government may play important role for controlling the use of any type of tobacco or tobacco products in India.

Keywords: smokeless tobacco, male, Khaini, education, occupation

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2061 Effects of Obesity and Family History of Diabetes on the Association of Cholesterol Ester Transfer Protein Gene with High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Korean Population

Authors: Jae Woong Sull

Abstract:

Lipid levels are related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) gene is one of the candidate genes of cardiovascular diseases. A total of 2,304 persons were chosen from a Hospital (N=4,294) in South Korea. Female subjects with the CG/GG genotype had a 2.03 -fold (p=0.0001) higher risk of having abnormal HDL cholesterol levels (<40 mg/dL) than subjects with the CC genotype. Male subjects with the CG/GG genotype had a 1.34 -fold (p=0.0019) higher risk than subjects with the CC genotype. When analyzed by body mass index, the association with CETP was much stronger in male subjects with BMI>=25.69 (OR=1.55, 95% CI: 1.15-2.07, P=0.0037) than in male lean subjects. When analyzed by family history of diabetes, the association with CETP was much stronger in male subjects with positive family history of low physical activity (OR=4.82, 95% CI: 1.86-12.5, P=0.0012) than in male subjects with negative family history of diabetes. This study clearly demonstrates that genetic variants in CETP influence HDL cholesterol levels in Korean adults.

Keywords: CETP, diabetes, obesity, polymorphisms

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