Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 396

Search results for: characters

396 Women Characters in Pakistani Films: A Critical Evaluation

Authors: Ali Arshad

Abstract:

The study examines the depiction of women characters in Urdu and Punjabi films. It is a critical evaluation of forty-eight Pakistani films. It explores the characters of women portrays in Urdu and Punjabi film of Pakistan. Using content analysis as methodology with feminist research that helps to investigate the phenomena and supports the study. Finding of the study shows that women characters in Urdu and Punjabi films are not the reflection of true Pakistani women rather this picture represents a negative image of Pakistani women in viewers mind. These characters don’t address the women’s issues nor do they present the solutions to these problems faced by Pakistani women. The characters of Pakistani women are not free from male prejudice, and these films do not portray the social and political role perform by actual Pakistani women. The analysis shows that the characters of women in Urdu and Punjabi films are based on the assumptions.

Keywords: women, Pakistani, film, characters

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
395 A Relationship Extraction Method from Literary Fiction Considering Korean Linguistic Features

Authors: Hee-Jeong Ahn, Kee-Won Kim, Seung-Hoon Kim

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The knowledge of the relationship between characters can help readers to understand the overall story or plot of the literary fiction. In this paper, we present a method for extracting the specific relationship between characters from a Korean literary fiction. Generally, methods for extracting relationships between characters in text are statistical or computational methods based on the sentence distance between characters without considering Korean linguistic features. Furthermore, it is difficult to extract the relationship with direction from text, such as one-sided love, because they consider only the weight of relationship, without considering the direction of the relationship. Therefore, in order to identify specific relationships between characters, we propose a statistical method considering linguistic features, such as syntactic patterns and speech verbs in Korean. The result of our method is represented by a weighted directed graph of the relationship between the characters. Furthermore, we expect that proposed method could be applied to the relationship analysis between characters of other content like movie or TV drama.

Keywords: data mining, Korean linguistic feature, literary fiction, relationship extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
394 Trans-Gendered Female Characters: A Comparative Study of Two Female Characters in English and Persian Literature - Lady Macbeth and Gord Afarid

Authors: Seyedeh Azadeh Johari

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For thousand years, the literature of the world has been mostly composed of men, and in all different forms of it, men have tried to propose their masculine desires, ideologies, and beliefs. What has been less written about or studied, however, was the role that female desire plays in the predominantly masculine society, and mostly the role of male desires was the key point in literature. Male writers have mostly shown their female characters either as stereotypes and void of dynamic characters, images of a meek person who bent to the will of her male superiors or as wicked or villains. The only exception was the kind of strong and courageous women who have mostly been masculinized by their authors, mostly male authors, as showing the valuable or important features of men, instead of women’s. These characters are transgendered by the author and have a gender identity or expression that differs from the sex to which they were assigned. This is the issue that is discussed in this project. We will refer to some examples of female characters who show masculine traits and characteristics.

Keywords: comparative literature, female, masculinized, transgendered

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393 Innovative Pictogram Chinese Characters Representation

Authors: J. H. Low, S. H. Hew, C. O. Wong

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This paper proposes an innovative approach to represent the pictogram Chinese characters. The advantage of this representation is using an extraordinary to represent the pictogram Chinese character. This extraordinary representation is created accordingly to the original pictogram Chinese characters revolution. The purpose of this innovative creation is to assistant the learner learning Chinese as second language (SCL) in Chinese language learning specifically on memorize Chinese characters. Commonly, the SCL will give up and frustrate easily while memorize the Chinese characters by rote. So, our innovative representation is able to help on memorize the Chinese character by the help of visually storytelling. This innovative representation enhances the Chinese language learning experience of SCL.

Keywords: Chinese e-learning, innovative Chinese character representation, knowledge management, language learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
392 The Analysis of Female Characters in Shakespeare’s Work; Contrast between the Submissive and the Wicked

Authors: Jeong Hwa Ryong

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Numerous characters appear in the works of England’s most prominent play writer, William Shakespeare. Most of the time, his male protagonists possess various and complex characteristics throughout the storyline of his work, making it interesting for the readers to analyze their actions in many different aspects. However, some critics argue that unlike male characters, Shakespeare’s female characters are rather more flat and one-sided, pointing out that they are either the extreme version of good or evil. Especially, it is a significant topic to discuss in the modern days, considering the fact that gender stereotype is now a sensitive issue. Starting from such argument, it is important to address their purpose of being in the play and suggest their meaning to the modern readers of today. In this context, this paper analyzes several female characters of Shakespeare’s work by closely examining their actions and lines. The characters analyzed are Ophelia from Hamlet, Cordelia from King Lear, Katherine from The Taming of the Shrew, Goneril from King Lear and Lady Macbeth from Macbeth. Nevertheless, some female protagonists of Shakespeare’s work do not fall in to this category and exceed the limitations of others. Therefore this paper proposes alternative characters such as Juliet from Romeo and Juliet and Portia from The Merchant of Venice that are rather more complex and difficult to include in just one category. By doing so, this paper critically analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of many female characters in Shakespeare’s play.

Keywords: female characters, gender stereotype, William Shakespeare

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
391 Designing Cultural-Creative Products with the Six Categories of Hanzi (Chinese Character Classification)

Authors: Pei-Jun Xue, Ming-Yu Hsiao

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Chinese characters, or hanzi, represent a process of simplifying three-dimensional signs into plane signifiers. From pictograms at the beginning to logograms today, a Han linguist thus classified them into six categories known as the six categories of Chinese characters. Design is a process of signification, and cultural-creative design is a process translating ideas into design with creativity upon culture. Aiming to investigate the process of cultural-creative design transforming cultural text into cultural signs, this study analyzed existing cultural-creative products with the six categories of Chinese characters by treating such products as representations which accurately communicate the designer’s ideas to users through the categorization, simplification, and interpretation of sign features. This is a two-phase pilot study on designing cultural-creative products with the six categories of Chinese characters. Phase I reviews the related literature on the theory of the six categories of Chinese characters investigated and concludes with the process and principles of character evolution. Phase II analyzes the design of existing cultural-creative products with the six categories of Chinese characters and explores the conceptualization of product design.

Keywords: six categories of Chinese characters, cultural-creative product design, cultural signs, cultural product

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390 The Representation of Female Characters by Women Directors in Surveillance Spaces in Turkish Cinema

Authors: Berceste Gülçin Özdemir

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The representation of women characters in cinema has been discussed for centuries. In cinema where dominant narrative codes prevail and scopophilic views exist over women characters, passive stereotypes of women are observed in the representation of women characters. In films shot from a woman’s point of view in Turkish Cinema and even in the films outside the main stream in which the stories of women characters are told, the fact that women characters are discussed on the basis of feminist film theories triggers the question: ‘Are feminist films produced in Turkish Cinema?’ The spaces that are used in the representation of women characters are observed to be used as spaces that convert characters into passive subjects on the basis of the space factor in the narrative. The representation of women characters in the possible surveillance spaces integrates the characters and compresses them in these spaces. In this study, narrative analysis was used to investigate women characters representation in the surveillance spaces. For the study framework, firstly a case study films are selected, and in the second level, women characters representations in surveillance spaces are argued by narrative analysis using feminist film theories. Two questions are argued with feminist film theories: ‘Why do especially women directors represent their female characters to viewers by representing them in surveillance spaces?’ and ‘Can this type of presentation contribute to the feminist film practice and become important with regard to feminist film theories?’ The representation of women characters in a passive and observed way in surveillance spaces of the narrative reveals the questioning of also the discourses of films outside of the main stream. As films that produce alternative discourses and reveal different cinematic languages, those outside the main stream are expected to bring other points of view also to the representation of women characters in spaces. These questionings are selected as the baseline and Turkish films such as Watch Tower and Mustang, directed by women, were examined. This examination paves the way for discussions regarding the women characters in surveillance spaces. Outcomes can be argued from the viewpoint of representation in the genre by feminist film theories. In the context of feminist film theories and feminist film practice, alternatives should be found that can corporally reveal the existence of women in both the representation of women characters in spaces and in the usage of the space factor.

Keywords: feminist film theory, representation, space, women directors

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389 Lesbian Stereotype Representation in Cinema in Turkey

Authors: Hasan Gürkan, Rengin Ozan

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Cinema, as a popular mass media tool, affects the general perception of the society against sexual identity. By establishing on interaction relationship with cinema and social reality, the study also tries to answer what the importance of lesbian identity in social life in films in Turkey is. This article focus on representing the description of the women characters who call their selves lesbian in Turkey cinema. The study tries to answer these three questions: First, how the lesbian characters are represented in films in Turkey? Second, what is the reality of the lesbian sexual identity in the films? Third, what are the differences and similarities between the lesbian characters in films in Turkey before 2000s and after 2000s? The films are analysed by the sociological film interpretation in this study. When comparing the films before 2000 and after 2000, it is possible to say that there have been no lesbian characters in many films. Especially almost all of the films (Haremde Dört Kadın, Ver Elini İstanbul, Dul Bir Kadın, Gramofon Avrat, Lola and Billidikid), during 1960s, just threw looks indirect the lesbian sex identity. Just in the films Düş Gezginleri, İki Genç Kız and Nar, the women character (also called them as lesbian) are the leading role and the plot of the films is progressing over these characters.

Keywords: cinema in Turkey, lesbian identity, representation, stereotype

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
388 Using Scale Invariant Feature Transform Features to Recognize Characters in Natural Scene Images

Authors: Belaynesh Chekol, Numan Çelebi

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The main purpose of this work is to recognize individual characters extracted from natural scene images using scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) features as an input to K-nearest neighbor (KNN); a classification learner algorithm. For this task, 1,068 and 78 images of English alphabet characters taken from Chars74k data set is used to train and test the classifier respectively. For each character image, We have generated describing features by using SIFT algorithm. This set of features is fed to the learner so that it can recognize and label new images of English characters. Two types of KNN (fine KNN and weighted KNN) were trained and the resulted classification accuracy is 56.9% and 56.5% respectively. The training time taken was the same for both fine and weighted KNN.

Keywords: character recognition, KNN, natural scene image, SIFT

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
387 Recognition of Tifinagh Characters with Missing Parts Using Neural Network

Authors: El Mahdi Barrah, Said Safi, Abdessamad Malaoui

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In this paper, we present an algorithm for reconstruction from incomplete 2D scans for tifinagh characters. This algorithm is based on using correlation between the lost block and its neighbors. This system proposed contains three main parts: pre-processing, features extraction and recognition. In the first step, we construct a database of tifinagh characters. In the second step, we will apply “shape analysis algorithm”. In classification part, we will use Neural Network. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method give good results.

Keywords: Tifinagh character recognition, neural networks, local cost computation, ANN

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
386 A Recognition Method of Ancient Yi Script Based on Deep Learning

Authors: Shanxiong Chen, Xu Han, Xiaolong Wang, Hui Ma

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Yi is an ethnic group mainly living in mainland China, with its own spoken and written language systems, after development of thousands of years. Ancient Yi is one of the six ancient languages in the world, which keeps a record of the history of the Yi people and offers documents valuable for research into human civilization. Recognition of the characters in ancient Yi helps to transform the documents into an electronic form, making their storage and spreading convenient. Due to historical and regional limitations, research on recognition of ancient characters is still inadequate. Thus, deep learning technology was applied to the recognition of such characters. Five models were developed on the basis of the four-layer convolutional neural network (CNN). Alpha-Beta divergence was taken as a penalty term to re-encode output neurons of the five models. Two fully connected layers fulfilled the compression of the features. Finally, at the softmax layer, the orthographic features of ancient Yi characters were re-evaluated, their probability distributions were obtained, and characters with features of the highest probability were recognized. Tests conducted show that the method has achieved higher precision compared with the traditional CNN model for handwriting recognition of the ancient Yi.

Keywords: recognition, CNN, Yi character, divergence

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385 Existential Absurdity, Alienation and Death in Charles Forsman’s The End of the Fxxxing World, I Am Not Okay With This, and Slasher

Authors: Renukha Devi Anandan

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Charles Forsman’s The End of The Fxxxing World, I Am Not Okay With This, and Slasher invariably deals with existential themes. They reflect the perplexed situation of the characters torn between the search for existence and the constraints of human conditions that impede them from such realization, ensuing a dilemma deeply-rooted in absurdity and alienation. These characters are social misfits who fail to fashion their existence and develop harmoniously. Therefore, the present paper adopts an Existential approach to examine the vignettes of alienation and absurdity vis-à-vis the characters’ speech, actions, and thoughts. Furthermore, this paper explores the role of death either as a self-destructive behavior or the eternal freedom of man in graphic novels. Findings portrayed how the characters’ absurd existence surrounded by the void, would eventually develop into death. Finally, the study revealed that Forsman’s distinctive serial illustration not only unveiled the predicaments of the characters through their hard-boiled smokescreens in the 21st-century social paradigm but also established graphic novels as part and parcel of a literary genre.

Keywords: existentialism, absurdity, alienation, death, self-destruction, eternal freedom

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
384 Batman Forever: The Economics of Overlapping Rights

Authors: Franziska Kaiser, Alexander Cuntz

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When copyrighted comic characters are also protected under trademark laws, intellectual property (IP) rights can be overlapping. Arguably, registering a trademark can increase transaction costs for cross-media uses of characters, or it can help advertise across multiple sales channels. In an application to book, movie and video game publishing industries, we thus ask how creative reuse is affected in situations of overlapping rights, and whether ‘fuzzy boundaries’ of right frameworks are in fact enhancing or decreasing content sales. We use a major U.S. Supreme Court decision as a quasi-natural experiment to apply an IV estimation in our analysis. We find that overlapping rights frameworks negatively affect creative reuses. At large, when copyright-protected comic characters are additionally registered as U.S. trademarks, they are less often reprinted and enter fewer video game productions, while generating less revenue from game sales.

Keywords: copyright, fictional characters, trademark, reuse

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383 A Method for the Extraction of the Character's Tendency from Korean Novels

Authors: Min-Ha Hong, Kee-Won Kim, Seung-Hoon Kim

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The character in the story-based content, such as novels and movies, is one of the core elements to understand the story. In particular, the character’s tendency is an important factor to analyze the story-based content, because it has a significant influence on the storyline. If readers have the knowledge of the tendency of characters before reading a novel, it will be helpful to understand the structure of conflict, episode and relationship between characters in the novel. It may therefore help readers to select novel that the reader wants to read. In this paper, we propose a method of extracting the tendency of the characters from a novel written in Korean. In advance, we build the dictionary with pairs of the emotional words in Korean and English since the emotion words in the novel’s sentences express character’s feelings. We rate the degree of polarity (positive or negative) of words in our emotional words dictionary based on SenticNet. Then we extract characters and emotion words from sentences in a novel. Since the polarity of a word grows strong or weak due to sentence features such as quotations and modifiers, our proposed method consider them to calculate the polarity of characters. The information of the extracted character’s polarity can be used in the book search service or book recommendation service.

Keywords: character tendency, data mining, emotion word, Korean novel

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
382 Rethinking Flâneur: Strolling Spectators in Harlem in Toni Morrison's Jazz

Authors: Yoonjeogn Kim

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The concept of flâneur means a walking observer with subjectivity in the urban city and at the same time, an idiomatic and unnamed existence in public. In the modern city, an individual, flâneur walking on the street, observes the street and collects the memories of the past, during which process the individual comes to understand what the past means. However, the concept tends to be narrowly applied to the white middle-class males, thereby excluding females and other marginalized groups. This paper expands the concept to examine black immigrants and black women, who traditionally fall outside the scope of the flâneur. Placing the black immigrants on the trajectory of literary figure of flâneur by reading Tony Morrison's Jazz, this essay revisits the relationship between street and characters in Jazz. In particular, this essay focuses on characters strolling on the street as well as their surroundings. Based on the traditional characteristics of the flâneur, this essay explicates how the black characters in Jazz are reinvented as the flâneur and moving observers with their autonomy to stroll around the city, while the city, which used to be an observer watching and predicting what happens to the characters, takes a position as a mere onlooker. This paper concludes with illustrating the black characters stroll on the street in Harlem and thereby recreating ordinary people living in Harlem as flâneur.

Keywords: jazz, the arcades project, flâneur, flânerie, street, city

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381 The Impacts of Negative Moral Characters on Health: An Article Review

Authors: Mansoor Aslamzai, Delaqa Del, Sayed Azam Sajid

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Introduction: Though moral disorders have a high burden, there is no separate topic regarding this problem in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Along with the modification of WHO ICD-11, spirituality can prevent the rapid progress of such derangement as well. Objective: This study evaluated the effects of bad moral characters on health, as well as carried out the role of spirituality in the improvement of immorality. Method: This narrative article review was accomplished in 2020-2021 and the articles were searched through the Web of Science, PubMed, BMC, and Google scholar. Results: Based on the current review, most experimental and observational studies revealed significant negative effects of unwell moral characters on the overall aspects of health and well-being. Nowadays, a lot of studies established the positive role of spirituality in the improvement of health and moral disorder. The studies concluded, facilities must be available within schools, universities, and communities for everyone to learn the knowledge of spirituality and improve their unwell moral character world. Conclusion: Considering the negative relationship between unwell moral characters and well-being, the current study proposes the addition of moral disorder as a separate topic in the WHO International Classification of Diseases. Based on this literature review, spirituality will improve moral disorder and establish excellent moral traits.

Keywords: bad moral characters, effect, health, spirituality and well-being

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380 Rapid Inventory of Terrestrial Ferns and Lycopods in Center for Ecological Development and Recreation (Cedar), Impalutao, Impasug-Ong Bukidnon, Philippines

Authors: Diobein Flores, Venus Buagas, Virgie Darunday

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The study inventoried the species composition of terrestrial ferns and lycopods in Center for Ecological Development and Recreation (CEDAR) Impalutao, Impasug-ong, Bukidnon. Specifically, it aimed to determine and describe the species composition, and diagnostic characters of the ferns and lycopods in the study site. Transect walk method was employed in the inventory of the species. Each species were classified, identified and described according to its diagnostic characters. Results of the study revealed a total of 20 species of ferns and lycopods. Of these, 18 species were ferns and 2 species were lycopods. Eleven (11) families and fifteen (15) genera for ferns and one (1) family and one (1) genera for lycopods. Psomiocarpa apifolia is Philippine endemic and said to be vulnerable or threatened. Taxonomic characters based on habit, rhizome, leaf arrangement and orientation, stem structure and circinate vernation were used to identify the terrestrial pteridophtyes into families, genera and species. The species collected and assessment in CEDAR should be further investigated and monitor their conservation status.

Keywords: alpha taxonomy, conservation, habit, taxonomic characters

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
379 Comparative Analysis of Edge Detection Techniques for Extracting Characters

Authors: Rana Gill, Chandandeep Kaur

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Segmentation of images can be implemented using different fundamental algorithms like edge detection (discontinuity based segmentation), region growing (similarity based segmentation), iterative thresholding method. A comprehensive literature review relevant to the study gives description of different techniques for vehicle number plate detection and edge detection techniques widely used on different types of images. This research work is based on edge detection techniques and calculating threshold on the basis of five edge operators. Five operators used are Prewitt, Roberts, Sobel, LoG and Canny. Segmentation of characters present in different type of images like vehicle number plate, name plate of house and characters on different sign boards are selected as a case study in this work. The proposed methodology has seven stages. The proposed system has been implemented using MATLAB R2010a. Comparison of all the five operators has been done on the basis of their performance. From the results it is found that Canny operators produce best results among the used operators and performance of different edge operators in decreasing order is: Canny>Log>Sobel>Prewitt>Roberts.

Keywords: segmentation, edge detection, text, extracting characters

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
378 The Implementation of the Javanese Lettered-Manuscript Image Preprocessing Stage Model on the Batak Lettered-Manuscript Image

Authors: Anastasia Rita Widiarti, Agus Harjoko, Marsono, Sri Hartati

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This paper presents the results of a study to test whether the Javanese character manuscript image preprocessing model that have been more widely applied, can also be applied to segment of the Batak characters manuscripts. The treatment process begins by converting the input image into a binary image. After the binary image is cleaned of noise, then the segmentation lines using projection profile is conducted. If unclear histogram projection is found, then the smoothing process before production indexes line segments is conducted. For each line image which has been produced, then the segmentation scripts in the line is applied, with regard of the connectivity between pixels which making up the letters that there is no characters are truncated. From the results of manuscript preprocessing system prototype testing, it is obtained the information about the system truth percentage value on pieces of Pustaka Batak Podani Ma AjiMamisinon manuscript ranged from 65% to 87.68% with a confidence level of 95%. The value indicates the truth percentage shown the initial processing model in Javanese characters manuscript image can be applied also to the image of the Batak characters manuscript.

Keywords: connected component, preprocessing, manuscript image, projection profiles

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377 The Impact of Female Characters on a Movie’s Return on Investment

Authors: Raghav Lakhotia, Sameer Ganu, Anshul Goel, Abhishek Kumar

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In the age and times where women’s empowerment is a significant topic of discussion, we aim to analyze the potential gender diversity influence on box office revenues. The following research is carried out by collecting data from 400 Hollywood movies between the years 2014-2017 and performing regression analysis to find a correlation between the presence of female characters in movies and their return on investment (ROI). The paper finds that there is a positive relationship between the performance of the movies (its ROI) and the gender diversity i.e. the more the number of female characters, the higher the revenue generated. Another factor such as Number of Votes also has a direct impact on the revenue of the movie. The research not only takes into consideration the mere presence of women on screen but also the exchange of at least one dialogue among themselves, which is presented by the Bechdel Score of the movie.

Keywords: Bechdel, diversity, Hollywood, return on investment

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376 Applying Semi-Automatic Digital Aerial Survey Technology and Canopy Characters Classification for Surface Vegetation Interpretation of Archaeological Sites

Authors: Yung-Chung Chuang

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The cultural layers of archaeological sites are mainly affected by surface land use, land cover, and root system of surface vegetation. For this reason, continuous monitoring of land use and land cover change is important for archaeological sites protection and management. However, in actual operation, on-site investigation and orthogonal photograph interpretation require a lot of time and manpower. For this reason, it is necessary to perform a good alternative for surface vegetation survey in an automated or semi-automated manner. In this study, we applied semi-automatic digital aerial survey technology and canopy characters classification with very high-resolution aerial photographs for surface vegetation interpretation of archaeological sites. The main idea is based on different landscape or forest type can easily be distinguished with canopy characters (e.g., specific texture distribution, shadow effects and gap characters) extracted by semi-automatic image classification. A novel methodology to classify the shape of canopy characters using landscape indices and multivariate statistics was also proposed. Non-hierarchical cluster analysis was used to assess the optimal number of canopy character clusters and canonical discriminant analysis was used to generate the discriminant functions for canopy character classification (seven categories). Therefore, people could easily predict the forest type and vegetation land cover by corresponding to the specific canopy character category. The results showed that the semi-automatic classification could effectively extract the canopy characters of forest and vegetation land cover. As for forest type and vegetation type prediction, the average prediction accuracy reached 80.3%~91.7% with different sizes of test frame. It represented this technology is useful for archaeological site survey, and can improve the classification efficiency and data update rate.

Keywords: digital aerial survey, canopy characters classification, archaeological sites, multivariate statistics

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375 Binarization and Recognition of Characters from Historical Degraded Documents

Authors: Bency Jacob, S.B. Waykar

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Degradations in historical document images appear due to aging of the documents. It is very difficult to understand and retrieve text from badly degraded documents as there is variation between the document foreground and background. Thresholding of such document images either result in broken characters or detection of false texts. Numerous algorithms exist that can separate text and background efficiently in the textual regions of the document; but portions of background are mistaken as text in areas that hardly contain any text. This paper presents a way to overcome these problems by a robust binarization technique that recovers the text from a severely degraded document images and thereby increases the accuracy of optical character recognition systems. The proposed document recovery algorithm efficiently removes degradations from document images. Here we are using the ostus method ,local thresholding and global thresholding and after the binarization training and recognizing the characters in the degraded documents.

Keywords: binarization, denoising, global thresholding, local thresholding, thresholding

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374 Placelessness and the Subversive Tactics of Mobility in Ernest Hemingway and Jabra Ibrahim Jabra

Authors: Ahmad Qabaha

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This paper teases out the ways in which the constructs of placelessness and mobility are articulated in modern exilic Palestinian literature and American expatriate writing. The mode of placelessness embodied by the characters of each of my two authors (expatriation in Paris Montparnasse for Hemingway's characters and involuntary exile in Europe for Jabra's) will be elicited from the orientations of their mobility. This paper argues that the proclivity of Hemingway's characters for centrifugal motion (moving away from the centre) is a strategy to increase their sense of freedom that space (expatriation), rather than place, secures. By contrast, the movement of Jabra's characters is centripetal (moving or tending to move towards the centre). It echoes his Palestinian characters' recurrent futile attempts to return to Palestine, and it expresses their resistance to the lures of exile. This paper asserts that the involuntarily exiled character (the Palestinian in this case) is a figure obsessed with and ache for a place, roots and 'a dwelling' from which he was uprooted - a place that defines his authentic existence and frames his understanding of the world in Martin Heidegger's, Simone Weil's and Gaston Bachelard's senses. In parallel, this paper explains that the expatriate character (the American in this case) views place as confining, restrictive and disagreeable, while mobility as a figure of freedom, resistance, wealth, self-fashioning and understanding/inhabiting the world. Place in this sense is associated with past, tradition, ideology, existence and being. Mobility is equivalent with modernity, progression, innovation, self-fashioning and freedom.

Keywords: American expatriate literature, exilic Palestinian literature, mobility, place, placelessness

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373 Effect of Irrigation Interval on Jojoba Plants under Circumstance of Sinai

Authors: E. Khattab, S. Halla

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Jojoba plants are characterized by a tolerance of water stress, but due to the conditions of the Sinai in which the water is less, an irrigation interval study was carried out the jojoba plant from water stress without affecting the yield of oil. The field experiment was carried out at Maghara Research Station at North Sinai, Desert Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt, to study the effect of irrigation interval on five clones of jojoba plants S-L, S-610, S- 700, S-B and S-G on growth and yield characters. Results showed that the clone S-700 has increase of all growth and yield characters under all interval irrigation compare with other clones. All variable of studied confirmed that clones of jojoba had significant effect with irrigation interval at one week but decrease value with three weeks. Jojoba plants tolerance to water stress but irrigation interval every week increased seed yield.

Keywords: interval irrigation, growth and yield characters, oil, jojoba, Sinai

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
372 Rock Paintings with Libyan Inscriptions of Grande Kabylia, Algeria

Authors: Samia Ait Ali Yahia

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The rock paintings of Grande Kabylia contain a good number of Libyan inscriptions. Of the 54 sites discovered, 23 have inscriptions painted in red ocher. We find them in rock shelters, on blocks of sandstone in the northern part of Kabylia. Our job is to collect as many cave paintings as possible with Libyan inscriptions. Then we will make an analysis on the epigraphic level, the different forms of the characters and their frequencies. The other purpose of this research is to bring out the different characters used in these paintings and compare them with those of the Libyan steles of Grande Kabylia.

Keywords: Grande Kabylia, Libyan inscriptions, Libyan stele, rock paintings

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
371 Myanmar Character Recognition Using Eight Direction Chain Code Frequency Features

Authors: Kyi Pyar Zaw, Zin Mar Kyu

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Character recognition is the process of converting a text image file into editable and searchable text file. Feature Extraction is the heart of any character recognition system. The character recognition rate may be low or high depending on the extracted features. In the proposed paper, 25 features for one character are used in character recognition. Basically, there are three steps of character recognition such as character segmentation, feature extraction and classification. In segmentation step, horizontal cropping method is used for line segmentation and vertical cropping method is used for character segmentation. In the Feature extraction step, features are extracted in two ways. The first way is that the 8 features are extracted from the entire input character using eight direction chain code frequency extraction. The second way is that the input character is divided into 16 blocks. For each block, although 8 feature values are obtained through eight-direction chain code frequency extraction method, we define the sum of these 8 feature values as a feature for one block. Therefore, 16 features are extracted from that 16 blocks in the second way. We use the number of holes feature to cluster the similar characters. We can recognize the almost Myanmar common characters with various font sizes by using these features. All these 25 features are used in both training part and testing part. In the classification step, the characters are classified by matching the all features of input character with already trained features of characters.

Keywords: chain code frequency, character recognition, feature extraction, features matching, segmentation

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370 Feminism and the Nigerian Female Question: A Feminist Appraisal of Zaynab Alkali’s Stillborn

Authors: Ogbu Harry Omilonye

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This paper examines feminism as a literary ideology which attempts to win for women a status of recognition and parity in a male-dominated society like Nigeria. This article deals essentially with the emergence of the ideology and literary personalities behind it. It focuses sharply on Zaynab Alkali’s brand of feminism as demonstrated in the delineation of her female characters vis-à-vis her male characters. The woman’s destiny, this paper believes, lies in her hand, and that true emancipation of women can only be realized through education and hard work.

Keywords: feminism, stillborn, literary ideology, literature

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
369 Post-Structural Study of Gender in Shakespearean Othello from Butlerian Perspective

Authors: Muhammad Shakeel Rehman Hissam

Abstract:

This study aims at analyzing gender in Othello by applying Judith Butler’s Post-Structural theory of gender and gender performance. The analysis of the play provides us context by which we can examine what kinds of effects the drama have on understanding of the researchers regarding gender identity. The study sets out to examine that, is there any evidence or ground in Shakespearean selected work which leads to challenge the patriarchal taken for granted prescribed roles of gender? This would be the focal point in study of Othello that actions and performances of characters determine their gender identity rather than their sexuality. It argues that gender of Shakespearean characters has no constant, fixed and structural impression. On the contrary, they undergo consistent variations in their behavior and performance which impart fluidity and volatility to them. The focal point of the present study is Butler’s prominent work; Gender Trouble: Feminism and subversion of Identity and her post structural theory of Gender performativity as the theoretical underpinning of the text. It analyzes the selected play in Post-Structural gender perspective. The gender-centric plot of the play is riddled with fluidity of gender. The most fascinating aspect of the play is the transformations of genders on the basis of performances by different characters and through these transformations; gender identity is revealed and determined. The study reconstructs the accepted gender norms by challenging the traditional concept of gender that is based on sexual differences of characters.

Keywords: post structural, gender, performativity, socio-cultural gender norms, binaries, Othello, Butler, identity

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368 Uni … Mihi ('to Me Only'): Patterns of Uniqueness in Statius' Thebaid and Silius' Punica

Authors: Arianna Sacerdoti

Abstract:

There is a rich and frequent representation of uniqueness in Statius’ poem called Thebaid. This topos interweave with a psychoanalytical study about groups and individual but is also a literary device. This paper will analyze all the passages in the 'Thebaid' referred to uniqueness and exceptionality. Antigone, Adrastus and other characters are, in fact, often characterized as the only ones to behave in a specific way or to do something. Also, the insomniac characters are often the only ones who do not sleep. The material of such a tòpos is very rich throughout the 'Thebaid'. The methodology will be text-oriented. Conclusions will enlighten Statius’ specific use of this tòpos, as related to his models, and will be interdisciplinary. In concluding, this is a study linking philology and psychoanalysis and focused on a topic which deserves a specific analysis.

Keywords: statius, Silius Italicus, uniqueness, epic

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367 Dramatic US Television in the 21st Century: Articulating the Human through Expressions of Violence

Authors: Peter Ellis

Abstract:

United States dramatic television in the 21st century is inarguably violent. This violence can be as physical as the gruesome viscera spilled in AMC’s The Walking Dead; it can be as psychological as the suppressive dominance of Tony Soprano over his wife Carmella in HBO’s The Sopranos; and it can sit like shares on the stock market, where investment in violence sits as an economic choice, as with AMC’s Breaking Bad. Violence permeates these narratives, simultaneously threatening and defining the lives of their characters through its use in their relationships. What propels this exploration of humanity through violence is the use of language: the dictation of interaction in an economy in which characters negotiate successful acts of violence, or how they meet with the successful violence of others. Language is the defining force which separates and elucidates characters through conflict, as Slavoj Žižek writes, “it is because of language that we and our neighbours (can) “live in different worlds” even when we live on the same street.” This paper examines three different manifestations that violence takes in US television, specifically through the examples of The Walking Dead, The Sopranos, and Breaking Bad. Through the prism of Žižek’s conception of language as the uniquely human vehicle of violence, I aim to display how these shows sit as expressions of a neo-humanism, in which the complexities of language manipulate violence and define character in the process.

Keywords: violence, humanism, neoliberalism, American television

Procedia PDF Downloads 315