Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1833

Search results for: adult learners

1833 Survey of Rate and Causes of Literacy Preservation in Adult Newly Learners

Authors: Mohammad Narimani, Zahra Rostamoghli

Abstract:

The main objective of this study is the survey of rate and causes of literacy preservation in adult newly learners. Statistical sample consists of 384 adults who are newly learners of literacy, at 2002, who were selected by stratified sampling method. This is a correlation cross-sectional survey research, in which authors-constructed measures were used for data collection. Results of survey showed that learners' literacy preservation rate after two years was 70%, 61% and 57%, in reading, dictation and mathematic tests, respectively.Following can be noted as factors correlated with literacy preservation; repetition of subjects and learners' subjective review, access to and using the library and publications, feeling of need to and interest in educated matters, socio cultural class of learners, and literacy level of learners' family.

Keywords: literacy preservation, new learner, literacy improvement movement, mathematic test

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1832 A Conundrum of Teachability and Learnability of Deaf Adult English as Second Language Learners in Pakistani Mainstream Classrooms: Integration or Elimination

Authors: Amnah Moghees, Saima Abbas Dar, Muniba Saeed

Abstract:

Teaching a second language to deaf learners has always been a challenge in Pakistan. Different approaches and strategies have been followed, but they have been resulted into partial or complete failure. The study aims to investigate the language problems faced by adult deaf learners of English as second language in mainstream classrooms. Moreover, the study also determines the factors which are very much involved in language teaching and learning in mainstream classes. To investigate the language problems, data will be collected through writing samples of ten deaf adult learners and ten normal ESL learners of the same class; whereas, observation in inclusive language teaching classrooms and interviews from five ESL teachers in inclusive classes will be conducted to know the factors which are directly or indirectly involved in inclusive language education. Keeping in view this study, qualitative research paradigm will be applied to analyse the corpus. The study figures out that deaf ESL learners face severe language issues such as; odd sentence structures, subject and verb agreement violation, misappropriation of verb forms and tenses as compared to normal ESL learners. The study also predicts that in mainstream classrooms there are multiple factors which are affecting the smoothness of teaching and learning procedure; role of mediator, level of deaf learners, empathy of normal learners towards deaf learners and language teacher’s training.

Keywords: deaf English language learner, empathy, mainstream classrooms, previous language knowledge of learners, role of mediator, language teachers' training

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1831 Teaching Speaking Skills to Adult English Language Learners through ALM

Authors: Wichuda Kunnu, Aungkana Sukwises

Abstract:

Audio-lingual method (ALM) is a teaching approach that is claimed that ineffective for teaching second/foreign languages. Because some linguists and second/foreign language teachers believe that ALM is a rote learning style. However, this study is done on a belief that ALM will be able to solve Thais’ English speaking problem. This paper aims to report the findings on teaching English speaking to adult learners with an “adapted ALM”, one distinction of which is to use Thai as the medium language of instruction. The participants are consisted of 9 adult learners. They were allowed to speak English more freely using both the materials presented in the class and their background knowledge of English. At the end of the course, they spoke English more fluently, more confidently, to the extent that they applied what they learnt both in and outside the class.

Keywords: teaching English, audio lingual method, cognitive science, psychology

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1830 Morphological Analysis of English L1-Persian L2 Adult Learners’ Interlanguage: From the Perspective of SLA Variation

Authors: Maassoumeh Bemani Naeini

Abstract:

Studies on interlanguage have long been engaged in describing the phenomenon of variation in SLA. Pursuing the same goal and particularly addressing the role of linguistic features, this study describes the use of Persian morphology in the interlanguage of two adult English-speaking learners of Persian L2. Taking the general approach of a combination of contrastive analysis, error analysis and interlanguage analysis, this study focuses on the identification and prediction of some possible instances of transfer from English L1 to Persian L2 across six elicitation tasks aiming to investigate whether any of contextual features may variably influence the learners’ order of morpheme accuracy in the areas of copula, possessives, articles, demonstratives, plural form, personal pronouns, and genitive cases.  Results describe the existence of task variation in the interlanguage system of Persian L2 learners.

Keywords: English L1, Interlanguage Analysis, Persian L2, SLA variation

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1829 Investigating the Effect of Juncture on Comprehension among Adult Learners of English in Nigeria

Authors: Emmanuel Uba, Oluwasegun Omidiora, Eugenia Abiodun-Eniayekan

Abstract:

The role of phonology on reading comprehension is long established in the literature. However, the vast majority of studies on the relationship between phonology and reading or comprehension among adults involve investigating the role of intonation, stress, and segmental knowledge on understanding texts. Not much attention is paid to junctural observation and its effect on the interpretation of texts. This study, therefore, presents a preliminary case-study investigation of the effect of juncture on comprehension of texts among adult Nigerian learners of English. Eighty adult learners of English in Nigeria were presented with fifteen seemingly ambiguous sentences to interpret. The sentences were structured in a way that pausing at different points would produce different interpretations. The results reveal that wrong application of pause is capable of affecting comprehension even when other phonological factors such as stress and intonation are observed properly.

Keywords: comprehension, juncture, phonology, reading

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1828 The Teacher’s Role in Generating and Maintaining the Motivation of Adult Learners of English: A Mixed Methods Study in Hungarian Corporate Contexts

Authors: Csaba Kalman

Abstract:

In spite of the existence of numerous second language (L2) motivation theories, the teacher’s role in motivating learners has remained an under-researched niche to this day. If we narrow down our focus on the teacher’s role on motivating adult learners of English in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context in corporate environments, empirical research is practically non-existent. This study fills the above research niche by exploring the most motivating aspects of the teacher’s personality, behaviour, and teaching practices that affect adult learners’ L2 motivation in corporate contexts in Hungary. The study was conducted in a wide range of industries in 18 organisations that employ over 250 people in Hungary. In order to triangulate the research, 21 human resources managers, 18 language teachers, and 466 adult learners of English were involved in the investigation by participating in interview studies, and quantitative questionnaire studies that measured ten scales related to the teacher’s role, as well as two criterion measure scales of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The qualitative data were analysed using a template organising style, while descriptive, inferential statistics, as well as multivariate statistical techniques, such as correlation and regression analyses, were used for analysing the quantitative data. The results showed that certain aspects of the teacher’s personality (thoroughness, enthusiasm, credibility, and flexibility), as well as preparedness, incorporating English for Specific Purposes (ESP) in the syllabus, and focusing on the present, proved to be the most salient aspects of the teacher’s motivating influence. The regression analyses conducted with the criterion measure scales revealed that 22% of the variance in learners’ intrinsic motivation could be explained by the teacher’s preparedness and appearance, and 23% of the variance in learners’ extrinsic motivation could be attributed to the teacher’s personal branding and incorporating ESP in the syllabus. The findings confirm the pivotal role teachers play in motivating L2 learners independent of the context they teach in; and, at the same time, call for further research so that we can better conceptualise the motivating influence of L2 teachers.

Keywords: adult learners, corporate contexts, motivation, teacher’s role

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1827 Innovative Teaching Learning Techniques and Learning Difficulties of Adult Learners in Literacy Education Programmes in Calabar Metropolis, Cross River State, Nigeria

Authors: Simon Ibor Akpama

Abstract:

The study investigated the extent to which innovative teaching-learning techniques can influence and attenuate learning difficulties among adult learners participating in different literacy education programmes in Calabar Metropolis, Cross River State, Nigeria. A quasi-experimental design was adopted to collect data from a sample size of 150 participants of the programme. The sample was drawn using the simple random sampling method. As an experimental study, the 150 participants were divided into two equal groups –the first was the experimental group while the second was the control. A pre-test was administered to the two groups which were later exposed to a post-test after treatment. Two instruments were used for data collection. The first was the guide for the Literacy Learning Difficulties Inventory (LLDI). Three hypotheses were postulated and tested as .05 level of significance using Analysis of Covariance (ANOVA) test statistics. Results of the analysis firstly showed that the two groups (treatment and control) did not differ in the pre-test regarding their literacy learning difficulties. Secondly, the result showed that for each hypothesis, innovative teaching-learning techniques significantly influenced adult learners’ (participants) literacy learning difficulties. Based on these findings, the study recommends the use of innovative teaching-learning techniques in adult literacy education centres to mitigate the learning difficulties of adult learners in literacy education programmes in Calabar Metropolis.

Keywords: teaching, learning, techniques, innovative, difficulties, programme

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1826 Factors Affecting Internet Behavior and Life Satisfaction of Older Adult Learners with Use of Smartphone

Authors: Horng-Ji Lai

Abstract:

The intuitive design features and friendly interface of smartphone attract older adults. In Taiwan, many senior education institutes offer smartphone training courses for older adult learners who are interested in learning this innovative technology. It is expected that the training courses can help them to enjoy the benefits of using smartphone and increase their life satisfaction. Therefore, it is important to investigate the factors that influence older adults’ behavior of using smartphone. The purpose of the research was to develop and test a research model that investigates the factors (self-efficacy, social connection, the need to seek health information, and the need to seek financial information) affecting older adult learners’ Internet behaviour and their life satisfaction with use of smartphone. Also, this research sought to identify the relationship between the proposed variables. Survey method was used to collect research data. A Structural Equation Modeling was performed using Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression for data exploration and model estimation. The participants were 394 older adult learners from smartphone training courses in active aging learning centers located in central Taiwan. The research results revealed that self-efficacy significantly affected older adult learner’ social connection, the need to seek health information, and the need to seek financial information. The construct of social connection yielded a positive influence in respondents’ life satisfaction. The implications of these results for practice and future research are also discussed.

Keywords: older adults, smartphone, internet behaviour, life satisfaction

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1825 Creating a Multilevel ESL Learning Community for Adults

Authors: Gloria Chen

Abstract:

When offering conventional level-appropriate ESL classes for adults is not feasible, a multilevel adult ESL class can be formed to benefit those who need to learn English for daily function. This paper examines the rationale, the process, the contents, and the outcomes of a multilevel ESL class for adults. The action research discusses a variety of assessments, lesson plans, teaching strategies that facilitate lifelong language learning. In small towns where adult ESL learners are only a handful, often advanced students and inexperienced students have to be placed in one class. Such class might not be viewed as desirable, but with on-going assessments, careful lesson plans, and purposeful strategies, a multilevel ESL class for adults can overcome the obstacles and help learners to reach a higher level of English proficiency. This research explores some hand-on strategies, such as group rotating, cooperative learning, and modifying textbook contents for practical purpose, and evaluate their effectiveness. The data collected in this research include Needs Assessment (beginning of class term), Mid-term Self-Assessment (5 months into class term), End-of-term Student Reflection (10 months into class), and End-of-term Assessment from the Instructor (10 months into class). A descriptive analysis of the data explains the practice of this particular learning community, and reveal the areas for improvement and enrichment. This research answers the following questions: (1) How do the assessments positively help both learners and instructors? (2) How do the learning strategies prepare students to become independent, life-long English learners? (3) How do materials, grouping, and class schedule enhance the learning? The result of the research contributes to the field of teaching and learning in language, not limited in English, by (a) examining strategies of conducting a multilevel adult class, (b) involving adult language learners with various backgrounds and learning styles for reflection and feedback, and (c) improving teaching and learning strategies upon research methods and results. One unique feature of this research is how students can work together with the instructor to form a learning community, seeking and exploring resources available to them, to become lifelong language learners.

Keywords: adult language learning, assessment, multilevel, teaching strategies

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1824 Impact of Social Distancing on the Correlation Between Adults’ Participation in Learning and Acceptance of Technology

Authors: Liu Yi Hui

Abstract:

The COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 has globally affected all aspects of life, with social distancing and quarantine orders causing turmoil and learning in community colleges being temporarily paused. In fact, this is the first time that adult education has faced such a severe challenge. It forces researchers to reflect on the impact of pandemics on adult education and ways to respond. Distance learning appears to be one of the pedagogical tools capable of dealing with interpersonal isolation and social distancing caused by the pandemic. This research aims to examine whether the impact of social distancing during COVID-19 will lead to increased acceptance of technology and, subsequently, an increase in adults ’ willingness to participate in distance learning. The hypothesis that social distancing and the desire to participate in distance learning affects learners’ tendency to accept technology is investigated. Teachers ’ participation in distance education and acceptance of technology are used as adjustment variables with the relationship to “social distancing,” “participation in distance learning,” and “acceptance of technology” of learners. A questionnaire survey was conducted over a period of twelve months for teachers and learners at all community colleges in Taiwan who enrolled in a basic unit course. Community colleges were separated using multi-stage cluster sampling, with their locations being metropolitan, non-urban, south, and east as criteria. Using the G*power software, 660 samples were selected and analyzed. The results show that through appropriate pedagogical strategies or teachers ’ own acceptance of technology, adult learners’ willingness to participate in distance learning could be influenced. A diverse model of participation can be developed, improving adult education institutions’ ability to plan curricula to be flexible to avoid the risk associated with epidemic diseases.

Keywords: social distancing, adult learning, community colleges, technology acceptance model

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1823 Transformative Pedagogy and Online Adult Education

Authors: Glenn A. Palmer, Lorenzo Bowman, Juanita Johnson-Bailey

Abstract:

The ubiquitous economic upheaval that has gripped the global environment in the past few years displaced many workers through unemployment or underemployment. Globally, this disruption has caused many adult workers to seek additional education or skills to remain competitive, and acquire the ability and options to find gainful employment. While many learners have availed themselves of some opportunities to be retrained and retooled at locations within their communities, others have explored those options through the online learning environment. This paper examines the empirical research that explores the various strategies that are used in the adult online learning community that could also foster transformative learning.

Keywords: online learning, transformational learning, adult education, economic crisis, unemployment

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1822 Integrating Flipped Instruction to Enhance Second Language Acquisition

Authors: Borja Ruiz de Arbulo Alonso

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the impact of flipped instruction in adult learners of Spanish as a second language in a face-to-face course at Boston University. Given the limited amount of contact hours devoted to studying world languages in the American higher education system, implementing strategies to free up classroom time for communicative language practice is key to ensure student success in their learning process. In an effort to improve the way adult learners acquire a second language, this paper examines the role that regular pre-class and web-based exposure to Spanish grammar plays in student performance at the end of the academic term. It outlines different types of web-based pre-class activities and compares this approach to more traditional classroom practice. To do so, this study works for three months with two similar groups of adult learners in an intermediate-level Spanish class. Both groups use the same course program and have the same previous language experience, but one receives an additional set of instructor-made online materials containing a variety of grammar explanations and online activities that need to be reviewed before attending class. Since the online activities cover material and concepts that have not yet been studied in class, students' oral and written production in both groups is measured by means of a writing activity and an audio recording at the end of the three-month period. These assessments will ascertain the effects of exposing the control group to the grammar of the target language prior to each lecture throughout and demonstrate where flipped instruction helps adult learners of Spanish achieve higher performance, but also identify potential problems.

Keywords: educational technology, flipped classroom, second language acquisition, student success

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1821 Learning Mandarin Chinese as a Foreign Language in a Bilingual Context: Adult Learners’ Perceptions of the Use of L1 Maltese and L2 English in Mandarin Chinese Lessons in Malta

Authors: Christiana Gauci-Sciberras

Abstract:

The first language (L1) could be used in foreign language teaching and learning as a pedagogical tool to scaffold new knowledge in the target language (TL) upon linguistic knowledge that the learner already has. In a bilingual context, code-switching between the two languages usually occurs in classrooms. One of the reasons for code-switching is because both languages are used for scaffolding new knowledge. This research paper aims to find out why both the L1 (Maltese) and the L2 (English) are used in the classroom of Mandarin Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) in the bilingual context of Malta. This research paper also aims to find out the learners’ perceptions of the use of a bilingual medium of instruction. Two research methods were used to collect qualitative data; semi-structured interviews with adult learners of Mandarin Chinese and lesson observations. These two research methods were used so that the data collected in the interviews would be triangulated with data collected in lesson observations. The L1 (Maltese) is the language of instruction mostly used. The teacher and the learners switch to the L2 (English) or to any other foreign language according to the need at a particular instance during the lesson.

Keywords: Chinese, bilingual, pedagogical purpose of L1 and L2, CFL acquisition

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1820 A Dynamic Curriculum as a Platform for Continuous Competence Development

Authors: Niina Jallinoja, Anu Moisio

Abstract:

Focus on adult learning is vital to overcome economic challenges as well as to respond to the demand for new competencies and sustained productivity in the digitalized world economy. Employees of all ages must be able to carry on continuous professional development to remain competitive in the labor market. According to EU policies, countries should offer more flexible opportunities for adult learners who study online and in so-called ‘second chance’ qualification programmes. Traditionally, adult education in Finland has comprised of not only liberal adult education but also the government funding to study for Bachelor, Master's, and Ph.D. degrees in Finnish Universities and Universities of Applied Sciences (UAS). From the beginning of 2021, public funding is allocated not only to degrees but also to courses to achieve new competencies for adult learners in Finland. Consequently, there will be degree students (often younger of age) and adult learners studying in the same evening, online and blended courses. The question is thus: How are combined studies meeting the different needs of degree students and adult learners? Haaga-Helia University of Applied Sciences (UAS), located in the metropolitan area of Finland, is taking up the challenge of continuous learning for adult learners. Haaga-Helia has been reforming the bachelor level education and respective shorter courses from 2019 in the biggest project in its history. By the end of 2023, Haaga-Helia will have a flexible, modular curriculum for the bachelor's degrees of hospitality management, business administration, business information technology, journalism and sports management. Building on the shared key competencies, degree students will have the possibility to build individual study paths more flexibly, thanks to the new modular structure of the curriculum. They will be able to choose courses across all degrees, and thus, build their own unique competence combinations. All modules can also be offered as separate courses or learning paths to non-degree students, both publicly funded and as commercial services for employers. Consequently, there will be shared course implementations for degree studies and adult learners with various competence requirements. The newly designed courses are piloted in parallel of the designing of the curriculum in Haaga-Helia during 2020 and 2021. Semi-structured online surveys are composed among the participants for the key competence courses. The focus of the research is to understand how students in the bachelor programme and adult learners from Open UAE perceive the learning experience in such a diverse learning group. A comparison is also executed between learning methods of in-site teaching, online implementation, blended learning and virtual self-learning courses to understand how the pedagogy is meeting the learning objectives of these two different groups. The new flexible curricula and the study modules are to be designed to fill the most important competence gaps that exist in the Finnish labor markets. The new curriculum will be dynamic and constantly evolving over time according to the future competence needs in the labor market. This type of approach requires constant dialogue between Haaga-Helia and workplaces during and after designing of the shared curriculum.

Keywords: ccompetence development, continuous learning, curriculum, higher education

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1819 Life Stories of Adult Amateur Cellists That Inspire Them to Take Individual Lessons: A Narrative Inquiry

Authors: A. Marais

Abstract:

A challenging aspect of teaching cello to novice adult learners is finding adequate lesson material and applying relevant teaching methodologies. It could play a crucial role in adult learners' decision to commence or stop taking music lessons. This study contributes to the theory and practises of continuing education. This study is important to lifelong learning, especially with the focus on adult teaching and learning and the difficulties concerning these themes. The research problem identified for this study is we are not aware of adults' life stories; thus, cello lesson material is not always relevant for adult's specific needs for motivation and goals for starting cello lessons. In my experience, an adult does not necessarily want to play children songs when they learn a new instrument. They want material and lessons fitted to adult learners. Adults also learn differently from younger beginners. Adults ask questions such as how and why, while children more readily accept what is being taught. This research creates awareness of adults' musical needs and learning methods. If every adult shares their own story for commencing and continuing with cello lessons, material should be created, revised, or adapted for more individually appropriate lessons. A number of studies show that adults taking music lessons experience a decrease in feelings of loneliness and isolation. It gives adults a sense of wellbeing and can help improve immune systems. The purpose of this research study will be to discover the life stories of adult amateur cellists. At this stage in the research, the life stories of amateur cellists can generally be defined as personal reflections of their motivations for and experiences of commencing and continuing with individual lessons. The findings of this study will contribute to the development of cello lesson material for adult beginners based on their stories. This research could also encourage adults to commence with music lessons and could, in that way, contribute to their quality of life. Music learners become aware of deep spiritual, emotional, and social values incorporated or experienced through musical learning. This will be a qualitative study with a narrative approach making use of oral history. The chosen method will encapsulate the stories of amateur individual adults starting and continuing with cello lessons. The narrative method entails experiences as expressed in lived and told stories of individuals. Oral history is used as part of the narrative method and entails gathering of personal reflections of events and their cause and effects from an individual or several individuals. These findings from this study will contribute to adult amateur cellists' motivations to continue with music lessons and inspire others to commence. The inspiring life stories of the amateur cellists would provide insight into finding and creating new cello lesson material and enhance existing teaching methodologies for adult amateur cellists.

Keywords: adult, amateur, cello, education, learning, music, stories

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1818 Adult Learners’ Code-Switching in the EFL Classroom: An Analysis of Frequency and Type of Code-Switching

Authors: Elizabeth Patricia Beck

Abstract:

Stepping into various English as foreign language classrooms, one will see some fundamental similarities. There will likely be groups of students working collaboratively, possibly sitting at tables together. They will be using a set coursebook or photocopies of materials developed by publishers or the teacher. The teacher will be carefully monitoring students’ behaviour and progress. The teacher will also likely be insisting that the students only speak English together, possibly having implemented a complex penalty and award systems to encourage this. This is communicative language teaching and it is commonly how foreign languages are taught around the world. Recently, there has been much interest in the codeswitching behaviour of learners in foreign or second language classrooms. It is a significant topic as it relates to second language acquisition theory, language teaching training and policy, and student expectations and classroom practice. Generally in an English as a foreign language context, an ‘English Only’ policy is the norm. This is based on historical factors, socio-political influence and theories surrounding language learning. The trend, however, is shifting and, based on these same factors, a re-examination of language use in the foreign language classroom is taking place. This paper reports the findings of an examination into the codeswitching behaviour of learners with a shared native language in an English classroom. Specifically, it addresses the question of classroom code-switching by adult learners in the EFL classroom during student-to-student, spoken interaction. Three generic categories of code switching are proposed based on published research and classroom practice. Italian adult learners at three levels were observed and patterns of language use were identified, recorded and analysed using the proposed categories. After observations were completed, a questionnaire was distributed to the students focussing on attitudes and opinions around language choice in the EFL classroom, specifically, the usefulness of L1 for specific functions in the classroom. The paper then investigates the relationship between learners’ foreign language proficiency and the frequency and type of code-switching that they engaged in, and the relationship between learners’ attitudes to classroom code-switching and their behaviour. Results show that code switching patterns underwent changes as the students’ level of English language proficiency improved, and that students’ attitudes towards code-switching generally correlated with their behaviour with some exceptions, however. Finally, the discussion focusses on the details of the language produced in observation, possible influencing factors that may affect the frequency and type of code switching that took place, and additional influencing factors that may affect students’ attitudes towards code switching in the foreign language classroom. An evaluation of the limitations of this study is offered and some suggestions are made for future research in this field of study.

Keywords: code-switching, EFL, second language aquisition, adult learners

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1817 [Keynote Talk]: Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) for Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL/ESOL) as a Foreign Language (TEFL/EFL), Second Language (TESL/ESL), or Additional Language (TEAL/EAL)

Authors: Andrew Laghos

Abstract:

Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is defined as the use of computers to help learn languages. In this study we look at several different types of CALL tools and applications and how they can assist Adults and Young Learners in learning the English language as a foreign, second or additional language. It is important to identify the roles of the teacher and the learners, and what the learners’ motivations are for learning the language. Audio, video, interactive multimedia games, online translation services, conferencing, chat rooms, discussion forums, social networks, social media, email communication, songs and music video clips are just some of the many ways computers are currently being used to enhance language learning. CALL may be used for classroom teaching as well as for online and mobile learning. Advantages and disadvantages of CALL are discussed and the study ends with future predictions of CALL.

Keywords: computer-assisted language learning (CALL), teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL/EFL), adult learners, young learners

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1816 Creating Complementary Bi-Modal Learning Environments: An Exploratory Study Combining Online and Classroom Techniques

Authors: Justin P. Pool, Haruyo Yoshida

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This research focuses on the effects of creating an English as a foreign language curriculum that combines online learning and classroom teaching in a complementary manner. Through pre- and post-test results, teacher observation, and learner reflection, it will be shown that learners can benefit from online programs focusing on receptive skills if combined with a communicative classroom environment that encourages learners to develop their productive skills. Much research has lamented the fact that many modern mobile assisted language learning apps do not take advantage of the affordances of modern technology by focusing only on receptive skills rather than inviting learners to interact with one another and develop communities of practice. This research takes into account the realities of the state of such apps and focuses on how to best create a curriculum that complements apps which focus on receptive skills. The research involved 15 adult learners working for a business in Japan simultaneously engaging in 1) a commercial online English language learning application that focused on reading, listening, grammar, and vocabulary and 2) a 15-week class focused on communicative language teaching, presentation skills, and mitigation of error aversion tendencies. Participants of the study experienced large gains on a standardized test, increased motivation and willingness to communicate, and asserted that they felt more confident regarding English communication. Moreover, learners continued to study independently at higher rates after the study than they had before the onset of the program. This paper will include the details of the program, reveal the improvement in test scores, share learner reflections, and critically view current evaluation models for mobile assisted language learning applications.

Keywords: adult learners, communicative language teaching, mobile assisted language learning, motivation

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1815 Teachers' Emphatic Concern for Their Learners

Authors: Prakash Singh

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The focus of this exploratory study is on whether teachers demonstrate emphatic concern for their learners in planning, implementing and assessing learning outcomes in their regular classrooms. Empathy must be shown to all learners equally and not only for high-risk learners at the expense of other ability learners. Empathy demonstrated by teachers allows them to build a stronger bond with all their learners. This bond based on trust leads to positive outcomes for learners to be able to excel in their work. Empathic teachers must make every effort to simplify the subject matter for high risk learners so that these learners not only enjoy their learning activities but are also successful like their more able peers. A total of 87.5% of the participants agreed that empathy allows teachers to demonstrate humanistic values in their choice of learning materials for learners of different abilities. It is therefore important for teachers to select content and instructional materials that will contribute to the learners’ success in the mainstream of education. It is also imperative for teachers to demonstrate empathic skills and consequently, to be attuned to the emotions and emotional needs of their learners. Schools need to be reformed, not by simply lengthening the school day or by simply adding more content in the curriculum, but by making school more satisfying to learners. This must be consistent with their diverse learning needs and interests so that they gain a sense of power, fulfillment, and importance in their regular classrooms. Hence, teacher - pupil relationships based on empathic concern for the latter’s educational needs lays the foundation for quality education to be offered.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, empathy, learners’ emotional needs, teachers’ empathic skills

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1814 Adult Education for Transformation and Security Challenges in Nigeria

Authors: Asmau Zarma Gogaram

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The paper examines adult education and how it can be employed as a strategy for transformation and security challenges in Nigeria. It defines the meaning of adult education and its objectives.The issue of the necessity of employing adult education as a strategy for transformation and security challenges was also examined in the paper.In doing this it discussed the different types of adult education programmes, i.e.continuing education, literacy education, retirement and pre-retirement education and civic education. The paper concluded by stating that if the programmes stated are internalizes and applied they can help to raise awareness. Finally the paper proffered some recommendations one of which was that government should at all levels increase their efforts or promoting acquisition of adult education.

Keywords: adult education, transformation and security challenges, Nigeria, education and human development

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1813 The Design and Implementation of Interactive Storybook Reading to Develop the Reading Comprehension of ESL Learners

Authors: A. van Staden, A. A. van Rhyn

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The numerous challenges South African, ESL learners experience were highlighted by the results of several literacy surveys and tests, which demonstrated that our learners’ literacy abilities are far below standard and very weak compared to other international countries. This study developed and implemented an interactive storybook intervention program to support the reading development of ESL learners. The researchers utilized an experimental pre-test/post-test research design, whereby 80 ESL learners from five participating schools, were purposively sampled to take part in this study. This paper, inter alia, discusses the key features of this intervention program whilst also reporting the results of the experimental investigation. Results are promising and show a significant improvement in the mean scores of the learners in the experimental group. Moreover, the results show the value of interactive storybook reading in creating responsive literacy environments to develop the literacy skills of ESL learners.

Keywords: ESL learners, reading comprehension, Interactive story book reading, South Africa

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1812 Adult Language Learning in the Institute of Technology Sector in the Republic of Ireland

Authors: Una Carthy

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A recent study of third level institutions in Ireland reveals that both age and aptitude can be overcome by teaching methodologies to motivate second language learners. This PhD investigation gathered quantitative and qualitative data from 14 Institutes of Technology over a three years period from 2011 to 2014. The fundamental research question was to establish the impact of institutional language policy on attitudes towards language learning. However, other related issues around second language acquisition arose in the course of the investigation. Data were collected from both lectures and students, allowing interesting points of comparison to emerge from both datasets. Negative perceptions among lecturers regarding language provision were often associated with the view that language learning belongs to primary and secondary level and has no place in third level education. This perception was offset by substantial data showing positive attitudes towards adult language learning. Lenneberg’s Critical Age Theory postulated that the optimum age for learning a second language is before puberty. More recently, scholars have challenged this theory in their studies, revealing that mature learners can and do succeed at learning languages. With regard to aptitude, a preoccupation among lecturers regarding poor literacy skills among students emerged and was often associated with resistance to second language acquisition. This was offset by a preponderance of qualitative data from students highlighting the crucial role which teaching approaches play in the learning process. Interestingly, the data collected regarding learning disabilities reveals that, given the appropriate learning environments, individuals can be motivated to acquire second languages, and indeed succeed at learning them. These findings are in keeping with other recent studies regarding attitudes towards second language learning among students with learning disabilities. Both sets of findings reinforce the case for language policies in the Institute of Technology (IoTs). Supportive and positive learning environments can be created in third level institutions to motivate adult learners, thereby overcoming perceived obstacles relating to age and aptitude.

Keywords: age, aptitude, second language acquisition, teaching methodologies

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1811 L2 Acquisition of Tense and Aspect by Cantonese and Mandarin ESL Learners of Different Proficiency Levels

Authors: Mable Chan

Abstract:

The present study about the acquisition of tense and aspect by Cantonese and Mandarin ESL learners aims to investigate the relationship between knowledge, the role that classroom input plays in the development of that knowledge, and learners' use of the L2 knowledge they acquire (i.e. their performance). Chinese has been argued as a tenseless language and Chinese ESL learners have to acquire the property from scratch. The study of acquisition of tense and aspect is a very fruitful research area in second language acquisition for a number of reasons. First, tense and aspect are notorious for being difficult for Chinese ESL learners. Second, to our knowledge, no studies have been done to compare Cantonese and Mandarin ESL learners and age effects in one single study. Data are now being collected and the findings from this comparison study of tense-aspect acquisition will shed light on both theoretical and pedagogical issues in second language acquisition, and contribute to a better understanding of both theoretical aspect concerning L2 acquisition of tense and aspect, and pedagogy of tense for L2 Chinese ESL learners.

Keywords: aspect, second language acquisition, tense, universal grammar

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1810 The Use of Authentic Videos to Change Learners’ Negative Attitudes and Perceptions toward Grammar Learning

Authors: Khaldi Youcef

Abstract:

This investigation seeks to inquire into the effectiveness of using authentic videos for grammar teaching purposes. In this investigation, an English animated situation, Hercules, was used as a type of authentic multimedia to teach a particular grammatical structure, namely conditional sentences. This study also aims at investigating the EFL learners’ attitudes toward grammar learning after being exposed to such an authentic video. To reach that purpose, 56 EFL learners were required ultimately to respond to a questionnaire with an aim to reveal their attitudes towards grammar as a language entity and as a subject for being learned. Then, as a second stage of the investigation, the EFL learners were divided into a control group and an experimental group with 28 learners in each. The first group was taught grammar -conditional sentences- using a deductive-inductive approach, while the second group was exposed to an authentic video to learn conditional sentences. There was a post-lesson stage that included a questionnaire to be answered by learners of each group. The aim of this stage is to capture any change in learners' attitudes shown in the pre-lesson questionnaire. The findings of the first stage revealed learners' negative attitudes towards grammar learning. And the third stage results showed the effectiveness of authentic videos in entirely turning learners' attitudes toward grammar learning to be significantly positive. Also, the utility of authentic videos in highly motivating EFL learners can be deduced. The findings of this survey asserted the need for incorporation and integration of authentic videos in EFL classrooms as they resulted in rising effectively learners’ awareness of grammar and looking at it from a communicative perspective.

Keywords: multimedia, authentic videos, negative attitudes, grammar learning, EFL learners

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1809 Listening Anxiety in Iranian EFL learners

Authors: Samaneh serraj

Abstract:

Listening anxiety has a detrimental effect on language learners. Through a qualitative study on Iranian EFL learners several factors were identified as having influence on their listening anxiety. These factors were divided into three categories, i.e. individual factors (nerves and emotionality, using inappropriate strategies and lack of practice), input factors (lack of time to process, lack of visual support, nature of speech and level of difficulty) and environmental factors (instructors, peers and class environment).

Keywords: listening Comprehension, Listening Anxiety, Foreign language learners

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1808 Effects of Unfamiliar Orthography on the Lexical Encoding of Novel Phonological Features

Authors: Asmaa Shehata

Abstract:

Prior research indicates that second language (L2) learners encounter difficulty in the distinguishing novel L2 contrasting sounds that are not contrastive in their native languages. L2 orthographic information, however, is found to play a positive role in the acquisition of non-native phoneme contrasts. While most studies have mainly involved a familiar written script (i.e., the Roman script), the influence of a foreign, unfamiliar script is still unknown. Therefore, the present study asks: Does unfamiliar L2 script play a role in creating distinct phonological representations of novel contrasting phonemes? It is predicted that subjects’ performance in the unfamiliar orthography group will outperform their counterparts’ performance in the control group. Thus, training that entails orthographic inputs can yield a significant improvement in L2 adult learners’ identification and lexical encoding of novel L2 consonant contrasts. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for the type of input introduced to L2 learners to improve their language learning.

Keywords: Arabic, consonant contrasts, foreign script, lexical encoding, orthography, word learning

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1807 Critical Understanding on Equity and Access in Higher Education Engaging with Adult Learners and International Student in the Context of Globalisation

Authors: Jin-Hee Kim

Abstract:

The way that globalization distinguishes itself from the previous changes is scope and intensity of changes, which together affect many parts of a nation’s system. In this way, globalization has its relation with the concept of ‘internationalization’ in that a nation state formulates a set of strategies in many areas of its governance to actively react to it. In short, globalization is a ‘catalyst,’ and internationalization is a ‘response’. In this regard, the field of higher education is one of the representative cases that globalization has several consequences that change the terrain of national policy-making. Started and been dominated mainly by the Western world, it has now been expanded to the ‘late movers,’ such as Asia-Pacific countries. The case of internationalization of Korean higher education is, therefore, located in a unique place in this arena. Yet Korea still is one of the major countries of sending its students to the so-called, ‘first world.’ On the other hand, it has started its effort to recruit international students from the world to its higher education system. After new Millennium, particularly, internationalization of higher education has been launched in its full-scale and gradually been one of the important global policy agenda, striving in both ways by opening its turf to foreign educational service providers and recruiting prospective students from other countries. Particularly the latter, recruiting international students, has been highlighted under the government project named ‘Study Korea,’ launched in 2004. Not only global, but also local issues and motivations were based to launch this nationwide project. Bringing international students means various desirable economic outcomes such as reducing educational deficit as well as utilizing them in Korean industry after the completion of their study, to name a few. In addition, in a similar vein, Korea's higher education institutes have started to have a new comers of adult learners. When it comes to the questions regarding the quality and access of this new learning agency, the answer is quite tricky. This study will investigate the different dimension of education provision and learning process to empower diverse group regardless of nationality, race, class and gender in Korea. Listening to the voices of international students and adult learning as non-traditional participants in a changing Korean higher educational space not only benefit students themselves, but Korean stakeholders who should try to accommodate more comprehensive and fair educational provisions for more and more diversifying groups of learners.

Keywords: education equity, access, globalisation, international students, adult learning, learning support

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1806 Linguistic Attitudes and Language Learning Needs of Heritage Language Learners of Spanish in the United States

Authors: Sheryl Bernardo-Hinesley

Abstract:

Heritage language learners are students who have been raised in a home where a minority language is spoken, who speaks or merely understand the minority heritage language, but to some degree are bilingual in the majority and the heritage language. In view of the rising university enrollment by Hispanics in the United States who have chosen to study Spanish, university language programs are currently faced with challenges of accommodating the language needs of heritage language learners of Spanish. The present study investigates the heritage language perception and language attitudes by heritage language learners of Spanish, as well as their classroom language learning experiences and needs. In order to carry out the study, a qualitative survey was used to gather data from university students. Analysis of students' responses indicates that heritage learners are motivated to learn the heritage language. In relation to the aspects of focus of a language course for heritage learners, results show that the aspects of interest are accent marks and spelling, grammatical accuracy, vocabulary, writing, reading, and culture.

Keywords: heritage language learners, language acquisition, linguistic attitudes, Spanish in the US

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1805 Error Analysis of the Pronunciation of English Consonants and Arabic Consonants by Egyptian Learners

Authors: Marwa A. Nasser

Abstract:

This is an empirical study that provides an investigation of the most significant errors of Egyptian learners in producing English consonants and Arabic consonants, and advice on how these can be remedied. The study adopts a descriptive approach and the analysis is based on audio recordings of two groups of people. The first group includes six volunteers of Egyptian learners belonging to the English Department at Faculty of Women who learn English as a foreign language. The other group includes six Egyptian learners who are studying Tajweed (how to recite Quran correctly). The audio recordings were examined, and sounds were analyzed in an attempt to highlight the most common error done by the learners while reading English or reading (or reciting) Quran. Results show that the two groups of learners have problems with certain phonemic contrasts. Both groups share common errors although both languages are different and not related (e.g. pre-aspiration of fortis stops, incorrect articulation of consonants and velarization of certain sounds).

Keywords: consonant articulations, Egyptian learners of English, Egyptian learners of Quran, empirical study, error analysis, pronunciation problems

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1804 A Study on Adult Attachment Styles and Romantic Relationship Quality among Young Adults

Authors: Kaliammah Kumaran, Thilaagheswary Thangadurai

Abstract:

This study examined the relationship between anxious attachment and avoidant attachment among young adult romantic relationship quality. Our survey was administered to 300 young adult participants (126 males and 174 females) aged 18-24 years old (M= 20.85, SD=1.89), accomplished the English version of the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS) used to measure adult attachment and Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS). All the participants were tertiary level students. Findings of our study indicated that young adults experienced anxious attachment style is negatively correlated with romantic relationship quality as well as young adult from avoidant attachment also negatively correlated with romantic relationship quality among young adults. The results showed that insecure adult attachment styles which are anxious and avoidance adult attachment styles links with reduced quality of romantic relationship.

Keywords: adult attachment style, anxious attachment style, avoidant attachment style, romantic relationship quality

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