Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6315

Search results for: energy harvester

6315 Parametrization of Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesters for Low Power Embedded Systems

Authors: Yannick Verbelen, Tim Dekegel, Ann Peeters, Klara Stinders, Niek Blondeel, Sam De Winne, An Braeken, Abdellah Touhafi

Abstract:

Matching an embedded electronic application with a cantilever vibration energy harvester remains a difficult endeavour due to the large number of factors influencing the output power. In the presented work, complementary balanced energy harvester parametrization is used as a methodology for simplification of harvester integration in electronic applications. This is achieved by a dual approach consisting of an adaptation of the general parametrization methodology in conjunction with a straight forward harvester benchmarking strategy. For this purpose, the design and implementation of a suitable user friendly cantilever energy harvester benchmarking platform is discussed. Its effectiveness is demonstrated by applying the methodology to a commercially available Mide V21BL vibration energy harvester, with excitation amplitude and frequency as variables.

Keywords: vibration energy harvesting, piezoelectrics, harvester parametrization, complementary balanced energy harvesting

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6314 Functionally Graded MEMS Piezoelectric Energy Harvester with Magnetic Tip Mass

Authors: M. Derayatifar, M. Packirisamy, R.B. Bhat

Abstract:

Role of piezoelectric energy harvesters has gained interest in supplying power for micro devices such as health monitoring sensors. In this study, in order to enhance the piezoelectric energy harvesting in capturing energy from broader range of excitation and to improve the mechanical and electrical responses, bimorph piezoelectric energy harvester beam with magnetic mass attached at the end is presented. In view of overcoming the brittleness of piezo-ceramics, functionally graded piezoelectric layers comprising of both piezo-ceramic and piezo-polymer is employed. The nonlinear equations of motions are derived using energy method and then solved analytically using perturbation scheme. The frequency responses of the forced vibration case are obtained for the near resonance case. The nonlinear dynamic responses of the MEMS scaled functionally graded piezoelectric energy harvester in this paper may be utilized in different design scenarios to increase the efficiency of the harvester.

Keywords: energy harvesting, functionally graded piezoelectric material, magnetic force, MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) piezoelectric, perturbation method

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
6313 Effect of Damping on Performance of Magnetostrictive Vibration Energy Harvester

Authors: Mojtaba Ghodsi, Hamidreza Ziaifar, Morteza Mohammadzaheri, Payam Soltani

Abstract:

This article presents an analytical model to estimate the harvested power from a Magnetostrictive cantilevered beam with tip excitation. Furthermore, the effects of internal and external damping on harvested power are investigated. The magnetostrictive material in this harvester is Galfenol. In comparison to other popular smart materials like Terfenol-D, Galfenol has higher strength and machinability. In this article, first, a mechanical model of the Euler-Bernoulli beam is employed to calculate the deflection of the harvester. Then, the magneto-mechanical equation of Galfenol is combined with Faraday's law to calculate the generated voltage of the Magnetostrictive cantilevered beam harvester. Finally, the beam model is incorporated in the aforementioned combination. The results show that a 30×8.5×1 mm Galfenol cantilever beam harvester with 80 turn pickup coil can generate up to 3.7 mV and 9 mW. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis made by Response Surface Method (RSM) shows that the harvested power is only sensitive to the internal damping coefficient.

Keywords: internal damping coefficient, external damping coefficient, euler-bernoulli, energy harvester, galfenol, magnetostrictive, response surface method

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6312 An Experimental Study of Downstream Structures on the Flow-Induced Vibrations Energy Harvester Performances

Authors: Pakorn Uttayopas, Chawalit Kittichaikarn

Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental investigation for the characteristics of an energy harvesting device exploiting flow-induced vibration in a wind tunnel. A stationary bluff body is connected with a downstream tip body via an aluminium cantilever beam. Various lengths of aluminium cantilever beam and different shapes of downstream tip body are considered. The results show that the characteristics of the energy harvester’s vibration depend on both the length of the aluminium cantilever beam and the shape of the downstream tip body. The highest ratio between vibration amplitude and bluff body diameter was found to be 1.39 for an energy harvester with a symmetrical triangular tip body and L/D1 = 5 at 9.8 m/s of flow speed (Re = 20077). Using this configuration, the electrical energy was extracted with a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric beam with different load resistances, of which the optimal value could be found on each Reynolds number. The highest power output was found to be 3.19 µW, at 9.8 m/s of flow speed (Re = 20077) and 27 MΩ of load resistance.

Keywords: downstream structures, energy harvesting, flow-induced vibration, piezoelectric material, wind tunnel

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6311 Simulation-Based Optimization of a Non-Uniform Piezoelectric Energy Harvester with Stack Boundary

Authors: Alireza Keshmiri, Shahriar Bagheri, Nan Wu

Abstract:

This research presents an analytical model for the development of an energy harvester with piezoelectric rings stacked at the boundary of the structure based on the Adomian decomposition method. The model is applied to geometrically non-uniform beams to derive the steady-state dynamic response of the structure subjected to base motion excitation and efficiently harvest the subsequent vibrational energy. The in-plane polarization of the piezoelectric rings is employed to enhance the electrical power output. A parametric study for the proposed energy harvester with various design parameters is done to prepare the dataset required for optimization. Finally, simulation-based optimization technique helps to find the optimum structural design with maximum efficiency. To solve the optimization problem, an artificial neural network is first trained to replace the simulation model, and then, a genetic algorithm is employed to find the optimized design variables. Higher geometrical non-uniformity and length of the beam lowers the structure natural frequency and generates a larger power output.

Keywords: piezoelectricity, energy harvesting, simulation-based optimization, artificial neural network, genetic algorithm

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6310 Piezoelectric Approach on Harvesting Acoustic Energy

Authors: Khin Fai Chen, Jee-Hou Ho, Eng Hwa Yap

Abstract:

An acoustic micro-energy harvester (AMEH) is developed to convert wasted acoustical energy into useful electrical energy. AMEH is mathematically modeled using lumped element modelling (LEM) and Euler-Bernoulli beam (EBB) modelling. An experiment is designed to validate the mathematical model and assess the feasibility of AMEH. Comparison of theoretical and experimental data on critical parameter value such as Mm, Cms, dm and Ceb showed the variances are within 1% to 6%, which is reasonably acceptable. Hence, AMEH mathematical model is validated. Then, AMEH undergoes bandwidth tuning for performance optimization for further experimental work. The AMEH successfully produces 0.9 V⁄(m⁄s^2) and 1.79 μW⁄(m^2⁄s^4) at 60Hz and 400kΩ resistive load which only show variances about 7% compared to theoretical data. By integrating a capacitive load of 200µF, the discharge cycle time of AMEH is 1.8s and the usable energy bandwidth is available as low as 0.25g. At 1g and 60Hz resonance frequency, the averaged power output is about 2.2mW which fulfilled a range of wireless sensors and communication peripherals power requirements. Finally, the design for AMEH is assessed, validated and deemed as a feasible design.

Keywords: piezoelectric, acoustic, energy harvester

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6309 Analysis and Design of Simultaneous Dual Band Harvesting System with Enhanced Efficiency

Authors: Zina Saheb, Ezz El-Masry, Jean-François Bousquet

Abstract:

This paper presents an enhanced efficiency simultaneous dual band energy harvesting system for wireless body area network. A bulk biasing is used to enhance the efficiency of the adapted rectifier design to reduce Vth of MOSFET. The presented circuit harvests the radio frequency (RF) energy from two frequency bands: 1 GHz and 2.4 GHz. It is designed with TSMC 65-nm CMOS technology and high quality factor dual matching network to boost the input voltage. Full circuit analysis and modeling is demonstrated. The simulation results demonstrate a harvester with an efficiency of 23% at 1 GHz and 46% at 2.4 GHz at an input power as low as -30 dBm.

Keywords: energy harvester, simultaneous, dual band, CMOS, differential rectifier, voltage boosting, TSMC 65nm

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6308 Effects of Surface Roughness on a Unimorph Piezoelectric Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems Vibrational Energy Harvester Using Finite Element Method Modeling

Authors: Jean Marriz M. Manzano, Marc D. Rosales, Magdaleno R. Vasquez Jr., Maria Theresa G. De Leon

Abstract:

This paper discusses the effects of surface roughness on a cantilever beam vibrational energy harvester. A silicon sample was fabricated using MEMS fabrication processes. When etching silicon using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) at large etch depths, rougher surfaces are observed as a result of increased response in process pressure, amount of coil power and increased helium backside cooling readings. To account for the effects of surface roughness on the characteristics of the cantilever beam, finite element method (FEM) modeling was performed using actual roughness data from fabricated samples. It was found that when etching about 550um of silicon, root mean square roughness parameter, Sq, varies by 1 to 3 um (at 100um thick) across a 6-inch wafer. Given this Sq variation, FEM simulations predict an 8 to148 Hz shift in the resonant frequency while having no significant effect on the output power. The significant shift in the resonant frequency implies that careful consideration of surface roughness from fabrication processes must be done when designing energy harvesters.

Keywords: deep reactive ion etching, finite element method, microelectromechanical systems, multiphysics analysis, surface roughness, vibrational energy harvester

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6307 Performance Analysis of Microelectromechanical Systems-Based Piezoelectric Energy Harvester

Authors: Sanket S. Jugade, Swapneel U. Naphade, Satyabodh M. Kulkarni

Abstract:

Microscale energy harvesters can be used to convert ambient mechanical vibrations to electrical energy. Such devices have great applications in low powered electronics in remote environments like powering wireless sensor nodes of Internet of Things, lightings on highways or in ships, etc. In this paper, a Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based energy harvester has been modeled using Analytical and Finite Element Method (FEM). The device consists of a microcantilever with a proof mass attached to its free end and a Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric thin film deposited on the surface of microcantilever in a unimorph or bimorph configuration. For the analytical method, the energy harvester was modeled as an equivalent electrical system in SIMULINK. The Finite element model was developed and analyzed using the commercial package COMSOL Multiphysics. The modal analysis was performed first to find the fundamental natural frequency and its variation with geometrical parameters of the system. Then the harmonic analysis was performed to find the input mechanical power, output electrical voltage, and power for a range of excitation frequencies and base acceleration values. The variation of output power with load resistance, PVDF film thickness, and damping values was also found out. The results from FEM were then validated with that of the analytical model. Finally, the performance of the device was optimized with respect to various electro-mechanical parameters. For a unimorph configuration consisting of single crystal silicon microcantilever of dimensions 8mm×2mm×80µm and proof mass of 9.32 mg with optimal values of the thickness of PVDF film and load resistance as 225 µm and 20 MΩ respectively, the maximum electrical power generated for base excitation of 0.2g at 630 Hz is 0.9 µW.

Keywords: bimorph, energy harvester, FEM, harmonic analysis, MEMS, PVDF, unimorph

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
6306 Optimization of Energy Harvesting Systems for RFID Applications

Authors: P. Chambe, B. Canova, A. Balabanian, M. Pele, N. Coeur

Abstract:

To avoid battery assisted tags with limited lifetime batteries, it is proposed here to replace them by energy harvesting systems, able to feed from local environment. This would allow total independence to RFID systems, very interesting for applications where tag removal from its location is not possible. Example is here described for luggage safety in airports, and is easily extendable to similar situation in terms of operation constraints. The idea is to fix RFID tag with energy harvesting system not only to identify luggage but also to supply an embedded microcontroller with a sensor delivering luggage weight making it impossible to add or to remove anything from the luggage during transit phases. The aim is to optimize the harvested energy for such RFID applications, and to study in which limits these applications are theoretically possible. Proposed energy harvester is based on two energy sources: piezoelectricity and electromagnetic waves, so that when the luggage is moving on ground transportation to airline counters, the piezo module supplies the tag and its microcontroller, while the RF module operates during luggage transit thanks to readers located along the way. Tag location on the luggage is analyzed to get best vibrations, as well as harvester better choice for optimizing the energy supply depending on applications and the amount of energy harvested during a period of time. Effects of system parameters (RFID UHF frequencies, limit distance between the tag and the antenna necessary to harvest energy, produced voltage and voltage threshold) are discussed and working conditions for such system are delimited.

Keywords: RFID tag, energy harvesting, piezoelectric, EM waves

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6305 A Broadband Tri-Cantilever Vibration Energy Harvester with Magnetic Oscillator

Authors: Xiaobo Rui, Zhoumo Zeng, Yibo Li

Abstract:

A novel tri-cantilever energy harvester with magnetic oscillator was presented, which could convert the ambient vibration into electrical energy to power the low-power devices such as wireless sensor networks. The most common way to harvest vibration energy is based on the use of linear resonant devices such as cantilever beam, since this structure creates the highest strain for a given force. The highest efficiency will be achieved when the resonance frequency of the harvester matches the vibration frequency. The limitation of the structure is the narrow effective bandwidth. To overcome this limitation, this article introduces a broadband tri-cantilever harvester with nonlinear stiffness. This energy harvester typically consists of three thin cantilever beams vertically arranged with Neodymium Magnets ( NdFeB)magnetics at its free end and a fixed base at the other end. The three cantilevers have different resonant frequencies by designed in different thicknesses. It is obviously that a similar advantage of multiple resonant frequencies as piezoelectric cantilevers array structure is built. To achieve broadband energy harvesting, magnetic interaction is used to introduce the nonlinear system stiffness to tune the resonant frequency to match the excitation. Since the three cantilever tips are all free and the magnetic force is distance dependent, the resonant frequencies will be complexly changed with the vertical vibration of the free end. Both model and experiment are built. The electromechanically coupled lumped-parameter model is presented. An electromechanical formulation and analytical expressions for the coupled nonlinear vibration response and voltage response are given. The entire structure is fabricated and mechanically attached to a electromagnetic shaker as a vibrating body via the fixed base, in order to couple the vibrations to the cantilever. The cantilevers are bonded with piezoelectric macro-fiber composite (MFC) materials (Model: M8514P2). The size of the cantilevers is 120*20mm2 and the thicknesses are separately 1mm, 0.8mm, 0.6mm. The prototype generator has a measured performance of 160.98 mW effective electrical power and 7.93 DC output voltage via the excitation level of 10m/s2. The 130% increase in the operating bandwidth is achieved. This device is promising to support low-power devices, peer-to-peer wireless nodes, and small-scale wireless sensor networks in ambient vibration environment.

Keywords: tri-cantilever, ambient vibration, energy harvesting, magnetic oscillator

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6304 Design, Control and Implementation of 3.5 kW Bi-Directional Energy Harvester for Intelligent Green Energy Management System

Authors: P. Ramesh, Aby Joseph, Arya G. Lal, U. S. Aji

Abstract:

Integration of distributed green renewable energy sources in addition with battery energy storage is an inevitable requirement in a smart grid environment. To achieve this, an Intelligent Green Energy Management System (i-GEMS) needs to be incorporated to ensure coordinated operation between supply and load demand based on the hierarchy of Renewable Energy Sources (RES), battery energy storage and distribution grid. A bi-directional energy harvester is an integral component facilitating Intelligent Green Energy Management System (i-GEMS) and it is required to meet the technical challenges mentioned as follows: (1) capability for bi-directional mode of operation (buck/boost) (2) reduction of circuit parasitic to suppress voltage spikes (3) converter startup problem (4) high frequency magnetics (5) higher power density (6) mode transition issues during battery charging and discharging. This paper is focused to address the above mentioned issues and targeted to design, develop and implement a bi-directional energy harvester with galvanic isolation. In this work, the hardware architecture for bi-directional energy harvester rated 3.5 kW is developed with Isolated Full Bridge Boost Converter (IFBBC) as well as Dual Active Bridge (DAB) Converter configuration using modular power electronics hardware which is identical for both solar PV array and battery energy storage. In IFBBC converter, the current fed full bridge circuit is enabled and voltage fed full bridge circuit is disabled through Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) pulses for boost mode of operation and vice-versa for buck mode of operation. In DAB converter, all the switches are in active state so as to adjust the phase shift angle between primary full bridge and secondary full bridge which in turn decides the power flow directions depending on modes (boost/buck) of operation. Here, the control algorithm is developed to ensure the regulation of the common DC link voltage and maximum power extraction from the renewable energy sources depending on the selected mode (buck/boost) of operation. The circuit analysis and simulation study are conducted using PSIM 9.0 in three scenarios which are - 1.IFBBC with passive clamp, 2. IFBBC with active clamp, 3. DAB converter. In this work, a common hardware prototype for bi-directional energy harvester with 3.5 kW rating is built for IFBBC and DAB converter configurations. The power circuit is equipped with right choice of MOSFETs, gate drivers with galvanic isolation, high frequency transformer, filter capacitors, and filter boost inductor. The experiment was conducted for IFBBC converter with passive clamp under boost mode and the prototype confirmed the simulation results showing the measured efficiency as 88% at 2.5 kW output power. The digital controller hardware platform is developed using floating point microcontroller TMS320F2806x from Texas Instruments. The firmware governing the operation of the bi-directional energy harvester is written in C language and developed using code composer studio. The comprehensive analyses of the power circuit design, control strategy for battery charging/discharging under buck/boost modes and comparative performance evaluation using simulation and experimental results will be presented.

Keywords: bi-directional energy harvester, dual active bridge, isolated full bridge boost converter, intelligent green energy management system, maximum power point tracking, renewable energy sources

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6303 Design and Optimization of an Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Converter

Authors: Slim Naifar, Sonia Bradai, Christian Viehweger, Olfa Kanoun

Abstract:

Vibration provides an interesting source of energy since it is available in many indoor and outdoor applications. Nevertheless, in order to have an efficient design of the harvesting system, vibration converters have to satisfy some criterion in terms of robustness, compactness and energy outcome. In this work, an electromagnetic converter based on mechanical spring principle is proposed. The designed harvester is formed by a coil oscillating around ten ring magnets using a mechanical spring. The proposed design overcomes one of the main limitation of the moving coil by avoiding the contact between the coil wires with the mechanical spring which leads to a better robustness for the converter. In addition, the whole system can be implemented in a cavity of a screw. Different parameters in the harvester were investigated by finite element method including the magnet size, the coil winding number and diameter and the excitation frequency and amplitude. A prototype was realized and tested. Experiments were performed for 0.5 g to 1 g acceleration. The used experimental setup consists of an electrodynamic shaker as an external artificial vibration source controlled by a laser sensor to measure the applied displacement and frequency excitation. Together with the laser sensor, a controller unit, and an amplifier, the shaker is operated in a closed loop which allows controlling the vibration amplitude. The resonance frequency of the proposed designs is in the range of 24 Hz. Results indicate that the harvester can generate 612 mV and 1150 mV maximum open circuit peak to peak voltage at resonance for 0.5 g and 1 g acceleration respectively which correspond to 4.75 mW and 1.34 mW output power. Tuning the frequency to other values is also possible due to the possibility to add mass to the moving part of the or by changing the mechanical spring stiffness.

Keywords: energy harvesting, electromagnetic principle, vibration converter, moving coil

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6302 Powering Pacemakers from Heart Pressure Variation with Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters

Authors: A. Mathieu, B. Aubry, E. Chhim, M. Jobe, M. Arnaud

Abstract:

Present project consists in a study and a development of piezoelectric devices for supplying power to new generation pacemakers. They are miniaturized leadless implants without battery placed directly in right ventricle. Amongst different acceptable energy sources in cardiac environment, we choose the solution of a device based on conversion of the energy produced by pressure variation inside the heart into electrical energy. The proposed energy harvesters can meet the power requirements of pacemakers, and can be a good solution to solve the problem of regular surgical operation. With further development, proposed device should provide enough energy to allow pacemakers autonomy, and could be good candidate for next pacemaker generation.

Keywords: energy harvester, heart, leadless pacemaker, piezoelectric cells, pressure variation

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6301 Performance Assessment in a Voice Coil Motor for Maximizing the Energy Harvesting with Gait Motions

Authors: Hector A. Tinoco, Cesar Garcia-Diaz, Olga L. Ocampo-Lopez

Abstract:

In this study, an experimental approach is established to assess the performance of different beams coupled to a Voice Coil Motor (VCM) with the aim to maximize mechanically the energy harvesting in the inductive transducer that is included on it. The VCM is extracted from a recycled hard disk drive (HDD) and it is adapted for carrying out experimental tests of energy harvesting. Two individuals were selected for walking with the VCM-beam device as well as to evaluate the performance varying two parameters in the beam; length of the beams and a mass addition. Results show that the energy harvesting is maximized with specific beams; however, the harvesting efficiency is improved when a mass is added to the end of the beams.

Keywords: hard disk drive, energy harvesting, voice coil motor, energy harvester, gait motions

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6300 Investigation of Boll Properties on Cotton Picker Machine Performance

Authors: Shahram Nowrouzieh, Abbas Rezaei Asl, Mohamad Ali Jafari

Abstract:

Cotton, as a strategic crop, plays an important role in providing human food and clothing need, because of its oil, protein, and fiber. Iran has been one of the largest cotton producers in the world in the past, but unfortunately, for economic reasons, its production is reduced now. One of the ways to reduce the cost of cotton production is to expand the mechanization of cotton harvesting. Iranian farmers do not accept the function of cotton harvesters. One reason for this lack of acceptance of cotton harvesting machines is the number of field losses on these machines. So, the majority of cotton fields are harvested by hand. Although the correct setting of the harvesting machine is very important in the cotton losses, the morphological properties of the cotton plant also affect the performance of cotton harvesters. In this study, the effect of some cotton morphological properties such as the height of the cotton plant, number, and length of sympodial and monopodial branches, boll dimensions, boll weight, number of carpels and bracts angle were evaluated on the performance of cotton picker. In this research, the efficiency of John Deere 9920 spindle Cotton picker is investigated on five different Iranian cotton cultivars. The results indicate that there was a significant difference between the five cultivars in terms of machine harvest efficiency. Golestan cultivar showed the best cotton harvester performance with an average of 87.6% of total harvestable seed cotton and Khorshid cultivar had the least cotton harvester performance. The principal component analysis showed that, at 50.76% probability, the cotton picker efficiency is affected by the bracts angle positively and by boll dimensions, the number of carpels and the height of cotton plants negatively. The seed cotton remains (in the plant and on the ground) after harvester in PCA scatter plot were in the same zone with boll dimensions and several carpels.

Keywords: cotton, bract, harvester, carpel

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6299 Acoustic Energy Harvesting Using Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) and PVDF-ZnO Piezoelectric Polymer

Authors: S. M. Giripunje, Mohit Kumar

Abstract:

Acoustic energy that exists in our everyday life and environment have been overlooked as a green energy that can be extracted, generated, and consumed without any significant negative impact to the environment. The harvested energy can be used to enable new technology like wireless sensor networks. Technological developments in the realization of truly autonomous MEMS devices and energy storage systems have made acoustic energy harvesting (AEH) an increasingly viable technology. AEH is the process of converting high and continuous acoustic waves from the environment into electrical energy by using an acoustic transducer or resonator. AEH is not popular as other types of energy harvesting methods since sound waves have lower energy density and such energy can only be harvested in very noisy environment. However, the energy requirements for certain applications are also correspondingly low and also there is a necessity to observe the noise to reduce noise pollution. So the ability to reclaim acoustic energy and store it in a usable electrical form enables a novel means of supplying power to relatively low power devices. A quarter-wavelength straight-tube acoustic resonator as an acoustic energy harvester is introduced with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and PVDF doped with ZnO nanoparticles, piezoelectric cantilever beams placed inside the resonator. When the resonator is excited by an incident acoustic wave at its first acoustic eigen frequency, an amplified acoustic resonant standing wave is developed inside the resonator. The acoustic pressure gradient of the amplified standing wave then drives the vibration motion of the PVDF piezoelectric beams, generating electricity due to the direct piezoelectric effect. In order to maximize the amount of the harvested energy, each PVDF and PVDF-ZnO piezoelectric beam has been designed to have the same structural eigen frequency as the acoustic eigen frequency of the resonator. With a single PVDF beam placed inside the resonator, the harvested voltage and power become the maximum near the resonator tube open inlet where the largest acoustic pressure gradient vibrates the PVDF beam. As the beam is moved to the resonator tube closed end, the voltage and power gradually decrease due to the decreased acoustic pressure gradient. Multiple piezoelectric beams PVDF and PVDF-ZnO have been placed inside the resonator with two different configurations: the aligned and zigzag configurations. With the zigzag configuration which has the more open path for acoustic air particle motions, the significant increases in the harvested voltage and power have been observed. Due to the interruption of acoustic air particle motion caused by the beams, it is found that placing PVDF beams near the closed tube end is not beneficial. The total output voltage of the piezoelectric beams increases linearly as the incident sound pressure increases. This study therefore reveals that the proposed technique used to harvest sound wave energy has great potential of converting free energy into useful energy.

Keywords: acoustic energy, acoustic resonator, energy harvester, eigenfrequency, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)

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6298 Theoretical and Numerical Investigation of a Tri-Stable Nonlinear Energy Harvesting System in Rotational Motion for Low Frequency Environment

Authors: Mei Xutao, Nakano Kimihiko

Abstract:

In order to enhance the energy harvesting efficiency, this paper presents a novel tri-stable energy harvesting system (TEHS), which is realized by the effect of magnetic force, in rotational motion to scavenge vibration energy. The device is meant to provide the power supply for wireless autonomous systems in low-frequency environment. The nonlinear TEHS is composed of the cantilever beam which is mounted on a rotating hub and partially covered by piezoelectric patch, a tip mass magnet in the end and two fixed magnets. A theoretical investigation using the Lagrangian formulation is derived to describe the motion of the energy harvesting system and the output voltage. Additionally, several numerical simulations were carried out to characterize the system under different external excitations and to validate its performance. The results demonstrated that TEHS owns a wide range of frequency of snap-through and high output voltage compared with the bi-stable energy harvesting system (BEHS). Moreover, some sets of experimental validations will be performed in the future work because the experimental setup is in the configuration now.

Keywords: piezoelectric beam, rotational motion, snap-through, tri-stable energy harvester

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6297 Composition, Velocity, and Mass of Projectiles Generated from a Chain Shot Event

Authors: Eric Shannon, Mark J. McGuire, John P. Parmigiani

Abstract:

A hazard associated with the use of timber harvesters is chain shot. Harvester saw chain is subjected to large dynamic mechanical stresses which can cause it to fracture. The resulting open loop of saw chain can fracture a second time and create a projectile consisting of several saw-chain links referred to as a chain shot. Its high kinetic energy enables it to penetrate operator enclosures and be a significant hazard. Accurate data on projectile composition, mass, and speed are needed for the design of both operator enclosures resistant to projectile penetration and for saw chain resistant to fracture. The work presented here contributes to providing this data through the use of a test machine designed and built at Oregon State University. The machine’s enclosure is a standard shipping container. To safely contain any anticipated chain shot, the container was lined with both 9.5 mm AR500 steel plates and 50 mm high-density polyethylene (HDPE). During normal operation, projectiles are captured virtually undamaged in the HDPE enabling subsequent analysis. Standard harvester components are used for bar mounting and chain tensioning. Standard guide bars and saw chains are used. An electric motor with flywheel drives the system. Testing procedures follow ISO Standard 11837. Chain speed at break was approximately 45.5 m/s. Data was collected using both a 75 cm solid bar (Oregon 752HSFB149) and 90 cm solid bar (Oregon 902HSFB149). Saw chains used were 89 Drive Link .404”-18HX loops made from factory spools. Standard 16-tooth sprockets were used. Projectile speed was measured using both a high-speed camera and a chronograph. Both rotational and translational kinetic energy are calculated. For this study 50 chain shot events were executed. Results showed that projectiles consisted of a variety combinations of drive links, tie straps, and cutter links. Most common (occurring in 60% of the events) was a drive-link / tie-strap / drive-link combination having a mass of approximately 10.33 g. Projectile mass varied from a minimum of 2.99 g corresponding to a drive link only to a maximum of 18.91 g corresponding to a drive-link / tie-strap / drive-link / cutter-link / drive-link combination. Projectile translational speed was measured to be approximately 270 m/s and rotational speed of approximately 14000 r/s. The calculated translational and rotational kinetic energy magnitudes each average over 600 J. This study provides useful information for both timber harvester manufacturers and saw chain manufacturers to design products that reduce the hazards associated with timber harvesting.

Keywords: chain shot, timber harvesters, safety, testing

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6296 Vibration Energy Harvesting from Aircraft Structure Using Piezoelectric Transduction

Authors: M. Saifudin Ahmed Atique, Santosh Paudyal, Caixia Yang

Abstract:

In an aircraft, a great portion of energy is wasted due to its inflight structural vibration. Structural components vibrate due to aeroelastic instabilities, gust perturbations and engine rotation at very high rpm. Energy losses due to mechanical vibration can be utilized by harvesting energy from aircraft structure as electrical energy. This harvested energy can be stored in battery panels built into aircraft fuselage and can be used to power inflight auxiliary accessories i.e., lighting and entertainment systems. Moreover, this power can be used for wireless Structural Health Monitoring System (SHM) for aircraft and as an excellent replacement of aircraft Ground Power Unit (GPU)/Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) during passenger onboard time to power aircraft cabin accessories to reduce aircraft ground operation cost significantly. In this paper, we propose the design of a noble aircraft wing in which Piezoelectric panels placed under the composite skin of aircraft wing will generate electrical charges from any inflight aerodynamics or mechanical vibration and store it into battery to power auxiliary inflight systems/accessories as per requirement. Experimental results show that a well-engineered piezoelectric energy harvester based aircraft wing can produce adequate energy to support in-flight lighting and auxiliary cabin accessories.

Keywords: vibration energy, aircraft wing, piezoelectric material, inflight accessories

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6295 Experimental Proof of Concept for Piezoelectric Flow Harvesting for In-Pipe Metering Systems

Authors: Sherif Keddis, Rafik Mitry, Norbert Schwesinger

Abstract:

Intelligent networking of devices has rapidly been gaining importance over the past years and with recent advances in the fields of microcontrollers, integrated circuits and wireless communication, low power applications have emerged, enabling this trend even more. Connected devices provide a much larger database thus enabling highly intelligent and accurate systems. Ensuring safe drinking water is one of the fields that require constant monitoring and can benefit from an increased accuracy. Monitoring is mainly achieved either through complex measures, such as collecting samples from the points of use, or through metering systems typically distant to the points of use which deliver less accurate assessments of the quality of water. Constant metering near the points of use is complicated due to their inaccessibility; e.g. buried water pipes, locked spaces, which makes system maintenance extremely difficult and often unviable. The research presented here attempts to overcome this challenge by providing these systems with enough energy through a flow harvester inside the pipe thus eliminating the maintenance requirements in terms of battery replacements or containment of leakage resulting from wiring such systems. The proposed flow harvester exploits the piezoelectric properties of polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) films to convert turbulence induced oscillations into electrical energy. It is intended to be used in standard water pipes with diameters between 0.5 and 1 inch. The working principle of the harvester uses a ring shaped bluff body inside the pipe to induce pressure fluctuations. Additionally the bluff body houses electronic components such as storage, circuitry and RF-unit. Placing the piezoelectric films downstream of that bluff body causes their oscillation which generates electrical charge. The PVDF-film is placed as a multilayered wrap fixed to the pipe wall leaving the top part to oscillate freely inside the flow. The warp, which allows for a larger active, consists of two layers of 30µm thick and 12mm wide PVDF layered alternately with two centered 6µm thick and 8mm wide aluminum foil electrodes. The length of the layers depends on the number of windings and is part of the investigation. Sealing the harvester against liquid penetration is achieved by wrapping it in a ring-shaped LDPE-film and welding the open ends. The fabrication of the PVDF-wraps is done by hand. After validating the working principle using a wind tunnel, experiments have been conducted in water, placing the harvester inside a 1 inch pipe at water velocities of 0.74m/s. To find a suitable placement of the wrap inside the pipe, two forms of fixation were compared regarding their power output. Further investigations regarding the number of windings required for efficient transduction were made. Best results were achieved using a wrap with 3 windings of the active layers which delivers a constant power output of 0.53µW at a 2.3MΩ load and an effective voltage of 1.1V. Considering the extremely low power requirements of sensor applications, these initial results are promising. For further investigations and optimization, machine designs are currently being developed to automate the fabrication and decrease tolerance of the prototypes.

Keywords: maintenance-free sensors, measurements at point of use, piezoelectric flow harvesting, universal micro generator, wireless metering systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
6294 Efficient Energy Extraction Circuit for Impact Harvesting from High Impedance Sources

Authors: Sherif Keddis, Mohamed Azzam, Norbert Schwesinger

Abstract:

Harvesting mechanical energy from footsteps or other impacts is a possibility to enable wireless autonomous sensor nodes. These can be used for a highly efficient control of connected devices such as lights, security systems, air conditioning systems or other smart home applications. They can also be used for accurate location or occupancy monitoring. Converting the mechanical energy into useful electrical energy can be achieved using the piezoelectric effect offering simple harvesting setups and low deflections. The challenge facing piezoelectric transducers is the achievable amount of energy per impact in the lower mJ range and the management of such low energies. Simple setups for energy extraction such as a full wave bridge connected directly to a capacitor are problematic due to the mismatch between high impedance sources and low impedance storage elements. Efficient energy circuits for piezoelectric harvesters are commonly designed for vibration harvesters and require periodic input energies with predictable frequencies. Due to the sporadic nature of impact harvesters, such circuits are not well suited. This paper presents a self-powered circuit that avoids the impedance mismatch during energy extraction by disconnecting the load until the source reaches its charge peak. The switch is implemented with passive components and works independent from the input frequency. Therefore, this circuit is suited for impact harvesting and sporadic inputs. For the same input energy, this circuit stores 150% of the energy in comparison to a directly connected capacitor to a bridge rectifier. The total efficiency, defined as the ratio of stored energy on a capacitor to available energy measured across a matched resistive load, is 63%. Although the resulting energy is already sufficient to power certain autonomous applications, further optimization of the circuit are still under investigation in order to improve the overall efficiency.

Keywords: autonomous sensors, circuit design, energy harvesting, energy management, impact harvester, piezoelectricity

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6293 Creation of a Test Machine for the Scientific Investigation of Chain Shot

Authors: Mark McGuire, Eric Shannon, John Parmigiani

Abstract:

Timber harvesting increasingly involves mechanized equipment. This has increased the efficiency of harvesting, but has also introduced worker-safety concerns. One such concern arises from the use of harvesters. During operation, harvesters subject saw chain to large dynamic mechanical stresses. These stresses can, under certain conditions, cause the saw chain to fracture. The high speed of harvester saw chain can cause the resulting open chain loop to fracture a second time due to the dynamic loads placed upon it as it travels through space. If a second fracture occurs, it can result in a projectile consisting of one-to-several chain links. This projectile is referred to as a chain shot. It has speeds similar to a bullet but typically has greater mass and is a significant safety concern. Numerous examples exist of chain shots penetrating bullet-proof barriers and causing severe injury and death. Improved harvester-cab barriers can help prevent injury however a comprehensive scientific understanding of chain shot is required to consistently reduce or prevent it. Obtaining this understanding requires a test machine with the capability to cause chain shot to occur under carefully controlled conditions and accurately measure the response. Worldwide few such test machine exist. Those that do focus on validating the ability of barriers to withstand a chain shot impact rather than obtaining a scientific understanding of the chain shot event itself. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design, fabrication, and use of a test machine capable of a comprehensive scientific investigation of chain shot. The capabilities of this machine are to test all commercially-available saw chains and bars at chain tensions and speeds meeting and exceeding those typically encountered in harvester use and accurately measure the corresponding key technical parameters. The test machine was constructed inside of a standard shipping container. This provides space for both an operator station and a test chamber. In order to contain the chain shot under any possible test conditions, the test chamber was lined with a base layer of AR500 steel followed by an overlay of HDPE. To accommodate varying bar orientations and fracture-initiation sites, the entire saw chain drive unit and bar mounting system is modular and capable of being located anywhere in the test chamber. The drive unit consists of a high-speed electric motor with a flywheel. Standard Ponsse harvester head components are used to bar mounting and chain tensioning. Chain lubrication is provided by a separate peristaltic pump. Chain fracture is initiated through ISO standard 11837. Measure parameters include shaft speed, motor vibration, bearing temperatures, motor temperature, motor current draw, hydraulic fluid pressure, chain force at fracture, and high-speed camera images. Results show that the machine is capable of consistently causing chain shot. Measurement output shows fracture location and the force associated with fracture as a function of saw chain speed and tension. Use of this machine will result in a scientific understanding of chain shot and consequently improved products and greater harvester operator safety.

Keywords: chain shot, safety, testing, timber harvesters

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
6292 Wind Energy Harvester Based on Triboelectricity: Large-Scale Energy Nanogenerator

Authors: Aravind Ravichandran, Marc Ramuz, Sylvain Blayac

Abstract:

With the rapid development of wearable electronics and sensor networks, batteries cannot meet the sustainable energy requirement due to their limited lifetime, size and degradation. Ambient energies such as wind have been considered as an attractive energy source due to its copious, ubiquity, and feasibility in nature. With miniaturization leading to high-power and robustness, triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) have been conceived as a promising technology by harvesting mechanical energy for powering small electronics. TENG integration in large-scale applications is still unexplored considering its attractive properties. In this work, a state of the art design TENG based on wind venturi system is demonstrated for use in any complex environment. When wind introduces into the air gap of the homemade TENG venturi system, a thin flexible polymer repeatedly contacts with and separates from electrodes. This device structure makes the TENG suitable for large scale harvesting without massive volume. Multiple stacking not only amplifies the output power but also enables multi-directional wind utilization. The system converts ambient mechanical energy to electricity with 400V peak voltage by charging of a 1000mF super capacitor super rapidly. Its future implementation in an array of applications aids in environment friendly clean energy production in large scale medium and the proposed design performs with an exhaustive material testing. The relation between the interfacial micro-and nano structures and the electrical performance enhancement is comparatively studied. Nanostructures are more beneficial for the effective contact area, but they are not suitable for the anti-adhesion property due to the smaller restoring force. Considering these issues, the nano-patterning is proposed for further enhancement of the effective contact area. By considering these merits of simple fabrication, outstanding performance, robust characteristic and low-cost technology, we believe that TENG can open up great opportunities not only for powering small electronics, but can contribute to large-scale energy harvesting through engineering design being complementary to solar energy in remote areas.

Keywords: triboelectric nanogenerator, wind energy, vortex design, large scale energy

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6291 Energy Initiatives for Turkey

Authors: A.Beril Tugrul, Selahattin Cimen

Abstract:

Dependency of humanity on the energy is ever-increasing today and the energy policies are reaching undeniable and un-ignorable dimensions steering the political events as well. Therefore, energy has the highest priority for Turkey like any other country. In this study, the energy supply security for Turkey evaluated according to the strategic criteria of energy policy. Under these circumstances, different alternatives are described and assessed with in terms of the energy expansion of Turkey. With this study, different opportunities in the energy expansion of Turkey is clarified and emphasized.

Keywords: energy policy, energy strategy, future projection, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
6290 Improving Energy Efficiency through Industrial Symbiosis: A Conceptual Framework of Energy Management in Energy-Intensive Industries

Authors: Yuanjun Chen, Yongjiang Shi

Abstract:

Rising energy prices have drawn a focus to global energy issues, and the severe pollution that has resulted from energy-intensive industrial sectors has yet to be addressed. By combining Energy Efficiency with Industrial Symbiosis, the practices of efficient energy utilization and improvement can be not only enriched at the factory level but also upgraded into “within and/or between firm level”. The academic contribution of this paper provides a conceptual framework of energy management through IS. The management of waste energy within/between firms can contribute to the reduction of energy consumption and provides a solution to the environmental issues.

Keywords: energy efficiency, energy management, industrial symbiosis, energy-intensive industry

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6289 SWOT Analysis of Renewable Energy

Authors: Bahadır Aydın

Abstract:

Being one of the most important elements of social evolution, energy has a vital role for a sustainable economy and development. Energy has great importance to level up the welfare. By this importance, countries having rich resources can apply energy as an political instrument. While needs of energy is increasing, sources to respond this need is very limited. Therefore, countries seek for alternative resources to meet their needs. Renewable energy sources have firstly taken into consideration. Being clean and belonging to countries own sources, renewable energy resources have been widely applied during the last decades. However, renewable energy cannot meet all the expectation of energy needs. In this respect, energy efficiency can be seen as an alternative. Energy efficiency can minimize energy consumption without degrading standard of living, lessening quality of products and without increasing energy bills. In this article, energy resources, SWOT analysis of renewable sources, and energy efficiency topics are mainly discussed.

Keywords: energy efficiency, renewable energy, energy regulations, oil, international relations

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
6288 Systematic Approach for Energy-Supply-Orientated Production Planning

Authors: F. Keller, G. Reinhart

Abstract:

The efficient and economic allocation of resources is one main goal in the field of production planning and control. Nowadays, a new variable gains in importance throughout the planning process: Energy. Energy-efficiency has already been widely discussed in literature, but with a strong focus on reducing the overall amount of energy used in production. This paper provides a brief systematic approach, how energy-supply-orientation can be used for an energy-cost-efficient production planning and thus combining the idea of energy-efficiency and energy-flexibility.

Keywords: production planning, production control, energy-efficiency, energy-flexibility, energy-supply

Procedia PDF Downloads 518
6287 Shaped Crystal Growth of Fe-Ga and Fe-Al Alloy Plates by the Micro Pulling down Method

Authors: Kei Kamada, Rikito Murakami, Masahiko Ito, Mototaka Arakawa, Yasuhiro Shoji, Toshiyuki Ueno, Masao Yoshino, Akihiro Yamaji, Shunsuke Kurosawa, Yuui Yokota, Yuji Ohashi, Akira Yoshikawa

Abstract:

Techniques of energy harvesting y have been widely developed in recent years, due to high demand on the power supply for ‘Internet of things’ devices such as wireless sensor nodes. In these applications, conversion technique of mechanical vibration energy into electrical energy using magnetostrictive materials n have been brought to attention. Among the magnetostrictive materials, Fe-Ga and Fe-Al alloys are attractive materials due to the figure of merits such price, mechanical strength, high magnetostrictive constant. Up to now, bulk crystals of these alloys are produced by the Bridgman–Stockbarger method or the Czochralski method. Using these method big bulk crystal up to 2~3 inch diameter can be grown. However, non-uniformity of chemical composition along to the crystal growth direction cannot be avoid, which results in non-uniformity of magnetostriction constant and reduction of the production yield. The micro-pulling down (μ-PD) method has been developed as a shaped crystal growth technique. Our group have reported shaped crystal growth of oxide, fluoride single crystals with different shape such rod, plate tube, thin fiber, etc. Advantages of this method is low segregation due to high growth rate and small diffusion of melt at the solid-liquid interface, and small kerf loss due to near net shape crystal. In this presentation, we report the shaped long plate crystal growth of Fe-Ga and Fe-Al alloys using the μ-PD method. Alloy crystals were grown by the μ-PD method using calcium oxide crucible and induction heating system under the nitrogen atmosphere. The bottom hole of crucibles was 5 x 1mm² size. A <100> oriented iron-based alloy was used as a seed crystal. 5 x 1 x 320 mm³ alloy crystal plates were successfully grown. The results of crystal growth, chemical composition analysis, magnetostrictive properties and a prototype vibration energy harvester are reported. Furthermore, continuous crystal growth using powder supply system will be reported to minimize the chemical composition non-uniformity along the growth direction.

Keywords: crystal growth, micro-pulling-down method, Fe-Ga, Fe-Al

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6286 Designing, Manufacturing and Testing a Portable Tractor Unit Biocoal Harvester Combine of Agriculture and Animal Wastes

Authors: Ali Moharrek, Hosein Mobli, Ali Jafari, Ahmad Tabataee Far

Abstract:

Biomass is a material generally produced by plants living on soil or water and their derivatives. The remains of agricultural and forest products contain biomass which is changeable into fuel. Besides, you can obtain biogas and ethanol from the charcoal produced from biomass through specific actions. this technology was designed for as a useful Native Fuel and Technology in Energy disasters Management Due to the sudden interruption of the flow of heat energy One of the problems confronted by mankind in the future is the limitations of fossil energy which necessitates production of new energies such as biomass. In order to produce biomass from the remains of the plants, different methods shall be applied considering factors like cost of production, production technology, area of requirement, speed of work easy utilization, ect. In this article we are focusing on designing a biomass briquetting portable machine. The speed of installation of the machine on a tractor is estimated as 80 MF 258. Screw press is used in designing this machine. The needed power for running this machine which is estimated as 17.4 kW is provided by the power axis of tractor. The pressing speed of the machine is considered to be 375 RPM Finally the physical and mechanical properties of the product were compared with utilized material which resulted in appropriate outcomes. This machine is designed for Gathering Raw materials of the ground by Head Section. During delivering the raw materials to Briquetting section, they Crushed, Milled & Pre Heated in Transmission section. This machine is a Combine Portable Tractor unit machine and can use all type of Agriculture, Forest & Livestock Animals Resides as Raw material to make Bio fuel. The Briquetting Section was manufactured and it successfully made bio fuel of Sawdust. Also this machine made a biofuel with Ethanol of sugarcane Wastes. This Machine is using P.T.O power source for Briquetting and Hydraulic Power Source for Pre Processing of Row Materials.

Keywords: biomass, briquette, screw press, sawdust, animal wastes, portable, tractors

Procedia PDF Downloads 210