Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 229

Search results for: entertainment

229 Performing Artists Consumption of Celebrity Entertainment TV News Shows: Relations to the Desire and Perception of Fame

Authors: Annette Davies


Celebrity entertainment TV news shows such as Access Hollywood, Entertainment Tonight, E! News, etc., have remained extremely popular. While the effects of these shows have been examined in academic literature on various sample populations, the effects have rarely been examined on a sample population of performing artists in the entertainment field. The present research investigates how the consumption of these shows influence the desire for fame and the perception of fame among active performing artists. Two separate chi-square analyses were conducted to yield the following results: 1) as the viewing of these shows increases, the overall desire for fame also tends to increase; 2) performers who believe that these celebrity entertainment TV news shows frame fame positively are more likely to perceive fame as a positive achievement overall. Thus, the results of the second finding are consistent with second-level agenda-setting theory. Limitations and suggestions for future research are also discussed.

Keywords: celebrity, entertainment, fame, performers

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228 The Relationship between Brand Recall and Brand Attitude in Advergame

Authors: Azaze-Azizi Abdul Adis, Hyung Jun Kim, Mohamad Rizwan Abdul Majid, Zaiton Osman, Izyanti Awang Razli


The increase of online advertising, specifically advergame has become a popular method of strengthening consumer brand recognition by inserting attractive characters and enhancing entertainment value. There have been several remarkable studies on spokes-characters in advertising effectiveness. However, few studies have examined the link between character presence and consumers' brand recall and attitude in advergame. Moreover, how the entertainment value of an advergame influences brand recall and brand attitude and the mediating role of brand recall in influencing character presence and entertainment on brand attitude are still lacking in the advergaming literature. An online survey was conducted with 366 Malaysian gamers. Using structural equation modeling, the results showed that character presence had no influence but entertainment value had a positive influence on brand recall and brand attitude. This study confirmed the role of brand recall as a mediator of the effect of between entertainment and brand attitude in advergame.

Keywords: character presence, entertainment, brand recall, brand attitude, advergame

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227 Changing Body Ideals of Ethnically Diverse Gay and Heterosexual Men and the Proliferation of Social and Entertainment Media

Authors: Cristina Azocar, Ivana Markova


A survey of 565 male undergraduates examined the effects of exposure to social networking sites and entertainment media on young men’s body image. Exposure to social and to entertainment media was found to have negative effects on men’s body satisfaction, social comparison, and thin ideal internalization. Findings indicated significant differences in those men who were more exposed to social and to entertainment media than those who were not as exposed. Consistent with past studies, gay men were found to be more dissatisfied with their bodies than straight men. Gay men compared themselves to other better-looking individuals and internalized ideal body types seen in media significantly more than their straight counterparts. Surprisingly, straight men seem to care as much about their physical attractiveness/appearance as gay men do, but only in public settings such as at the beach, at athletic events (including gyms) and social events. Although on average ethnic groups were more similar than different, small but significant differences occurred with Asian men indicating significantly higher body dissatisfaction than White/European men and Middle Eastern/Arab men their counterparts. The study increases our knowledge about SNS and entertainment use and its associated body image, and body satisfaction affects among low-income ethnic minority men.

Keywords: body dissatisfaction, body image, entertainment media, gay men, race and ethnicity, social economic status, social comparison, social media

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226 'Violence Is Bad, but It's Just a Game': The Glorification of Violence from Roman Antiquity to Popular Culture

Authors: M. C. Steyn


Violence and entertainment are not mutually exclusive subjects in the Ancient Roman world, in reality they are closely knit together. Their world is permeated by repeated and continuous episodes of violence in its many manifestations, both sanctioned and spontaneous, most of which is considered as some form of entertainment, from plays and writings through the spectrum to the gladiatorial arena. In the 21st century this socio-psychological dynamic is manifested through the stage provided by the screen and what we watch in terms of TV, movies and games. This glorification of violence in a modern world is not out of place as seen in contemporary post apocalyptical/ dystopian literature, film and computer games where the act of violence, frowned upon by social norms and values, becomes sanctioned by the (un)real nature of the game: ‘I am not a violent person, violence is bad, this is just a game’. This paper will examine how violence is framed in the Ancient World and subsequently how it is received by popular culture to represent a world in which the maintenance of stability can only be achieved through officially sanctioned violence, whether sanctioned by the State or the gaming community. This argument will examine both ancient and modern critics of violence such as Senecca, Coleman and Foucault and framed by Baudrillard’s commentary on the post-modern conceptualization of reality.

Keywords: entertainment, violence, gladiatorial games, gaming

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225 A Study of Language Choice and Use among Young Thai in Malaysia

Authors: Din Eak Arathai


The purpose of this research report is to investigate the language choice and use among the young generation of Malaysian Thais community. Besides that, it aims to investigate if there is a difference in language choice across the different domains. It will also examine if there has been a language shift from Thai to other languages by the young generation of Thai community in Malaysia. First the study focuses on the proficiency of Thai and other languages used by hundred (100) respondents belonging to young generation of Malaysian Thais aged range from 18-35. Next, language use and choice will be presented with a focus on the domains of family, friendship, entertainment and social. Finally, based on the findings and data collected, we will be able to see if language shift from Thai to other languages has occurred among the young Thai generation in Malaysia. The instrument used in this study was a 30-item questionnaire and the findings of the data analysis were presented in the form of frequency counts and percentages. The findings found that Thai language remains the most preferred language of choice among young Malaysian Thais but usage of other languages, such as Malay, English and Mandarin has increased and begun to influence the language choice of young Malaysian Thais and their proficiency of their mother tongue.In all the domains studied, Thai is almost exclusively the preferred language used when communicating with family. Malay is the most preferred language in communicating with friends while English is the most preferred language when communicating with colleagues. With regards to social and entertainment activities, young Malaysian Thais show great affinity for entertainment in the Thai language. In conclusion, the result of the study showed the beginning of young Malaysian Thais shifting to other languages, especially English and Malay through their daily choices when communicating with friends and family and especially through their language preferences in entertainment.

Keywords: language choice, language use, language shift, language maintenance, young Malaysian Thais, code switching, code mixing

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224 A Brief Study on the Mental Health vs. Mental Disorders in China, Suicide and the Entertainment Media

Authors: Patricia Portugal Marques de Carvalho Lourenço


Mental Health, mental illnesses, and suicide are old topics made young. While broadly addressed on a global scale to various extents and degrees, mental health, mental disorders, and suicide remain to a large extent a, taboo in a number of societies such as the Chinese. The country’s report on mental health was scrutinized for an in-depth understanding of the prevalence of mental disorders domestically, emphasizing depression, which is more accentuated in rural settings than urban, affecting a significant number of students, retired individuals and that unemployed country-wise. Depression in China is linked to anxiety in younger years, both decreasing as the population grows in age. Mental health, mental disorders and suicide remain for the most part, “forgotten”, despite statistically significant and the media’s yet small efforts in educating the population about the terms i.e. through online/television dramas that approach the topics, trying to demystify them. Whereas crucial to openly address mental health, mental disorders, and suicide, the issues remain an ongoing challenge in China, where series draw light into a reality the media and the population do not broadly converse about. The media in general and the entertainment media, in particular, have a vital role in helping China acknowledge mental health, mental disorders and suicide, albeit having a long way to go in assisting the Chinese population in dealing with the health of their inner minds.

Keywords: mental health, mental disorders, suicide, media, China, Chinese entertainment

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223 Wearable Music: Generation of Costumes from Music and Generative Art and Wearing Them by 3-Way Projectors

Authors: Noriki Amano


The final goal of this study is to create another way in which people enjoy music through the performance of 'Wearable Music'. Concretely speaking, we generate colorful costumes in real- time from music and to realize their dressing by projecting them to a person. For this purpose, we propose three methods in this study. First, a method of giving color to music in a three-dimensionally way. Second, a method of generating images of costumes from music. Third, a method of wearing the images of music. In particular, this study stands out from other related work in that we generate images of unique costumes from music and realize to wear them. In this study, we use the technique of generative arts to generate images of unique costumes and project the images to the fog generated around a person from 3-way using projectors. From this study, we can get how to enjoy music as 'wearable'. Furthermore, we are also able to have the prospect of unconventional entertainment based on the fusion between music and costumes.

Keywords: entertainment computing, costumes, music, generative programming

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222 Case Study of Human Factors and Ergonomics in the Design and Use of Harness-Embedded Costumes in the Entertainment Industry

Authors: Marielle Hanley, Brandon Takahashi, Gerry Hanley, Gabriella Hancock


Safety harnesses and their protocols are very common within the construction industry, and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration has provided extensive guidelines with protocols being constantly updated to ensure the highest level of safety within construction sites. There is also extensive research on harnesses that are meant to keep people in place in moving vehicles, such as seatbelts. Though this research is comprehensive in these areas, the findings and recommendations are not generally applicable to other industry sectors where harnesses are used, such as the entertainment industry. The focus of this case study is on the design and use of harnesses used by theme park employees wearing elaborate costumes in parades and performances. The key factors of posture, kinesthetic factors, and harness engineering interact in significantly different ways when the user is performing repetitive choreography with 20 to 40 lbs. of apparatus connected to harnesses that need to be hidden from the audience’s view. Human factors and ergonomic analysis take into account the required performers’ behaviors, the physical and mental preparation and posture of the performer, the design of the harness-embedded costume, and the environmental conditions during the performance (e.g., wind) that can determine the physical stresses placed on the harness and performer. The uniqueness and expense of elaborate costumes frequently result in one or two costumes created for production, and a variety of different performers need to fit into the same costume. Consequently, the harnesses should be adjustable if they are to minimize the physical and cognitive loads on the performer, but they are frequently more a “one-size fits all”. The complexity of human and technology interactions produces a range of detrimental outcomes, from muscle strains to nerve damage, mental and physical fatigue, and reduced motivation to perform at peak levels. Based on observations conducted over four years for this case study, a number of recommendations to institutionalize the human factors and ergonomic analyses can significantly improve the safety, reliability, and quality of performances with harness-embedded costumes in the entertainment industry. Human factors and ergonomic analyses can be integrated into the engineering design of the performance costumes with embedded harnesses, the conditioning and training of the performers using the costumes, the choreography of the performances within the staged setting and the maintenance of the harness-embedded costumes. By applying human factors and ergonomic methodologies in the entertainment industry, the industry management and support staff can significantly reduce the risks of injury, improve the longevity of unique performers, increase the longevity of the harness-embedded costumes, and produce the desired entertainment value for audiences.

Keywords: ergonomics in entertainment industry, harness-embedded costumes, performer safety, injury prevention

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221 Social Media Consumption Habits within the Millennial Generation: A Comparison between U.S. And Bangladesh

Authors: Didarul Islam Manik


The study was conducted to determine social media usage by the Millennial/young-adult generation in the U.S. and Bangladesh. It investigated what types of social media Millennials/young-adults use in their everyday lives; for what purpose they use social media; what are the significant differences between the two cultures in terms of social media use; and how the age of the respondents correlates with differences in social media use. Among the 409 respondents, 200 were selected from the University of South Dakota and 209 from the University of Dhaka, Bangladesh. The convenience sampling method was used to select the samples. A four-page questionnaire instrument was constructed with 19 closed-ended questions that collected 87 data points. The study considered the uses and gratifications and domestication of technology models as theoretical frameworks. The study found that the Millennials spend an average of 4.5 hours on the Internet daily. They spend an average of 134 minutes on social media every day. However, the U.S. Millennials spend more time (141 minutes) on social media than the Bangladeshis (127 minutes). The U.S. Millennials use various types of social media including Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Instagram, Pinterest, SnapChat, Reddit, Imgur, etc. In contrast, Bangladeshis use Facebook, YouTube, and Google plus+. The Bangladeshis tended to spend more time on Facebook (107 minutes) than the Americans (57 minutes). The study found that the Millennials of the two countries use Facebook to fill their free time, acquire information, seek entertainment, and maintain existing relationships. However, Bangladeshis are more likely to use Facebook for the acquisition of information, entertainment, educational purposes, and connecting with the people closest to them. Millennials also use Twitter to fill their free time, acquire information, and for entertainment. The study found a statistically significant difference between female and male social media use. It also found a significant correlation between age and using Facebook for educational purposes; age and discussing and posting religious issues; and age and meeting with new people. There is also a correlation between age and the use of Twitter for spending time and seeking entertainment.

Keywords: American study, social media, millennial generation, South Asian studies

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220 The Semiotics of Soft Power; An Examination of the South Korean Entertainment Industry

Authors: Enya Trenholm-Jensen


This paper employs various semiotic methodologies to examine the mechanism of soft power. Soft power refers to a country’s global reputation and their ability to leverage that reputation to achieve certain aims. South Korea has invested heavily in their soft power strategy for a multitude of predominantly historical and geopolitical reasons. On account of this investment and the global prominence of their strategy, South Korea was considered to be the optimal candidate for the aims of this investigation. Having isolated the entertainment industry as one of the most heavily funded segments of the South Korean soft power strategy, the analysis restricted itself to this sector. Within this industry, two entertainment products were selected as case studies. The case studies were chosen based on commercial success according to metrics such as streams, purchases, and subsequent revenue. This criterion was deemed to be the most objective and verifiable indicator of the products general appeal. The entertainment products which met the chosen criterion were Netflix’ “Squid Game” and BTS’ hit single “Butter”. The methodologies employed were chosen according to the medium of the entertainment products. For “Squid Game,” an aesthetic analysis was carried out to investigate how multi- layered meanings were mobilized in a show popularized by its visual grammar. To examine “Butter”, both music semiology and linguistic analysis were employed. The music section featured an analysis underpinned by denotative and connotative music semiotic theories borrowing from scholars Theo van Leeuwen and Martin Irvine. The linguistic analysis focused on stance and semantic fields according to scholarship by George Yule and John W. DuBois. The aesthetic analysis of the first case study revealed intertextual references to famous artworks, which served to augment the emotional provocation of the Squid Game narrative. For the second case study, the findings exposed a set of musical meaning units arranged in a patchwork of familiar and futuristic elements to achieve a song that existed on the boundary between old and new. The linguistic analysis of the song’s lyrics found a deceptively innocuous surface level meaning that bore implications for authority, intimacy, and commercial success. Whether through means of visual metaphor, embedded auditory associations, or linguistic subtext, the collective findings of the three analyses exhibited a desire to conjure a form of positive arousal in the spectator. In the synthesis section, this process is likened to that of branding. Through an exploration of branding, the entertainment products can be understood as cogs in a larger operation aiming to create positive associations to Korea as a country and a concept. Limitations in the form of a timeframe biased perspective are addressed, and directions for future research are suggested. This paper employs semiotic methodologies to examine two entertainment products as mechanisms of soft power. Through means of visual metaphor, embedded auditory associations, or linguistic subtext, the findings reveal a desire to conjure positive arousal in the spectator. The synthesis finds similarities to branding, thus positioning the entertainment products as cogs in a larger operation aiming to create positive associations to Korea as a country and a concept.

Keywords: BTS, cognitive semiotics, entertainment, soft power, south korea, squid game

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219 Dirty Martini vs Martini: The Contrasting Duality Between Big Bang and BTS Public Image and Their Latest MVs Analysis

Authors: Patricia Portugal Marques de Carvalho Lourenco


Big Bang is like a dirty martini embroiled in a stew of personal individual scandals that have rocked the group’s image and perception, from G-Dragon’s and T.O.P. marijuana episodes in 2011 and 2016, respectively, to Daesung’s building illicit entertainment activities in 2018to the Burning Sun shebang that led to the Titanic sink of Big Bang’s youngest member Seungri in 2019 and the positive sentiment migration to the antithetical side. BTS, on the other hand, are like a martini, clear, clean, attracting as many crowds to their performances and online content as the Pope attracts believers to Sunday Mass in the Vatican, as exemplified by their latest MVs. Big Bang’s 2022 Still Life achieved 16.4 million views on Youtube in 24hours, whilst BTS Permission to Dance achieved 68.5 million in the same period of time. The difference is significant when added Big Bang’s and BTS overall award wins, a total of 117 in contrast to 460. Both groups are uniquely talented and exceptional performers that have been contributing greatly to the dissemination of Korean Pop Music on a global scale in their own inimitable ways. Both are exceptional in their own right and while the artists cannot, ought not, should not be compared for the grave injustice made in comparing one individual planet with one solar system, a contrast is merited and hence done. The reality, nonetheless, is about disengagement from a group that lives life humanly, learning and evolving with each challenge and mistake without a clean, perfect tag attached to it, demonstrating not only an inability to disassociate the person from the artist and the music but also an inability to understand the difference between a private and public life.

Keywords: K-Pop, big bang, BTS, music, public image, entertainment, korean entertainment

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218 From Ritual to Entertainment: Echoes of Realism and Creativity in Costumes of Masquerades in New Nigerian Festivals

Authors: Bernard Eze Orji


The masquerade, which is the most popular indigenous art form in Africa, is obviously identified by its elaborate, weird, and opulent costumes. The costume is the major essential accouterments in the art of the masquerade. From time past, masquerades have performed and enjoyed the freedom associated with its inscrutability and mystification solely because of its costumes. Noninitiates and women watched masquerades from a distance due to the reverence attached to its costumes and performances. In fact, whether in performance or as an item of art, the masquerade costume was seen as an embodiment of a tradition of liveliness, showiness, secrecy, and sacredness. This liveliness and showiness transformed masked characters who are believed to be possessed by spirits of ancestors and animals that inhabited the costumes. However, with the translocation of masquerade in new festivals such as carnival and state-sponsored cultural days, its costumes have been reduced to a mere item of entertainment and aesthetic values. The sacredness and reverence which hitherto elevated masquerade art to the point of wonderment have given way to an aesthetic appreciation of ingenious and individual creativity deployed in these festivals. This is as a result of the realistic and artistic creations that pervade masquerade costumes and masks in these festivals. It is a common sight to see such masquerades of animal and human genera like a lion, elephant, hippopotamus, and antelope; Agbogho Mmuo, Adamma, and Nchiekwa, respectively. This creative flair has emerged to expunge the ritual narratives associated with masquerades in the past. The study utilized performance analysis and aesthetic theory to establish that the creative ingenuity deployed by fine artists and mask designers who combine traditional artifacts to achieve modern masterpieces for the masquerades of the new festivals have reduced the ritual trappings and hype ascribed to masquerades in indigenous societies.

Keywords: costume and mask designs, entertainment, masquerade, ritual

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217 A Study on the Factors Affecting Student Behavior Intention to Attend Robotics Courses at the Primary and Secondary School Levels

Authors: Jingwen Shan


In order to explore the key factors affecting the robot program learning intention of school students, this study takes the technology acceptance model as the theoretical basis and invites 167 students from Jiading District of Shanghai as the research subjects. In the robot course, the model of school students on their learning behavior is constructed. By verifying the causal path relationship between variables, it is concluded that teachers can enhance students’ perceptual usefulness to robotics courses by enhancing subjective norms, entertainment perception, and reducing technical anxiety, such as focusing on the gradual progress of programming and analyzing learner characteristics. Students can improve perceived ease of use by enhancing self-efficacy. At the same time, robot hardware designers can optimize in terms of entertainment and interactivity, which will directly or indirectly increase the learning intention of the robot course. By changing these factors, the learning behavior of primary and secondary school students can be more sustainable.

Keywords: TAM, learning behavior intentions, robot courses, primary and secondary school students

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216 The Meaning and Roles of Leisure among Elderly People

Authors: Jureerat Kilsomporn, Chularat Howharn


The aim of this qualitative study was to describe the meaning of leisure and the role of leisure among elderly people aged more than 80. Participants were purposive selected. Inclusion criteria were age more than 80 year, has no disease, and independent for daily life activities. Data were collected by in-depth interview. Each participant was interviewed two times and 45-60 minutes in each time of interview. Content analyses were conducted to describe the findings. The findings were as followed. Ten active aging participated in this study. All of them are Buddhist with age between 83-89 years old. Most of them completed the primary school. All of them were active members of community club such as elderly club, women club, and funeral association. Active aging described leisure as activities that connected them with their communities. Leisure could be categorized into three groups which were religious activities, entertainment activities, and hobbies. Examples of religious activities were ordination, house-blessing ceremony, and wedding ceremony. Examples of entertainment activities were Thai dance, beat a drum, and sang local songs. Participants described more that they joined and did in leisure for a sake of pleasure. These leisure played significant roles; significantly affect were their minds and their spiritual. Religious activities play a significant role in spiritual well-being while entertainment activities play a significant role in maintaining good status of mental health. Effect of hobby activities which most of these were payable activities were increased their self-valued. Although it was not high incomes but they can use their own money as they designed. Moreover, participants describe that they have a feeling of use their time wisely since they can earn the money, they can have an exercise, and they can share the time with their neighborhood with these activities. Suggestions from this study were that authorized personnel should promote leisure for aging regularly and continuously. Any facilities that meet with their need and their desired should be promoted since these can facilitate aging to maintain their good health status.

Keywords: active aging, activities, elderly, leisure

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215 Gender and Advertisements: A Content Analysis of Pakistani Prime Time Advertisements

Authors: Aaminah Hassan


Advertisements carry a great potential to influence our lives because they are crafted to meet particular ends. Stereotypical representation in advertisements is capable of forming unconscious attitudes among people towards any gender and their abilities. This study focuses on gender representation in Pakistani prime time advertisements. For this purpose, 13 advertisements were selected from three different categories of foods and beverages, cosmetics, cell phones and cellular networks from the prime time slots of one of the leading Pakistani entertainment channel, ‘Urdu 1’. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses are carried out for range of variables like gender, age, roles, activities, setting, appearance and voice overs. The results revealed that gender representation in advertisements is stereotypical. Moreover, in few instances, the portrayal of women is not only culturally inappropriate but is demeaning to the image of women as well. Their bodily charm is used to promote products. Comparing different entertainment channels for their prime time advertisements and broadening the scope of this research will yield greater implications for the researchers who want to carry out the similar research. It is hoped that the current study would help in the promotion of media literacy among the viewers and media authorities in Pakistan.

Keywords: Advertisements, Content Analysis, Gender, Prime time

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
214 Factors Promoting French-English Tweets in France

Authors: Taoues Hadour


Twitter has become a popular means of communication used in a variety of fields, such as politics, journalism, and academia. This widely used online platform has an impact on the way people express themselves and is changing language usage worldwide at an unprecedented pace. The language used online reflects the linguistic battle that has been going on for several decades in French society. This study enables a deeper understanding of users' linguistic behavior online. The implications are important and allow for a rise in awareness of intercultural and cross-language exchanges. This project investigates the mixing of French-English language usage among French users of Twitter using a topic analysis approach. This analysis draws on Gumperz's theory of conversational switching. In order to collect tweets at a large scale, the data was collected in R using the rtweet package to access and retrieve French tweets data through Twitter’s REST and stream APIs (Application Program Interface) using the software RStudio, the integrated development environment for R. The dataset was filtered manually and certain repetitions of themes were observed. A total of nine topic categories were identified and analyzed in this study: entertainment, internet/social media, events/community, politics/news, sports, sex/pornography, innovation/technology, fashion/make up, and business. The study reveals that entertainment is the most frequent topic discussed on Twitter. Entertainment includes movies, music, games, and books. Anglicisms such as trailer, spoil, and live are identified in the data. Change in language usage is inevitable and is a natural result of linguistic interactions. The use of different languages online is just an example of what the real world would look like without linguistic regulations. Social media reveals a multicultural and multilinguistic richness which can deepen and expand our understanding of contemporary human attitudes.

Keywords: code-switching, French, sociolinguistics, Twitter

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213 The Changes of Functions of Leishan Miao New-Year in Southeast Guizhou

Authors: Lanyan Peng, Ling Chen


Leishan Miao New-Year is one of the grandest festivals in the southeastern of Guizhou Province in China. It was officially listed in the National Intangible Cultural Heritage List in 2008, as a traditional folk cultural activity organized by the local Miao people. With the rise of cultural tourism, after 19 years of exploration, the local government has successfully built Miao New-Year into a cultural card that is well-known at home and abroad. During the Miao New-Year period, it has attracted 3.8 million tourists and achieves a win-win situation in the economy and culture. However, tourism development has changed the living environment and living state of the local people. And it is accompanied by changes in the form of the festival, the content of the festival, and the local people’s needs and attitudes to the festival. This paper uses the field investigation method to achieve 410 questionnaires and 35 interviews, exploring the process and the reasons for changes of Leishan Miao New-Year’s cultural function. Among all the functions, the economic function, identity function, and entertainment function have been enhanced, and the marriage and love function has been extended. In the meanwhile, sacrificial function has been weakened. There are some trends in functions. The function of commemorating ancestor and self-entertainment has been changed to entertaining people and economic pursuit.

Keywords: Miao New-Year, Miao nationality, festival function, changes

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212 Survival Struggle: To Be a Female Competitor in Survivor

Authors: Gülbuğ Erol, Gamze Beyge, Hakan Ekemen


In Turkey national TV channels broadcast a wide range of programs to audience attract viewers. Since the year 2000, especially the competition programs were directed towards entertainment and audience has gained. Even today, television channels have just begun to be broadcast on entertainment channels. Except from the news, the TV collects pleasure with its broadcasts aiming to meet the expectation of the Turkish people of TV 8 TV channels. Survivor, one of the TV 8 programs, draws attention with the ratings it receives and the broad target audience it addresses. Survivor, however, is one of the most exciting competitions on the Turkish television scene, which is rightly and ambitiously competitive in television contest programs. It is a format in which women and men struggle their power borders by winning the competition with their names thanks to their intelligence and endurance games. The contestants of the program, which has been running since March 22, 2005, are seen in a platform where they must present their struggle for their various awards. In Survivor, where competition is at stake, courage and strength are reduced by the reduction of sex. In this study, the critical discourse was made taking into consideration the challenges of female competitors competing to the final stage which is behind the male competitors. Secondly, the variables from the beginning to the present day of the adaptation of the judge to Turkey have been debated in a critical context.

Keywords: television, meaning, discourse, contest program

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211 Customer Segmentation Revisited: The Case of the E-Tailing Industry in Emerging Market

Authors: Sanjeev Prasher, T. Sai Vijay, Chandan Parsad, Abhishek Banerjee, Sahakari Nikhil Krishna, Subham Chatterjee


With rapid rise in internet retailing, the industry is set for a major implosion. Due to the little difference among competitors, companies find it difficult to segment and target the right shoppers. The objective of the study is to segment Indian online shoppers on the basis of the factors – website characteristics and shopping values. Together, these cover extrinsic and intrinsic factors that affect shoppers as they visit web retailers. Data were collected using questionnaire from 319 Indian online shoppers, and factor analysis was used to confirm the factors influencing the shoppers in their selection of web portals. Thereafter, cluster analysis was applied, and different segments of shoppers were identified. The relationship between income groups and online shoppers’ segments was tracked using correspondence analysis. Significant findings from the study include that web entertainment and informativeness together contribute more than fifty percent of the total influence on the web shoppers. Contrary to general perception that shoppers seek utilitarian leverages, the present study highlights the preference for fun, excitement, and entertainment during browsing of the website. Four segments namely Information Seekers, Utility Seekers, Value Seekers and Core Shoppers were identified and profiled. Value seekers emerged to be the most dominant segment with two-fifth of the respondents falling for hedonic as well as utilitarian shopping values. With overlap among the segments, utilitarian shopping value garnered prominence with more than fifty-eight percent of the total respondents. Moreover, a strong relation has been established between the income levels and the segments of Indian online shoppers. Web shoppers show different motives from being utility seekers to information seekers, core shoppers and finally value seekers as income levels increase. Companies can strategically use this information for target marketing and align their web portals accordingly. This study can further be used to develop models revolving around satisfaction, trust and customer loyalty.

Keywords: online shopping, shopping values, effectiveness of information content, web informativeness, web entertainment, information seekers, utility seekers, value seekers, core shoppers

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210 African Folklore for Critical Self-Reflection, Reflective Dialogue, and Resultant Attitudinal and Behaviour Change: University Students’ Experiences

Authors: T. M. Buthelezi, E. O. Olagundoye, R. G. L. Cele


This article argues that whilst African folklore has mainly been used for entertainment, it also has an educational value that has power to change young people’s attitudes and behavior. The paper is informed by the findings from the data that was generated from 154 university students who were coming from diverse backgrounds. The qualitative data was thematically analysed. Referring to the six steps of the behaviour change model, we found that African Folklore provides relevant cultural knowledge and instills values that enable young people to engage on self-reflection that eventually leads them towards attitudinal changes and behaviour modification. Using the transformative learning theory, we argue that African Folklore in itself is a pedagogical strategy that integrates cultural knowledge, values with entertainment elements concisely enough to take the young people through a transformative phase which encompasses psychological, convictional and life-style adaptation. During data production stage all ethical considerations were observed including obtaining gatekeeper’s permission letter and ethical clearance certificate from the Ethics Committee of the University. The paper recommends that African Folklore approach should be incorporated into the school curriculum particularly in life skills education with aims to change behaviour.

Keywords: African folklore, young people, attitudinal, behavior change, university students

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209 Bed Scenes Allurement as Entertainment and Selling Point in Nigeria's Nollywood Movie Industry

Authors: Ojinime E. Ojiakor, Allen N. Adum


We report on bed scenes allurement as entertainment and selling point in Nigeria’s Nollywood movie industry. In recent times, there has been an increase in the portrayal of bed scenes in Nollywood movies. Before now, Nigerian film producers have been very conservative when it comes to showing sex and nudity. This appears to have changed in line with global trends. Movie industries all over the world appear a haven for delectable women who glamorize our screens, not only with their beauty but also their acting skills. At Hollywood, Bollywood, Ghollywood and the like, pretty actresses with sensuous endowments engage in bed scenes which allure the minds of viewers. The idea that, a ravishing beauty on cast is as good as a box office hit apparently drives Nigerian film producers to incorporate bed scenes in their movies. In this era of sex crusade where what sells is sex and maybe a little bit of violence, there is the suggestion that producers believe that if the talent of an actress doesn’t do the trick, the sexiness she exudes is bound to get attention. Against this backdrop, our study examined bed scenes depiction by Nollywood films, in an attempt to establish if their allurement influences the choice of movie and purchase decisions of target markets. We assessed Nollywood films and viewer preference using the mixed method approach. Our findings reveal that bed scenes, as portrayed in Nigerian movies are a significant determinant of which films to watch and which films to purchase among the respondents studied.

Keywords: allurement, bed scenes, nollywood, selling point

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208 Research and Design of Functional Mixed Community: A Model Based on the Construction of New Districts in China

Authors: Wu Chao


The urban design of the new district in China is different from other existing cities at the city planning level, including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, etc. And the urban problems of these super-cities are same as many big cities around the world. The goal of the new district construction plan is to enable people to live comfortably, to improve the well-being of residents, and to create a way of life different from that of other urban communities. To avoid the emergence of the super community, the idea of "decentralization" is taken as the overall planning idea, and the function and form of each community are set up with a homogeneous allocation of resources so that the community can grow naturally. Similar to the growth of vines in nature, each community groups are independent and connected through roads, with clear community boundaries that limit their unlimited expansion. With a community contained 20,000 people as a case, the community is a mixture for living, production, office, entertainment, and other functions. Based on the development of the Internet, to create more space for public use, and can use data to allocate resources in real time. And this kind of shared space is the main part of the activity space in the community. At the same time, the transformation of spatial function can be determined by the usage feedback of all kinds of existing space, and the use of space can be changed by the changing data. Take the residential unit as the basic building function mass, take the lower three to four floors of the building as the main flexible space for use, distribute functions such as entertainment, service, office, etc. For the upper living space, set up a small amount of indoor and outdoor activity space, also used as shared space. The transformable space of the bottom layer is evenly distributed, combined with the walking space connected the community, the service and entertainment network can be formed in the whole community, and can be used in most of the community space. With the basic residential unit as the replicable module, the design of the other residential units runs through the idea of decentralization and the concept of the vine community, and the various units are reasonably combined. At the same time, a small number of office buildings are added to meet the special office needs. The new functional mixed community can change many problems of the present city in the future construction, at the same time, it can keep its vitality through the adjustment function of the Internet.

Keywords: decentralization, mixed functional community, shared space, spatial usage data

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207 An Inductive Study of Pop Culture Versus Visual Art: Redefined from the Lens of Censorship in Bangladesh

Authors: Ahmed Tahsin Shams


The right to dissent through any form of art has been facing challenges through various strict legal measures, particularly since 2018 when the Government of Bangladesh passed the Digital Security Act 2018 (DSA). Therefore, the references to ‘popular’ culture mostly include mainstream religious and national festivals and exclude critical intellectual representation of specific political allusions in any form of storytelling: whether wall art or fiction writing, since the post-DSA period in Bangladesh. Through inductive quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches, this paper aims to study the pattern of censorship, detention or custodial tortures against artists and the banning approach by the Bangladeshi government in the last five years, specifically against static visual arts, i.e., cartoon and wall art. The pattern drawn from these data attempts to redefine the popular notion of ‘pop culture’ as an unorganized folk or mass culture. The results also hypothesize how the post-DSA period forcefully constructs ‘pop culture’ as a very organized repetitive deception of enlightenment or entertainment. Thus the argument theorizes that this censoring trend is a fascist approach making the artists subaltern. So, in this socio-political context, these two similar and overlapping elements: culture and art, are vastly separated in two streams: the former being appreciated by the power, and the latter is a fearful concern for the power. Therefore, the purpose of art also shifts from entertainment to an act of rebellion, adding more layers to the new postmodern definition of ‘pop culture.’

Keywords: popular culture, visual arts, censoring trend, fascist approach, subaltern, digital security act

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206 The Influence of Destination Image on Tourists' Experience at Osun Osogbo World Heritage Site

Authors: Bola Adeleke, Kayode Ogunsusi


Heritage sites have evolved to preserve culture and heritage and also to educate and entertain tourists. Tourist travel decisions and behavior are influenced by destination image and value of the experience of tourists. Perceived value is one of the important tools for securing a competitive edge in tourism destinations. The model of Ritchie and Crouch distinguished 36 attributes of competitiveness which are classified into five factors which are quality of experience, touristic attractiveness, environment and infrastructure, entertainment/outdoor activities and cultural traditions. The study extended this model with a different grouping of the determinants of destination competitiveness. The theoretical framework used for this study assumes that apart from attractions already situated in the grove, satisfaction with destination common service, and entertainment and events, can all be used in creating a positive image for/and in attracting customers (destination selection) to visit Osun Sacred Osogbo Grove during and after annual celebrations. All these will impact positively on travel experience of customers as well as their spiritual fulfillment. Destination image has a direct impact on tourists’ satisfaction which consequently impacts on tourists’ likely future behavior on whether to revisit a cultural destination or not. The study investigated the variables responsible for destination image competitiveness of the Heritage Site; assessed the factors enhancing the destination image; and evaluated the perceived value realized by tourists from their cultural experience at the grove. A complete enumeration of tourists above 18 years of age who visited the Heritage Site within the month of March and April 2017 was taken. 240 respondents, therefore, were used for the study. The structured questionnaire with 5 Likert scales was administered. Five factors comprising 63 variables were used to determine the destination image competitiveness through principal component analysis, while multiple regressions were used to evaluate perceived value of tourists at the grove. Results revealed that 11 out of the 12 variables determining the destination image competitiveness were significant in attracting tourists to the grove. From the R-value, all factors predicted tourists’ value of experience strongly (R= 0.936). The percentage variance of customer value was explained by 87.70% of the variance of destination common service, entertainment and event satisfaction, travel environment satisfaction and spiritual satisfaction, with F-value being significant at 0.00. Factors with high alpha value contributed greatly to adding value to enhancing destination and tourists’ experience. 11 variables positively predicted tourist value with significance. Managers of Osun World Heritage Site should improve on variables critical to adding values to tourists’ experience.

Keywords: competitiveness, destination image, Osun Osogbo world heritage site, tourists

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205 A Short Study on the Effects of Public Service Advertisement on Gender Bias in Accessible and Non-Accessible Format

Authors: Amrin Moger, Sagar Bhalerao, Martin Mathew


Advertisements play a vital role in dissemination of information regarding products and services. Advertisements as Mass Media tool is not only a source of entertainment, but also a source of information, education and entertainment. It provides information about the outside world and exposes us to other ways of life and culture. Public service advertisements (PSA) are generally aimed at public well-being. Aim of PSA is not to make profit, but rather to change public opinion and raise awareness in the Society about a social issue.’ Start with the boys’ is one such PSA aims to create awareness about issue of ‘gender bias’ that is taught prevalent in the society. Persons with disabilities (PWDs) are also consumers of PSA in the society. The population of persons with disability in the society also faces gender bias and discrimination. It is a double discrimination. The advertisement selected for the study gives out a strong message on gender bias and therefore must be accessible to everyone including PWDs in the society. Accessibility of PSA in the digital format can be done with the help of Universal Design (UD) in digital media application. Features of UD inclusive in nature, and it focus on eliminating established barriers through initial designs. It considers the needs of diverse people, whether they are persons with or without disability. In this research two aspects of UD in digital media: captioning and Indian sign language (ISL) is used. Hence a short survey study was under taken to know the effects of a multimedia on gender bias, in accessible format on persons with and without disability. The result demonstrated a significant difference in the opinion, on the usage accessible and non-accessible format for persons with and without disability and their understanding of message in the PSA selected for the study.

Keywords: public service advertisements, gender, disability, accessibility

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204 Mobile Technology Use by People with Learning Disabilities: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Peter Williams


Mobile digital technology, in the form of smart phones, tablets, laptops and their accompanying functionality/apps etc., is becoming ever more used by people with Learning Disabilities (LD) - for entertainment, to communicate and socialize, and enjoy self-expression. Despite this, there has been very little research into the experiences of such technology by this cohort, it’s role in articulating personal identity and self-advocacy and the barriers encountered in negotiating technology in everyday life. The proposed talk describes research funded by the British Academy addressing these issues. It aims to explore: i) the experiences of people with LD in using mobile technology in their everyday lives – the benefits, in terms of entertainment, self-expression and socialising, and possible greater autonomy; and the barriers, such as accessibility or usability issues, privacy or vulnerability concerns etc. ii) how the technology, and in particular the software/apps and interfaces, can be improved to enable the greater access to entertainment, information, communication and other benefits it can offer. It is also hoped that results will inform parents, carers and other supporters regarding how they can use the technology with their charges. Rather than the project simply following the standard research procedure of gathering and analysing ‘data’ to which individual ‘research subjects’ have no access, people with Learning Disabilities (and their supporters) will help co-produce an accessible, annotated and hyperlinked living e-archive of their experiences. Involving people with LD as informants, contributors and, in effect, co-researchers will facilitate digital inclusion and empowerment. The project is working with approximately 80 adults of all ages who have ‘mild’ learning disabilities (people who are able to read basic texts and write simple sentences). A variety of methods is being used. Small groups of participants have engaged in simple discussions or storytelling about some aspect of technology (such as ‘when my phone saved me’ or ‘my digital photos’ etc.). Some individuals have been ‘interviewed’ at a PC, laptop or with a mobile device etc., and asked to demonstrate their usage and interests. Social media users have shown their Facebook pages, Pinterest uploads or other material – giving them an additional focus they have used to discuss their ‘digital’ lives. During these sessions, participants have recorded (or employed the researcher to record) their observations on to the e-archive. Parents, carers and other supporters are also being interviewed to explore their experiences of using mobile technology with the cohort, including any difficulties they have observed their charges having. The archive is supplemented with these observations. The presentation will outline the methods described above, highlighting some of the special considerations required when working inclusively with people with LD. It will describe some of the preliminary findings and demonstrate the e-archive with a commentary on the pages shown.

Keywords: inclusive research, learning disabilities, methods, technology

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203 Manodharmam: A Scientific Methodology for Improvisation and Cognition in Carnatic Music

Authors: Raghavi Janaswamy, Saraswathi K. Vasudev


Music is ubiquitous in human lives. Ever since the fetus hears the sound inside the mother’s womb and later upon birth, the baby experiences alluring sounds, the curiosity of learning emanates and evokes exploration. Music is an education than mere entertainment. The intricate balance between music, education, and entertainment has well been recognized by the scientific community and is being explored as a viable tool to understand and improve human cognition. There are seven basic swaras (notes) Sa, Ri, Ga, Ma, Pa, Da, and Ni in the Carnatic music system that are analogous to C, D, E, F, G, A, and B of the western system. The Carnatic music builds on the conscious use of microtones, gamakams (oscillation), and rendering styles that evolved over centuries and established its stance. The complex but erudite raga system has been designed with elaborate experiments on srutis (musical sounds) and human perception abilities. In parallel, ‘rasa’- the emotions evoked by certain srutis and hence the ragas been solidified along with the power of language in combination with the musical sounds. The Carnatic music branches out as Kalpita sangeetam (pre-composed music) and Manodharma sangeetam (improvised music). This article explores the Manodharma sangeetam and its subdivisions such as raga alapana, swara kalpana, neraval, and ragam-tanam-pallavi (RTP). The intrinsic mathematical strategies in it’s practice methods toward improvising the music have been explored in detail with concert examples. The techniques on swara weaving for swara kalpana rendering and methods on the alapana development are also discussed at length with an emphasis on the impact on the human cognitive abilities. The articulation of the outlined conscious practice methods not only helps to leave a long-lasting melodic impression on the listeners but also onsets cognitive developments.

Keywords: Carnatic, Manodharmam, music cognition, Alapana

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202 Exploring the Success of Live Streaming Commerce in China: A Literature Analysis

Authors: Ming Gao, Matthew Tingchi Liu, Hoi Ngan Loi


Live streaming refers to the video contents generated by broadcasters and shared with viewers in real-time by uploading them to short-video platforms. In recent years, individual KOL broadcasters have successfully made use of live streams to sell a large amount of goods to the consumers. For example, Wei Ya, the Number 1 broadcaster in Taobao Live, sold products worth RMB 2.7 billion (USD 0.38 billion) in 2018. Regarding the success of live streaming commerce (LSC) in China, this study explores the elements of the booming LSC industry and attempts to explain the reasons behind its prosperity. A systematic review of industry reports and academic papers was conducted to summarize the latest findings in this field. And the results of this investigation showed that a live streaming eco-system has been established by the LSC players, namely, the platform, the broadcaster, the product supplier, and the viewer. In this eco-system, all players have complementary advantages and needs, and their close cooperation leads to a win-win situation. For instance, platforms and broadcasters have abundant internet traffic, which needs to be monetized, while product suppliers have mature supply chains and the need of promoting the products. In addition, viewers are attached to the LSC platforms to get product information, bargains, and entertainment. This study highlights the importance of the mass-personal hybrid communication nature of live streaming because its interpersonal communication feature increases consumers’ positive experiences, while its mass media broadcasting feature facilitates product promotion. Another innovative point of this study lies in its inclusion of the special characteristic of Chinese Internet culture - entertainment. The entertaining genres of the live streams created by broadcasters serve as down-to-earth approaches to reach their audiences easily. Further, the nature of video, i.e., the dynamic and salient stimulus, is emphasized in this study. Since video is more engaging, it can attract viewers in a quick and easy way. Meanwhile, the abundant, interesting, high-quality, and free short videos have added “stickiness” to platforms by retaining users and prolonging their staying time on the platforms. In addition, broadcasters’ important characters, such as physical attractiveness, humor, sex appeal, kindness, communication skills, and interactivity, are also identified as important factors that influence consumers’ engagement and purchase intention. In conclusion, all players have their own proper places in this live streaming eco-system, in which they work seamlessly to give full play to their respective advantages, with each player taking what it needs and offering what it has. This has contributed to the success of live streaming commerce in China.

Keywords: broadcasters, communication, entertainment, live streaming commerce, viewers

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201 Parking Service Effectiveness at Commercial Malls

Authors: Ahmad AlAbdullah, Ali AlQallaf, Mahdi Hussain, Mohammed AlAttar, Salman Ashknani, Magdy Helal


We study the effectiveness of the parking service provided at Kuwaiti commercial malls and explore potential problems and feasible improvements. Commercial malls are important to Kuwaitis as the entertainment and shopping centers due to the lack of other alternatives. The difficulty and relatively long times wasted in finding a parking spot at the mall are real annoyances. We applied queuing analysis to one of the major malls that offer paid-parking (1040 parking spots) in addition to free parking. Patrons of the mall usually complained of the traffic jams and delays at entering the paid parking (average delay to park exceeds 15 min for about 62% of the patrons, while average time spent in the mall is about 2.6 hours). However, the analysis showed acceptable service levels at the check-in gates of the parking garage. Detailed review of the vehicle movement at the gateways indicated that arriving and departing cars both had to share parts of the gateway to the garage, which caused the traffic jams and delays. A simple comparison we made indicated that the largest commercial mall in Kuwait does not suffer such parking issues, while other smaller, yet important malls do, including the one we studied. It was suggested that well-designed inlets and outlets of that gigantic mall permitted smooth parking despite being totally free and mall is the first choice for most people for entertainment and shopping. A simulation model is being developed for further analysis and verification. Simulation can overcome the mathematical difficulty in using non-Poisson queuing models. The simulation model is used to explore potential changes to the parking garage entrance layout. And with the inclusion of the drivers’ behavior inside the parking, effectiveness indicators can be derived to address the economic feasibility of extending the parking capacity and increasing service levels. Outcomes of the study are planned to be generalized as appropriate to other commercial malls in Kuwait

Keywords: commercial malls, parking service, queuing analysis, simulation modeling

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200 Designing an Adventure: University of Southern California’s Experiment in Using Alternate Reality Games to Educate Students and Inspire Change

Authors: Anahita Dalmia


There has been a recent rise in ‘audience-centric’ and immersive storytelling. This indicates audiences are gaining interest in experiencing real adventure with everything that encompasses the struggle, the new friendships, skill development, and growth. This paper examines two themed alternate reality games created by a group of students at the University of Southern California as an experiment in how to design an adventure and to evaluate its impact on participants. The experiences combined immersive improvisational theatre and live-action roleplaying to create socially aware experiences within the timespan of four hours, using Harry Potter and mythology as themes. In each experiment, over 500 players simultaneously embarked on quests -a series of challenges including puzzle-solving, scavenger-hunting, and character interactions- to join a narrative faction. While playing, the participants were asked to choose faction alignments based on the characters they interacted with, as well as their own backgrounds and moral values. During the narrative finale, the impact of their individual choices on the larger story and game were revealed. After the conclusion of each experience, participants filled out questionnaires and were interviewed. Through this, it was discovered that participants developed transferable problem-solving, team-work, and persuasion skills. They also learned about the theme of the experience and reflected on their own moral values and judgment-making abilities after they realized the consequences of their actions in the game-world, inspiring some participants to make changes outside of it. This reveals that alternative reality games can lead to socialization, educational development, and real-world change in a variety of contexts when implemented correctly. This experiment has begun to discover the value of alternate reality games in a real-world context and to develop a reproducible format to continue to create such an impact.

Keywords: adventure, alternate reality games, education, immersive entertainment, interactive entertainment

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