Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 349

Search results for: Egyptian cinema

349 History on the Screen: Nasser and the Biographical Film in Egyptian Cinema

Authors: Omar Khalifah

Abstract:

The emergence of Muhammad Fadel’s 1996 film ‘Nasser 56’ ushered in a new era in Egyptian cinema. Not only was it the first biographical film of late Egyptian president Gamal ‘Abdel Nasser (1918-1970); it also broke a long-accepted taboo against cinematic depiction of modern political leaders. Passionately received by Egyptians and Arabs throughout the world, the success of ‘Nasser 56’ empowered other filmmakers to follow Fadel’s suit. Interestingly, the three biographical films that followed had, completely or partially, a Nasser dimension. In addition to another biographical film of Nasser, Anwar al-Qawadri’s ‘Gamal ‘Abdel Nasser’ (1999); Muhammad Khan’s ‘Ayyam al-Sadat (Days of Sadat)’ (2001), and Sherif Arafa’s ‘Halim (Halim)’ (2006) portray, as the titles clearly suggest, two significant figures whose lives thoroughly intersected with Nasser’s - Nasser’s successor Anwar al-Sadat and the legendary singer Abdel Halim Hafiz. Expectedly, therefore, Nasser himself is abundantly referenced in those films, albeit differently. This paper seeks to examine the ways in which Egyptian filmmakers impersonate Nasser on the screen. Starting with scholarly definitions of the biopic, the paper will first ponder the reasons that have made the biopic an unattractive genre to Egyptian filmmakers. It will then argue that the popularity of Nasser and his wide appeal to the public has transformed the status of the biopic genre in Egyptian cinema. However, the impersonation of Nasser in the four films above proved a daunting mission to filmmakers. As this paper will show, unless he is the main character, the reenactment of Nasser in films will constantly pose dilemmas to filmmakers, a few of which will be discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Ahmad Zaki, bio-pictures, Egyptian cinema, Nasser, Nasser 56

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348 Re-Presenting the Egyptian Informal Urbanism in Films between 1994 and 2014

Authors: R. Mofeed, N. Elgendy

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Cinema constructs mind-spaces that reflect inherent human thoughts and emotions. As a representational art, Cinema would introduce comprehensive images of life phenomena in different ways. The term “represent” suggests verity of meanings; bring into presence, replace or typify. In that sense, Cinema may present a phenomenon through direct embodiment, or introduce a substitute image that replaces the original phenomena, or typify it by relating the produced image to a more general category through a process of abstraction. This research is interested in questioning the type of images that Egyptian Cinema introduces to informal urbanism and how these images were conditioned and reshaped in the last twenty years. The informalities/slums phenomenon first appeared in Egypt and, particularly, Cairo in the early sixties, however, this phenomenon was completely ignored by the state and society until the eighties, and furthermore, its evident representation in Cinema was by the mid-nineties. The Informal City represents the illegal housing developments, and it is a fast growing form of urbanization in Cairo. Yet, this expanding phenomenon is still depicted as the minority, exceptional and marginal through the Cinematic lenses. This paper aims at tracing the forms of representations of the urban informalities in the Egyptian Cinema between 1994 and 2014, and how did that affect the popular mind and its perception of these areas. The paper runs two main lines of inquiry; the first traces the phenomena through a chronological and geographical mapping of the informal urbanism has been portrayed in films. This analysis is based on an academic research work at Cairo University in Fall 2014. The visual tracing through maps and timelines allowed a reading of the phases of ignorance, presence, typifying and repetition in the representation of this huge sector of the city through more than 50 films that has been investigated. The analysis clearly revealed the “portrayed image” of informality by the Cinema through the examined period. However, the second part of the paper explores the “perceived image”. A designed questionnaire is applied to highlight the main features of that image that is perceived by both inhabitants of informalities and other Cairenes based on watching selected films. The questionnaire covers the different images of informalities proposed in the Cinema whether in a comic or a melodramatic background and highlight the descriptive terms used, to see which of them resonate with the mass perceptions and affected their mental images. The two images; “portrayed” and “perceived” are then to be encountered to reflect on issues of repetitions, stereotyping and reality. The formulated stereotype of informal urbanism is finally outlined and justified in relation to both production consumption mechanisms of films and the State official vision of informalities.

Keywords: cinema, informal urbanism, popular mind, representation

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347 Society and Cinema in Iran

Authors: Seyedeh Rozhano Azimi Hashemi

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There is no doubt that ‘Art’ is a social phenomena and cinema is the most social kind of art. Hence, it’s clear that we can analyze the relation’s of cinema and art from different aspects. In this paper sociological cinema will be investigated which, is a subdivision of sociological art. This term will be discussed by two main approaches. One of these approaches is focused on the effects of cinema on the society, which is known as “Effects Theory” and the second one, which is dealing with the reflection of social issues in cinema is called ” Reflection Theory”. "Reflect theory" approach, unlike "Effects theory" is considering movies as documents, in which social life is reflected, and by analyzing them, the changes and tendencies of a society are understood. Criticizing these approaches to cinema and society doesn’t mean that they are not real. Conversely, it proves the fact that for better understanding of cinema and society’s relation, more complicated models are required, which should consider two aspects. First, they should be bilinear and they should provide a dynamic and active relation between cinema and society, as for the current concept social life and cinema have bi-linear effects on each other, and that’s how they fit in a dialectic and dynamic process. Second, it should pay attention to the role of inductor elements such as small social institutions, marketing, advertisements, cultural pattern, art’s genres and popular cinema in society. In the current study, image of middle class in cinema of Iran and changing the role of women in cinema and society which were two bold issue that cinema and society faced since 1979 revolution till 80s are analyzed. Films as an artwork on one hand, are reflections of social changes and with their effects on the society on the other hand, are trying to speed up the trends of these changes. Cinema by the illustration of changes in ideologies and approaches in exaggerated ways and through it’s normalizing functions, is preparing the audiences and public opinions for the acceptance of these changes. Consequently, audience takes effect from this process, which is a bi-linear and interactive process.

Keywords: Iranian Cinema, Cinema and Society, Middle Class, Woman’s Role

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346 Political Cinema: Rewriting The Malaysian Political History Through Documentary Films

Authors: Raja Rodziah Binti Raja Zainal Hassan

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The development of Malaysian political cinema is rapidly taking shape in the local film industry. The paper focuses on the production of independent political documentary by two Malaysian filmmakers, Amir Muhammad and Fahmi Reza. Revolutionary cinema can be understood by utilizing the Third Cinema Theory in order to analyse the meaning and its impact on the audience. The issue surrounding the political cinema in Malaysia is the question of national identity. The implementation of racial or ethnic based politics has resulted in hostility within Malaysia’s multiracial society. Amir Muhammad and Fahmi Reza revisit the Malaysian political history through their films in order to understand the reasons behind the hostility and conflict.

Keywords: Political cinema, third cinema theory, revolutionary cinema, national identity, racial or ethnic politics

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345 Multimodal Discourse Analysis of Egyptian Political Movies: A Case Study of 'People at the Top Ahl Al Kemma' Movie

Authors: Mariam Waheed Mekheimar

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Nascent research is conducted to the advancement of discourse analysis to include different modes as images, sound, and text. The focus of this study will be to elucidate how images are embedded with texts in an audio-visual medium as cinema to send political messages; it also seeks to broaden our understanding of politics beyond a relatively narrow conceptualization of the 'political' through studying non-traditional discourses as the cinematic discourse. The aim herein is to develop a systematic approach to film analysis to capture political meanings in films. The method adopted in this research is Multimodal Discourse Analysis (MDA) focusing on embedding visuals with texts. As today's era is the era of images and that necessitates analyzing images. Drawing on the writings of O'Halloran, Kress and Van Leuween, John Bateman and Janina Wildfeuer, different modalities will be studied to understand how those modes interact in the cinematic discourse. 'People at the top movie' is selected as an example to unravel the political meanings throughout film tackling the cinematic representation of the notion of social justice.

Keywords: Egyptian cinema, multimodal discourse analysis, people at the top, social justice

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344 The Egyptian eGovernment Journey

Authors: Ali Abdelsattar Elshabrawy

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The Egyptian government is struggling to build it's eGovernment project. They succeeded to build the Egyptian digital portal, which contain links for number of services provided by different ministries. For achieving such success, their are requirements necessary to build such a project such as: internet dissemination, IT literacy, Strategy, disqualification of paper based services. This paper is going to clarify the main obstacles to the Egyptian eGovernment project from both the supply and demand sides. Also will clarify the most critical requirements in this phase of the project lifecycle. This paper should be in great value for the project team and also for many other developing countries that share the same obstacles.

Keywords: the egyptian egovernment project lifecycle, supply side barriers, demand side barriers, egovernment project requirements

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343 Interdisciplinary Urban Design: Toward Egyptian Manifesto

Authors: Hisham M. G. Abusaada

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This article focuses on the field the art of the city, at the beginning of the third millennium, in the 21st century. It seems that a few Egyptian architects suffer from the lack of the ability to create and share knowledge in their field of proficiency. The assumption is that this weakness is the main reason that led to the invalidity of the local theorizing process. The presupposition is that the absence of respecting the conceptualization of enlightenment during the two phases of preparing and teaching the educational programs makes the students urban design projects not well designed. This paper submits an Egyptian Manifesto, to formulate some guidelines for the development of the work of some researchers, scholars and specialist's method.

Keywords: Egyptian manifesto, pedagogy, knowledge, urban design

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342 Relationship between Cinema and Culture: Reel and Real life in India

Authors: Prachi Chavda

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The world, as of today, is smaller than it was for those who lived few decades ago. Internet, media and telecommunications have impacted the world like never before. Culture is the pillar upon which a society mushrooms. A culture develops with human creativity over the years and also by the exchange and intermixing of ideas and way of life across different civilizations and we can say that one of the influencing medium of exchange and intermixing of these ideas is cinema. Cinema has been the wonderful as well as important medium of communication since it has been emerged. Change is the thumb rule of life and so have been Indian cinema. As society has evolved from time to time so has the stories of Indian Cinema and its characters, hence it directly effects to the Indian culture as cinema has been very strong mediator for information exchange. The paper tries to discuss deeply how Indian cinema (reel life) and Indian culture (real life) has been influencing each other that results into a constant modification in both. Moreover, the research tries to deal with the issue with some examples that as a outcome how movies impact the Indian culture positively and negatively on culture. Therefore, it spreads the wave of change in cultural settings of society. The paper also tries to light the psychology of youth of India. Today, children and youth greatly admire the ostentatious materialistic display of outfits and style of the actors in the movies. Also, the movies bearing romanticism and showcasing disputatious issues like pre-marital sex, live-in relationship, homo-sexuality etc. though without highlighting them extensively have indeed inspired the commoners. Pros and cons always exist. Such revelation of issues certainly give a spark in the minds of those who are in their formative years and the effect of which is seen with the passage of time Thus, we can say that emergence of cinema as a strong tool of social change as well as culture as a triggering factor for transformation in cinema. As, a finding we can say that culture and cinema of India are influencing factors for each other. Cinema and culture are two sides of a coin, where both are responsible for evolution of each other.

Keywords: cinema, culture, influence, transformation

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341 Consumer Behavior and Marketing Mixed Factor Effect on Consumer Decision Making for Independent Movies Presented in Lido Cinema

Authors: Pongsawee Supanonth

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This study aims to investigate the consumer behavior and marketing mixed factor affect on consumer decision making for independent movies presented in Lido cinema. The research method will use quantitative research, data was collected by questionnaires distributed to the audience in the Lido cinema for 400 sample by accidental sampling technique. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistic including percentage, mean, standard deviation and inferential statistic including independent t-test for hypothesis testing. The results showed that marketing mixed factors affecting consumer decision-making for Independent movies presented in Lido cinema by gender as different as less than the 0.05 significance level, it was found that the kind of movie ,quality of theater ,price of ticket, facility of watching movies, staff services and promotion of Lido cinema respectively had a vital influence on their attention and response which makes the advertisement more attractive is in harmony with the research hypotheses also.

Keywords: consumer behavior, marketing mixed factor, resonance, consumer decision making, Lido cinema

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340 Documentation Project on Boat Models from Saqqara, in the Grand Egyptian Museum

Authors: Ayman Aboelkassem, Mohamoud Ali, Rezq Diab

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This project aims to document and preserve boat models which were discovered in the Saqqara by Czech Institute of Egyptology archeological mission at Saqqara (GEM numbers, 46007, 46008, 46009). These boat models dates back to Egyptian Old Kingdom and have been transferred to the Conservation Center of the Grand Egyptian Museum, to be displayed at the new museum.The project objectives making such boat models more visible to visitors through the use of 3D reconstructed models and high resolution photos which describe the history of using the boats during the Ancient Egyptian history. Especially, The Grand Egyptian Museum is going to exhibit the second boat of King Khufu from Old kingdom. The project goals are to document the boat models and arrange an exhibition, where such Models going to be displayed next to the Khufu Second Boat. The project shows the importance of using boats in Ancient Egypt, and connecting their usage through Ancient Egyptian periods till now. The boat models had a unique Symbolized in ancient Egypt and connect the public with their kings. The Egyptian kings allowed high ranked employees to put boat models in their tombs which has a great meaning that they hope to fellow their kings in the journey of the afterlife.

Keywords: archaeology, boat models, 3D digital tools for heritage management, museums

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339 Archaeology Study of Soul Houses in Ancient Egypt on Five Models in the Grand Egyptian Museum

Authors: Ayman Aboelkassem, Mahmoud Ali

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Introduction: The models of soul houses have appeared in the prehistory, old kingdom and middle kingdom period. These soul houses represented the imagination of the deceased about his house in the afterlife, some of these soul houses were two floors and the study will examine five models of soul houses which were discovered near Saqqara site by an Egyptian mission. These models had been transferred to The Grand Egyptian Museum (GEM) to be ready to display at the new museum. We focus on models of soul houses (GEM Numbers, 1276, 1280, 1281, 1282, 8711) these models of soul houses were related to the old kingdom period. These models were all made of pottery, the five models have an oval shape and were decorated with relief. Methodology: The study will focus on the development of soul houses during the different periods in ancient Egypt, the function of soul houses, the kind of offerings which were put in it and the symbolism of the offerings colors in ancient Egyptian believe. Conclusion: This study is useful for the heritage and ancient civilizations especially when we talk about opening new museums like The Grand Egyptian Museum which will display a new collection of soul houses. The study of soul houses and The kinds of offerings which put in it reflect the economic situation in the Egyptian society and kinds of oils which were famous in ancient Egypt.

Keywords: archaeology study, Grand Egyptian Museum, relief, soul houses

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338 Lesbian Stereotype Representation in Cinema in Turkey

Authors: Hasan Gürkan, Rengin Ozan

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Cinema, as a popular mass media tool, affects the general perception of the society against sexual identity. By establishing on interaction relationship with cinema and social reality, the study also tries to answer what the importance of lesbian identity in social life in films in Turkey is. This article focus on representing the description of the women characters who call their selves lesbian in Turkey cinema. The study tries to answer these three questions: First, how the lesbian characters are represented in films in Turkey? Second, what is the reality of the lesbian sexual identity in the films? Third, what are the differences and similarities between the lesbian characters in films in Turkey before 2000s and after 2000s? The films are analysed by the sociological film interpretation in this study. When comparing the films before 2000 and after 2000, it is possible to say that there have been no lesbian characters in many films. Especially almost all of the films (Haremde Dört Kadın, Ver Elini İstanbul, Dul Bir Kadın, Gramofon Avrat, Lola and Billidikid), during 1960s, just threw looks indirect the lesbian sex identity. Just in the films Düş Gezginleri, İki Genç Kız and Nar, the women character (also called them as lesbian) are the leading role and the plot of the films is progressing over these characters.

Keywords: cinema in Turkey, lesbian identity, representation, stereotype

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337 The Effect of the Dramas on the Egyptian Public Opinion Regarding the State of Israel: A Survey Study on the Egyptian Youth at Cairo University

Authors: Dana Hisham Mohamed Abdrabo

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The paper examines the effect of Drama works on the Egyptian public opinion regarding the religion of Judaism, Israel as a state and the Jew's image to Egyptian Muslims. The paper examines the role of Media and in particular, Dramas on achieving interreligious dialogue between Judaism and Islam and its role in making peace between the Egyptian Muslims -and Arabs in general- on the one hand, and the Jew on the other hand, and the implications of this on the relationship between Arab countries and Israel as a state. The research uses the Survey method with Egyptian Muslims as a main sample for the research to examine such effect. Dramas have a role in presenting the Jew, Judaism, and Israel as a state and as a political system in various ways. The paper is related to multidisciplinary fields; it is related to political sciences, political sociology, communication, social change, and cognitive sociology fields. The research adds a new analytical study for a new tool for the peacemaking process in the Middle East region through adopting an interdisciplinary approach which is needed in the studies aim to achieve stability and peace in the Middle East region and its neighboring countries.

Keywords: dramas tool, Egyptian public opinion, interreligious dialogue, Israel & Egyptian relations , Judaism

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336 Digital Cinema Watermarking State of Art and Comparison

Authors: H. Kelkoul, Y. Zaz

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Nowadays, the vigorous popularity of video processing techniques has resulted in an explosive growth of multimedia data illegal use. So, watermarking security has received much more attention. The purpose of this paper is to explore some watermarking techniques in order to observe their specificities and select the finest methods to apply in digital cinema domain against movie piracy by creating an invisible watermark that includes the date, time and the place where the hacking was done. We have studied three principal watermarking techniques in the frequency domain: Spread spectrum, Wavelet transform domain and finally the digital cinema watermarking transform domain. In this paper, a detailed technique is presented where embedding is performed using direct sequence spread spectrum technique in DWT transform domain. Experiment results shows that the algorithm provides high robustness and good imperceptibility.

Keywords: digital cinema, watermarking, wavelet DWT, spread spectrum, JPEG2000 MPEG4

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335 The Attitude of Egyptian Nubian University Students towards Arabic and Nubian Languages

Authors: Sanaa Abouras

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This research investigates the attitude of Egyptian Nubian University students towards the Arabic and the two Nubian languages, Nobiin, and Kenuzi-Dongola. The Nubian languages are called by Egyptian Nubians, Fadijja/Fadicca and Kenzi, respectively. Nubians are people who live in the Nubia area which lies between Egypt’s southern borders with the northern part of Sudan. Nubia is divided into two parts - one under the Egyptian regime, and the other under the Sudanese regime. The number of participants used in the study was forty - half male and half female. Twenty of these participants live in the Nubian region and are enrolled at the South Valley University in Aswan, Egypt. This number was compared with an additional twenty Egyptian-Nubian university students who live outside the Nubian region and attend various Egyptian universities located in Alexandria and Cairo. The hypothesis of this study is that Egyptian Nubian University students tend to have positive attitudes toward Arabic and also the Nubian languages. This research is a qualitative and partially quantitative one. Observations, questionnaires, and interviews were used to collect data in order to explore the following: (1) the language students prefer to speak at home and in public and if language preferences are gender-related, (2) the factors that influence the Egyptian Nubian university students' attitudes towards Arabic and Nubian languages, and (3) a look at the future of these ethnic Nubian languages. Results that answered the main question on the attitude of Egyptian Nubian University students toward Arabic and Nubian languages revealed that students who live inside and outside the Nubian region tend to have positive attitudes towards both the Arabic and the Nubian languages.

Keywords: language attitude, minority, Arabic language, Nubian Language

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334 Error Analysis of the Pronunciation of English Consonants and Arabic Consonants by Egyptian Learners

Authors: Marwa A. Nasser

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This is an empirical study that provides an investigation of the most significant errors of Egyptian learners in producing English consonants and Arabic consonants, and advice on how these can be remedied. The study adopts a descriptive approach and the analysis is based on audio recordings of two groups of people. The first group includes six volunteers of Egyptian learners belonging to the English Department at Faculty of Women who learn English as a foreign language. The other group includes six Egyptian learners who are studying Tajweed (how to recite Quran correctly). The audio recordings were examined, and sounds were analyzed in an attempt to highlight the most common error done by the learners while reading English or reading (or reciting) Quran. Results show that the two groups of learners have problems with certain phonemic contrasts. Both groups share common errors although both languages are different and not related (e.g. pre-aspiration of fortis stops, incorrect articulation of consonants and velarization of certain sounds).

Keywords: consonant articulations, Egyptian learners of English, Egyptian learners of Quran, empirical study, error analysis, pronunciation problems

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333 English Loanwords in the Egyptian Variety of Arabic: Morphological and Phonological Changes

Authors: Mohamed Yacoub

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This paper investigates the English loanwords in the Egyptian variety of Arabic and reaches three findings. Data, in the first finding, were collected from Egyptian movies and soap operas; over two hundred words have been borrowed from English, code-switching was not included. These words then have been put into eleven different categories according to their use and part of speech. Finding two addresses the morphological and phonological change that occurred to these words. Regarding the phonological change, eight categories were found in both consonant and vowel variation, five for consonants and three for vowels. Examples were given for each. Regarding the morphological change, five categories were found including the masculine, feminine, dual, broken, and non-pluralize-able nouns. The last finding is the answers to a four-question survey that addresses forty eight native speakers of Egyptian Arabic and found that most participants did not recognize English borrowed words and thought they were originally Arabic and could not give Arabic equivalents for the loanwords that they could recognize.

Keywords: sociolinguistics, loanwords, borrowing, morphology, phonology, variation, Egyptian dialect

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332 A Discourse Study of Multimodal Intertextuality in Egyptian Social Media Memes

Authors: Ola Hafez

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This study examines the way selected Egyptian digitally mediated memes utilize intertextuality as a means of expression. It is motivated by the emerging digital socio-political humorous practice using various forms of political commentary in Egyptian social media. One of these forms involves the use of memes incorporating (often doctored) video frames taken from Egyptian plays, films and songs, and relocated in a different socio-political context, often with a caption that re-appropriates the frame for the purpose of critical commentary, thus juxtaposing the socio-political phenomena being addressed and the Egyptian artistic and cultural heritage. The paper presents a discourse study of a convenience sample of a recent social media campaign and carries out two levels of analysis. At the micro level, the study pinpoints the various modes of intertextuality employed, including verbal as well as visual intertextuality in the light of the work of social semiotics by Kress and van Leeuwen. At the macro level, the paper sheds light on the socio-political implications of such practice in the light of Political Discourse Analysis.

Keywords: digitally mediated discourse, discourse analysis, Egyptian Arabic, intertextuality, memes, multimodality, political discourse analysis

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331 Morphological Comparison of the Gustatory Papillae of New Zealand White Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and Egyptian Fruit Bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) Using Scanning Electron Microscopic Examinations

Authors: Mohamed Abumandour

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This research presents a comparison of the morphological structure of the gustatory papillae in New Zealand white rabbits as domestic mammals and Egyptian fruit bats as wild mammals. In this study, the tongues of adult healthy New Zealand white rabbits and Egyptian fruit bats of both sexes were used. In the New Zealand white rabbits, there are three types of the gustatory papillae; fungiform, foliate and circumvallate papillae while the Egyptian fruit bats tongue contain only two types; fungiform and circumvallate papillae. In New Zealand white rabbits, there only one subtype is the round shape fungiform papillae while in Egyptian fruit bats, there are two subtypes; small rectangular fungiform papillae and large round fungiform papillae. In New Zealand white rabbits, there only two circumvallate papillae while in Egyptian fruit bats, there are three papillae. The shape, size, number, and distribution of the lingual papillae were varied according to their location within the tongue (region-specific) in relation to the feeding habits, strategies for obtaining food, climate conditions, and types of food particles.

Keywords: morphology, circumvallate papillae, fungiform papillae, foliate papillae

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330 Nutritional Quality of Partially Processed Chicken Meat Products from Egyptian and Saudi Arabia Markets

Authors: Ali Meawad Ahmad, Hosny A. Abdelrahman

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Chicken meat is a good source of protein of high biological value which contains most of essential amino-acids with high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids and low cholesterol level. Besides, it contain many vitamins as well as minerals which are important for the human body. Therefore, a total of 150 frozen chicken meat product samples, 800g each within their shelf-life, were randomly collected from commercial markets from Egypt (75 samples) and Saudi Arabian (75 samples) for chemical evaluation. The mean values of fat% in the examined samples of Egyptian and Saudi markets were 16.0% and 4.6% for chicken burger; 15.0% and 11% for nuggets and 11% and 11% for strips respectively. The mean values of moisture % in the examined samples of Egyptian and Saudi markets were 67.0% and 81% for chicken burger; 66.0% and 78% for nuggets and 71.0% and 72% for strips respectively. The mean values of protein % in the examined samples of Egyptian and Saudi markets were 15% and 17% for chicken burger; 16% and 16% for nuggets and 16% and 17% for strips respectively. The obtained results were compared with the Egyptian slandered and suggestions for improving the chemical quality of chicken products were given.

Keywords: chicken meat, nutrition, Egypt, markets

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329 Hot Face of Cold War: 007 James Bond

Authors: Günevi Uslu Evren

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Propaganda is one of the most effective methods for changing individual and mass opinions. Propaganda tries to get the message across to people or masses to effect rather than to provide objective information. There are many types of propaganda. Especially, political propaganda is a very powerful method that is used by states during in both war and peace. The aim of this method is to create a reaction against them by showing within the framework of internal and external enemies. Propaganda can be practiced by many different methods. Especially during the Cold War Era, the US and USSR have tried to create an ideological effect by using the mass media intensively. Cinema, which is located at the beginning of these methods, is the most powerful weapon to influence the masses. In this study, the historical process of the Cold War is examined. Especially, these propagandas that had been used by United States and The Soviet Union were investigated. The purposes of propaganda and construction methods were presented. Cold War events and relations between the US and the USSR during the Cold War will be discussed. Outlooks of two countries to each other during the Cold War, propaganda techniques used defectively during Cold War and how to use the cinema as a propaganda tool will be examined. The film "From Russia with Love, James Bond 007" that was filmed in Cold War were examined to explain how cinema was used as a propaganda tool in this context.

Keywords: cinema, cold war, James Bond, propaganda

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328 Potential Risk Factors Associated with Sole Hemorrhages Causing Lameness in Egyptian Water Buffaloes and Native Breed Cows

Authors: Waleed El-Said Abou El-Amaiem

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Sole hemorrhages are considered as a main cause for sub clinical laminitis. In this study we aimed at discussing the most prominent risk factors associated with sole hemorrhages causing lameness in Egyptian water buffaloes and native breed cows. The final multivariate logistic regression model showed, a significant association between sub acute ruminal acidosis (P< 0.05), limb affected (P< 0.05) and weight (P< 0.05) and sole hemorrhages causing lameness in Egyptian water buffaloes and native breed cows. According to our knowledge, this is the first paper to discuss the risk factors associated with sole hemorrhages causing lameness in Egyptian water buffaloes and native breed cows.

Keywords: lameness, buffalo, sole hemorrhages, breed cows

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327 The Anti-Cyber and Information Technology Crimes Law on Information Access and Dissemination by Egyptian Journalists

Authors: Miral Sabry AlAshry

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The main objective of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of Egyptian Journalists through the Anti-Cyber and Information Technology Crimes Law, as well as its implications for journalistic practice and the implications for press freedom in Egypt. Questionnaires were undertaken with 192 journalists representing four official newspapers, and in-depth interviews were held with 15 journalists. The study used an Authoritarian theory as a theoretical framework. The study revealed that the government placed restrictions on journalists by using the law to oppress them.

Keywords: anti-cyber and information technology crimes law, media legislation, personal information, Egyptian constitution

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326 The Pragmatics of the Evil Eye: Compliment Response Strategies in Egyptian Colloquial Arabic

Authors: HebatAllah Mohamed

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The present study aims at identifying compliment response strategies used by Egyptian students when responding to a problematic and cultural-specific type of compliments: those allegedly provoking the evil eye. Discourse Completion Tasks (DCTs) and interviews were used to collect the data. both The participants were 21 female and 16 male Egyptian graduate and undergraduate students at the American university in Cairo. The results revealed a number of both common and different main and sub-categories of responses utilized by participants of both genders. Pedagogical implications are discussed.

Keywords: Arabic pragmatics, compliment responses, evil eye pragmatics, pragmatics in Egypt

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325 Metaphors in Egyptian News Headlines in Relation to the Egyptian Political Situation 2012-2013

Authors: Wesam Mohamed Abdel Khalek Ibrahim

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This paper examines the use of metaphors in Arabic political news discourse, focusing particularly on the headlines of the news articles relating to the Egyptian political situation in the period from June 2012 to October 2013. Metaphors are skilfully manipulated in the headlines to influence the public stance towards several events and entities including Egypt, Muslim Brotherhood (MB), Morsi, the June 30th uprising, Al-Sisi and the Armed Forces. The findings reveal that Arabic political news discourse shares basic features with its English counterpart, namely the use of metaphors as persuasive strategies and the presence of certain target domains. Insights gained from this study feed back into the conceptual metaphor theory by providing further evidence to the universality of metaphors.

Keywords: conceptual metaphor theory, political discourse, news discourse, Egyptian political situation

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324 Crossing Narrative Waters in World Cinema: Alamar (2009) and Kaili Blues (2015)

Authors: Dustin Dill

Abstract:

The physical movement of crossing over water points to both developing narrative tropes and innovative cinematography in World Cinema today. Two prime examples, Alamar (2009) by Pedro González-Rubio and Kaili Blues (2015) by Bi Gan, demonstrate how contemporary storytelling in a film not only rests upon these water shots but also emerges from them. The range of symbolism that these episodes in the story provoke goes hand in hand with the diverse filming sequences found in the respective productions. While González-Rubio decides to cut the scene into long and longer shots, Gan uses a single take. The differing angles depict equally unique directors and film projects: Alamar runs parallel to many definitions of the essay film, and Kaili Blues resonates much more with mystery and art film. Nonetheless, the crossing of water scenes influence the narratives’ subjects despite the generic consequences, and it is within the essay, mystery, and art film genres which allows for a better understanding of World Cinema. Tiago de Luca explains World Cinema’s prerogative of giving form to a certain type of spectator does not always line up. Given the immense number of interpretations of crossing water —the escape from suffering to find nirvana, rebirth, and colonization— underline the difficulty of categorizing it. If before this type of cross-genre was a trait that defined World Cinema in its beginning, this study observes that González-Rubio and Gan question the all-encompassing genre with their experimental shots of a universal narrative trope, the crossing of water.

Keywords: cinematography, genre, narrative, world cinema

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323 The Revenue Management Implementation and Its Complexity in the Airline Industry: An Empirical Study on the Egyptian Airline Industry

Authors: Amr Sultan, Sara Elgazzar, Breksal Elmiligy

Abstract:

The airline industry nowadays is becoming a more growing industry facing a severe competition. It is an influential issue in this context to utilize revenue management (RM) concept and practice in order to develop the pricing strategy. There is an unfathomable necessity for RM to assist the airlines and their associates to disparage the cost and recuperate their revenue, which in turn will boost the airline industry performance. The complexity of RM imposes enormous challenges on the airline industry. Several studies have been proposed on the RM adaptation in airlines industry while there is a limited availability of implementing RM and its complexity in the developing countries such as Egypt. This research represents a research schema about the implementation of the RM to the Egyptian airline industry. The research aims at investigating and demonstrating the complexities face implementing RM in the airline industry, up on which the research provides a comprehensive understanding of how to overcome these complexities while adapting RM in the Egyptian airline industry. An empirical study was conducted on the Egyptian airline sector based on a sample of four airlines (Egyptair, Britishair, KLM, and Lufthansa). The empirical study was conducted using a mix of qualitative and quantitative approaches. First, in-depth interviews were carried out to analyze the Egyptian airline sector status and the main challenges faced by the airlines. Then, a structured survey on the three different parties of airline industry; airlines, airfreight forwarders, and passengers were conducted in order to investigate the main complexity factors from different parties' points of view. Finally, a focus group was conducted to develop a best practice framework to overcome the complexities faced the RM adaptation in the Egyptian airline industry. The research provides an original contribution to knowledge by creating a framework to overcome the complexities and challenges in adapting RM in the airline industry generally and the Egyptian airline industry particularly. The framework can be used as a RM tool to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the Egyptian airline industry performance.

Keywords: revenue management, airline industry, revenue management complexity, Egyptian airline industry

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322 Cinema Reception in a Digital World: A Study of Cinema Audiences in India

Authors: Sanjay Ranade

Abstract:

Traditional film theory assumes the cinema audience in a darkened room where cinema is projected on to a white screen, and the audience suspends their sense of reality. Shifts in audiences due to changes in cultural tastes or trends have been studied for decades. In the past two decades, however, the audience, especially the youth, has shifted to digital media for the consumption of cinema. As a result, not only are audiences watching cinema on different devices, they are also consuming cinema in places and ways never imagined before. Public transport often crowded to the brim with a lot of ambient content, and a variety of workplaces have become sites for cinema viewing. Cinema is watched piecemeal and at different times of the day. Audiences use devices such as mobile phones and tablets to watch cinema. The cinema viewing experience is getting redesigned by the user. The emerging design allows the spectator to not only consume images and narratives but also produce, reproduce, and manipulate existing images and narratives, thereby participating in the process and influencing it. Spectatorship studies stress on the importance of subjectivity when dealing with the structure of the film text and the cultural and psychological implications in the engagement between the spectator and the film text. Indian cinema has been booming and contributing to global movie production significantly. In 2005 film production was 1000 films a year and doubled to 2000 by 2016. Digital technology helped push this growth in 2012. Film studies in India have had a decided Euro-American bias. The studies have chiefly analysed the content for ideological leanings or myth or as reflections of society, societal changes, or articulation of identity or presented retrospectives of directors, actors, music directors, etc. The one factor relegated to the background has been the spectator. If they have been addressed, they are treated as a collective of class or gender. India has a performative tradition going back several centuries. How Indians receive cinema is an important aspect to study with respect to film studies. This exploratory and descriptive study looked at 162 young media students studying cinema at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The students, speaking as many as 20 languages amongst them, were drawn from across the country’s media schools. The study looked at nine film societies registered with the Federation of Film Societies of India. A structured questionnaire was made and distributed online through media teachers for the students. The film societies were approached through the regional office of the FFSI in Mumbai. Lastly, group discussions were held in Mumbai with students and teachers of media. A group consisted of between five and twelve student participants, along with one or two teachers. All the respondents looked at themselves as spectators and shared their experiences of spectators of cinema, providing a very rich insight into Indian conditions of viewing cinema and challenges for cinema ahead.

Keywords: audience, digital, film studies, reception, reception spectatorship

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321 Philippine Film Industry and Cultural Policy: A Critical Analysis and Case Study

Authors: Michael Kho Lim

Abstract:

This paper examines the status of the film industry as an industry in the Philippines—where or how it is classified in the Philippine industrial classification system and how this positioning gives the film industry an identity (or not) and affects (film) policy development and impacts the larger national economy. It is important to look at how the national government recognises Philippine cinema officially, as this will have a direct and indirect impact on the industry in terms of its representation, conduct of business, international relations, and most especially its implications on policy development and implementation. Therefore, it is imperative that the ‘identity’ of Philippine cinema be clearly established and defined in the overall industrial landscape. Having a clear understanding of Philippine cinema’s industry status provides a better view of the bigger picture and helps us determine cinema’s position in the national agenda in terms of priority setting, future direction and how the state perceives and thereby values the film industry as an industry. This will then serve as a frame of reference that will anchor the succeeding discussion. Once the Philippine film industry status is identified, the paper will then clarify how cultural policy is defined, understood, and applied in the Philippines in relation to Philippine cinema by reviewing and analyzing existing policy documents and pending bills in the Philippine Congress and Senate. Lastly, the paper delves into the roles that (national) cultural institutions and industry organisations play as primary drivers or support mechanisms and how they become platforms (or not) for the upliftment of the independent film sector and towards the sustainability of the film industry. The paper concludes by arguing that the role of the government and how government officials perceive and treats culture is far more important than cultural policy itself, as these policies emanate from them.

Keywords: cultural and creative industries, cultural policy, film industry, Philippine cinema

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320 An Assessment of Female Representation in Philippine Cinema in Comparison to American Cinema (1975 to 2020)

Authors: Amanda Julia Binay, Patricia Elise Suarez

Abstract:

Female representation in media is an important subject in the discussion of gender equality, especially in impactful and influential media like film. As the Filipino film industry continues to grow and evolve, the need for analysis on Filipino female representation on screen is imperative. Additionally, there has been limited research made on female representation in the Philippine film scene. Thus, the paper aims to analyze the presence and evolution of female representation in Philippine cinema and compare the findings with that of American films to see how Filipino filmmakers hold their own against the standards of international movements that call for more and better female representation, especially in Hollywood. The participants selected were Filipino and American films released within the years 1975 to 2020 in five (5) year intervals. Twenty (20) critically acclaimed and highest-grossing Filipino films and twenty (20) critically acclaimed and highest-grossing Hollywood films were then subject to the Bechdel and Peirce tests to obtain statistical measures of their female representation. The findings of the study reveal that the presence of female representation in Philippine film history has been consistent and has continued to grow and evolve throughout the years, with strong female leads with vibrant characteristics and diverse stories. However, analysis of female representation regarding American films has shown an extreme lack thereof with more misogynistic, sexist, and limiting ideals. Thus, the study concludes that the state of female representation in Philippine cinema and film industry holds its own when compared to American cinema and film industry and even outperforms it in many aspects of female representation, such as consistent inclusion and depiction of multi-dimensional female leads and female relationships. Hence, the study implies that women’s consistent presence in Philippine cinema mirrors Filipino women’s prominent role in Philippine society and that American cinema must continue to make efforts to change their portrayals of female characters, leads, and relationships to make them more grounded in reality.

Keywords: female representation, gender studies, feminism, philippine cinema, American cinema, bechdel test, peirce test, comparative analysis

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