Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 306

Search results for: savings

306 Theorizing Income Inequality in the Face of Financial Globalization

Authors: Li Sheng

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Based on an extended post-Keynesian model, we find that the association between the savings rate and income inequality is negative if savers’ funds are borrowed by spending households for consumption but positive if savings are channeled to investing firms for production. A negative association, such as the one that exists in the U.S., hinges on an income illusion created by an asset bubble and cheap credit. Thus, financial globalization leads consumption and income inequality to diverge, and the divergence is more extreme if lower-income groups have higher debt ratios. A positive association, such as the one that exists in China, relates to liquidity constraints faced by consumers such that consumption inequality closely follows income inequality. Our results imply that income inequality must be reduced in both types of countries to increase savings in deficit economies with negative associations and to reduce savings in surplus economies with positive associations.

Keywords: savings rate, income inequality, financial globalization, global imbalances

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305 Capital Mobility in Savings and Investment across China and the ASEAN-5: Evidence from Recursive Cointegration

Authors: Chang Lee Shu-Jung, Mei-Se Chien, Chien-Chiang Lee, Hui-Ting Hu

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This paper applies recursive cointegration analysis to examine the dynamic changes in Feldstein-Horioka saving-investment (S-I) coefficients across China and the ASEAN-5 countries over time. To the extent that the S-I coefficients measure international capital mobility, the main empirical results are as follows. The recursive trace statistics show that the investment- savings nexus varies in these six countries. There is no cointegration between investment and savings in three countries (China, Malaysia, and Singapore), which means that the mobility of the capital markets in the three is high and that domestic investment in them will be financed by the global pool of capital. As to the other three countries (Indonesia, Thailand, and Philippines), there is cointegration between investment and savings for part of the sample period in the three, including before 2002 for Thailand, before 2001 for Indonesia, and before 2002 for Philippines. This shows these three countries achieved highly mobile and open capital markets later.

Keywords: investment, savings, recursive cointegration test, ASEAN, China

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
304 Material Saving Strategies, Technologies and Effects on Return on Sales

Authors: Jasna Prester, Najla Podrug, Davor Filipović

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Manufacturing companies invest a significant amount of sales into material resources for production. In our sample, 58% of sales is used for manufacturing inputs, while only 24% of sales is used for salaries. This means that if a company is looking to reduce costs, the greater potential is in reduction of material costs than downsizing. This research shows that manufacturing companies in Croatia did realize material savings in last three years. It is also shown by which technologies they achieved materials cost savings. Through literature research, we found research gap as to which technologies reduce material consumption. As methodology of research four regression analyses are used to prove our findings.

Keywords: Croatia, materials savings strategies, technologies, return on sales

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303 Analysis of the Savings Behaviour of Rice Farmers in Tiaong, Quezon, Philippines

Authors: Angelika Kris D. Dalangin, Cesar B. Quicoy

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Rice farming is a major source of livelihood and employment in the Philippines, but it requires a substantial amount of capital. Capital may come from income (farm, non-farm, and off-farm), savings and credit. However, rice farmers suffer from lack of capital due to high costs of inputs and low productivity. Capital insufficiency, coupled with low productivity, hindered them to meet their basic household and production needs. Hence, they resorted to borrowing money, mostly from informal lenders who charge very high interest rates. As another source of capital, savings can help rice farmers meet their basic needs for both the household and the farm. However, information is inadequate whether the farmers save or not, as well as, why they do not depend on savings to augment their lack of capital. Thus, it is worth analyzing how rice farmers saved. The study revealed, using the actual savings which is the difference between the household income and expenditure, that about three-fourths (72%) of the total number of farmers interviewed are savers. However, when they were asked whether they are savers or not, more than half of them considered themselves as non-savers. This gap shows that there are many farmers who think that they do not have savings at all; hence they continue to borrow money and do not depend on savings to augment their lack of capital. The study also identified the forms of savings, saving motives, and savings utilization among rice farmers. Results revealed that, for the past 12 months, most of the farmers saved cash at home for liquidity purposes while others deposited cash in banks and/or saved their money in the form of livestock. Among the most important reasons of farmers for saving are for daily household expenses, for building a house, for emergency purposes, for retirement, and for their next production. Furthermore, the study assessed the factors affecting the rice farmers’ savings behaviour using logistic regression. Results showed that the factors found to be significant were presence of non-farm income, per capita net farm income, and per capita household expense. The presence of non-farm income and per capita net farm income positively affects the farmers’ savings behaviour. On the other hand, per capita household expenses have negative effect. The effect, however, of per capita net farm income and household expenses is very negligible because of the very small chance that the farmer is a saver. Generally, income and expenditure were proved to be significant factors that affect the savings behaviour of the rice farmers. However, most farmers could not save regularly due to low farm income and high household and farm expenditures. Thus, it is highly recommended that government should develop programs or implement policies that will create more jobs for the farmers and their family members. In addition, programs and policies should be implemented to increase farm productivity and income.

Keywords: agricultural economics, agricultural finance, binary logistic regression, logit, Philippines, Quezon, rice farmers, savings, savings behaviour

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302 Co-Alignment of Comfort and Energy Saving Objectives for U.S. Office Buildings and Restaurants

Authors: Lourdes Gutierrez, Eric Williams

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Post-occupancy research shows that only 11% of commercial buildings met the ASHRAE thermal comfort standard. Many buildings are too warm in winter and/or too cool in summer, wasting energy and not providing comfort. In this paper, potential energy savings in U.S. offices and restaurants if thermostat settings are calculated according the updated ASHRAE 55-2013 comfort model that accounts for outdoor temperature and clothing choice for different climate zones. eQUEST building models are calibrated to reproduce aggregate energy consumption as reported in the U.S. Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey. Changes in energy consumption due to the new settings are analyzed for 14 cities in different climate zones and then the results are extrapolated to estimate potential national savings. It is found that, depending on the climate zone, each degree increase in the summer saves 0.6 to 1.0% of total building electricity consumption. Each degree the winter setting is lowered saves 1.2% to 8.7% of total building natural gas consumption. With new thermostat settings, national savings are 2.5% of the total consumed in all office buildings and restaurants, summing up to national savings of 69.6 million GJ annually, comparable to all 2015 total solar PV generation in US. The goals of improved comfort and energy/economic savings are thus co-aligned, raising the importance of thermostat management as an energy efficiency strategy.

Keywords: energy savings quantifications, commercial building stocks, dynamic clothing insulation model, operation-focused interventions, energy management, thermal comfort, thermostat settings

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301 Malaysian Retirement Savings Behavior

Authors: Haneffa M. G.

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Retirement preparedness among Malaysian working individuals found to be poor. Prior research proven women consistently have lower retirement confidence as compared to men. Retirement planning still become the vague issues due to saving for the golden years are being stepsided by many people. Most of them think that their contributions in companies and government retirement plan is enough to comfort them in their golden years. The Employee Provident Fund (EPF) claims that most of nearly retired person have inadequate fund to retire. Therefore, this paper aims to discuss the saving behavior of younger cohort of working individuals towards retirement planning in Malaysia. A theoretical framework is developed to understand the relationship between demographic characteristics, financial education, goal clarity, perceived religiosity and retirement savings behavior.

Keywords: retirement planning, savings behavior, perceived religiosity, goal clarity, Malaysia

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300 Management Systems as a Tool to Limit the End-Users Impacts on Energy Savings Achievements

Authors: Margarida Plana

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The end-users behavior has been identified in the last years as one of the main responsible for the success degree of the energy efficiency improvements. It is essential to create tools to limit their impact on the final consumption. This paper is focused on presenting the results of the analysis developed on the basis of real projects’ data in order to quantify the impact of end-users behavior. The analysis is focused on how the behavior of building’s occupants can vary the achievement of the energy savings targets and how they can be limited. The results obtained show that the management systems are one of the main tools available to control and limit the end-users interaction with the equipment operation. In fact, the results will present the management systems as ‘a must’ on any energy efficiency project.

Keywords: end-users impacts, energy efficiency, energy savings, management systems

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299 Nearly Zero Energy Building: Analysis on How End-Users Affect Energy Savings Targets

Authors: Margarida Plana

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One of the most important energy challenge of the European policies is the transition to a Net Zero Energy Building (NZEB) model. A NZEB is a new concept of building that has the aim of reducing both the energy consumption and the carbon emissions to nearly zero of the course of a year. To achieve this nearly zero consumption, apart from being buildings with high efficiency levels, the energy consumed by the building has to be produced on-site. This paper is focused on presenting the results of the analysis developed on basis of real projects’ data in order to quantify the impact of end-users behavior. The analysis is focused on how the behavior of building’s occupants can vary the achievement of the energy savings targets and how they can be limited. The results obtained show that on this kind of project, with very high energy performance, is required to limit the end-users interaction with the system operation to be able to reach the targets fixed.

Keywords: end-users impacts, energy efficiency, energy savings, NZEB model

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298 Microfinance and Women Empowerment in Bangladesh: Impact in Economic Dimension

Authors: Abm Mostafa, Rumbidzai Mukono, Peijie Wang

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Using 285 respondents from two microfinance institutions, this research aims to assess the impact of microfinance on women’s economic empowerment in Bangladesh. Empirical measures of economic empowerment used in this paper are underpinned by a bargaining theory of household. Questionnaire is used for data collection following purposive sampling. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis test, binary, and ordinal logistic regressions are deployed for data analysis. The findings of this study show that around three quarters of respondents have increased household income. They have increased their savings overwhelmingly; nonetheless, many of them are found to have a very small amount of savings. Still, more than half of the respondents are reported to have increased their savings when it is checked against at least 500 BDT per month. On the contrary, the percentage of women is moderate in terms of increasing control over finances. Empirical findings demonstrate the evidence of a relationship between the amount of loan and women’s household income, their savings, and control over finances. Nonetheless, no relationship is found in women’s areas. This study infers that women’s access to financial resources is fundamental to empower them in economic dimension.

Keywords: microfinance, women, economic, empowerment, Bangladesh

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297 Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) Performance Indicators Help Predict Outcomes of Matched Savings Program

Authors: Carlos M. Parra, Matthew Sutherland, Ranjita Poudel

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Reduced mental-bandwidth related to low socioeconomic status (low-SES) might lead to impulsivity and risk-taking behavior, which poses as a major hurdle towards asset building (savings) behavior. Understanding the relationship between risk-related personality metrics as well as laboratory risk behavior and real-life savings behavior can help facilitate the development of effective asset building programs, which are vital for mitigating financial vulnerability and income inequality. As such, this study explored the relationship between personality metrics, laboratory behavior in a risky decision-making task and real-life asset building (savings) behaviors among individuals with low-SES from Miami, Florida (FL). Study participants (12 male, 15 female) included racially and ethnically diverse adults (mean age 41.22 ± 12.65 years), with incomplete higher education (18% had High School Diploma, 30% Associates, and 52% Some College), and low annual income (mean $13,872 ± $8020.43). Participants completed eight self-report surveys and played a widely used risky decision-making paradigm called the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART). Specifically, participants played three runs of BART (20 trials in each run; total 60 trials). In addition, asset building behavior data was collected for 24 participants who opened and used savings accounts and completed a 6-month savings program that involved monthly matches, and a final reward for completing the savings program without any interim withdrawals. Each participant’s total savings at the end of this program was the main asset building indicator considered. In addition, a new effective use of average pump bet (EUAPB) indicator was developed to characterize each participant’s ability to place winning bets. This indicator takes the ratio of each participant’s total BART earnings to average pump bet (APB) in all 60 trials. Our findings indicated that EUAPB explained more than a third of the variation in total savings among participants. Moreover, participants who managed to obtain BART earnings of at least 30 cents out of their APB, also tended to exhibit better asset building (savings) behavior. In particular, using this criterion to separate participants into high and low EUAPB groups, the nine participants with high EUAPB (mean BART earnings of 35.64 cents per APB) ended up with higher mean total savings ($255.11), while the 15 participants with low EUAPB (mean BART earnings of 22.50 cents per APB) obtained lower mean total savings ($40.01). All mean differences are statistically significant (2-tailed p  .0001) indicating that the relation between higher EUAPB and higher total savings is robust. Overall, these findings can help refine asset building interventions implemented by policy makers and practitioners interested in reducing financial vulnerability among low-SES population. Specifically, by helping identify individuals who are likely to readily take advantage of savings opportunities (such as matched savings programs) and avoiding the stipulation of unnecessary and expensive financial coaching programs to these individuals. This study was funded by J.P. Morgan Chase (JPMC) and carried out by scientists from Florida International University (FIU) in partnership with Catalyst Miami.

Keywords: balloon analogue risk task (BART), matched savings programs, asset building capability, low-SES participants

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296 Evaluation of Top-down and Bottom-up Leadership Development Programs in a Finnish Company

Authors: Kati Skarp, Keijo Varis, Juha Kettunen

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The purpose of this paper is to examine and evaluate the top-down and bottom-up leadership development programs focused on human capital that improve the performance of a company. This study reports on the external top-down leadership development program supported by a consulting company and the internal participatory action research of the bottom-up program. The sickness rate and the lost time incident failure rate decreased and the ideas produced for cost savings improved, leading to increased earnings during the top-down program. The estimated cost savings potential of the bottom-up program was 3.8 million euro based on the cost savings of meeting habits, maintenance practices and the way of working in production. The results of this study are useful for those who plan and evaluate leadership development and human capital productivity consultation programs to improve the performance of a company.

Keywords: leadership, development, human resources, company, indicators, evaluation

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295 A Pathway to Financial Inclusion: Mobile Money and Individual Savings in Uganda

Authors: Musa Mayanja Lwanga, Annet Adong

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This study provides a micro perspective on the impact of mobile money services on individual’s saving behavior using the 2013 Uganda FinScope data. Results show that although saving through the mobile phone is not a common practice in Uganda, being a registered mobile money user increases the likelihood to save with mobile money. Saving using mobile is more prevalent in urban areas and in Kampala and Central region compared to other regions. This can be explained by: first, rural dwellers tend on average to have lower incomes and thus have lower to saving compared to the urban counterpart. Similarly, residents of Kampala tend to have higher incomes and thus high savings compared to residents of other regions. Secondly, poor infrastructure in rural areas in terms of lack of electricity and poor telecommunication network coverage may limit the use of mobile phones and consequently the use of mobile money as a saving mechanism. Overall, the use of mobile money as a saving mechanism is still very low and this could be partly explained by limitations in the legislation that does not incorporate mobile finance services into mobile money. The absence of interest payments on mobile money savings may act as a disincentive to save through this mechanism. Given the emerging mobile banking services, there is a need to create more awareness and the need for enhanced synergies between telecom companies and commercial banks.

Keywords: financial inclusion, mobile money, savings, Uganda

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294 Energy Savings with the Use of LED Lights at the Wastewater Treatment Plant

Authors: Kishen Prathivadi

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The Sewer Authority Mid-Coastside (SAM) is a Joint Powers Authority formed in 1976 and provides secondary wastewater treatment to an average flow of 2.0 million gallons per day. SAM owns and operates a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) and a sanitary sewage collection system that collects sewage from its three member agencies: the City of Half Moon Bay, the Granada Community Services District and Montara Water and Sanitary District. The Sewer Authority Mid-Coastside (SAM) partnered with Pacific Gas & Electric, and its contractor GEL America, to review and replace all inefficient lighting fixtures and bulbs at the SAM treatment plant and administrative office. The project focused on replacing old and inefficient lighting fixtures and bulbs, reducing annual operating and maintenance costs, and reducing SAM’s carbon footprint. The project resulted in a 55% overall energy reduction, higher light quality and acuity, and a total operational savings of $495,000 over ten years.

Keywords: energy savings, LED, lighting, electrical

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293 Family Treatment Drug Court Cost Analysis: An In-depth Look At The Cost And Savings Of A Southeastern Family Treatment Drug Court

Authors: Ashley R. Logsdon, Becky F. Antle, Cynthia M. Kamer

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This study examines the cost and benefits of a family treatment drug court in an urban county in a southeastern state. Additionally, this cost analysis will provide a detailed description of the type and cost of activities to produce the services provided to child welfare families. This study utilized return-on-investment analysis, which uses child welfare practices, disaggregates them into separate activities and estimates costs for these activities including child-level placement data for total cost of care for the child. Direct and indirect costs were considered as well as saving calculations what costs would be associated with child welfare outcomes both short and long term. The costs included were general program costs (salaries, drug screens, transportation, childcare, parent education, program evaluation, visitation, incentives) or personnel costs for other team members (judges, court administrators, child welfare workers, child welfare supervisors, and community mental health provider). The savings that were used in the study were length of time in out of home care, Medicaid costs, substance exposed births, emergency room utilization and jail/probation costs. This study documents an overall savings of between $168,993.30 and $837,993.30. The total savings per family divided by the 40 families who have participated in the program was between $4,224.83 to $20,949.83 per family. The results of this cost benefit analysis are consistent with prior research documenting savings associated with out of home care and jail/probation; however, there are also unique contributions of this study to the literature on cost effectiveness of family treatment drug courts. We will present recommendations for further utilization of family treatment drug courts and how to expand the current model.

Keywords: child welfare, cost analysis, family drug court, family treatment drug court

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292 The Influences of Accountants’ Potential Performance on Their Working Process: Government Savings Bank, Northeast, Thailand

Authors: Prateep Wajeetongratana

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The purpose of this research was to study the influence of accountants’ potential performance on their working process, a case study of Government Savings Banks in the northeast of Thailand. The independent variables included accounting knowledge, accounting skill, accounting value, accounting ethics, and accounting attitude, while the dependent variable included the success of the working process. A total of 155 accountants working for Government Savings Banks were selected by random sampling. A questionnaire was used as a tool for collecting data. Descriptive statistics in this research included percentage, mean, and multiple regression analyses. The findings revealed that the majority of accountants were female with an age between 35-40 years old. Most of the respondents had an undergraduate degree with ten years of experience. Moreover, the factors of accounting knowledge, accounting skill, accounting a value and accounting ethics and accounting attitude were rated at a high level. The findings from regression analysis of observation data revealed a causal relationship in that the observation data could explain at least 51 percent of the success in the accountants’ working process.

Keywords: influence, potential performance, success, working process

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291 Use of Triclosan-Coated Sutures Led to Cost Saving in Public and Private Setting in India across Five Surgical Categories: An Economical Model Assessment

Authors: Anish Desai, Reshmi Pillai, Nilesh Mahajan, Hitesh Chopra, Vishal Mahajan, Ajay Grover, Ashish Kohli

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Surgical Site Infection (SSI) is hospital acquired infection of growing concern. This study presents the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of triclosan-coated suture, in reducing the burden of SSI in India. Methodology: A systematic literature search was conducted for economic burden (1998-2018) of SSI and efficacy of triclosan-coated sutures (TCS) vs. non-coated sutures (NCS) (2000-2018). PubMed Medline and EMBASE indexed articles were searched using Mesh terms or Emtree. Decision tree analysis was used to calculate, the cost difference between TCS and NCS at private and public hospitals, respectively for 7 surgical procedures. Results: The SSI range from low to high for Caesarean section (C-section), Laparoscopic hysterectomy (L-hysterectomy), Open Hernia (O-Hernia), Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (L-Cholecystectomy), Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), Total knee replacement (TKR), and Mastectomy were (3.77 to 24.2%), (2.28 to 11.7%), (1.75 to 60%), (1.71 to 25.58%), (1.6 to 18.86%), (1.74 to 12.5%), and (5.56 to 25%), respectively. The incremental cost (%) of TCS ranged 0.1%-0.01% in private and from 0.9%-0.09% at public hospitals across all surgical procedures. Cost savings at median efficacy & SSI risk was 6.52%, 5.07 %, 11.39%, 9.63%, 3.62%, 2.71%, 9.41% for C-section, L-hysterectomy, O-Hernia, L-Cholecystectomy, CABG, TKR, and Mastectomy in private and 8.79%, 4.99%, 12.67%, 10.58%, 3.32%, 2.35%, 11.83% in public hospital, respectively. Efficacy of TCS and SSI incidence in a particular surgical procedure were important determinants of cost savings using one-way sensitivity analysis. Conclusion: TCS suture led to cost savings across all 7 surgeries in both private and public hospitals in India.

Keywords: cost Savings, non-coated sutures, surgical site infection, triclosan-coated sutures

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290 Churn Prediction for Savings Bank Customers: A Machine Learning Approach

Authors: Prashant Verma

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Commercial banks are facing immense pressure, including financial disintermediation, interest rate volatility and digital ways of finance. Retaining an existing customer is 5 to 25 less expensive than acquiring a new one. This paper explores customer churn prediction, based on various statistical & machine learning models and uses under-sampling, to improve the predictive power of these models. The results show that out of the various machine learning models, Random Forest which predicts the churn with 78% accuracy, has been found to be the most powerful model for the scenario. Customer vintage, customer’s age, average balance, occupation code, population code, average withdrawal amount, and an average number of transactions were found to be the variables with high predictive power for the churn prediction model. The model can be deployed by the commercial banks in order to avoid the customer churn so that they may retain the funds, which are kept by savings bank (SB) customers. The article suggests a customized campaign to be initiated by commercial banks to avoid SB customer churn. Hence, by giving better customer satisfaction and experience, the commercial banks can limit the customer churn and maintain their deposits.

Keywords: savings bank, customer churn, customer retention, random forests, machine learning, under-sampling

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289 Prime Mover Sizing for Base-Loaded Combined Heating and Power Systems

Authors: Djalal Boualili

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This article considers the problem of sizing prime movers for combined heating and power (CHP) systems operating at full load to satisfy a fraction of a facility's electric load, i.e. a base load. Prime mover sizing is examined using three criteria: operational cost, carbon dioxide emissions (CDE), and primary energy consumption (PEC). The sizing process leads to consider ratios of conversion factors applied to imported electricity to conversion factors applied to fuel consumed. These ratios are labelled RCost, R CDE, R PEC depending on whether the conversion factors are associated with operational cost, CDE, or PEC, respectively. Analytical results show that in order to achieve savings in operational cost, CDE, or PEC, the ratios must be larger than a unique constant R Min that only depends on the CHP components efficiencies. Savings in operational cost, CDE, or PEC due to CHP operation are explicitly formulated using simple equations. This facilitates the process of comparing the tradeoffs of optimizing the savings of one criterion over the other two – a task that has traditionally been accomplished through computer simulations. A hospital building, located in Chlef, Algeria, was used as an example to apply the methodology presented in this article.

Keywords: sizing, heating and power, ratios, energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions

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288 A Study of Financial Literacy among Undergraduates

Authors: Prasansha Kumari

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Financial Literacy is the possession of knowledge and understanding of financial matters. Financial Literacy often entails the knowledge of properly making decisions pertaining to certain personal financial areas like real estate, insurance investing, and savings. This paper intends to identify and analyze the financial knowledge among university undergraduates by using 200 undergraduates in four faculties of University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. Collected data will be analyzed by descriptive research method using SPSS package. Expected outcomes are considerable percentage of undergraduates have basic knowledge on financial matters while it has a law percentage for advanced financial literacy among undergraduates. Students from faculty of Commerce and Management and Science have good understanding about financial matters than undergraduates in other two faculties

Keywords: advanced finance, undergraduates, financial literacy, savings

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287 Economic Analysis of Policy Instruments for Energy Efficiency

Authors: Etidel Labidi

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Energy efficiency improvement is one of the means to reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions. Recently, some developed countries have implemented the tradable white certificate scheme (TWC) as a new policy instrument based on market approach to support energy efficiency improvements. The major focus of this paper is to compare the White Certificates (TWC) scheme as an innovative policy instrument for energy efficiency improvement to other policy instruments: energy taxes and regulations setting a minimum level of energy efficiency. On the basis of our theoretical discussion and numerical simulation, we show that the white certificates system is the most interesting policy instrument for saving energy because it generates the most important level of energy savings and the least increase in energy service price.

Keywords: energy savings, energy efficiency, energy policy, white certificates

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286 The Importance of Electronic Medical Record Systems in Health Care Economics

Authors: Mutaz Shurahabeel Ahmed Ombada

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This paper investigates potential health and financial settlement of health information technology, this paper evaluates health care with the use of IT and other associated industries. It assesses prospective savings and costs of extensive acceptance of Electronic Medical Record Systems (EMRS), models significant to health as well as safety remuneration, and conclude that efficient EMRS execution and networking could ultimately save more than US $55 billion annually through recuperating health care effectiveness and that Health Information Technology -enabled prevention and administration of chronic disease could eventually double those savings while rising health and other social remuneration. On the contrary, this is improbable to be realized without related to significant modifications to the health care system.

Keywords: electronic medical record systems, health care economics, EMRS

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285 Dicotyledon Weed Quantification Algorithm for Selective Herbicide Application in Maize Crops: Statistical Evaluation of the Potential Herbicide Savings

Authors: Morten Stigaard Laursen, Rasmus Nyholm Jørgensen, Henrik Skov Midtiby, Anders Krogh Mortensen, Sanmohan Baby

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This work contributes a statistical model and simulation framework yielding the best estimate possible for the potential herbicide reduction when using the MoDiCoVi algorithm all the while requiring a efficacy comparable to conventional spraying. In June 2013 a maize field located in Denmark were seeded. The field was divided into parcels which was assigned to one of two main groups: 1) Control, consisting of subgroups of no spray and full dose spraty; 2) MoDiCoVi algorithm subdivided into five different leaf cover thresholds for spray activation. In addition approximately 25% of the parcels were seeded with additional weeds perpendicular to the maize rows. In total 299 parcels were randomly assigned with the 28 different treatment combinations. In the statistical analysis, bootstrapping was used for balancing the number of replicates. The achieved potential herbicide savings was found to be 70% to 95% depending on the initial weed coverage. However additional field trials covering more seasons and locations are needed to verify the generalisation of these results. There is a potential for further herbicide savings as the time interval between the first and second spraying session was not long enough for the weeds to turn yellow, instead they only stagnated in growth.

Keywords: herbicide reduction, macrosprayer, weed crop discrimination, site-specific, sprayer boom

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284 Evaluating the Energy Efficiency Measures for an Educational Building in a Hot-Humid Region

Authors: Rafia Akbar

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This paper assesses different Energy Efficiency Measures (EEMs) and their impact on energy consumption and carbon footprint of an educational building located in Islamabad. A base case was first developed in accordance with typical construction practices in Pakistan. Several EEMs were separately applied to the baseline design to quantify their impact on operational energy reduction of the building and the resultant carbon emissions. Results indicate that by applying these measures, there is a potential to reduce energy consumption up to 49% as compared to the base case. It was observed that energy efficient ceiling fans and lights, insulation of the walls and roof and an efficient air conditioning system for the building can provide significant energy savings. The results further indicate that the initial investment cost of these energy efficiency measures can be recovered within 6 to 7 years of building’s service life.

Keywords: CO2 savings, educational building, energy efficiency measures, payback period

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283 San Francisco Public Utilities Commission Headquarters "The Greenest Urban Building in the United States"

Authors: Charu Sharma

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San Francisco Public Utilities Commission’s Headquarters was listed in the 2013-American Institute of Architects Committee of the Environment (AIA COTE) Top Ten Green Projects. This 13-story, 277,000-square-foot building, housing more than 900 of the agency’s employees was completed in June 2012. It was designed to achieve LEED Platinum Certification and boasts a plethora of green features to significantly reduce the use of energy and water consumption, and provide a healthy office work environment with high interior air quality and natural daylight. Key sustainability features include on-site clean energy generation through renewable photovoltaic and wind sources providing $118 million in energy cost savings over 75 years; 45 percent daylight harvesting; and the consumption of 55 percent less energy and a 32 percent less electricity demand from the main power grid. It uses 60 percent less water usage than an average 13-story office building as most of that water will be recycled for non-potable uses at the site, running through a system of underground tanks and artificial wetlands that cleans and clarifies whatever is flushed down toilets or washed down drains. This is one of the first buildings in the nation with treatment of gray and black water. The building utilizes an innovative structural system with post tensioned cores that will provide the highest asset preservation for the building. In addition, the building uses a “green” concrete mixture that releases less carbon gases. As a public utility commission this building has set a good example for resource conservation-the building is expected to be cheaper to operate and maintain as time goes on and will have saved rate-payers $500 million in energy and water savings. Within the anticipated 100-year lifespan of the building, our ratepayers will save approximately $3.7 billion through the combination of rental savings, energy efficiencies, and asset ownership.

Keywords: energy efficiency, sustainability, resource conservation, asset ownership, rental savings

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282 Determining Disparities in the Distribution of the Energy Efficiency Resource through the History of Michigan Policy

Authors: M. Benjamin Stacey

Abstract:

Energy efficiency has been increasingly recognized as a high value resource through state policies that require utility companies to implement efficiency programs. While policymakers have recognized the statewide economic, environmental, and health related value to residents who rely on this grid supplied resource, varying interests in energy efficiency between socioeconomic groups stands undifferentiated in most state legislation. Instead, the benefits are oftentimes assumed to be distributed equitably across these groups. Despite this fact, these policies are frequently sited by advocacy groups, regulatory bodies and utility companies for their ability to address the negative financial, health and other social impacts of energy poverty in low income communities. Yet, while most states like Michigan require programs that target low income consumers, oftentimes no requirements exist for the equitable investment and energy savings for low income consumers, nor does it stipulate minimal spending levels on low income programs. To further understand the impact of the absence of these factors in legislation, this study examines the distribution of program funds and energy efficiency savings to answer a fundamental energy justice concern; Are there disparities in the investment and benefits of energy efficiency programs between socioeconomic groups? This study compiles data covering the history of Michigan’s Energy Efficiency policy implementation from 2010-2016, analyzing the energy efficiency portfolios of Michigan’s two main energy providers. To make accurate comparisons between these two energy providers' investments and energy savings in low and non-low income programs, the socioeconomic variation for each utility coverage area was captured and accounted for using GIS and US Census data. Interestingly, this study found that both providers invested more equitably in natural gas efficiency programs, however, together these providers invested roughly three times less per household in low income electricity efficiency programs, which resulted in ten times less electricity savings per household. This study also compares variation in commission approved utility plans and actual spending and savings results, with varying patterns pointing to differing portfolio management strategies between companies. This study reveals that for the history of the implementation of Michigan’s Energy Efficiency Policy, that the 35% of Michigan’s population who qualify as low income have received substantially disproportionate funding and energy savings because of the policy. This study provides an overview of results from a social perspective, raises concerns about the impact on energy poverty and equity between consumer groups and is an applicable tool for law makers, regulatory agencies, utility portfolio managers, and advocacy groups concerned with addressing issues related to energy poverty.

Keywords: energy efficiency, energy justice, low income, state policy

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281 End-User Behavior: Analysis of Their Role and Impacts on Energy Savings Achievements

Authors: Margarida Plana

Abstract:

End-users behavior has become one of the main aspects to be solved on energy efficiency projects. Especially on the residential sector, the end-users have a direct impact that affects the achievement of energy saving’s targets. This paper is focused on presenting and quantify the impact of end-users behavior on basis of the analysis of real projects’ data. The analysis study which is the role of buiding’s occupants and how their behavior can change the success of energy efficiency projects how to limit their impact. The results obtained show two main conclusions. The first one is easiest to solve: we need to control and limit the end-users interaction with the equipment operation to be able to reach the targets fixed. The second one: as the plugged equipment are increasing exponentially on the residential sector, big efforts of disseminations are needed in order to explain to citizens the impact of their day by day actions through dissemination campaigns.

Keywords: end-users impacts, energy efficiency, energy savings, impact limitations

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280 A Simulation Model to Analyze the Impact of Virtual Responsiveness in an E-Commerce Supply Chain

Authors: T. Godwin

Abstract:

The design of a supply chain always entails the trade-off between responsiveness and efficiency. The launch of e-commerce has not only changed the way of shopping but also altered the supply chain design while trading off efficiency with responsiveness. A concept called ‘virtual responsiveness’ is introduced in the context of e-commerce supply chain. A simulation model is developed to compare actual responsiveness and virtual responsiveness to the customer in an e-commerce supply chain. The simulation is restricted to the movement of goods from the e-tailer to the customer. Customer demand follows a statistical distribution and is generated using inverse transformation technique. The two responsiveness schemes of the supply chain are compared in terms of the minimum number of inventory required at the e-tailer to fulfill the orders. Computational results show the savings achieved through virtual responsiveness. The insights gained from this study could be used to redesign e-commerce supply chain by incorporating virtual responsiveness. A part of the achieved cost savings could be passed back to the customer, thereby making the supply chain both effective and competitive.

Keywords: e-commerce, simulation modeling, supply chain, virtual responsiveness

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279 Integrating Qualitative and Behavioural Insights to Increase the Take-Up of an Education Savings Program for Low Income Canadians

Authors: Mathieu Audet, Monica Soliman, Emilie Eve Gravel, Rebecca Friesdorf

Abstract:

Access to higher education is critical for reducing social inequalities. The Canada Learning Bond (CLB) is a government savings incentive aimed at increasing higher education access for children of low income families by providing money toward a Registered Education Savings Plan. To better understand the educational and financial decision-making of low income families, Employment Social Development Canada conducted qualitative fieldwork with eligible parents and children, teachers, and community organizations promoting the Bond. Insights from this fieldwork were then used to develop letters to better target the needs and experiences of eligible families. In the present study, we conducted a randomized controlled trial with children ages 12 to 13, the oldest cohort of eligible children, to test the effectiveness of the new letters. Parents or caregivers of 150,088 eligible children were assigned to one of five letter conditions promoting the Bond or to a control condition that did not receive a letter. The letter conditions were: (a) the standard letter from past outreach, (b) a letter presenting the exact amount the child was eligible to receive, enhancing the salience of benefits, (c) a letter with a social norm, (d) a letter with an image emphasizing the feasibility of higher education by presenting the diversity of options (i.e., college, trade schools, apprenticeships) – many participants interviewed viewed that university was unfeasible, and (e) a letter minimizing references to 'saving' (i.e., not framing the Bond explicitly as a savings incentive) – a concept that did not resonate with low income families who felt they could not afford to save. The exact amount was also presented in letters (c) through (e). The letter minimizing references to 'saving' and presenting the exact amount had the highest net take-up rate at 6.6%, compared to 3.5% for the standard letter group. Furthermore, this trial’s BI-informed letters showed the largest impact on take-up so far, with a net take-up of 5.7% compared to 3.0% and 3.9% in the first two trials. This research highlights the value of mixed-method approaches combining qualitative and behavioural insights methods for developing context-sensitive interventions for social programs. By gaining a deeper understanding of the needs and experiences of program users through qualitative fieldwork, and then integrating these insights into behaviourally informed communications, we were able to increase take-up of an education savings program, which may ultimately improve access to higher education in children of low income families.

Keywords: access to higher education, behavioral insights, government, innovation, mixed-methods, social programs

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278 Deposit Insurance and Financial Inclusion in the Economic Community of Central African States

Authors: Antoine F. Dedewanou, Eric N. Ekpinda

Abstract:

We investigate whether and how deposit insurance program affects savings decisions in the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS). Specifically, using the World Bank’s 2014 and 2011 Global Financial Inclusion (Global Findex) databases, we apply special regressor approach. We find that the deposit insurance program increases significantly, everything else equal, the probability that people save their money at a financial institution by 11 percentage points in Gabon, by 22.2 percentage points in DR Congo and by 15.1 percentage points in Chad. These effects are matched with positive effects of age and education level. But in Cameroon, the effect of deposit insurance is not significant. The policies aimed at fostering financial inclusion will be more effective if there is a deposit insurance scheme in place, along with awareness among young people, and education programs. JEL Classification: G21, O12, O16

Keywords: deposit insurance, savings, special regressor, ECCAS countries

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277 The Potential of 48V HEV in Real Driving Operation

Authors: Mark Schudeleit, Christian Sieg, Ferit Küçükay

Abstract:

This publication focuses on the limits and potentials of 48V hybrid systems, which are especially due to the cost advantages an attractive alternative, compared to established high volt-age HEVs and thus will gain relevant market shares in the future. Firstly, at market overview is given which shows the current known 48V hybrid concepts and demonstrators. These topologies will be analyzed and evaluated regarding the system power and the battery capacity as well as their implemented hybrid functions. The potential in fuel savings and CO2 reduction is calculated followed by the customer-relevant dimensioning of the electric motor and the battery. For both measured data of the real customer operation is used. Subsequently, the CO2 saving potentials of the customer-oriented dimensioned powertrain will be presented for the NEDC and the customer operation. With a comparison of the newly defined drivetrain with existing 48V systems the question can be answered whether current systems are dimensioned optimally for the customer operation or just for legislated driving cycles.

Keywords: 48V hybrid systems, market comparison, requirements and potentials in customer operation, customer-oriented dimensioning, CO2 savings

Procedia PDF Downloads 445