Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 43

Search results for: copyright

43 The Consequences of Complaint Offenses against Copyright Protection

Authors: Chryssantus Kastowo, Theresia Anita Christiani, Anny Retnowati

Abstract:

Copyright infringement as a form of infringement does not always mean causing harm to the creator. This can be proven with so many copyright violations in society and there is no significant law enforcement effort when compared with the violations that occurred. Copyright law as a form of appreciation from the state to the creator becomes counter productive if there is omission of violations. The problem raised in this article is how is the model of copyright regulation in accordance with the purpose of the law of copyright protection. This article is based on normative legal research focusing on secondary data. The analysis used is a conceptual approach. The analysis shows that the regulation of copyright emphasizes as a subjective right that is wholly within the author's power. This perspective will affect the claim of rights by the creator or allow violations. The creator is obliged to maintain the overall performance of copyright protection, especially in the event of a violation.

Keywords: copyright, enforcement, law, violation

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42 Analysis on the Copyright Protection Dilemma of Webcast in 'Internet Plus' Era

Authors: Yi Yang

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In the era of 'Internet plus', the rapid development of webcast has posed new challenges to the intellectual property law. Meanwhile, traditional copyright protection has also exposed the existing theoretical imbalance in webcast. Through the analysis of the outstanding problems in the copyright protection of the network live broadcast, this paper points out that the main causes of the problems are the unclear nature of the copyright of the network live broadcast, the copyright protection system of the game network live broadcast has not yet been constructed, and the copyright infringement of the pan entertainment live broadcast is mostly, and so on. Based on the current practice, this paper puts forward the specific thinking of the protection path of online live broadcast copyright. First of all, to provide a reasonable judicial solution for a large number of online live copyright cases, we need to integrate the right scope and regulatory behavior of broadcasting right and information network communication right. Secondly, in order to protect the rights of network anchors, the webcast should be regarded as works. Thirdly, in order to protect the copyright of webcast and prevent the infringement of copyright by webcast, the webcast platform will be used as an intermediary to provide solutions for solving the judicial dilemma. In the era of 'Internet plus', it is a theoretical attempt to explore the protection and method of copyright protection on webcast, which has positive guiding significance for judicial practice.

Keywords: 'Internet Plus' era, webcast, copyright, protection dilemma

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41 Models of Copyrights System

Authors: A. G. Matveev

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The copyrights system is a combination of different elements. The number, content and the correlation of these elements are different for different legal orders. The models of copyrights systems display this system in terms of the interaction of economic and author's moral rights. Monistic and dualistic models are the most popular ones. The article deals with different points of view on the monism and dualism in copyright system. A specific model of the copyright in Switzerland in the XXth century is analyzed. The evolution of a French dualistic model of copyright is shown. The author believes that one should talk not about one, but rather about a number of dualism forms of copyright system.

Keywords: copyright, exclusive copyright, economic rights, author's moral rights, rights of personality, monistic model, dualistic model

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
40 Copyright Infringement for Academic Authorship in Uganda: Implications on Exemptions of Fair Use for Educational Purposes in Universities

Authors: Elisam Magara

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Like any other property, Intellectual Property (IP) must be regarded, respected, and remunerated to address the historical, ethical, economical and informational needs of society. Article 26 of the Constitution of the Republic of Uganda 1995, the Copyright and Neighbouring Rights (CNR) Act 2006 and CNR Regulations 2010 guide copyright protection in Uganda. However, an unpredictable environment has negatively impact on certain author/intellectual freedoms; and the infringements on academic works that affect the economic rights of authors that limit authors from fully enjoying the benefits of authorship. Notwithstanding the different licensing systems and copyright protection avenues, educational institutions and custodians of copyright works (libraries, archives) have continued to advocate for open access to information resources, under the legal exceptions of fair use for educational purposes. Thus, a study was conducted in educational institutions, libraries and archives in Uganda to assess the state of copyright infringement in Uganda in an increased use of academic authored works. The study attempted to establish the nature and forms of Copyright Infringement, the circumstances for copyright infringement, assessed the opinions from the custodians on strategies for balancing copyright protection for economic and moral gains by authors and increased access to information for educational purposes and fair-use. Through a survey, using a self-administered questionnaire, interviews and physical visits, the study was conducted in higher education institutions, libraries and archives among the officers that manage and keep copyright works. It established that the uncontrolled reproduction of copyright works in educational institutions and information institutions, have contributed copyright infringement robbing authors of their potential economic earnings and limiting their academic innovativeness and creativity. The study also established that lack of consciousness and awareness on copyright issues by lecturers, universities and libraries has made copyright works in Universities highly susceptible to copyright infringement. Thus the increased access to materials without restrictions has resulted in copyright infringement among the educational institutions, libraries and archives. A strategic alliance by the collecting Society (Uganda Reproduction Rights Organisation (URRO), government, Universities and right holders organisations (UTANA) to work together and institute a programme to address copyright protection and access to information is pertinently required.

Keywords: access to information, academic Writing, copyright, copyright infringement, copyright protection, exemptions of fair use, intellectual property rights

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39 The Copyright Eligibility of Sports Events and Performances

Authors: Emre Bayamlıoğlu

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Apart from being the subject of neighboring rights when broadcasted on TV or of cinematographic work when fixed to a tangible medium including a hard drive, the copyright eligibility of a sports performance, and eventually the sporting event has once again given rise to controversy following the CJEU judgment in the Murphy case. Most of the arguments which deny copyright protection for sports performances focus on the fact that unlike movies, plays, television programs, or operas, athletic events are competitive and have no underlying script. The first part of the paper aims to explain that such rhetoric is rather weak simply for the fact that, several types of performances such as improvised musical or dramatic shows are still protected by copyright despite the fact that they are not based on a script. The second part argues that the core reason for the denial copyright protection was the functionality aiming certain practical results such as winning the game, scoring, eliminating an opponent, obstructing a shot and etc., but no scientific or artistic expression in whatsoever form. The paper further argues that expanding copyright protection to functional performances would give rise to unintended copyright claims by the athletes on tackles, shoots, passes, crosses etc. resulting with further restrictions on reporting and photographing of sporting events. The final part provides a policy analysis of the trend to broaden the scope of copyright to cover sports performances. It is argued that such expansion will clearly undermine the ratio legis of copyright laws since it will give rise to excessive commodification of information beyond the needs of a viable market economy. Therefore, remedies other than copyright protection such as unfair competition and unjust enrichment provides sufficient redress for the damages to be sustained by the investors of sporting events.

Keywords: copyright eligibility, idea-expression dichotomy, sports performance

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38 Artificial Intelligence as a User of Copyrighted Work: Descriptive Study

Authors: Dominika Collett

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AI applications, such as machine learning, require access to a vast amount of data in the training phase, which can often be the subject of copyright protection. During later usage, the various content with which the application works can be recorded or made available on the basis of which it produces the resulting output. The EU has recently adopted new legislation to secure machine access to protected works under the DSM Directive; but, the issue of machine use of copyright works is not clearly addressed. However, such clarity is needed regarding the increasing importance of AI and its development. Therefore, this paper provides a basic background of the technology used in the development of applications in the field of computer creativity. The second part of the paper then will focus on a legal analysis of machine use of the authors' works from the perspective of existing European and Czech legislation. The main results of the paper discuss the potential collision of existing legislation in regards to machine use of works with special focus on exceptions and limitations. The legal regulation of machine use of copyright work will impact the development of AI technology.

Keywords: copyright, artificial intelligence, legal use, infringement, Czech law, EU law, text and data mining

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37 Knowledge Based Liability for ISPs’ Copyright and Trademark Infringement in the EU E-Commerce Directive: Two Steps Behind the Philosophy of Computing Mind

Authors: Mohammad Sadeghi

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The subject matter of this article is the efficiency of current knowledge standard to afford the legal integration regarding criteria and approaches to ISP knowledge standards, to shield ISP and copyright, trademark and other parties’ rights in the online information society. The EU recognizes the knowledge-based liability for intermediaries in the European Directive on Electronic Commerce, but the implication of all parties’ responsibility for combating infringement has been immolated by dominating attention on liability due to the lack of the appropriate legal mechanism to devote each party responsibility. Moreover, there is legal challenge on the applicability of knowledge-based liability on hosting services and information location tools service. The aim of this contribution is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of ECD knowledge standard through case law with a special emphasis on duty of prevention and constructive knowledge role on internet service providers (ISP s’) to achieve fair balance between all parties rights.

Keywords: internet service providers, liability, copyright infringement, hosting, caching, mere conduit service, notice and takedown, E-commerce Directive

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
36 Notice and Block?

Authors: Althaf Marsoof

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The blocking injunction, giving rise to a ‘notice and block’ regime, has become the new approach to curtail the infringement of Intellectual Property rights on the Internet. As such, the blocking injunction is an addition to the arsenal of copyright owners, and more recently has also benefited trademark owners, in their battle against piracy and counterfeiting. Yet, the blocking injunction, notwithstanding the usefulness of its ‘notice and block’ outcome, is not without limitations. In the circumstances, it is argued that ‘notice and takedown’, the approach that has been adopted by right-holders for some years, is still an important remedy against the proliferation of online content that infringe the rights of copyright and trademark owners, which is both viable and effective. Thus, it is suggested that the battle against online piracy and counterfeiting could be won only if both the blocking injunction and the practice of ‘notice and takedown’ are utilised by right-holders as complementary and simultaneous remedies.

Keywords: blocking injunctions, internet intermediaries, notice and takedown, intellectual property

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
35 Batman Forever: The Economics of Overlapping Rights

Authors: Franziska Kaiser, Alexander Cuntz

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When copyrighted comic characters are also protected under trademark laws, intellectual property (IP) rights can be overlapping. Arguably, registering a trademark can increase transaction costs for cross-media uses of characters, or it can help advertise across multiple sales channels. In an application to book, movie and video game publishing industries, we thus ask how creative reuse is affected in situations of overlapping rights, and whether ‘fuzzy boundaries’ of right frameworks are in fact enhancing or decreasing content sales. We use a major U.S. Supreme Court decision as a quasi-natural experiment to apply an IV estimation in our analysis. We find that overlapping rights frameworks negatively affect creative reuses. At large, when copyright-protected comic characters are additionally registered as U.S. trademarks, they are less often reprinted and enter fewer video game productions, while generating less revenue from game sales.

Keywords: copyright, fictional characters, trademark, reuse

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34 A Hybrid Watermarking Model Based on Frequency of Occurrence

Authors: Hamza A. A. Al-Sewadi, Adnan H. M. Al-Helali, Samaa A. K. Khamis

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Ownership proofs of multimedia such as text, image, audio or video files can be achieved by the burial of watermark is them. It is achieved by introducing modifications into these files that are imperceptible to the human senses but easily recoverable by a computer program. These modifications would be in the time domain or frequency domain or both. This paper presents a procedure for watermarking by mixing amplitude modulation with frequency transformation histogram; namely a specific value is used to modulate the intensity component Y of the YIQ components of the carrier image. This scheme is referred to as histogram embedding technique (HET). Results comparison with those of other techniques such as discrete wavelet transform (DWT), discrete cosine transform (DCT) and singular value decomposition (SVD) have shown an enhance efficiency in terms of ease and performance. It has manifested a good degree of robustness against various environment effects such as resizing, rotation and different kinds of noise. This method would prove very useful technique for copyright protection and ownership judgment.

Keywords: authentication, copyright protection, information hiding, ownership, watermarking

Procedia PDF Downloads 406
33 Frequency of Occurrence Hybrid Watermarking Scheme

Authors: Hamza A. Ali, Adnan H. M. Al-Helali

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Generally, a watermark is information that identifies the ownership of multimedia (text, image, audio or video files). It is achieved by introducing modifications into these files that are imperceptible to the human senses but easily recoverable by a computer program. These modifications are done according to a secret key in a descriptive model that would be either in the time domain or frequency domain or both. This paper presents a procedure for watermarking by mixing amplitude modulation with frequency transformation histogram; namely a specific value is used to modulate the intensity component Y of the YIQ components of the carrier image. This scheme is referred to as histogram embedding technique (HET). Results comparison with those of other techniques such as discrete wavelet transform (DWT), discrete cosine transform (DCT) and singular value decomposition (SVD) have shown an enhance efficiency in terms of ease and performance. It has manifested a good degree of robustness against various environment effects such as resizing, rotation and different kinds of noise. This method would prove very useful technique for copyright protection and ownership judgment.

Keywords: watermarking, ownership, copyright protection, steganography, information hiding, authentication

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
32 Optimized and Secured Digital Watermarking Using Fuzzy Entropy, Bezier Curve and Visual Cryptography

Authors: R. Rama Kishore, Sunesh

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Recent development in the usage of internet for different purposes creates a great threat for the copyright protection of the digital images. Digital watermarking can be used to address the problem. This paper presents detailed review of the different watermarking techniques, latest trends in the field of secured, robust and imperceptible watermarking. It also discusses the different optimization techniques used in the field of watermarking in order to improve the robustness and imperceptibility of the method. Different measures are discussed to evaluate the performance of the watermarking algorithm. At the end, this paper proposes a watermarking algorithm using (2, 2) share visual cryptography and Bezier curve based algorithm to improve the security of the watermark. The proposed method uses fractional transformation to improve the robustness of the copyright protection of the method. The algorithm is optimized using fuzzy entropy for better results.

Keywords: digital watermarking, fractional transform, visual cryptography, Bezier curve, fuzzy entropy

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
31 E-Book Market In Vietnam: Great Potential, Many Barriers

Authors: Zakir Hossain

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Nowadays reading e-books on laptops, smartphones, and tablets have become a new leisure activity for Vietnamese youth. Since 2011 the copyrighted e-book market began to develop in Vietnam with the participation of five local enterprises. Over the last five years, thousands of e-books were published including the first online early education book series for children from 0 to 6 years old. Research shows that 61% Vietnamese find reading e-books is comfortable, and 45% feel convenient buying books online. More than half of the Vietnamese consider reading online far better than buying printed books, and surprisingly people over age 30 desire reading online while those under 18 prefer reading printed books. Hence with a market of more than 40 million regular internet users including 22 million smartphone users, Vietnam has ample opportunities to develop the e-book market and contribute a great deal to the diversity of the local reading culture which is essential for Building a Lifelong Learning Society, a state ambition of Vietnam by 2020. However, the e-book market in Vietnam is still in its infancy and is growing far too slowly than e-book producers had expected. All five e-book enterprises are facing numerous challenges. While the big profit that e-book technology can bring has been clearly recognised in other countries, e-books in Vietnam only make up less than 1% share of the book market. The objective of the study is to identify the difficulties and barriers to the development of the e-book market in Vietnam through an extensive literature review available in English. The study revealed that illegal e-books due to copyright infringement and an inconvenient payment system to purchase e-books are the major obstacles. The great potential of e-books in Vietnam is a reality but requires government enforcement of copyright protection laws, a new area of focus for the e-book market. Furthermore, Vietnamese readers should change their habits from using free and illegal e-books to develop the e-publishing industry in Vietnam.

Keywords: copyright, e-book, e-book reading, e-publishing, Vietnam

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30 Determination of Authorship of the Works Created by the Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Vladimir Sharapaev

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This paper seeks to address the question of the authorship of copyrighted works created solely by the artificial intelligence or with the use thereof, and proposes possible interpretational or legislative solutions to the problems arising from the plurality of the persons potentially involved in the ultimate creation of the work and division of tasks among such persons. Being based on the commonly accepted assumption that a copyrighted work can only be created by a natural person, the paper does not deal with the issues regarding the creativity of the artificial intelligence per se (or the lack thereof), and instead focuses on the distribution of the intellectual property rights potentially belonging to the creators of the artificial intelligence and/or the creators of the content used for the formation of the copyrighted work. Moreover, the technical development and rapid improvement of the AI-based programmes, which tend to be reaching even greater independence on a human being, give rise to the question whether the initial creators of the artificial intelligence can be entitled to the intellectual property rights to the works created by such AI at all. As the juridical practice of some European courts and legal doctrine tends to incline to the latter opinion, indicating that the works created by the AI may not at all enjoy copyright protection, the questions of authorships appear to be causing great concerns among the investors in the development of the relevant technology. Although the technology companies dispose with further instruments of protection of their investments, the risk of the works in question not being copyrighted caused by the inconsistency of the case law and a certain research gap constitutes a highly important issue. In order to assess the possible interpretations, the author adopted a doctrinal and analytical approach to the research, systematically analysing the European and Czech copyright laws and case law in some EU jurisdictions. This study aims to contribute to greater legal certainty regarding the issues of the authorship of the AI-created works and define possible clues for further research.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, copyright, authorship, copyrighted work, intellectual property

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29 Gandhi and the Judicial Discourse on Moral Rights

Authors: Sunayana Basu Mallik, Shishira Prakash

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The inclusion of Rights of Author (Moral and Personal Rights) resonate the century long battle of rights of authors, composers, performers across developed and developing countries (whether following civil law or common law systems). But, the juxtaposition of author’s special, moral, personal rights within the legislative framework of Copyright statutes (Indian Copyright Act, 1957, applicable statutes) underscores the foundational role of the right which goes to the root of the constitutional structure of India and philosophies of political and literary leaders like Mahatma Gandhi and Gurudeb Rabindranath Tagore. In the pre-independence era when the concept of moral rights was unknown to both England and India’s statutory laws, the strategic deployment method of Gandhi, his ideologies and thoughts scripted the concept of moral rights for authors/composers. The preservation of Rabindric Style (Characteristic Tagore’s vocal renditions) by Vishwabharati University (successor in interest for Tagore’s literary and musical compositions) prior to the Copyright Amendment of 1999 recognizing Author’s Special Rights in line with 6bis of Berne Convention invigorates the fact that the right existed intrinsically prior to the legislative amendment. The paper would in addition to the academic probe carry out an empirical enquiry of the institution’s (Navjivan Trust and Vishwa Bharati University’s) reasoning on the same. The judicial discourse and transforming constitutional ideals between 1950s till date in India alludes Moral Rights to be an essential legal right which have been reasoned by Indian Courts based on the underlying philosophies in culture, customs, religion wherein composers and literary figures have played key roles in enlightening and encouraging the members of society through their literary, musical and artistic work during pre-independence renaissance of India. The discourses have been influenced by the philosophies reflected in the preamble of the Indian constitution, ‘socialist, secular, democratic republic’ and laws of other civil law countries. Lastly, the paper would analyze the adjudication process and witness involvement in ascertaining violations of moral rights and further summarize the indigenous and country specific economic thoughts that often chisel decisions on moral rights of authors, composers, performers which sometimes intersect with author’s right of privacy and against defamation. The exclusivity contracts or other arrangements between authors, composers and publishing companies not only have an erosive effect on each thread of moral rights but irreparably dents factors that promote creativity. The paper would also be review these arrangements in view of the principles of unjust enrichment, unfair trade practices, anti-competitive behavior and breach of Section 27 (Restrain of Trade) of Indian Contract Act, 1857. The paper will thus lay down the three pillars on which author’s rights in India should namely rest, (a) political and judicial discourse evolving principles supporting moral rights of authors; (b) amendment and insertion of Section 57 of the Copyright Act, 1957; (c) overall constitutional framework supporting author’s rights.

Keywords: copyright, moral rights, performer’s rights, personal rights

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28 Owning (up to) the 'Art of the Insane': Re-Claiming Personhood through Copyright Law

Authors: Mathilde Pavis

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From Schumann to Van Gogh, Frida Kahlo, and Ray Charles, the stories narrating the careers of artists with physical or mental disabilities are becoming increasingly popular. From the emergence of ‘pathography’ at the end of 18th century to cinematographic portrayals, the work and lives of differently-abled creative individuals continue to fascinate readers, spectators and researchers. The achievements of those artists form the tip of the iceberg composed of complex politico-cultural movements which continue to advocate for wider recognition of disabled artists’ contribution to western culture. This paper envisages copyright law as a potential tool to such end. It investigates the array of rights available to artists with intellectual disabilities to assert their position as authors of their artwork in the twenty-first-century looking at international and national copyright laws (UK and US). Put simply, this paper questions whether an artist’s intellectual disability could be a barrier to assert their intellectual property rights over their creation. From a legal perspective, basic principles of non-discrimination would contradict the representation of artists’ disability as an obstacle to authorship as granted by intellectual property laws. Yet empirical studies reveal that artists with intellectual disabilities are often denied the opportunity to exercise their intellectual property rights or any form of agency over their work. In practice, it appears that, unlike other non-disabled artists, the prospect for differently-abled creators to make use of their right is contingent to the context in which the creative process takes place. Often will the management of such rights rest with the institution, art therapist or mediator involved in the artists’ work as the latter will have necessitated greater support than their non-disabled peers for a variety of reasons, either medical or practical. Moreover, the financial setbacks suffered by medical institutions and private therapy practices have renewed administrators’ and physicians’ interest in monetising the artworks produced under their supervision. Adding to those economic incentives, the rise of criminal and civil litigation in psychiatric cases has also encouraged the retention of patients’ work by therapists who feel compelled to keep comprehensive medical records to shield themselves from liability in the event of a lawsuit. Unspoken transactions, contracts, implied agreements and consent forms have thus progressively made their way into the relationship between those artists and their therapists or assistants, disregarding any notions of copyright. The question of artists’ authorship finds itself caught in an unusually multi-faceted web of issues formed by tightening purse strings, ethical concerns and the fear of civil or criminal liability. Whilst those issues are playing out behind closed doors, the popularity of what was once called the ‘Art of the Insane’ continues to grow and open new commercial avenues. This socio-economic context exacerbates the need to devise a legal framework able to help practitioners, artists and their advocates navigate through those issues in such a way that neither this minority nor our cultural heritage suffers from the fragmentation of the legal protection available to them.

Keywords: authorship, copyright law, intellectual disabilities, art therapy and mediation

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27 Hybridization of Mathematical Transforms for Robust Video Watermarking Technique

Authors: Harpal Singh, Sakshi Batra

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The widespread and easy accesses to multimedia contents and possibility to make numerous copies without loss of significant fidelity have roused the requirement of digital rights management. Thus this problem can be effectively solved by Digital watermarking technology. This is a concept of embedding some sort of data or special pattern (watermark) in the multimedia content; this information will later prove ownership in case of a dispute, trace the marked document’s dissemination, identify a misappropriating person or simply inform user about the rights-holder. The primary motive of digital watermarking is to embed the data imperceptibly and robustly in the host information. Extensive counts of watermarking techniques have been developed to embed copyright marks or data in digital images, video, audio and other multimedia objects. With the development of digital video-based innovations, copyright dilemma for the multimedia industry increases. Video watermarking had been proposed in recent years to serve the issue of illicit copying and allocation of videos. It is the process of embedding copyright information in video bit streams. Practically video watermarking schemes have to address some serious challenges as compared to image watermarking schemes like real-time requirements in the video broadcasting, large volume of inherently redundant data between frames, the unbalance between the motion and motionless regions etc. and they are particularly vulnerable to attacks, for example, frame swapping, statistical analysis, rotation, noise, median and crop attacks. In this paper, an effective, robust and imperceptible video watermarking algorithm is proposed based on hybridization of powerful mathematical transforms; Fractional Fourier Transform (FrFT), Discrete Wavelet transforms (DWT) and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) using redundant wavelet. This scheme utilizes various transforms for embedding watermarks on different layers by using Hybrid systems. For this purpose, the video frames are portioned into layers (RGB) and the watermark is being embedded in two forms in the video frames using SVD portioning of the watermark, and DWT sub-band decomposition of host video, to facilitate copyright safeguard as well as reliability. The FrFT orders are used as the encryption key that allows the watermarking method to be more robust against various attacks. The fidelity of the scheme is enhanced by introducing key generation and wavelet based key embedding watermarking scheme. Thus, for watermark embedding and extraction, same key is required. Therefore the key must be shared between the owner and the verifier via some safe network. This paper demonstrates the performance by considering different qualitative metrics namely Peak Signal to Noise ratio, Structure similarity index and correlation values and also apply some attacks to prove the robustness. The Experimental results are presented to demonstrate that the proposed scheme can withstand a variety of video processing attacks as well as imperceptibility.

Keywords: discrete wavelet transform, robustness, video watermarking, watermark

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26 Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm vs. Genetic Algorithm for Image Watermarking Based Discrete Wavelet Transform

Authors: Omaima N. Ahmad AL-Allaf

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Over communication networks, images can be easily copied and distributed in an illegal way. The copyright protection for authors and owners is necessary. Therefore, the digital watermarking techniques play an important role as a valid solution for authority problems. Digital image watermarking techniques are used to hide watermarks into images to achieve copyright protection and prevent its illegal copy. Watermarks need to be robust to attacks and maintain data quality. Therefore, we discussed in this paper two approaches for image watermarking, first is based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and the second approach is based on Genetic Algorithm (GA). Discrete wavelet transformation (DWT) is used with the two approaches separately for embedding process to cover image transformation. Each of PSO and GA is based on co-relation coefficient to detect the high energy coefficient watermark bit in the original image and then hide the watermark in original image. Many experiments were conducted for the two approaches with different values of PSO and GA parameters. From experiments, PSO approach got better results with PSNR equal 53, MSE equal 0.0039. Whereas GA approach got PSNR equal 50.5 and MSE equal 0.0048 when using population size equal to 100, number of iterations equal to 150 and 3×3 block. According to the results, we can note that small block size can affect the quality of image watermarking based PSO/GA because small block size can increase the search area of the watermarking image. Better PSO results were obtained when using swarm size equal to 100.

Keywords: image watermarking, genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, discrete wavelet transform

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
25 Harvard Lawyers Perception of Intellectual Property and Digital Rights

Authors: Dariusz Jemielniak

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The near future will bring significant changes to contemporary organizations and management, because of the rapidly increasing role of immaterial goods and knowledge workers. The area of copyright, IP, as well as digital (non-material) goods and media redistribution seems to be one of the major challenges for the economy and society in general, and management and organization studies in particular. The proposed paper shows the views and perceptions of fairness of digital media sharing among Harvard Law School LL.M. students, basing on 50 qualitative interviews and 100 questionnaires. The researcher took an ethnographic approach to the study and joined the 2016 Harvard LL.M. Facebook group, which allowed natural socializing and joining for in-person events and private parties more easily. After making acquaintance with many of the students, the researcher conducted a quantitative questionnaire with 100 respondents, allowing to better understand the respondents perception of fairness in digital files sharing in different contexts (depending on the price of the media, its availability, regional licensing, status of the copyright holder, etc.). Basing on the results of the questionnaire, the researcher followed up with long-term, open ended, loosely structured ethnographic interviews (50 interviews were conducted) to further deepen the understanding of the results. The major finding of the study is that Harvard lawyers, in spite of the highest possible understanding of law, as well as professional standards, generally approve of digital piracy in certain contexts. Interestingly, they are also more likely to approve of it if they work for the government rather than the private sector. The conclusions from this study allow a better understanding of how ‘fairness’ is perceived by the younger generation of law professionals, and also open grounds for a more rational licensing policing.

Keywords: piracy, digital sharing, perception of fairness, legal profession

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24 Implementation of Invisible Digital Watermarking

Authors: V. Monisha, D. Sindhuja, M. Sowmiya

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Over the decade, the applications about multimedia have been developed rapidly. The advancement in the communication field at the faster pace, it is necessary to protect the data during transmission. Thus, security of multimedia contents becomes a vital issue, and it is a need for protecting the digital content against malfunctions. Digital watermarking becomes the solution for the copyright protection and authentication of data in the network. In multimedia applications, embedded watermarks should be robust, and imperceptible. For improving robustness, the discrete wavelet transform is used. Both encoding and extraction algorithm can be done using MATLAB R2012a. In this Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) domain of digital image, watermarking algorithm is used, and hardware implementation can be done on Xilinx based FPGA.

Keywords: digital watermarking, DWT, robustness, FPGA

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
23 A Robust Hybrid Blind Digital Image Watermarking System Using Discrete Wavelet Transform and Contourlet Transform

Authors: Nidal F. Shilbayeh, Belal AbuHaija, Zainab N. Al-Qudsy

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In this paper, a hybrid blind digital watermarking system using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Contourlet Transform (CT) has been implemented and tested. The implemented combined digital watermarking system has been tested against five common types of image attacks. The performance evaluation shows improved results in terms of imperceptibility, robustness, and high tolerance against these attacks; accordingly, the system is very effective and applicable.

Keywords: discrete wavelet transform (DWT), contourlet transform (CT), digital image watermarking, copyright protection, geometric attack

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
22 Detection of Intentional Attacks in Images Based on Watermarking

Authors: Hazem Munawer Al-Otum

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In this work, an efficient watermarking technique is proposed and can be used for detecting intentional attacks in RGB color images. The proposed technique can be implemented for image authentication and exhibits high robustness against unintentional common image processing attacks. It deploys two measures to discern between intentional and unintentional attacks based on using a quantization-based technique in a modified 2D multi-pyramidal DWT transform. Simulations have shown high accuracy in detecting intentionally attacked regions while exhibiting high robustness under moderate to severe common image processing attacks.

Keywords: image authentication, copyright protection, semi-fragile watermarking, tamper detection

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21 A Blind Three-Dimensional Meshes Watermarking Using the Interquartile Range

Authors: Emad E. Abdallah, Alaa E. Abdallah, Bajes Y. Alskarnah

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We introduce a robust three-dimensional watermarking algorithm for copyright protection and indexing. The basic idea behind our technique is to measure the interquartile range or the spread of the 3D model vertices. The algorithm starts by converting all the vertices to spherical coordinate followed by partitioning them into small groups. The proposed algorithm is slightly altering the interquartile range distribution of the small groups based on predefined watermark. The experimental results on several 3D meshes prove perceptual invisibility and the robustness of the proposed technique against the most common attacks including compression, noise, smoothing, scaling, rotation as well as combinations of these attacks.

Keywords: watermarking, three-dimensional models, perceptual invisibility, interquartile range, 3D attacks

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20 Artificial Intelligence and Robotics in the Eye of Private Law with Special Regards to Intellectual Property and Liability Issues

Authors: Barna Arnold Keserű

Abstract:

In the last few years (what is called by many scholars the big data era) artificial intelligence (hereinafter AI) get more and more attention from the public and from the different branches of sciences as well. What previously was a mere science-fiction, now starts to become reality. AI and robotics often walk hand in hand, what changes not only the business and industrial life, but also has a serious impact on the legal system. The main research of the author focuses on these impacts in the field of private law, with special regards to liability and intellectual property issues. Many questions arise in these areas connecting to AI and robotics, where the boundaries are not sufficiently clear, and different needs are articulated by the different stakeholders. Recognizing the urgent need of thinking the Committee on Legal Affairs of the European Parliament adopted a Motion for a European Parliament Resolution A8-0005/2017 (of January 27th, 2017) in order to take some recommendations to the Commission on civil law rules on robotics and AI. This document defines some crucial usage of AI and/or robotics, e.g. the field of autonomous vehicles, the human job replacement in the industry or smart applications and machines. It aims to give recommendations to the safe and beneficial use of AI and robotics. However – as the document says – there are no legal provisions that specifically apply to robotics or AI in IP law, but that existing legal regimes and doctrines can be readily applied to robotics, although some aspects appear to call for specific consideration, calls on the Commission to support a horizontal and technologically neutral approach to intellectual property applicable to the various sectors in which robotics could be employed. AI can generate some content what worth copyright protection, but the question came up: who is the author, and the owner of copyright? The AI itself can’t be deemed author because it would mean that it is legally equal with the human persons. But there is the programmer who created the basic code of the AI, or the undertaking who sells the AI as a product, or the user who gives the inputs to the AI in order to create something new. Or AI generated contents are so far from humans, that there isn’t any human author, so these contents belong to public domain. The same questions could be asked connecting to patents. The research aims to answer these questions within the current legal framework and tries to enlighten future possibilities to adapt these frames to the socio-economical needs. In this part, the proper license agreements in the multilevel-chain from the programmer to the end-user become very important, because AI is an intellectual property in itself what creates further intellectual property. This could collide with data-protection and property rules as well. The problems are similar in the field of liability. We can use different existing forms of liability in the case when AI or AI led robotics cause damages, but it is unsure that the result complies with economical and developmental interests.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, intellectual property, liability, robotics

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19 High Capacity Reversible Watermarking through Interpolated Error Shifting

Authors: Hae-Yeoun Lee

Abstract:

Reversible watermarking that not only protects the copyright but also preserve the original quality of the digital content have been intensively studied. In particular, the demand for reversible watermarking has increased. In this paper, we propose a reversible watermarking scheme based on interpolation-error shifting and error precompensation. The intensity of a pixel is interpolated from the intensities of neighbouring pixels, and the difference histogram between the interpolated and the original intensities is obtained and modified to embed the watermark message. By restoring the difference histogram, the embedded watermark is extracted and the original image is recovered by compensating for the interpolation error. The overflow and underflow are prevented by error precompensation. To show the performance of the method, the proposed algorithm is compared with other methods using various test images.

Keywords: reversible watermarking, high capacity, high quality, interpolated error shifting, error precompensation

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18 Piracy Killed the Radio Star: A System Archetype Analysis of Digital Music Theft

Authors: Marton Gergely

Abstract:

Digital experience goods, such as music and video, are readily available and easily accessible through a sundry of illegal mediums. Furthermore, the rate of music theft has been increasing at a seemingly unstoppable rate. Instead of studying the effect of copyright infringement on affected shareholders, this paper aims to examine the overall impact that digital music piracy has on society as a whole. Through a systems dynamics approach, an archetype is built to model the behavior of both legal and illegal music users. Additionally, the effects over time are considered. The conceptual model suggests that if piracy continues to grow at the current pace, industry shareholders will eventually lose the motivation to supply new music. In turn, this tragedy would affect not only the illegal players, but legal consumers as well, by means of a decrease in overall quality of life.

Keywords: music piracy, illegal downloading, tragedy of the commons, system archetypes

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17 Polymorphism of HMW-GS in Collection of Wheat Genotypes

Authors: M. Chňapek, M. Tomka, R. Peroutková, Z. Gálová

Abstract:

Processes of plant breeding, testing and licensing of new varieties, patent protection in seed production, relations in trade and protection of copyright are dependent on identification, differentiation and characterization of plant genotypes. Therefore, we focused our research on utilization of wheat storage proteins as genetic markers suitable not only for differentiation of individual genotypes, but also for identification and characterization of their considerable properties. We analyzed a collection of 102 genotypes of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), 41 genotypes of spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L.), and 35 genotypes of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.), in this study. Our results show, that genotypes of bread wheat and durum wheat were homogenous and single line, but spelt wheat genotypes were heterogenous. We observed variability of HMW-GS composition according to environmental factors and level of breeding and predict technological quality on the basis of Glu-score calculation.

Keywords: genotype identification, HMW-GS, wheat quality, polymorphism

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16 Times Series Analysis of Depositing in Industrial Design in Brazil between 1996 and 2013

Authors: Jonas Pedro Fabris, Alberth Almeida Amorim Souza, Maria Emilia Camargo, Suzana Leitão Russo

Abstract:

With the law Nº. 9279, of May 14, 1996, the Brazilian government regulates rights and obligations relating to industrial property considering the economic development of the country as granting patents, trademark registration, registration of industrial designs and other forms of protection copyright. In this study, we show the application of the methodology of Box and Jenkins in the series of deposits of industrial design at the National Institute of Industrial Property for the period from May 1996 to April 2013. First, a graphical analysis of the data was done by observing the behavior of the data and the autocorrelation function. The best model found, based on the analysis of charts and statistical tests suggested by Box and Jenkins methodology, it was possible to determine the model number for the deposit of industrial design, SARIMA (2,1,0)(2,0,0), with an equal to 9.88% MAPE.

Keywords: ARIMA models, autocorrelation, Box and Jenkins Models, industrial design, MAPE, time series

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15 Freedom with Limitations: The Nature of Free Expression in the European Case-Law

Authors: Laszlo Vari

Abstract:

In the digital age, the spread of the mobile world and the nature of the cyberspace, offers many new opportunities for the prevalence of the fundamental right to free expression, and therefore, for free speech and freedom of the press; however, these new information communication technologies carry many new challenges. Defamation, censorship, fake news, misleading information, hate speech, breach of copyright etc., are only some of the violations, all of which can be derived from the harmful exercise of freedom of expression, all which become more salient in the internet. Here raises the question: how can we eliminate these problems, and practice our fundamental freedom rightfully? To answer this question, we should understand the elements and the characteristic of the nature of freedom of expression, and the role of the actors whose duties and responsibilities are crucial in the prevalence of this fundamental freedom. To achieve this goal, this paper will explore the European practice to understand instructions found in the case-law of the European Court of Human rights for the rightful exercise of freedom of expression.

Keywords: collision of rights, European case-law, freedom opinion and expression, media law, freedom of information, online expression

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14 Improved Processing Speed for Text Watermarking Algorithm in Color Images

Authors: Hamza A. Al-Sewadi, Akram N. A. Aldakari

Abstract:

Copyright protection and ownership proof of digital multimedia are achieved nowadays by digital watermarking techniques. A text watermarking algorithm for protecting the property rights and ownership judgment of color images is proposed in this paper. Embedding is achieved by inserting texts elements randomly into the color image as noise. The YIQ image processing model is found to be faster than other image processing methods, and hence, it is adopted for the embedding process. An optional choice of encrypting the text watermark before embedding is also suggested (in case required by some applications), where, the text can is encrypted using any enciphering technique adding more difficulty to hackers. Experiments resulted in embedding speed improvement of more than double the speed of other considered systems (such as least significant bit method, and separate color code methods), and a fairly acceptable level of peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) with low mean square error values for watermarking purposes.

Keywords: steganography, watermarking, time complexity measurements, private keys

Procedia PDF Downloads 64