Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: multi-sectoral

4 Developing and Standardizing Individual Care Plan for Children in Conflict with Law in the State of Kerala

Authors: Kavitha Puthanveedu, Kasi Sekar, Preeti Jacob, Kavita Jangam

Abstract:

In India, The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015, the law related to children alleged and found to be in conflict with law, proposes to address to the rehabilitation of children in conflict with law by catering to the basic rights by providing care and protection, development, treatment, and social re-integration. A major concern in addressing the issues of children in conflict with law in Kerala the southernmost state in India identified were: 1. Lack of psychological assessment for children in conflict with law, 2. Poor psychosocial intervention for children in conflict with law on bail, 3. Lack of psychosocial intervention or proper care and protection of CCL residing at observation and special home, 4. Lack convergence with systems related with mental health care. Aim: To develop individual care plan for children in conflict with law. Methodology: NIMHANS a premier Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, collaborated with Social Justice Department, Govt. of Kerala to address this issue by developing a participatory methodology to implement psychosocial care in the existing services by integrating the activities through multidisciplinary and multisectoral approach as per the Sec. 18 of JJAct 2015. Developing individual care plan: Key informant interviews, focus group discussion with multiple stakeholders consisting of legal officers, police, child protection officials, counselors, and home staff were conducted. Case studies were conducted among children in conflict with law. A checklist on 80 psychosocial problems among children in conflict with law was prepared with eight major issues identified through the quantitative process such as family and parental characteristic, family interactions and relationships, stressful life event, social and environmental factors, child’s individual characteristics, education, child labour and high-risk behavior. Standardised scales were used to identify the anxiety, caseness, suicidality and substance use among the children. This provided a background data understand the psychosocial problems experienced by children in conflict with law. In the second stage, a detailed plan of action was developed involving multiple stakeholders that include Special juvenile police unit, DCPO, JJB, and NGOs. The individual care plan was reviewed by a panel of 4 experts working in the area of children, followed by the review by multiple stakeholders in juvenile justice system such as Magistrates, JJB members, legal cum probation officers, district child protection officers, social workers and counselors. Necessary changes were made in the individual care plan in each stage which was pilot tested with 45 children for a period of one month and standardized for administering among children in conflict with law. Result: The individual care plan developed through scientific process was standardized and currently administered among children in conflict with law in the state of Kerala in the 3 districts that will be further implemented in other 14 districts. The program was successful in developing a systematic approach for the psychosocial intervention of children in conflict with law that can be a forerunner for other states in India.

Keywords: psychosocial care, individual care plan, multidisciplinary, multisectoral

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3 Nutrition Transition in Bangladesh: Multisectoral Responsiveness of Health Systems and Innovative Measures to Mobilize Resources Are Required for Preventing This Epidemic in Making

Authors: Shusmita Khan, Shams El Arifeen, Kanta Jamil

Abstract:

Background: Nutrition transition in Bangladesh has progressed across various relevant socio-demographic contextual issues. For a developing country like Bangladesh, its is believed that, overnutrition is less prevalent than undernutrition. However, recent evidence suggests that a rapid shift is taking place where overweight is subduing underweight. With this rapid increase, for Bangladesh, it will be challenging to achieve the global agenda on halting overweight and obesity. Methods: A secondary analysis was performed from six successive national demographic and health surveys to get the trend on undernutrition and overnutrition for women from reproductive age. In addition, national relevant policy papers were reviewed to determine the countries readiness for whole of the systems approach to tackle this epidemic. Results: Over the last decade, the proportion of women with low body mass index (BMI<18.5), an indicator of undernutrition, has decreased markedly from 34% to 19%. However, the proportion of overweight women (BMI ≥25) increased alarmingly from 9% to 24% over the same period. If the WHO cutoff for public health action (BMI ≥23) is used, the proportion of overweight women has increased from 17% in 2004 to 39% in 2014. The increasing rate of obesity among women is a major challenge to obstetric practice for both women and fetuses. In the long term, overweight women are also at risk of future obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and heart disease. These diseases have serious impact on health care systems. Costs associated with overweight and obesity involves direct and indirect costs. Direct costs include preventive, diagnostic, and treatment services related to obesity. Indirect costs relate to morbidity and mortality costs including productivity. Looking at the Bangladesh Health Facility Survey, it is found that the country is bot prepared for providing nutrition-related health services, regarding prevention, screening, management and treatment. Therefore, if this nutrition transition is not addressed properly, Bangladesh will not be able to achieve the target of the NCD global monitoring framework of the WHO. Conclusion: Addressing this nutrition transition requires contending ‘malnutrition in all its forms’ and addressing it with integrated approaches. Whole of the systems action is required at all levels—starting from improving multi-sectoral coordination to scaling up nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive mainstreamed interventions keeping health system in mind.

Keywords: nutrition transition, Bangladesh, health system, undernutrition, overnutrition, obesity

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2 A Protocol of Procedures and Interventions to Accelerate Post-Earthquake Reconstruction

Authors: Maria Angela Bedini, Fabio Bronzini

Abstract:

The Italian experiences, positive and negative, of the post-earthquake are conditioned by long times and structural bureaucratic constraints, also motivated by the attempt to contain mafia infiltration and corruption. The transition from the operational phase of the emergency to the planning phase of the reconstruction project is thus hampered by a series of inefficiencies and delays, incompatible with the need for rapid recovery of the territories in crisis. In fact, intervening in areas affected by seismic events means at the same time associating the reconstruction plan with an urban and territorial rehabilitation project based on strategies and tools in which prevention and safety play a leading role in the regeneration of territories in crisis and the return of the population. On the contrary, the earthquakes that took place in Italy have instead further deprived the territories affected of the minimum requirements for habitability, in terms of accessibility and services, accentuating the depopulation process, already underway before the earthquake. The objective of this work is to address with implementing and programmatic tools the procedures and strategies to be put in place, today and in the future, in Italy and abroad, to face the challenge of the reconstruction of activities, sociality, services, risk mitigation: a protocol of operational intentions and firm points, open to a continuous updating and implementation. The methodology followed is that of the comparison in a synthetic form between the different Italian experiences of the post-earthquake, based on facts and not on intentions, to highlight elements of excellence or, on the contrary, damage. The main results obtained can be summarized in technical comparison cards on good and bad practices. With this comparison, we intend to make a concrete contribution to the reconstruction process, certainly not only related to the reconstruction of buildings but privileging the primary social and economic needs. In this context, the recent instrument applied in Italy of the strategic urban and territorial SUM (Minimal Urban Structure) and the strategic monitoring process become dynamic tools for supporting reconstruction. The conclusions establish, by points, a protocol of interventions, the priorities for integrated socio-economic strategies, multisectoral and multicultural, and highlight the innovative aspects of 'inversion' of priorities in the reconstruction process, favoring the take-off of 'accelerator' interventions social and economic and a more updated system of coexistence with risks. In this perspective, reconstruction as a necessary response to the calamitous event can and must become a unique opportunity to raise the level of protection from risks and rehabilitation and development of the most fragile places in Italy and abroad.

Keywords: an operational protocol for reconstruction, operational priorities for coexistence with seismic risk, social and economic interventions accelerators of building reconstruction, the difficult post-earthquake reconstruction in Italy

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1 Social Marketing – An Integrated and Comprehensive Nutrition Communication Strategy to Improve the Iron Nutriture among Preschool Children

Authors: Manjula Kola, K. Chandralekha

Abstract:

Anaemia is one of the world’s most widespread health problems. Prevalence of anemia in south Asia is among the highest in the world. Iron deficiency anemia accounts for almost 85 percent of all types of anemia in India and affects more than half of the total population. Women of childbearing age particularly pregnant women, infants, preschool children and adolescents are at greatest risk of developing iron deficiency anemia. In India, 74 percent children between 6-35 months of age are anemic. Children between 1-6 years in major cities are found with a high prevalence rate of 64.8 percent. Iron deficiency anemia is not only a public health problem, but also a development problem. Its prevention and reduction must be viewed as investment in human capital that will enhance development and reduce poverty. Ending this hidden hunger in the form of iron deficiency is the most important achievable international health goal. Eliminating the underlying problem is essential to the sustained elimination of the iron deficiency anemia. The intervention programmes toward the sustained elimination need to be broadly based so that interventions become accepted community practices. Hence, intervention strategies need to go well beyond traditional health and nutrition systems and based upon empowering people and communities so that they will be capable of arranging for and sustaining an adequate intake of foods with respect to iron, independent of external support. Such strategies must necessarily be multisectoral and integrate interventions with social communications, evaluation and surveillance. The main objective of the study was to design a community based Nutrition intervention using theoretical framework of social marketing to sustain improvement of iron nutriture among preschool children. In order to carryout the study eight rural communities In Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh, India were selected. A formative research was carryout for situational analysis and baseline data was generated with regard to demographic and socioeconomic status, dietary intakes, Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of the mothers of preschool children, clinical and hemoglobin status of the target group. Based on the formative research results, the research area was divides into four groups as experimental area I,II,III and control area. A community based, integrated and comprehensive social marketing intervention was designed based on various theories and models of nutrition education/ communication. In Experimental area I, Nutrition intervention using social marketing and a weekly iron folic acid supplementation was given to improve iron nutriture of preschool children. In experimental area II, Social marketing alone was implemented and in experimental area III Iron supplementation alone was given. No intervention was given in control area. The Impact evaluation revealed that among different interventions tested, the integrated social marketing intervention resulted best outcomes. The overall observations of the study state that social marketing, an integrated and functional strategy for nutrition communication to prevent and control iron deficiency. Various theoretical frame works / models for nutrition communication facilitate to design culturally appropriate interventions thus achieved improvements in the knowledge, attitude and practices there by resulting successful impact on nutritional status of the target groups.

Keywords: anemia, iron deficiency, social marketing, theoretical framework

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